You are on page 1of 374

NADINA VIAN

SENTENCE PROCESSES Curs de sintaxa frazei pentru nvmntul la distan

Universitatea din Bucureti Editura CREDIS 2006

CONTENTS:

ONE INTRODUCTION ________________________________________ 7


1.1. Constituent Phrase ______________________________________________9 1.2. Syntactic, Semantic, Pragmatic ____________________________________9 1.3. Auxiliary verbs________________________________________________10 1.4. Insertion _____________________________________________________10 1.5. The Distribution of an Element ___________________________________11 1.6. Complementary distribution _____________________________________11

TWO SENTENCE NEGATION ________________________________ 13


2.2. Assertive non-assertive ________________________________________15 2.3. Full local negation____________________________________________17 2.4. Negative vs. affirmative sentences. Tests for negativity ________________20 2.5. Instances of Negation___________________________________________24 2.6. Polarity Items _________________________________________________30 2.7. Negative concord / Non-negative concord___________________________35 2.8. Conclusion. Key terms. _________________________________________36

THREE QUESTIONS_________________________________________ 45
3.1. Direct / Indirect Questions _______________________________________47 3.2. Quirks Classification of Direct Questions __________________________51
3.2.1. Yes / No Questions ______________________________________________ 52 3.2.2 Wh questions __________________________________________________ 55 3.2.3. Alternative questions_____________________________________________ 57

3.3. Minor Types of Questions _______________________________________61


3.3.1. Tag Questions __________________________________________________ 61 3.3.2. Echo Questions _________________________________________________ 65

3.4. Instead of Conclusions__________________________________________68

FOUR COORDINATION ______________________________________73


4.1 Syndetic vs. Asyndetic Coordination _______________________________ 75 4.2 Coordination & Subordination____________________________________ 76 4.3 Sentence vs. Phrase Coordination _________________________________ 80 4.4. Coordinating Conjunctions ______________________________________ 86 4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects __________________________ 92 4.6. Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 94

FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES ______________________________________99


5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification__________________________ 101 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification __________________________ 106 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses _______________________ 111 5.4. Key Concepts _______________________________________________ 114

SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES ___________________________________119


6.1. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives _____________________ 121 6.2. The Co-reference Condition - a discussion of attributive relatives_______ 121 6.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses ____________________________ 125 6.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent _____________________________________________________ 129 6.5 Relative Clause Introducers _____________________________________ 131
6.5.1. Relative Pronouns _______________________________________________132 6.5.2 Relative Adverbs: when, where, while, why, how, etc. ___________________135 6.5.3. Relative THAT _________________________________________________136 6.5.4. Other relative introducers _________________________________________138

6.6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding ____________________________ 144 6.7 Key Concepts ________________________________________________ 146

SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS ______________________________151


7.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize That Complements __________ 153
7.1.1 Extraposition ___________________________________________________153 7.1.2. Topicalization __________________________________________________158 7.1.3. Clause Shift____________________________________________________160

7.2. The Distribuition of That Complements ___________________________163


7.2.1. That Complements as Direct Objects _______________________________ 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects ____________________________________ 7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects __________________________ 7.2.4. That complements as Predicatives ________________________________ 7.2.5. That Complements as Attributes__________________________________ 7.2.6. That complements as Adverbials _________________________________ 164 165 168 169 170 171

7.3 That Deletion ________________________________________________175


7.3.1. When Can We Delete That? _____________________________________ 175 7.3.2. When is That Obligatory?_______________________________________ 176 7.3.3. When is That Deletion Obligatory? _______________________________ 176

7.4. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses _____________________177 7.5 Key Concepts ________________________________________________185

EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _______________________ 191


8.1. What Are Infinitive Complements________________________________193 8.2. A Classification of Infinitives ___________________________________196 8.3 The Distribution of PRO - TO Constructions _______________________205 8.4 The Distribution of FOR TO Constructions _______________________206 8.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions ___________207 8.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control _____________________________________211 8.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction ___________213 8.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction ___________214 8.9 Key Concepts ________________________________________________218

NINE ING COMPLEMENTS _________________________________ 223


9.1. The Participle ________________________________________________225
9.1.1. Participial Constructions _________________________________________ 225 9.1.2. Characteristics of Participial Forms ________________________________ 231

9.2. The Gerund _________________________________________________236


9.2.1. A Classification of Gerundial Forms________________________________ 236 9.2.2. Characteristics of Gerunds _______________________________________ 237 9.2.3. Participles vs. Gerunds __________________________________________ 239

