10

Technical Summary
From chapter 10 (pages 275–290) of the IMCP Manual (reference information on page 16)

Troubleshooting
Table 10-1. Problems Observed Before the Concrete Has Set
Mixture and Placement Issues
1. Slump is Out of Specification
Potential Cause(s) Change in water content or aggregate grading Actions to Consider/Avoid Check aggregate moisture contents and absorptions. Check for segregation in the stockpile. Make sure the batch water is adjusted for aggregate moisture content. Conduct batch plant uniformity tests. Check whether water was added at the site. Mix proportions Admixture dosage Concrete temperature too high or too low Haul time Check batch equipment for calibration. Check delivery ticket for correct admixture dosage. Adjust the concrete placement temperature. Check the batch time on the concrete delivery ticket. Haul times should not be excessive. 207 207 127 209 See Page 44, 47, 183, 206, 207, 211

2. Loss of Workability/Slump Loss/Early Stiffening
Potential Cause(s) Dry coarse aggregates Ambient temperature increases Actions to Consider/Avoid Make sure the aggregate stockpile is kept consistently at saturated surface-dry (SSD) (use soaker hoses if necessary). Do not add water. Chill the mix water or add ice. Sprinkle the aggregate stockpiles. Use a water reducer or retarder. Do not increase the water/cement ratio to a value greater than the maximum approved mix design. Use a mix design that includes slag or fly ash. Transport time too long Reject the load if greater than specified. Use retarder in the mixture. Use an agitator rather than dump trucks. Mix proportions have changed Check/monitor the moisture contents of the aggregate stockpiles. Check the batch weigh scales. Verify that aggregate gradations are correct. (continued on the following page) 206, 207, 246 183, 209 See Page 206 179, 182, 183, 206, 210, 226

poorly graded mixtures may tend to segregate. Reduce Class C fly ash replacement. 226. 133. Reduce Class C fly ash replacement. Try restoring plasticity with additional mixing. Change the sequence of batching. See Page 44. continued 2. Use a more well-graded coarse and fine aggregate mixture. 109. 183. Admixture dosage Mix proportions have varied or changed Check the batching equipment for calibration and settings.000–8.000 vpm is sufficient for most well-graded mixtures. Perform uniformity testing on batch plant. Check slump. 129. continued Potential Cause(s) False setting (temporary) Actions to Consider/Avoid Check for changes in cementitious materials. Chill the mix water or use ice. 56 97. Short or inadequate mixing Check the charging sequence. Mixture is Sticky Potential Cause(s) Sand too fine Mix too sandy Cementitious materials Actions to Consider/Avoid Change the sand grading. 211 Mixture and Placement Issues. 226. mixing. Verify sand quantity. Change the type of water reducer.Problems Observed Before the Concrete Has Set Problems Observed Before the Concrete Has Set Mixture and Placement Issues. sprinkle the aggregate stockpiles. 247 See Page 58. Excessive Fresh Concrete Temperature. Hot weather Follow hot-weather concreting practice as appropriate. air-entraining admixtures work more efficiently with increasing workability. Altering other admixture dosages may impact the effectiveness of the air-entraining admixture. Temperature changes Air-entraining admixture dosage may need to be adjusted during hot/cold weather. 214 Mix proportions have changed 4. Verify that aggregate gradations are correct. particularly the loss-on-ignition (LOI) content of fly ash. 248 See Page 186. Introduce aggregates together on the plant’s belt feed (requires a multiple weigh hopper). Change chemical admixtures. 215. Check aggregate stockpile. Using wood float on air-entrained concrete Use magnesium or aluminum floats. (continued on the following page) See Page 128. Pave at night or start paving in afternoon. (Vibration at 5. storage. Check the cementitious materials contents. Air Content is Too Low or Too High Potential Cause(s) Temperature changes Materials have changed Actions to Consider/Avoid The air-entraining admixture dosage may need to be adjusted during hot/cold weather. placing Actions to Consider/Avoid Check aggregate gradation. continued Potential Cause(s) Long haul times Actions to Consider/Avoid Adjust the hauling operation to minimize haul times. 207. 247 See Page 209 6. Contact the cement supplier.) Lower the vibration energy to avoid segregation. and loading procedures to prevent aggregate segregation. Excessive Fresh Concrete Temperature Potential Cause(s) Hot ingredients Actions to Consider/Avoid Do not add water. Variation in air content Check the air content/air entrainer dosage. Variable Air Content/Spacing Factor Potential Cause(s) Incorrect or incompatible admixture types Actions to Consider/Avoid Change types or brands of admixtures. use agitator trucks for transport. Check the batch weigh scales. 