Bunsen burner - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Bunsen burner
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A Bunsen burner, named after Robert Bunsen, is a common piece of laboratory equipment that produces a single open gas flame, which is used for heating, sterilization, and combustion.[1][2][3][4][5] The gas can be natural gas (which is mainly methane) or a liquefied petroleum gas, such as propane, butane, or a mixture of both.

Bunsen burner

◾ ◾ ◾ ◾ ◾ 1 History 2 Operation 3 Variants 4 References 5 External links

When the University of Heidelberg hired Robert Bunsen in 1852, the authorities promised to build him a new laboratory building. Heidelberg had just begun to install coal-gas street lighting, so the new laboratory building was also supplied with gas. The laboratory required heating from the gas as well as illumination. For heating, it was desirable to maximize the temperature and minimize the luminosity. Previous laboratory lamps left much to be desired regarding economy and simplicity, as well as the quality of the flame for a burner lamp. While his building was still under construction late in 1854, Bunsen suggested certain design principles to the university's mechanic, Peter Desaga, and asked him to construct a prototype. (Similar principles had been used in an earlier burner design by Michael Faraday as well as in a device patented in 1856 by the gas engineer R W Elsner.) The Bunsen/Desaga design succeeded in generating a hot, sootless, non-luminous flame by mixing the gas with air in a controlled fashion before combustion. Desaga created slits for air at the bottom of the first cylindrical burner, the flame igniting at the top. By the time the building opened early in 1855, Desaga had made fifty of the burners for Bunsen's students. Bunsen published a description two years later, and many of his colleagues soon adopted the design. Bunsen burners are now used in laboratories all around the world.[6]

A Bunsen burner with needle valve. The hose barb for the gas tube is on the left and the needle valve for gas flow adjustment is on the opposite side. The air inlet on this particular model is adjusted by rotating the barrel, thus opening or closing the vertical baffles at the base. Uses Heating Sterilization Combustion Hot plate Heating mantle Meker-Fisher burner Teclu burner

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The device in use today safely burns a continuous stream of a flammable gas such as natural gas (which is principally methane) or a liquefied petroleum gas such as propane, butane, or a mixture of both. The hose barb is connected to a gas nozzle on the laboratory bench with rubber tubing. Most laboratory benches are equipped with multiple gas nozzles connected to a central gas source, as well as vacuum, nitrogen, and steam nozzles. The gas then flows up through the base through a small hole at the bottom of the barrel and is directed upward. There are open slots in the side of the tube bottom to admit air into the stream via the venturi effect, and the gas burns at the top of the tube once ignited by a flame or spark. The most common methods of lighting the burner are using a match or a spark lighter.
Bunsen burner flames depend on air flow in the throat holes (on the burner side, not the needle valve for gas flow): 1. air hole closed (safety flame used for lighting or default), 2. air hole slightly open, 3. air hole half open, 4. hole almost fully open (roaring blue flame).

The amount of air mixed with the gas stream affects the completeness of the combustion reaction. Less air yields an incomplete and thus cooler reaction, while a gas stream well mixed with air provides oxygen in an equimolar amount and thus a complete and hotter reaction. The air flow can be controlled by opening or closing the slot openings at the base of the barrel, similar in function to the choke in a carburettor.



