66

THE DAIRY PRACTICES COUNCIL®

PLANNING A DAIRY COMPLEX “100+ QUESTIONS TO ASK”

Publication: DPC 66 Single Copy: $ 3.00

October 1996

Prepared by FARM BUILDINGS & EQUIPMENT TASK FORCE Stanley Weeks, Director
Robert Congdon Robert Engle Robert Graves William Graves Joseph Moreau John Porter Rolf Reisgies Ralph Rottier Marty Sailus Hal Schulte Peter Wright

Sponsored by THE DAIRY PRACTICES COUNCIL® Robert E. Turner, President Lynn S. Hinckley, Vice President Terry B. Musson, Executive Vice President

Order From: DPC, 51 East Front Street, Suite 2, Keyport, NJ 07735 Tel. (732) 264-2643 http://www.dairypc.org

................................................................................ October 1996 ..................................................................................................................Abstract This guideline raises a wide range of questions -............................................................................................................................................... No single source will have answers to all these questions............................... 5 Milk Room ............................................... 3 Milking System ....................................... Table of Contents Overall Dairy Considerations. 7 Manure/Liquid Waste.............................................. 8 DPC is a Registered Trademark of The Dairy Practices Council®.................................................... leading to a successful project completion..................................... 2 Milking Parlor .......................................................................................................................................................... THE DAIRY PRACTICES COUNCIL® DPC 66........... 7 Other Facilities ................................................................................................ 6 Refrigeration ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................from mundane to complex -regarding what issues need to be addressed when considering a dairy complex............................. This is designed to be a helpful guide.............................................................................................. 5 Utility ......................................................................... 1 Free Stall Barn ............ 4 Holding Pen..

Design/Advisory Team--What sources are available for advice. lease. What permits and codes are necessary? County. Dairy farm support in this area? University? Extension? Veterinary clinic? Milk inspector? Milking equipment dealerships? Feed companies and consultants? Financial resources -.3 phase or 1 phase? At what cost? Do I pay a demand rate whether I use electricity or not? Who pays to install primary service to dairy? What about backup generator? What size generator? 10. just forage or none at all? How much land do I need for manure disposal? Can I contract with neighbors to supply feed and use manure? 5. Do I use a dairy planner/architect. playing this role myself? How do I tell a good general contractor from a mediocre one? THE DAIRY PRACTICES COUNCIL® DPC 66. and quality premiums? 4. limited partnership. October 1996 . Should I work with a general contractor? What are the advantages vs. Driveways? Overall access? Security? How to handle visitors? 9. What financial package makes sense? Equity. Milk Market in my area short term? Long term trends? What about transportation charges. 3x or 4x per day? What production level? 3. Locate dairy on what plot of land? How much can I afford to pay for land? How many acres do I need to support this size dairy? Am I going to grow all my feed. Plan’s for controlling stray voltage? 8.Bank? Leasing? PCA? Farm equipment? Builders? Conservation Districts? 6. quality standards. engineer? At what cost? For what service? How to select? 13. Federal? Building permit? Zoning? Plumbing codes? State milk codes? Water pollution regulations? 11. and comments on plans/ideas? 2. Electricity available -. What about water? Abundant? At what cost? What quality? City water or well? 7. debt.1 Planning a Dairy Complex-“100+ Questions to Ask” Overall Dairy Considerations 1. What size dairy am I considering? What about future expansion? Am I going to milk 2x. State. review. or a combination of sources? Do I have a realistic operating budget? Milk price required to cash flow? 12.

cows. Lighting? Controlled day length? Intensity? 33. Tractor scrape or automated alley scrape? Slotted floor? Flush? Manure gutter design and location? 21. Waterers--type and location? Gravity? Pressure? Cleanable? Flow rate? Space per cow? 31. crops. Stall base -. Alley floor surface treatment? 30. mats? 24. October 1996 . crop. personnel records? 16. Feeding method? TMR? Hay? Silage? Commodities? Feed storage location? Free Stall Barn 17. Free stall partition type? 26. crop.Concrete. wood. and equipment? 15. Alley widths? Curb height? 22.2 14. Posts 4′ on center for stall and curtain support? Other Options? 27. Drive-through or open front barn? 2-3-4 or 6-row barn? Side wall height? Covered driveway? 18. Type of bedding? Amount? 25. Gate locations: Can one person move cows around alone? 29. Do I need a computer system to help manage this operation? What size computer? What software? Where will the computer be located? How to manage financial. earth. or people person? What will be my personal role in this operation? Where will I find good employees? Who will be responsible for managing employees. Feed delivery? Feeding area surface treatment? Self locks? Post and rail? Raised drivethrough? Overhead or sliding doors? Access doors? 28. Number of groups? Size of groups? 1st calf heifer group? Hospital group? Dry cows in separate barn? 19. cow. Pass-through widths and locations for workers? 32. Insulation? Side wall curtains? Automated or manual curtain controls? Partial or full sidewall opening? 20. Cow Cooling? Fans to circulate air? Sprinklers? Misters? Fan with misters? THE DAIRY PRACTICES COUNCIL® DPC 66. What management structure will run this dairy? Am I a cow. mattresses. Stall length? Width? Slope? Neck rail location? Brisket board? 23.