213. Adjust paving time to off-peak traffic time if hauling through public traffic. Change the batching sequence. Increase mixing time. Altering other admixture dosages may impact the effectiveness of the air-entraining admixture. 109 180 31. Check for uniformity of materials. Check variation in the amount of materials retained on the #30 through #100 sieves. Loss of Workability/Slump Loss/Early Stiffening. 248 5. Verify batching/mixing procedures so that the mixture is adequately mixed. Mixture Segregates Potential Cause(s) Inconsistent concrete material—batching. Shade and sprinkle the aggregate stockpiles. Follow hot-weather concreting practice as appropriate. Chill the mix water. Adjust the mix proportioning. Cool the mixture. Place concrete as close to final position as possible to minimize secondary handling. 246. 206. Check/monitor the moisture contents of the aggregate stockpiles. continued 5. 247 34 207 176 176. (Mixtures containing GGBF slag and fly ash appear sticky but finish well and respond well to vibration energy. 209 176. 207 56. it is easier to entrain air with increasing concrete workability. 246 See Page 186 3. 206. 179. Check the sand and combined aggregate grading. Check the batch weigh scales. 247 2 3 . Cementitious materials Poor plant configuration Poor aggregate grading Check for changes in cementitious materials. Variable mixing Ensure that each batch is handled consistently in the plant. if necessary. Incompatibility Check for changes in the cementitious materials. Try to work within one manufacturer’s family of admixtures if air-entraining agent is being combined with other admixtures. Verify that aggregate gradations are correct. 248 207. 209. Check if the blades of the mixer are missing or dirty. Reduce the vibration energy if consolidation efforts cause segregation. 246 7.) See Page 176. Check/monitor the moisture contents of the aggregate stockpiles. 208. 180.

Raw Material Changes Potential Cause(s) Cement Actions to Consider/Avoid Refer to backup lab mixes if conditions were anticipated. Mix Sets Early Potential Cause(s) Cementitious materials Actions to Consider/Avoid Check for changes in the cementitious materials. check the timing of addition and subsequent mixing.and 3-day) and maturity data to confirm that the mix will perform adequately. 186. In hot weather. compare early-age strengths (1. 226.Problems Observed Before the Concrete Has Set Problems Observed Before the Concrete Has Set Mixture and Placement Issues. Supplier Breakdown. Chemical admixtures See cement supply change. Check for contamination of water and aggregates. a contractual agreement should be arranged prior to paving. 185. Switch sources and compare early-age strengths (1. Reduce haul time if possible. Use mix designs that include GGBF slag or fly ash. 246 See Page 99 Mixture and Placement Issues. Hot weather Adjust the mix proportions.and 3-day) and maturity data to confirm that the mix will perform adequately. burden of delay costs. Eliminate/reduce fly ash content in the mix. Switch sources. 171. GGBF slag in excess of 25 percent can cause a dramatic increase in set time. Reduce GGBF slag content. 207. Follow cold-weather concreting practices if appropriate. use a hot weather mix design. 183. Use a blower for synthetic fibers or a belt placer for steel fibers instead of bags. Delayed Set Potential Cause(s) Excessive retarder dosage Actions to Consider/Avoid Verify the proper batch proportions. 183. continued 8. Reduce the dosage of the retarder. continued 10. (This action may require a project delay. Improve mixing to disperse the retarder. 99. To avoid unacceptable delays. See Page 62 4 5 . changes in proportions may also affect setting times. Check the batching equipment. 246 Edge and Surface Issues 11. Reduce the dosage of the water reducer. and develop new laboratory strength gain and maturity information. 207 209 31 56.and 3-day) and maturity data to confirm that the mix will perform adequately. 211 Admixture dosage 56. 52. 246 9. Switch admixture sources and compare early-age strengths (1. Aggregates See cement supply change. 207 See Page 56. Excessive water reducer dosage Retarder not dispersed well Supplementary cementitious materials interference Cold placement temperature Organic contamination Verify the proper batch proportions. batch new mix designs. Check the batching equipment. differing sources or changes in properties of a given material may result in incompatibility. smaller sized rounded coarse aggregate mixes).e.and 3-day) and maturity data to confirm that the new mix will perform adequately.. 