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SWIT CHI NG FUNDA MEN TAL S

Main function of an exchange is to process calls from calling subscribers and make the
connection to the called subscriber. The connection can be direct or via another
exchange. As exchange handles thousands of calls at the same time, switch has to
handle complex relations between the Hardware and Software.

CALL P RO CES SING A RCHI TE CT URE

The main function of the exchange is to process subscriber calls. Call Processing involves
four basic switching functions:

1. SUPERVISION :
Detects & reports service requests, acknowledgements and request to terminate services.

2. SIGNAL LING :
Transmits information about lines and trunks and information about other aspects of call
handling to control switching equipments.
(a) Between two exchanges
(b) Between exchange and subscriber

3. ROUTING :
Converts address information to the location of the corresponding called line or
to the location of the trunk on the way to that call.

4. ALER TING :
Notifies a subscriber of incoming calls i.e. ringing .

BA SIC C ALL TYPE S


INTRA -EX CHAN GE :
These are calls between two subscribers served by the same exchange . These
calls are normally line to line calls.

INTE R-EX CHANG E :


These are the calls that involve two or more exchanges . Within a given
exchange there are different types of inter-exchange calls.
1. O/G call is a call that goes out of exchange via a trunk. If the call
originated in the same exchange it is called an originating outgoing call.
2. I/C call is a call that comes in to the exchange via a trunk .If the call
terminates to a line served by this exchange ; it is called an incoming
terminating call.
3. Tandem call is a call that comes in to exchange on one trunk and leaves
the exchange on another trunk.

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CALL P RO CE SSIN G ST AGE S
INTRA -EX CHAN GE CAL L

• IDLE
• DIGIT RECEPTION & ANALYSIS
• ROUTING
• TALKING

IDLE ST AGE

Subscribers have a line that connects to SM via MDF or DDF of the exchange
.This line is in one of the two states.
1. ON – Hook – IDLE
2. OFF – Hook – BUSY
Associated with each line is a current sensing device in origination scanner .
Subscriber requests service by lifting the handset. This closes the subscriber loop
circuit and causes the current to flow in the loop

Idle to Di gi t R ecep tion Transiti on

This transition sets up the dialing connection and delivers dial tone to the subscriber line.
Further, database terminal information about the subscriber, such as class of service,
assigned subscriber services; type of line, and type of digit decoder is retrieved by the
system.

Digi t R ece ption and Analysis Stage

The dialed digits are received and analyzed to determine routing. While in this state,
many complex hardware and software translations are taking place.

1. Dial tone is released when the first digit is received.


2. Digits are collected and route is determined

Ringin g Stage

After digit analysis & proper routing, ringing stage is reached. Several functions are
performed at this stage
• If subscriber is busy, busy tone is given
• If subscriber is idle , following tests are made
1. False cross to ground test.
2. Power cross test
3. Leakage test ( to avoid false ringing)
4. Continuity test : detects breaks in the line.

If all of these tests pass, the exchange will provide ringing current to the called
subscriber, audible ringing tone to calling subs. Also line is scanned for answer signal.

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Ringin g to Talkin g T ran sit ion and T alk ing Stage

After answer signal, talking phase is established. The exchange monitors the lines for an
on-hook signal from either subscriber.

Talking to Idle Transit ion

When the exchange detects a disconnect from either subscriber, it starts the procedure to
tear down the call connection. Call termination implies that both lines are idled, and all
resources are released.

IN TER -EXCHAN GE CALL


1. Ori ginat ing ( Line to Trunk)
2. Terminat ing ( T run k to Line)

Inte rexchange ca ll is tr eate d as an orig inatin g ca ll by the first


exchange in volv ed in the ca ll flow and terminatin g ca ll by the last
exchange .

ORIGIN ATIN G C ALL


(a) Idle & Digit Reception & Analysis stage : The first two stages of an originating call
are the same as the first two stages of an intra-exchange call.

(b) Outpulsing : Originating exchange sends the dialed digits to the next exchange
.Firstly , originating exchange sends the notification of the digits by sending
seizure signal. Next exchange attaches a digit decoder and return a start pulsing
signal to indicate that it is ready to receive digits.

• TALKING ST AGE

After outpulsing of the address digits talking path is connected in the originating
exchange and trunk is placed in the talking stage. Terminating exchange is
responsible for ringing . Originating exchange after outpulsing is ready for talking
stage but terminating exchange advances to talking through ringing stage.

• TALKING T O IDLE TRANSITION

Now calling line is supervised for a disconnect signal . The trunk is supervised
for an on – hook signal from the called subscriber.

Calling subscriber control applies to inter-exchange calls as it does to intra-


exchange calls.

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TER MINA TING CALL

• IDLE ST AGE

Idle incoming trunks are scanned by the exchange . An incoming call is detected
when a
trunk seizure signal is received.

• DIGIT RECEPTION & ANAL YSIS ST AGE

This stage is the result of other exchange and outpulsing the address digits.

• RINGING & TALKING ST AGES

Same function as in intra-exchange calls.

• TALKING T O IDLE TRANSITION

Both the terminating line and the incoming trunk are supervised. If the called
subscriber goes on-hook first, an on-hook signal is generated for that line. An on-
hook signal is also transmitted over the trunk but it will not take down the
connection since the calling subscriber has control of the call.

TANDEM CALL
Tandem call comes in to an exchange on one trunk and is routed out of the
exchange on another trunk. To the originating exchange , the tandem exchange
appears to be the terminating exchange . To the actual terminating exchange , the
tandem exchange appears to be the originating exchange . Therefore, Tandem
exchange has both impulsing & outpulsing but no ringing stage .

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ERL ANGS
ERLANG is total usage during a time interval Divided by the time interval , many network
management systems measure usage 1 hour intervals.

e.g. if the base station logs a total usage of 72,000 seconds between 3600
seconds (1 hour) , then

Traf fic intensit y => 72 00 0 = 20 Er langs


360 0

GRADE OF SE RV ICE
GoS defines the probability that calls will be blocked while attempting to seize the
circuits.

1% GoS means 1 call out of 100 will be blocked

G.001 => 1 / 1000 be blocked .

Ckts. GoS (.0 01) GoS(.00 5)

30 16.7 17.7

60 40.8 44.7

90 66.5 71.8

120 93.0 99.4

CALL CO MPLE TIO N R ATE


This count provides the ratio of total answered to the total attempted calls in %.

CCR => IANS + OAN S


ISEIZE + OATTMPT

CALL SUC CES R ATE


This count provides the ratio of total seizures to the total attempted calls in % .

CSR => ISEIZE + OSEIZE


ISEIZE + OA TTMP TS

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