9.3. The Verbal Noun _____________________________________________243 9.4. ING Forms and Infinitives. _____________________________________246 9.5. Key Concepts ________________________________________________253

TEN REVISION EXERCISES ________________________________261


Exercise 1 __________________________________________________________263 Exercise 2 __________________________________________________________264 Exercise 3 __________________________________________________________265 Exercise 4* _________________________________________________________268 Exercise 5 __________________________________________________________271 Exercise 6* _________________________________________________________275 Exercise 7* _________________________________________________________281 Exercise 8*:_________________________________________________________282 Exercise 9*:_________________________________________________________283 Exercise 10*:________________________________________________________284

KEY TO PRACTICE ________________________________________285


KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE INTRODUCTION _____________ 285 KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE - SENTENCE NEGATION _______ 286 KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE - QUESTIONS _______________ 300 KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE - COORDINATION ____________ 311 KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE - THE COMPLEX SENTENCE A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES _____________________ 317 KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE - RELATIVE CLAUSES___________ 323 KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE - THAT COMPLEMENTS ______ 331 KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE - INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS _ 346 KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE - ING COMPLEMENTS _________ 353

References __________________________________________________369

CUVNT NAINTE:
Aceast carte se adreseaz studenilor din programul de nvmnt la distan, cu specialitatea romn englez i abordeaz problema proceselor sintactice care au loc n interiorul frazei: negaia, interogaia, coordonarea i subordonarea. Sentence Processes este organizat pe capitole, fiecare dintre acestea compunndu-se din explicaii teoretice i exerciii. Am preferat s aleg o variant care s faciliteze procesul de nvare i nelegere a structurilor mai complicate din limba englez, motiv pentru care exerciiile nu sunt plasate la sfritul fiecrui capitol, ci imediat dup fiecare problem prezentat. La finalul fiecrui capitol sunt oferite exerciii cu grad sporit de dificultate, marcate cu un asterisc. Tot pentru a uura munca studentului, am reluat explicaiile, condensndu-le n tabele i n final rezumndu-le ntr-o scurt seciune intitulat Key Concepts (Concepte de baz). Cursul este special conceput pentru a fi utilizat de studenii care nu pot urma cursurile cu frecven, motiv pentru care aproape toate exerciiile care nsoesc explicaiile teoretice sunt nsoite

de rezolvri, pe care studentul este invitat s le consulte dup ce a parcurs materia i a rezolvat individual respectivele exerciii. Dei principalii beneficiari sunt studenii programului de nvmnt la distan, materialul prezentat aici poate constitui o baz i pentru profesorii de limba englez din nvmntul preuniversitar n vederea pregtirii pentru examenele de definitivat, titularizare i grad.

ONE INTRODUCTION
Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce several key concepts that will facilitate a better understanding of the next units to help students revise notions already discussed in previous linguistics classes.

Contents:
8

1.1. Constituent Phrase 1.2. Syntactic/Semantic/Pragmatic 1.3. Auxiliary verbs 1.4. Insertion 1.5. The Distribution of an Element 1.6. Complementary distribution

Unit one

Introduction

This unit is devoted to a brief revision of some concepts that will be crucial for every section in this course. We will therefore have to remember the meaning of such terms as:

1.1. Constituent Phrase


Constituent (phrase) any part of a sentence which is regarded as forming a distinct syntactic unit within the overall structure of the sentence. For instance, if we were to take the following example: (1) Susan loves her mother very much. (Susan i iubete foarte mult mama.) we can identify the following constituents: Susan, loves, her mother, very much. Each of the above identified elements can be said to form a distinct syntactic unit, since it has a certain semantic and structural autonomy inside (1). Consequently, sequences of the kind her mother very, or Susan loves her cannot be considered constituents, since they do not have a structural and semantic unity. They are just strings, that is sequences fragmented at random.

1.2. Syntactic, Semantic, Pragmatic


Syntactic relates to the structure of sentences Semantic relates to the meaning of words, sentences Pragmatic relates to the function of a sentence (utterance) inside discourse
9

Nadina VIAN

In the following example, (2) Give Susan the money and then send her away! (D-i banii lui Susan i apoi trimite-o de aici!) syntactically we are dealing with a compound sentence (where two main clauses are coordinated by and), semantically the two sentences are perceived as sequential (the event in the first sentence is followed by the one in the second) and pragmatically, we are dealing with a directive (i.e. an order given to an interlocutor).

1.3. Auxiliary verbs


Auxiliary verbs one of a small set of lexical items having certain properties in common with verbs but also exhibiting a number of other distinct properties. The English auxiliaries are usually divided into the modal auxiliaries (such as may, must, should, etc.) and the non-modal auxiliaries (such as have, be).