99. Verify the proper batch proportions. 31. Some mixes do not break down bags as easily as others (i. Demand Change. which allows for unforeseen material supply changes. Reduce the placement temperature of the concrete. Fiber Balls Appear in Mixture Potential Cause(s) Fibers not thoroughly dispersed in mix Actions to Consider/Avoid If added in bags. 55 39 31 See Page 28. Check the dosage of chemical admixtures.) Supplementary cementitious materials See cement supply change. particularly accelerators. 183. Switch sources and compare early-age strengths (1. Use a retarder. 207. check compatibility. 228 39. If paving activity is continued during testing. and risk of paving during batch revision testing. Cool the concrete ingredients.

Review concrete workability field test data. consider using a spreader. a dry concrete mixture from concrete aggregates that are not saturated tends to surface dry at mixing. 215. Lower the vibrator frequency. Check that all vibrators are working properly. etc. Make sure the absorptive aggregates are kept moist. Check the aggregate grading—use a well-graded combined aggregate gradation. 224. Slow the paver. 176 171 39 See Page 109 17. 176. See no. Chill the mixing water. Adjust the pan angle. plastic sheets. Increase the paver speed.Problems Observed Before the Concrete Has Set Problems Observed Before the Concrete Has Set Edge and Surface Issues. Check the uniformity of aggregate materials/supplies. Consider adding fibers to the mix. Inadequate operation of equipment 171. particularly aggregate gradations. Paving Leaves Vibrator Trails Potential Cause(s) Vibrator frequency too low Vibrator frequency too high Paver speed too slow Non-workable concrete mix Over-sanded mixes Poor combined aggregate grading Actions to Consider/Avoid Check if the seals on the vibrators are leaking.. Check the construction procedures. Place more material in front of the paver. raise them closer to the surface. consider using a spreader. evaporation retarder. 176 See Page 226 248 13. shading. 10-1) Potential Cause(s) High evaporation rate (excessive loss of moisture from surface of fresh concrete. or wet coverings. Check the stockpile. 2: Loss of workability/slump loss/early stiffening. Change the vibrator angle. evaporation rate > bleed rate) Actions to Consider/Avoid Apply the curing compound as soon as possible to protect the concrete from loss of moisture. Slow the paver. Concrete Surface Does Not Close Behind Paving Machine Potential Cause(s) Insufficient volume contained in the grout box The concrete is stiffening in the grout box Actions to Consider/Avoid Place more material in front of the paver. windbreaks. Honeycombed Slab Surface or Edges Potential Cause(s) Hot weather may induce premature stiffening Inadequate vibration Actions to Consider/Avoid Follow hot-weather concreting practices if appropriate. Adjust the overbuild. 191. Adjust the side form batter. This is problematic if not accounted for. 206 109. Add an additional vibrator near the slipformed edge. continued 12. See no. Use additional curing measures: fogging. 206. Check the pan profile. Plastic Shrinkage Cracks (figures 5-30. Check the combined aggregate grading. Check for premature concrete stiffening (admixture compatibility). Increase the coarse aggregate. Adjust the outside vibrator frequency. Blend the aggregate with intermediate aggregates to achieve a uniform combined grading. Refer to hot-weather concreting practices if appropriate.e. 180 176 Delayed setting time See Page 248 248 212 109 Use a well-graded combined aggregate (gap gradation requires more paste and causes more shrinkage). Avoid paving on hot. Replace a portion of the manufactured sand with natural sand. 5-31. See Page 158. Check the mixture proportions. Concrete Tears Through Paving Machine Potential Cause(s) Excessive concrete slump loss Insufficient concrete slump Angular fine aggregate (manufactured sand) Paver speed too high Coarse aggregate is segregated Coarse aggregate is gap-graded Actions to Consider/Avoid Check for slump loss and mixture or weather changes. 176 Improper equipment setup Actions to Consider/Avoid Verify the mix design and batching procedures. Check the combined aggregate grading. windy days. the paver speed should not be too high. 226 14. Dampen the subgrade. Poor workability Check for changes in the aggregate grading. Slab Edge Slump Potential Cause(s) Poor and/or nonuniform concrete—gap-graded aggregate. Adjust the location of the vibrators. Check the track speed (same on both sides). 