What type of parlor will I consider: Rotary. back flush system. Side Opener or Parallel? Flat barn? One.3 34. October 1996 . What about drains in breezeway and milking pit? Best design? How do I handle milk from treated cows? Where will liquid waste go? 45. Air operated entrance and exit gates? Divert gate? Return to holding pen gate? Bull release gate? THE DAIRY PRACTICES COUNCIL® DPC 66. maintenance and investment? 47. If I choose a Herringbone or Parallel. Herringbone. clean up. what pit configuration do I desire? Wedge. What about a breezeway? What are the advantages? How does a breezeway affect receiver location and milk line design? Floor level of breezeway relative to pit floor? What about basement parlor? 41. efficiency. or three level parlor? What are advantages and disadvantages of each? 38. Stall design? Stainless or galvanized? Integrated design to include take-offs. pulsation. Do I need to feed or offer water in the parlor? What influence on production. How to slope cow platform crosswise and lengthwise? Am I going to flush or hose wash cow platform and holding pen? 43. overhead lines. Have I designed the entire barn to maximize cow comfort? Milking Parlor 36. What throughput is required to milk herd as desired? use? Cows/hour? Hours/day of parlor 37. straight. cow throughput. Recommended height of cow platform for Herringbone? For Parallel? 42. Cows/stalls ratio? 35. pregnant? What is the ideal width of pit? Expandability? 40. How can I design pit floor for greatest milker comfort? What about pit mats? Adjustable pit floor? 46. What size parlor(s) to realistically achieve throughput desired? How many milkers in pit? What are the advantages of one milker in a smaller parlor vs. hosing and wiring? Welded construction? Cow visibility and comfort? People comfort and ease of operation? Sequential cow traffic? “All-Exit” feature? Adjustable front end? Easy to clean? 48. 2 or 3 milkers in a larger parlor? What is the throughput increase with an “All-Exit parlor? For what investment? Amount of automation? 39. Do I need a gutter with grates? Why? What design? How do I clean gutter? Drain location? What type finish for platform floor? 44. two.

What shells and liners? At what vacuum level? 61. water ring. How do I clean outside of equipment? Central pressure wash system? How long will it take after each milking? 50. sliding vane pump? Variable speed? Efficiency? Back-up pump? 63.4 49. Ramp or steps up into holding pen? What design? 54. October 1996 . How do I get down cows out of parlor? 55. lobe. What type take-off units? Arm or no-arm? Electronic or mechanical? What investment. Rub rails on walls? 53. maintenance? What effect on labor efficiency and milking quality? 65. Worker path/passages around and through parlor? Milking System 58. Insect control? 56. Hot and cold water in operator pit? 57. What about lighting in parlor area? Light intensity and efficiency? Two rows of fluorescent lights over milking pit? Lights over cow platform? Fixtures for wet locations? Emergency lighting? 51. Design of pipeline CIP system? Pressure wash? Sequential wash? Amount of hot water required? How much soap and sanitizers required? Line size needed for rapid fill? Safe storage and handling for chemicals? 64. What about heat and ventilation in parlor area? Duct work from equipment room to parlor? Air flow away from equipment? Is radiant heat energy efficient? Natural ventilation for warm weather? Roof vents? 52. Type of pulsation? 70:30 alternating at 60 cycles per minute or 60:40 at 60 cycles per minute? Why a fresh air line? How high is pulsator mounted in system? 60. Number of milker units per side? What size milk line? One receiver or two? What size receiver and milk pump? Variable speed milk pump? 59. What size vacuum pumps do I need for proper milking? For wash up? What vacuum regulator? Do I need a balance tank? Where should the regulator be located? Turbine. Do I need a back flush system? What effect on herd health? What investment? THE DAIRY PRACTICES COUNCIL® DPC 66. What CIP unit and where are they stored during milking? 62. life.