7. The yellow flame is luminous due to small soot particles in the flame which are heated to incandescence..asp) ◾ Poliakoff.514K).wisc. ^ Rocke. However. A. blue flame it can be nearly invisible against some backgrounds..htm). ^ Kohn. unless the airflow is adjusted as well. while the coolest is the whole inner flame. If the holes are closed.1021%2Fed033p20).edu/HS/Journal/Issues/2005/Apr/clicSubscriber/V82N04/p518. 4. p. Bibcode:2005JChEd.Wikipedia. Domestic Science. When the burner is regulated to produce a hot.1021/ed082p518 (http://dx.rsc. Ed. Variants Other burners based on the same principle exist.org/w/index.pdf) on July 20. Aaron John (1984). appearing blue as a result.200 °F) are achievable if properly used. regulates the influx of the air in a way similar to the open slots of the Bunsen burner.harvard. (http://www. The most important alternatives to the Bunsen burner are: ◾ Teclu burner – The lower part of its tube is conical. p. 2011. Inc. Mandal Pratim and Mandal.1021/ed027p514 (http://dx.org/chemistryworld/Issues/2007/October/ClassicKitBunsenBurner. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation. 3. The tube is wider and its top is covered with a wire grid. the flame temperature will decrease because an increased amount of gas is now mixed with the same amount of air. William B.edu/abs/1950JChEd. p. Bibcode:1956JChEd.. producing a cooler but brighter yellow which is often called the "safety flame" or "luminous flame". Increasing the amount of fuel gas flow through the tube by opening the needle valve will increase the size of the flame.periodicvideos. J. 5. ^ Ihde. the free encyclopedia Page 2 of 2 If the collar at the bottom of the tube is adjusted so more air can mix with the gas before combustion. http://en.harvard. that is. The development of modern chemistry (http://books. the gas will only mix with ambient air at the point of combustion. The grid separates the flame into an array of smaller flames with a common external envelope. The burner will often be placed on a suitable heatproof mat to protect the laboratory bench surface. "The Origin of the Bunsen Burner" (http://web. Glasgow: R Griffin and Co.518J). ISBN 978-81-7381-009-1.wikipedia.200 °C (2.20L (http://adsabs. additional terms may apply. unlike the Bunsen or Teclu burners. Flame temperatures of up to 1. which is a risk at high air-to-fuel ratios and limits the maximum rate of air intake in a conventional Bunsen burner.27. Chemical Reactions – A compendium of experimental chemistry (8th ed. (1915). with a round screw nut below its base. (2005).. (2002). starving the flame of oxygen.[8] References 1.100–1. doi:10.33. ^ Hale. Courier Dover Publications.google.518J (http://adsabs. G. ^ Griffith.org/10. Ed. (1956).edu/abs/1956JChEd.. External links ◾ A history of the Bunsen Burner. (1838). Chem.20L). set by the distance between the nut and the end of the tube. 2. ^ Lockemann. the flame will burn hotter.org/10. The flame also burns without noise. ◾ Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Bibcode:1950JChEd. By using this site. The gap.org/10...).wisc.com/?id=34KwmkU4LG0C&pg=PA233).doi. University of Nottingham. (2002-01-01).org/web/20110720114123/http://jchemed.com/videos/feature_bunsen_burner.82. Chem.archive. 27 (9): 514.php?title=Bunsen_burner&oldid=588196751" Categories: Burners Laboratory equipment Combustion engineering Light sources German inventions ◾ This page was last modified on 29 December 2013 at 10:54.514K (http://adsabs.google. only after it has exited the tube at the top. Martyn (2011). 46. doi:10.. The Periodic Table of Videos. Retrieved from "http://en. Archived from the original (http://jchemed. This reduced mixing produces an incomplete reaction. 6. J. J. pp. "Robert Bunsen and his Burner" (http://www. ^ Partha. A Text Book of Homoeopathic Pharmacy (http://books. The hottest part of the flame is the tip of the inner flame.. B.pdf). 114.33.doi.1021%2Fed027p514).edu/HS/Journal/Issues/2005/Apr/clicSubscriber/V82N04/p518.wikipedia.doi.org/wiki/Bunsen_burner 2014-01-04 .edu/abs/2005JChEd.82. Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science.harvard.chem. admitting more air and facilitating better mixing of air and gas. Moritz (1950).. 8. and also prevents flashback to the bottom of the tube. you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. J. 82 (4): 518. "The Centenary of the Bunsen Burner".Bunsen burner . 38. Kolkata. ISBN 978-0-486-64235-2. The yellow flame is considered "dirty" because it leaves a layer of carbon on whatever it is heating.. a non-profit organization. London: Cambridge University Press.000 –2.27. ^ Jensen. Charles W.com/books?id=uy_sS546R8C&pg=PA46).[7] ◾ Meker burner – The lower part of its tube has more openings with larger total cross-section..com/books?id=zco6AAAAIAAJ).. J.google.1021/ed033p20 (http://dx. Volume 2 (http://books. J. doi:10.. 233–236. The Teclu burner provides better mixing of air and fuel and can achieve higher flame temperatures than the Bunsen burner.. Educ. India: New Central Book Agency. 33: 20–21.chem. "Remarks on the history of laboratory burners".1021%2Fed082p518). Chem. "Bunsen Burner".