109. 246 The fine/coarse aggregate volume or paste volume is too low The finishing pan angle needs adjustment The paver speed is too high or vibrators need to be adjusted 16. Pave at night. 212 212 See Page 176. i. 114 6 7 . See no.) Check mixture proportions. 2: Loss of workability/slump loss/early stiffening. 2: Loss of workability/slump loss/early stiffening. 248 See Page 209 97 Edge and Surface Issues. (See no. Lower the vibrator frequencies or use vibrators with greater force. Check the time of set. continued 15. 176. 2: Loss of workability/slump loss/early stiffening. at the right frequency and amplitude. high water/cement ratio.

Use an accelerating admixture. Consider using an accelerator in cold weather. Examine the mixer and mixing procedures. 55. Check for adequate mixing times. Maintain a reasonable length-width ratio. Check for uniformity of the cementitious materials. Minimize the shrinkage potential of the concrete mixture. Strength Gain is Slow Potential Cause(s) Cold temperature during/after placement Actions to Consider/Avoid Heat the mix water. 228. 5-33. 208 207. Check the batch weigh scales. 5-35. 233 Problems Observed in the First Days After Placing Cracking 20. 224 Insufficient joint depth Check the saws for depth setting. 176. Use blankets between placing and saw-cutting. 88. Check the sand stockpile to see whether the grading has changed. 207 See Page 211 Curing Improve/extend curing. Check that saw operators are not pushing saws too fast. 207. 235 19. curing. 228. Plant operations Verify the acceptability of the batching and mixing process.” however. Check the slab thickness. Utilize early-entry sawing to reduce the potential for random cracking. Check that the diamond saw blade is appropriate for concrete aggregate hardness. Monitor the slab temperature with maturity sensors. 39. Air-void clustering Use a vinsol resin-based air-entraining admixture. 206. manufactured sands). 231. 209 263 207. 148. Apply the curing compound at a higher rate. Check for mixing time consistency. Saw in the direction of the wind. Verify the aggregate moisture contents and batch weights. Examine the fine aggregates. 97.and temperature-related slab distortion) (continued on the following page) Check the moisture state of base. 233 See Page 31. Use a Type III cement. 150. Increase the cement content. Check that the correct materials have been loaded into the cement/fly ash/slag silos. try to isolate the source. and testing of strength specimens. Avoid retempering. and 10-1) Potential Cause(s) Concrete mixture Actions to Consider/Avoid Check the combined aggregate grading. Mix proportions or materials have changed Check/monitor the moisture contents of the aggregate stockpiles. 224. Water Change in sand grading Contamination with organics Check the water content. Check if water was added to the truck. Eliminate or reduce the content of fly ash or GGBF slag in cool-weather conditions. Early-Age Cracking (figures 5-32. fine aggregates may be too fine and angularity may cause harsh finishing (i. Materials incompatibility may lead to delayed set and/or higher concrete shrinkage. 5-34. Saw as early as possible but avoid excessive raveling. add intermediate joints. Warping (slab curvature due to moisture gradient. 233 Inadequate or variable mixing Excessive joint spacing Reduce spacing between the joints. Slabs are too wide in relation to thickness and length. the term “curling. Batch smaller loads. Verify that aggregate gradations are correct. 176. Use HIPERPAV to model stress versus strength gain for conditions to determine the optimum sawing time.. 211 Sawing See Page 31. Conduct batch plant uniformity testing. 182. Apply the curing compound sooner. Use burlap/insulating blankets for protection from freezing. Cover the slab. Look for base bonding or mortar penetration into the open-graded base-altered effective section. Eliminate/reduce GGBF slag and fly ash content in the mix. handling. consider mixture component adjustments. Check the sequencing of batching. is commonly used in the industry to cover both moisture. increase the saw depth to create an effective weakened plane. Problems Observed in the First Days After Placing Strength 18. 121. 100. particularly when night/day temperatures vary widely. etc.e. Test the cores sampled from the pavement to verify acceptance. 224 8 9 . Improve or extend curing. Use early-entry dry sawing. Strength is Too Low Potential Cause(s) Cementitious materials Actions to Consider/Avoid Check for changes in the cementitious materials. 206. Increase the mixing time. 59. Testing procedures Verify proper making. 208 176 181. Check for worn mixer blades. Check for mixer overloading. Verify that batch weights are consistent with the mix design. causing them to ride up.) Verify the machine acceptability testing. 231. fines. Reduce the paste content (minimize shrinkage potential). Contamination of one of the ingredients with organics can also effect a sudden change in the required dosage of air-entraining admixture.Table 10-2. Check the saw blade for wear (carbide blades). (Flexural strength specimens are particularly vulnerable to poor handling and testing procedures.