5 66. Slope of holding pen? Floor surface treatment? Grooves size and direction? Slotted floor? 73. Most efficient loading of groups into holding pen? From end? From side? What about group that is milking while I load new group? 76. Separate rooms for equipment dry storage and chemical storage? 82. Do I use paper towels? What type of towel holders? Located where? How do I dispose of waste towels? Cloth towels? Washer/dryer for cloth towels? 68. What type crowd gate? Lift feature necessary? 74. What about a vertical lift gate or other gates at the rear? 75. Holding area cleaning? Tractor scrape? Hand scrape? Hose wash? Flush? Use CIP and precooler water for wash-down? Utility 81. Do I need udder wash hoses in parlor? Add sanitizer to udder wash? 70. Size of return lanes? Rub rails? What design to support crowd gate? One way gates? Passthroughs for worker access--how many? Where? Footbaths? Pre-wash footbath? How to clean footbaths? How to clean return lanes? 77. October 1996 . How many cows per group? What is width of holding pen based on parlor design? How long will cows be out of the barn? Relationship between parlor through-put/holding area size/group size? 72. Do I need fans and sprinklers to reduce heat stress? Ventilation fans? Side wall openings? Ridge ventilation? 78. Locations relative to parlor and milk room? THE DAIRY PRACTICES COUNCIL® DPC 66. Overhead door/curtain between parlor/holding area or holding area/barn? 80. Pre-dip and post-dip? Spray or dip? Where do I store dispensers during milking? How about a central dispenser for pre-dip and post-dip solution? 69. What about milk weighing? DHIA monthly? Manual weighing system? Computerized weighing system? Automatic identification system? 67. Lighting--type and intensity? 79. How to milk treated cows? Separate vacuum line? Separate system? Separate milking location? Holding Pen 71.

sanitizers. tanks. milk tanks. Floor surface? 99. chiller. soaps. Child-proof area for chemicals? Location of drums for automatic dispensing? Milk Room 92.6 83. filters? 95.? Need detail specifications on size. drains? Space around equipment for service and maintenance? 85. Drug storage? Lactating and non-lactating? Security? 91.must be kept clean? Bulkhead milk tanks? Room for expansion? Outside access? Top or bottom loading tank? 94. air compressor(s). What equipment in machine room? Water heaters. generator. Main electrical control panel located where? Capacity? Wall space required? Front clearance of 3′? Room for expansion? 86. power requirements. Floor drains or gutters? Lights? Storage shelves? 89. vacuum pumps.? Overhead door? Provision for bulk tank? 84. October 1996 . pressure washer. Lighting? Heating? Ventilation? 96. Ventilation? Combustion air for water heaters? 90. condensing units. Location of sinks. Windows? Angled window sills? Screens? 101. Floor drains? Gutters? Milk tank drain? Trench drains? 97. salt. What size? Room for expansion? Room for unloading and storing of supplies such as paper towels. distribution manifold? 87. Covered wash sink? 100. etc. plate or tube cooler. Wall surfaces? Concrete curb at bottom of walls? 98. Main water supply location? Adequate volume and pressure? Water storage for precooler water? Water treatment needed? Adequate valving? Space for pumps. Location relative to parlor and utility rooms? Floor plan to avoid through traffic? Bulk truck access? 93. water supply. Raised platforms for equipment? 88. Size? Expensive construction . teat dips. Boot wash area? THE DAIRY PRACTICES COUNCIL® DPC 66. etc.

which is better? 108. Peak milk flow per hour? Do I need a milk balance tank? 103. Do I instantly cool milk with a plate cooler? Why? 105. Custom manure hauling and spreading? 119. Should I precool with well water through plate or tube cooler and finish cooling in direct expansion milk tank? 104. Manure long/short term storage? 112. October 1996 . Manure separation? Solids for bedding? 117. Load/unload storage? Pump? Gravity? Bucket load? 114. Water quality concerns in area? Ground water? Surface water? THE DAIRY PRACTICES COUNCIL® DPC 66.7 Refrigeration 102. Air cooled or water cooled condensing units? 109. Nutrient management plan? Based on nitrogen or phosphorus? Will manure be incorporated? 120. Ice builder or falling film chiller -. What about heat recovery system to generate hot water? 110. Milk pumped directly to over-the-road milk trailer? Manure/Liquid Waste 111. Type of milk storage -.silo or horizontal tank? What size tank do I need? Do I need two tanks? 107. Earthen storage? Liner? Who will do test pit? Soil test? Who will design? 115. Handling of silage seepage? Handling of milking center wastewater? Handling of barnyard runoff? 121. Gravity pipe size? 116. Odor control? Neighbor relations? 118. Compressor location for summer cooling and winter heat recovery? 106. Permits required? Cost sharing available? 113.

Office? Computer? Dust.8 Other Facilities 122. October 1996 . moisture. Employee comfort area? Telephone? Lockers? Rest rooms? Shower? 123. dirt-free area for computer? THE DAIRY PRACTICES COUNCIL® DPC 66. Cow treatment (hospital) area? 124.