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Traditional Approach: The traditional approach to the study of development emphasizes extensive change from birth to adolescence (especially

during infancy), little or no change in adulthood, and decline in old age. - Suzanne has a son. She has watched him grow from infancy through childhood and now in adulthood. She has often said that he developed mostly in childhood as she hasnt seen much change in him after that. Her beliefs are most consistent with what approach? Traditional approach. - It was commonly believed that people mainly develop in childhood, stay pretty much the same during adulthood, and then begin to decline in old age. This describes which theory of development? Traditional approach. Life-Span Approach: Emphasizes developmental change throughout adulthood as well as childhood. - Matt is a good student that has taken Dr. Yarabs Lifespan psychology class. He recognizes that although it is easiest to see that people develop a great deal physically in childhood, he also recognizes that we develop in many ways all throughout life. He has learned that the lifespan theory of development describes the way that development actually takes place. Life-Span Perspective: The belief that development occurs throughout life is central to the life-span perspective. The life-span perspective should be thought of as lifelong, multidimensional, multidirectional, plastic, multidisciplinary, and contextual, and involves growth, maintenance, and regulation. - Development is Lifelong: In the lifespan perspective, early adulthood is not the endpoint of development; rather, no age period dominates development. - Development is Multidimensional: Development consists of biological, cognitive, and socioemotional dimensions. Even within a dimension, such as intelligence, there are many components, such as abstract intelligence, nonverbal intelligence, and social intelligence. - Development is Multidirectional: Throughout life, some dimensions or components of a dimension expand and others shrink. In language development, when one language (such as English) is acquired early in development, the capacity for acquiring second and third languages (such as French and Spanish) decreases later in development, especially after early childhood. In socioemotional development, individuals begin to have more contact with opposite-sex peers during adolescence. As they establish emotional or sexual relationships, their relationships with friends might decrease. In cognitive development, older adults might become wiser by being able to call on experience to guide their intellectual decision making. However, they perform more poorly on tasks that require speed in processing information. Professor X believes in the Lifespan theory of development. Therefore, she knows that human development is multidimensional. This means that she believes we must look at biological, cognitive, and social development to truly see how we change over time. - Development is Plastic: A key developmental research agenda is the search for plasticity and its constraints. Plasticity means the capacity for change. For example, can intellectual skills still be improved through education for individuals in their seventies or eighties? Or might these intellectual skills be fixed by the time people are in their thirties so that further improvement is impossible? In one research study, the reasoning abilities of older adults were improved through restraining. However, developmentalists debate how much plasticity people have at different points in their development; possibly we possess less capacity for change when we become old. - Development is Multidisciplinary: Psychologists, sociologists, anthropologists, neuroscientists, and medical researchers all study human development and share an interest in unlocking the mysteries of development through the life span. Research questions that cut across disciplines include:

o What constraints on intelligence are set by the individuals hereditary and health status? o How universal are cognitive and socioemotional changes? o How do environmental contexts influence intellectual development? - Development is Contextual: The individual continually responds to and acts on contexts, which include a persons biological makeup, physical environment, cognitive processes, historical contexts, social contexts, and cultural contexts. The contextual view regards individuals as changing beings in a changing world. Life-span developmentalists argue that three important sources of contextual influences are (1) normative age-graded influences; (2) normative historygraded influences; and (3) non-normative life events. o Normative age-graded influences: Biological and environmental influences that are similar for individuals in a particular age group (e.g, able to get license when turn 16). These influences include biological processes such as puberty and menopause. They also include sociocultural, environmental processes such as entry into formal education (usually at about age 6 in most cultures) and retirement (which takes place in the fifties and sixties in most Western countries). Katie has just turned 18 and is excited that she is now considered an adult as she wants to get a nose-piercing and a tattoo without having to ask her parents. Turning 18 is an example of a normative age-graded influence. o Normative history-graded influences: Common to people of a particular generation because of the historical circumstances they experience. Examples include economic impacts (such as the Great Depression in the 1930s), war (such as WWII in the 1940s and the Vietnam War in the 1960s and 1970s), the changing role of women, the current technology revolution, and political upheaval and change (such as the decrease in hardline communism in the 1990s and into the twenty-first century). My dads parents lived through the Great Depression and for all of their lives after that even though they had plenty of money, saved most of what they made, did not trust banks, and learned how to be happy in life with very little. Living through the Great Depression and the impact it had on their lives is an example of a history-graded influence. o Nonnormative life events: Unusual occurrences that have a major impact on the individuals life and usually are not applicable to many people. Such events might include the death of a parent when a child is young, pregnancy in early adolescence, a disaster (such as a fire that destroys a home), or an accident. Nonnormative life events also can include positive events (such as winning the lottery or getting an unexpected career opportunity with special privileges). Lisa has always been very active in her church. She did a mission trip to a very poor country last year where she saw just how poor much of the world really is. This experience had a great effect on her and it has changed the way that she looks at the world. This would be called a non-normative life event. - Development involves Growth, Maintenance, and Regulation: The mastery of life often involves conflicts and competition among three goals of human development: growth, maintenance, and regulation. As individuals age into middle and late adulthood, the maintenance and regulation of their capacities take center stage away from growth. Thus, for many individuals, the goal is not to seek growth in intellectual capacities (such as memory) or physical capacities (such as physical strength), but to maintain those skills or minimize their deterioration.

Eriksons Theory (Eriksons Psychosocial Theory): Erikson said we develop in psychosocial stages. For Erikson, the primary motivation for human behavior was social and reflected a desire to affiliate

with other people. Erikson emphasized developmental change throughout the human life span. In Eriksons theory, eight stages of development unfold as we go through the life span. Each stage consists of a unique developmental task that confronts individuals with a crisis that must be resolved. According to Erikson, this crisis is not a catastrophe but a turning point of increased vulnerability and enhanced potential. The more successfully and individual resolves the crises, the healthier development will be. Kyle is studying the different theories of Lifespan development. He is currently studying a theory which talks about social influences on our personality development. He is likely studying which approach to human development? Eriksons psychosocial theory. - Trust versus mistrust [infancy (first year)]: Eriksons first psychosocial stage, which is experienced in the first year of life. A sense of trust requires a feeling of physical comfort and a minimal amount of fear and apprehension about the future. Trust in infancy sets the stage for a lifelong expectation that the world will be a good and pleasant place to live. According to Erikson, holding a small child when they are in need of comfort would help develop a sense of trust. - Autonomy versus shame and doubt [infancy (1 to 3 years)]: Eriksons second stage of development, which occurs in late infancy and early toddlerhood (1 to 3 years). After gaining trust in their caregivers, infants begin to discover that their behavior is their own. They will start to assert their sense of independence, or autonomy. They realize their will. If infants are restrained too much or punished too harshly, they are likely to develop a sense of shame or doubt. According to Erikson, helping your child to learn to tie their shoes by themselves would help develop a sense of autonomy. - Initiative versus guilt [early childhood (preschool years, 3 to 5 years)]: Eriksons third stage of development, occurs during the preschool years. As preschool children encounter a widening social world, they are challenged more than when they were infants. Active, purposeful behavior is needed to cope with these challenges. Children are asked to assume responsibility for their bodies, their behavior, their toys, and their pets. Developing a sense of responsibility increases initiative. Uncomfortable guilt feelings may arise, though, if the child is irresponsible and is made to feel too anxious. However, Erikson believes that most guilt is quickly compensated for by a sense of accomplishment. According to Erikson, an overly nervous parent that will not let their child try new things on their own would probably develop a sense of guilt in the child. - Industry versus inferiority [middle and late childhood (elementary school years, 6 years to puberty)]: Eriksons fourth stage of development, occurring approximately in the elementary school years. Childrens initiative brings them in contact with a wealth of new experiences. As they move into middle and late childhood, they direct their energy toward mastering knowledge and intellectual skills. At no other time is the child more enthusiastic about learning than at the end of early childhoods period of expansive imagination. The danger in the elementary school years is that the child can develop a sense of inferiority feeling incompetent and unproductive. Erikson believed that teachers have a special responsibility for childrens development of industry. Teachers should mildly but firmly coerce children into the adventure of finding out that one can learn to accomplish things which one would never have thought of by oneself. According to Erikson, a sibling telling their brother that they are good at football and they really are helps a child develop a sense of industry. - Identity versus identity confusion [adolescence (10 to 20 years)]: Eriksons fifth stage of development, which individuals experience during the adolescent years. At this time, individuals are faced with finding out who they are, what they are all about, and where they are going in life. Adolescents are confronted with many new roles and adult statuses vocational and romantic, for example. Parents need to allow adolescents to explore many different roles and different paths within a particular role. If the adolescent explores such roles in a healthy manner and arrives at a positive path to follow in life, then a positive identity will be achieved. If an identity is pushed on