ice. 156. Raveling Along Joints Potential Cause(s) Sawing too soon Actions to Consider/Avoid Wait longer to saw. Use formed joints. Use nailing clips on both sides of basket to secure the basket to the stabilized base. etc. Use early-entry sawing to create a weakened plane prior to temperature contraction. Eliminate tiebars in a longitudinal construction joint that is within 24 inches on either side of transverse joint locations. 23. Apply an evaporative retardant prior to texturing. Too many lanes tied together (generally only a consideration for longitudinal direction) Do not exceed 15 m (50 ft) of pavement tied together. screeds. 226 Joint Issues 21. use a choker stone to prevent the penetration of concrete into the base’s surface voids. slipform paver tracks. consider a single-cut design. Watch for shaded areas where drying and strength gain may vary within a single day’s work. Misaligned dowel bars Investigate whether the joints surrounding the crack have activated and are functioning. Apply the curing compound at an additional dosage rate and consider a non-water-based compound with better membrane-forming solids. Use stakes to secure the baskets to the granular base. Protect the edges of the slab from damage using gravel or dirt ramps. To prevent additional cracking. Slab/base bonding or high frictional restraint Moisten the base course prior to paving (reduce the base temperature by evaporative cooling). Match the joint location and type. 224. Saw equipment problem Blade selection for the concrete (coarse aggregate type) may be inadequate. 248 Cold front with or without rain shower 231. Mortar penetration occurs when paving against an existing previously placed lane. Match all locations of the joints in the existing pavement (cracks. Use HIPERPAV to model stress versus strength-gain conditions that may warrant a suspension or change of paving activities. A bent arbor on the saw causes the blade to wobble. Use a bond-breaking medium (see reflective cracks). Early-Age Cracking. liquid nitrogen Cool the equipment. Spalling Along Joints Potential Cause(s) Excessive hand finishing Actions to Consider/Avoid Check for mixture problems that would necessitate overfinishing. Increase the length and number of stakes. Delay placement of the next phase of construction until the concrete gains sufficient strength. continued Potential Cause(s) High temperature Actions to Consider/Avoid Cool the raw materials before mixing the concrete: shade. Edge restraint (paving against an existing or previously placed lane) Cracks occur due to restraint to movement (sometimes referred to as sympathy cracks). too). If the base is open graded. Add an untied construction or isolation joint. apply duct tape or other means to block the penetration of mortar into the transverse joints of the existing lane. consider sawing through a longitudinal joint to sever bars. Work at night. 212 176 See Page 218.Problems Observed in the First Days After Placing Problems Observed in the First Days After Placing Cracking. Dowel insertion into mixtures with gap-graded aggregates does not work well. Improve construction practice. Dowels Are Out of Alignment Potential Cause(s) Movement in dowel basket assemblies Actions to Consider/Avoid Cover the dowel baskets with concrete ahead of the paver. spray. improve the aggregate grading. 233 10 11 . Skip-saw (saw every other joint or every third joint) until normal sawing can be resumed. The second saw cut can go back and forth. Sawing too fast Slow down. continued 20. Delay paving if conditions are too hot (>38°C [100°F]). Dumping directly on dowel baskets Poor aggregate gradation Deposit the concrete a few feet from the dowel basket to allow the concrete to flow around the dowel bars. 217 See Page 220 Collateral damage from equipment. Blank out transverse tining at transverse contraction joints. Trying to fix edge slump of low spots by hand manipulating concrete Mortar penetration into transverse joints (after hardening mortar prevents joint closure) Check for mixture problems that would cause edge slump. 218 191 See Page 64. misaligned or bonded dowels may prevent joint functioning. 233 233 See Page 233 22. Tool the joint or use an early-entry dry saw to form the joints as early as possible. Improve construction practice. causing cracks.

