Introduction to Phylum Arthropoda Ty Biology

Phylum Arthropoda
• The arthropods are by far the most successful phylum in the Animal kingdom. • About 80% of all known animal species belong to the Arthropoda. • Approximately 800,000 species have been described, and recent estimates put the total number in the phylum at about 6 million. • They have adapted successfully to life in water, on land and in the air. • They can survive great extremes of temperature, toxicity, acidity and salinity.

Characteristics of Arthropoda
• Segemented Bodies - multiple body segments. • Exoskeleton - body covered with a hard external skeleton. • Bilateral Symmetry - body can be divided into two identical halves. • Jointed Appendages - each segment may have one pair of appendages, such as legs, wings and mouthparts.

Phylum Arthropoda
• Class Aracnidna

• Class Myripoda
– (Diplodopa / Chilopoda)

• Class Insecta • Class Crustacea

Class Diplopoda
• Millipedes milli means thousand, pede means legs, so ('thousand legged creature'?) • Most feed on decaying matter • Have two pair of legs per segment • Generally harmless detritus feeders

Class Chilopoda
• Centi means hundred, pede means legs, so "hundred legged creature"? • 1 pair of legs per segment • Usually shiny, reddish brown, less than 3 inches long • Move rapidly, often found under logs; some in homes • Can bite • have poison claws- modified 1st pair of legs • supposedly feels like a bee sting

Class Crustacea
• A hard exoskeleton made of calcium no internal skeleton. • The head has two compound eyes, two pairs of antennae, and three pairs of mouthparts. • Over 38,000 species • Nearly all are aquatic - "Insects of the Sea" • Microscopic to Largest Living Arthropods

Class Insecta
• The insects are the most numerous and diverse of all the groups of arthropods. • There are more species of insects than species in all the other classes of animals combined! • Insects differ from other arthropods in having three pairs of legs. In size, insects range from less than 1 mm to 20 cm in length, the majority being less than 2.5 cm long.

Insect Characteristics
• Three body segments- head, thorax (chest), abdomen (stomach area). • 3 pair of legs, 1pair to each of the 3 thoracic segments. • Compound eyes • Wings- usually two pairs of wings, although some have one pair of wings, or none.

Insect mouthparts
Insects have a variety of mouth parts • Chewing (beetles, cockroaches). • Lapping and sponging (flies). • Piercing-sucking (mosquitoes, bugs).

Class Arachnida
Spiders, Ticks and Mites
• Two body regions: Cephalothorax and Abdomen • No antennae • All have eight legs. • Carnivorous with feeding appendages calls chelicerae • Use enzyme-rich salivary juices to digest prey. • Most are terrestrial • 57,000 known species

Class Activity
Anatomy of a Spider

Harmful effects of arthropods
Direct harm • Annoyance - flies interfere with your work and rest. • Venom - stings of scorpions and spiders may even cause death. • Parasites - Fly larvae may cause skin disorders like scabies or mange. Transmission of diseases • Mechanical transmission – contaminate food by leaving droppings and bacteria • Biological transmission. Pathogens spend a part of their life cycle in the arthropods.