the adolescent by parents, if the adolescent does not adequately explore many roles, and if a positive future path is not defined, then identity confusion reigns. Brian is in high school and has always hung out with many different types of people. As he has gotten older though, he has started to recognize who he has the most in common with and who his values match best with. According to Erikson, Brian seems to have developed a sense of identity. - Intimacy versus isolation [early adulthood (20s, 30s)]: Eriksons sixth stage of development, which individuals experience during the early adulthood years. At this time, individuals face the developmental task of forming intimate relationships with others. Erikson describes intimacy as finding oneself yet losing oneself in another. If the young adult forms healthy friendships and an intimate relationship with another individual, intimacy will be achieved; if not, isolation will result. Sara casually dated a few people while she was in high school. Now that she is in her 20s, she thinks she has found the one and is very happy and content with him. Sara seems to have developed a sense of intimacy. - Generativity versus stagnation [middle adulthood (40s, 50s)]: Eriksons seventh stage of development, which individuals experience during middle adulthood. A chief concern is to assist the younger generation in developing and leading useful lives this is what Erikson means by generativity. The feeling of having done nothing to help the next generation is stagnation. According to Erikson, which of the following may help a person in middle adulthood develop a sense of generativity? (a) having a family/children; (b) having a career that they found to be worthwhile; (c) developing family traditions that are passed down; or (d) all of these. All of these would help a person in middle adulthood develop a sense of generativity. Generativity is assisting the younger generation in developing and leading useful lives, helping the next generation. Having a family/children adds to the younger generation, and as you raise them you are assisting them in developing and leading useful lives. Having a career that you found to be worthwhile can help the younger generation because you can pass on what you have learned. Developing family traditions and passing them down helps the next generation by giving them family traditions to pass on to their own children. - Integrity versus despair [late adulthood (60s onward)]: Eriksons eighth and final stage, which individuals experience in late adulthood. During this stage, a person reflects on the past and either pieces together a positive review or concludes that life has not been spent well. Through many different routes, the older person may have developed a positive outlook in most or all of the previous stages of development. If so, the retrospective glances will reveal a picture of life well spent, and the person will feel a sense of satisfaction integrity will be achieved. If the older adult resolved many of the earlier stages negatively, the retrospective glances likely will yield doubt or gloom the despair Erikson described. Paul is 85 years old. He is looking back over his life as the most awesome psychology professor the world has ever seen. He looks back at winning the 250 million dollar powerball jackpot on Wednesday and is happy with all of the things he did with the money. Although he has one regret dumping his girlfriend at prom he is generally happy with how his life turned out. According to Erikson, he seems to have developed a sense of integrity.

Child Development: Ideas about childhood have varied. Throughout history, philosophers have speculated about the nature of children and how they should be reared. In the West, three influential philosophical views are based on the ideas of original sin, tabula rasa, and innate goodness. - Original Sin: Children are born into the world corrupted, with an inclination toward evil. The goal of child rearing is to save children from sin. - Tabula rasa: English philosopher John Locke proposed that at birth each child is a tabula rasa a blank tablet. Locke proposed that people acquire their characteristics through experience and