mixing. Check the combined aggregate grading. Check that the dowel baskets are secured. 176. 31. Alkali-silica reactions Use non-alkali silica reactive aggregates. Delay finishing until after the dissipation of the bleed water. 207 215. Increase the coarse aggregate. and transport procedures for consistency. Reduce vibration to minimize the flotation of particles. Do not add water to the surface during finishing.Table 10-3. Premature salting. See Page 45. continued 28. Scaled Surface Potential Cause(s) Premature finishing Improper finishing Over-finishing Frost related Actions to Consider/Avoid Improve the finishing technique. 206. See Page 220 (continued on the following page) 12 13 . salts should not be applied to immature concrete. Check the aggregate producer’s stockpiles. Check the string line tension and profile. Use blended cements or SCMs proven to control ASR. 248 27. Check the vibrator depth. Check the sensors on the paver. Preventing Problems That Are Observed at Some Time After Construction Edge and Surface Issues 24. Concrete damaged by freezing must be removed and replaced. 48 26. 218. The result is a slight hump in the concrete surface just ahead of the basket. Do not overvibrate the concrete at the baskets in an effort to prevent basket movement. See Page 212. Concrete Blisters Potential Cause(s) Premature closing of surface Extremely high/variable air content Vibrators too low Vibrator frequency too high Over-sanded mixes Poor combined aggregate grading (gap grading) Actions to Consider/Avoid Check for bleed water trapping. 141 Check the paver tracks. See Page 206 Preventing Problems That Are Observed at Some Time After Construction Edge and Surface Issues. Check for the consistency of the air content. Clay Balls Appear at Pavement Surface Potential Cause(s) Aggregate stockpile contamination generally caused by the following: • Haul trucks tracking clay and mud to stockpiles • Loader operator digging into dirt • Dirt coming from the quarry Actions to Consider/Avoid Educate the loader operator on proper stockpile management techniques. Surface Bumps and Rough Riding Pavement Potential Cause(s) Placement operations Actions to Consider/Avoid Construct and maintain a smooth and stable paver track line. Dusting Along Surface Potential Cause(s) Adding water during finishing or finishing in bleed water Actions to Consider/Avoid Prevent the addition of water during finishing. Maintain a consistent forward motion. Check that the machine is level. Lack of consolidation to achieve a uniform concrete density within the dowel basket area may create a rough surface because the concrete may settle or slough over the dowels. do not cut the basket spacer wires to prevent the basket from springing under the paver’s extrusion pressure. Stabilize the haul road at the plant site to avoid tracking contaminants. avoid a stop-and-go operation. Check the de-icing salts being used. 186 215 215 176 176 See Page 220. 48. Popouts Potential Cause(s) Unsound aggregates Actions to Consider/Avoid Use only aggregates that have been tested for chert. Maintain a consistent quantity of concrete in front of the paver. Check the air content and spacing factor in the hardened concrete. Consider using a double burlap drag to open the surface. Spring-back is more apt to occur on steeper grades and when there is too much draft in the pan. 215 25. Keep end-loader buckets a minimum of 2 ft off the ground. Improve the finishing technique. and/or other undesirable fine particles. Check the aggregate grading and moisture contents for variations that might lead to wet and dry batches. 221 29. Check for contamination in the hauling equipment. Do not stockpile aggregates on soft foundations. Reduce the vibrator frequency. The basket assembly deflects and rebounds after the slipform paver profile pan passes overhead and the extrusion pressure is released. shale. Use belt placers at stockpiles rather than end loaders. Mud being thrown into concrete trucks from muddy haul roads Cover the trucks. Protect the concrete from freezing until a sufficient strength is achieved. See Page 220 220 220 186. 228 Damming or rebound from dowel baskets Nonuniform concrete Check the batching. Do not drive over a bridge to unload the aggregate. Verify that the paver electronics/hydraulics are functioning properly.