that childhood experiences are important in determining adult characteristics. He advised parents to spend time with their children and help them become contributing members of society. - Innate goodness: Swiss-born French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau stressed that children are inherently good. As a result, Rousseau said that they should be permitted to grow naturally with little parental monitoring or constraint. Conceptions of age: - Chronological age (exact age): The number of years that have elapsed since birth. o Paul will soon be 42 years old. This is an example of chronological age. - Biological age (how old you are health wise): A persons age in terms of biological health. Determining biological age involves knowing the functional capacities of a persons vital organs. A persons vital capacities may be better or worse than those of others of comparable age. The younger the persons biological age, the longer the person is expected to live, regardless of chronological age. o Mark is 28 years old and has not taken good care of himself. He is very overweight, does not eat well, and drinks to excess which makes him much older with respect to his health than other people his age. His being in poor health is an example of his biological age. - Psychological age (how old you are mentally): An individuals adaptive capacities compared with those of other individuals of the same chronological age. Thus, older adults who continue to learn are flexible, are motivated, control their emotions, and think clearly are engaging in more adaptive behaviors than their chronological age-mates who do not continue to learn, are rigid, are unmotivated, do not control their emptions, and do not think clearly. o Cindy, who is 21 years old, was out at a bar with her friends. She met a guy who was pretty nice and was also 21 years old. Although he showed a few signs of being just a little bit immature, he still was relatively responsible and was not stuck in high-school mentality. He appears to have much the same psychological age as she does. - Social age (refers to social roles and expectations related to a persons chronological age): Refers to social roles and expectations related to a persons chronological age. Consider the role of mother and the behaviors that accompany the role. In predicting an adult womans behavior, it may be more important to know that she is the mother of a 3-year-old child than to know whether she is 20 or 30 years old. We still have some expectations for when certain life events such as getting married, having children, becoming a grandparent, and retiring should occur. o Martha is 77 years old and remembers being married at 19 years old as that is what was expected of her. Donna is 27 years old, is not married, and has no plants to any time soon. Her friends and family dont appear concerned about this. This example demonstrates a difference in social age expectations between the older and newer generations. Nature versus Nurture: Nature refers to an organisms biological inheritance, nurture to its environmental experiences. Nature proponents claim that the most important influence on development is biological inheritance. Nurture proponents claim that environmental experiences are the most important. According to the nature advocates, just as a sunflower grows in an orderly way unless defeated by an unfriendly environment so does the human grow in an orderly way. The range of environments can be vast, but the nature approach argues that a genetic blueprint produces commonalities in growth and development. We walk before we talk, speak one word before two words, grow rapidly in infancy and less so in early childhood, experience a rush of sexual hormones in puberty, reach the peak of our physical strength in late adolescence and early

adulthood, and then physically declines. The nature proponents acknowledge that extreme environments those that are psychologically barren or hostile can depress development. However, they believe that basic growth tendencies are genetically wired into humans. By contrast, other psychologists emphasize the importance of nurture, or environmental experiences, in development. Experiences run gamut from the individuals biological environment (nutrition, medical care, drugs, and physical accidents) to the social environment (family, peers, schools, community, media, and culture). - With respect to the impact of Nature and Nurture on our overall development, which of the following would be an example of natures influence? o An increased likelihood of having cancer that has been passed on genetically. This would be an example of natures influence, because nature refers to an organisms biological inheritance. In other words, what a child inherits from his/her parents. o The parental experiences that we had as children. This is an example of nurtures influence, because nurture refers to environmental experiences. The experiences a person has with his/her parents when they are children is an environmental experience. This refers to an individuals social environment. o Being exposed to extremely cold temperatures as a child. This is an example of nurtures influence, because nurture refers to environmental experiences. The temperatures we were exposed to as children refers to an individuals biological environment. o A and C. A is an example of natures influence, but C is an example of nurtures influence. - You have been a good student in Lifespan Psychology. So, if someone asks you about the Nature vs. Nurture debate, you would say o Nature provides our relative capacity for our abilities Nature provide capacities (a range to have). o Nurture determines where we fall on the continuum of abilities Social environments (family, peers, schools, community, media, and culture) along with biological environment (nutrition, medical care, drugs, physical accidents) determine ones abilities. o They are both equally important in our development Both nature and nurture are important in development. o All of these