cross-haul the soils to create smooth transitions between cut and fill sections and soil transitions. 136. or angle of attack. The prominence of surface rippling depends on the finishing techniques and depth of cover to the reinforcement. Reduce the vibration energy to avoid bringing too much moisture to the surface.] below the surface grade. See Page 229 14 15 . When paving down a steeper slope. bladed fines. continued Potential Cause(s) Reinforcement ripple Actions to Consider/Avoid Address reinforcement ripple issues with well-graded aggregates and uniform concrete. 215 See Page 106. Sheet goods are difficult to handle in windy or other harsh conditions.0 in.” immediately above) If the base is open-graded. Misaligned dowel bars Investigate whether the joints surrounding the crack have cracked and are functioning. with less cover producing more prominent rippling. Alkali-silica reactions Avoid using reactive aggregates if possible. vibration at 5. Proof roll the base. 157 Differential support condition created by frost heaving. consolidation is achieved at lower vibration energy and extrusion pressure.000 vpm is sufficient for most well-graded mixtures. Consider using a membrane-forming curing compound instead of sheets/blankets. 237 See Page 152. and other trenches. Use a low w/cm ratio. Keep public traffic away from the slab edges. Use frost-resistant aggregates. resulting in a ripple in the surface. 49. Use appropriate amounts of SCMs. draft. Restore the surface texture (if required) by grinding. polyethylene sheets. 179 28. and tar paper. Adjust the profile pan attitude. the need to make an adjustment depends upon whether it is difficult to maintain a uniform head of concrete in front of the paver. 224 Chemical attack Frost related Use a low w/cm ratio. This adjustment must be made carefully to avoid reinforcement ripple. Longitudinal depressions are caused when longitudinal bars limit the restitution of the surface level behind the profile pan by restraining the rebound of the concrete beneath the bars. particularly above utility. culvert. Over-sanded mixes Abrasion Increase the coarse aggregate. causing cracks. 135. Reinforcement ripple occurs when plastic concrete is restrained by the reinforcing bars. Use of higher dosages (>25%) of GGBF slag Do not add water to the mixture. Check base compaction. (Acceptable bond breakers include two coats of wax-based curing compound. with the surface slightly lower near each bar than in the area between the bars. Mortar penetration into transverse joints (after hardening mortar prevents joint closure) Mortar penetration occurs when paving against an existing previously placed lane. misaligned or bonded dowels may prevent joint functioning.] above the surface grade. 157. or expansive soils 30. Use a low w/cm ratio. 248 Ensure that the air-void system of the in-place concrete is adequate. 116 Reduce the maximum particle size. Use an appropriate cementitious system for the environment. Remove the damaged surface by grinding. 179 31. apply duct tape or other means to block the penetration of mortar into the transverse joints of the existing lane. Reflective cracks from stabilized bases Isolate the slab from cracks in the base course by using bond breakers. Surface is Marred or Mortar is Worn Away Potential Cause(s) Rained-on surface Actions to Consider/Avoid Cover the slab to protect from rain. the pan may be adjusted to about 25 mm [1. Cracking Potential Cause(s) Applied loads Actions to Consider/Avoid Keep construction traffic away from the slab edges. Stabilize the subgrade soil. Use selective grading techniques. 196 198 198 151. Vertical grades (exceeding 3 percent) Lower the slump of the concrete.000–8. Slab/base bonding or high frictional restraint Moisten the base course prior to paving (reduce the base temperature by evaporative cooling). closely follow the grade and staking calculations for these circumstances to reduce the semi-chord effect enough to produce a smooth surface.0 in. Designate personnel to ensure dowel alignment. dusting of sand.45. Use a concrete mix with sufficient strength. Use blended cements or SCMs proven to control ASR. 157. 179 218 192. (When paving up a steeper grade. 48. 157. Surface Bumps and Rough Riding Pavement. asphalt emulsion. 176 50. early loading by traffic or equipment causes higher edge stresses. maximum 0. Transverse ripple is caused by the transverse bars in the same way as longitudinal depressions. Improper curing type or application Place a curing blanket or plastic sheets after the bleed water sheen disappears. except that transverse ripple is found to be less noticeable than the prominent ridge caused by the damming effect of the transverse bars upon the upsurge flow of concrete behind the profile pan. Use a hard. Loss of support Ensure that the subgrade and base have been properly prepared. the pan elevation may be adjusted to about 25 mm [1. continued 29.Preventing Problems That Are Observed at Some Time After Construction Preventing Problems That Are Observed at Some Time After Construction Edge and Surface Issues.) Joint the base course to match the joints in the pavement. Use a bond-breaking medium (see “Reflective cracks from stabilized bases. 141. soil settling.) Adjust the staking interval. 192. particularly a spring-back of the embedded dowel baskets. Ensure that the joints are properly filled and sealed where appropriate. 176 Cracking 31. 157. use a choker stone to prevent the penetration of concrete into the base’s surface voids. wear-resistant aggregate. 212.

org/ 16 . tech transfer. mbrink@iastate.C. religion. and technology implementation.. veteran. Suite 4700 Ames. Dowel bar alignment Nondestructive Testing Method(s) Twin antenna radar Pulse induction (MIT-scan) 2. Pavement thickness 3.S. Iowa State University [FHWA HIF-07-004] [www.edu www. 515-294-7612. Pavement subgrade support and voiding Impact-echo. radar 6. gender identity. (References for any citations in this summary are at the end of the chapter. national origin.) Any opinions. disability. Concrete strength Rebound hammer (for comparative tests) Windsor probe Impulse radar Impulse response August 2007 This technical summary is based on chapter 10 of the IMCP Manual (Taylor. Inqueries can be directed to the Director of Equal Opportunity and Diversity.cptechcenter. or status as a U. color.cptechcenter. Loop Drive. Concrete quality in pavement: a) Inclusions in pavement (clay balls) b) Honeycombing and poor concrete consolidation 5. Assessing the Extent of Damage in Hardened Concrete Problem 1. marital status. et al. Iowa State University does not discriminate on the basis of race. Overlay debonding and separation: a) Traditional b) Advanced techniques Hammer sounding Chain drag Impulse response Impact-echo. 3680 Beardshear Hall. Iowa State University. sexual orientation.Table 10-4. sex. Iowa State University 2711 S. CP Tech Center Mission The mission of the National Concrete Pavement Technology Center is to unite key transportation stakeholders around the central goal of advancing concrete pavement technology through research. Ames. age. 2006. Iowa. and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the view of Federal Highway Administration or Iowa State University.org/publications/ imcp/]) and was sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration. radar Impulse response Benkelman beam Falling weight deflectometer (FWD) 4. Integrated Materials and Construction Practices for Concrete Pavement: A State-of-the-Practice Manual. findings. IA 50010-8664 515-294-8103. Managing Editor CP Tech Center. P. For More Information Marcia Brink.