1.4. Insertion
Insertion a procedure by which some element not previously present in a structure is added to it. An example is the insertion of the element do in sentence (3): (3) She told me the secret. (Mi-a spus secretul.)

10

Unit one

Introduction

As a consequence of the insertion of do in (3) we obtain the following emphatic structure: (4) She did tell me the secret. (Mi-a spus ntr-adevr secretul.)

1.5. The Distribution of an Element


The distribution of an element represents the full range of environments in which a lexical or grammatical form can occur. Consider, for instance, the following sentence: (5) There is a cat on the mat. (Pe preul de la intrare se afl o pisic.) This sentence has a special subject, an empty there subject, which does not have a similar correspondent in Romanian. This element cannot appear in any kind of context. It normally is allowed in combination with be or with other similar verbs such as appear, live, etc. These are the contexts in which there subjects are possible in English, and the set of these contexts can be referred to as the distribution of there subjects.

1.6. Complementary distribution


Complementary distribution it might be the case that two rather similar elements are in complementary distribution, that is they are so close in meaning and function that they cannot appear together in the same context. One of the best known such pairs is that of the definite article the and the

11

Nadina VIAN

demonstrative pronoun this/that. If the given context is the one under (6), lets check if these two elements are in complementary distribution or not: (6) __________ book (7) *the this book (8) the book (9) this book As you can see, both (8) and (9) are correct structures, whereas (7) is not, as the star indicates. Sentence (7) proves that the two elements cannot appear in the same given context. This means that these elements are indeed in complementary distribution. Pratice Define and illustrate, using your own examples: insertion, auxiliary Activity 1 verb, distribution, complementary distribution, semantic, syntactic, pragmatic. Identify the constituents in the following sentences: Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. Munt. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. How much, apart Activity 2 from his distress for parents, this would really hurt, he had not yet been able to estimate.

12

TWO SENTENCE NEGATION


Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to sentence negation. to help students understand the differences between English and Romanian with respect to this process (negation). To help students learn how to correctly formulate negative sentences in English.

13

2.1. Key terms 2.2. Assertive non-assertive

Contents:
14

2.3. Full local negation 2.4. Negative vs. affirmative sentences. Tests for negativity 2.5. Instances of negation 2.6. Polarity Items 2.7. Negative concord non-negative concord languages 2.8. Conclusion. Key terms

Unit two

Sentence negation

2.2. Assertive non-assertive


We need to make a distinction between assertive and non-assertive sentences. For instance, a sentence of the form: (1) He offered her some chocolates. (I-a oferit bomboane de ciocolat.) is said to be an assertion, in the sense that it states something, it asserts something. This example can be compared to: (2)a. He didnt offer her any chocolates. (Nu i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolat.) b. Did he offer her chocolates? (Oare i-a oferit bomboane de ciocolat?) The difference between example (1) and the examples under (2) is that the latter examples are non-assertive, in that they do not state anything. Consequently, a sentence can be non-assertive if it is negative or if it is a question. We do not therefore have two independent systems: - Positive vs. Negative - Declarative vs. Interrogative but rather an interrelated system in which assertion involves both positive and declarative while non-assertion has a subsystem either negative or interrogative. The relationship can be represented as follows:

15

Nadina VIAN

- assertion - positive and declarative secret.) - positive sentence - interrogative

(e.g. They told her the ( e.g. Did they tell her the

secret? ) - negative (e.g. Didnt they tell her the secret?)

- non-assertion - negative (They didnt tell her the secret.) - other (if clauses, comparison, subjunctive)

Pratice Which of the following sentences are assertive and which are non-assertive? Activity 1 They like her a lot. / Are you listening to me? / Arent you listening to me? / He never listens./ We didnt come here just to talk. / Come with me./ Dont do that./ If you like her, dont bother her./ She cant wait to read that book. / She finally admitted, didnt she? / Hasnt she arrived? / If you like jazz, listen to this. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen. / It is odd that you should like Sartre so much. The distinction assertive / non-assertive brings us to one of the main questions we need to answer in this section: when is a sentence negative and how do we distinguish between various forms of negation? We shall answer the second question in the following subsection.

16

Unit two

Sentence negation

2.3. Full local negation


The first distinction to draw between various forms of negation is that of sentence vs. word negation. For example, the sentences under (3) are considered instances of syntactic (sentence) negation, whereas those under (4) are considered to be forms of word negation: (3) a. Susan doesnt like her friends. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei.) b. John is not happy. (John nu e fericit) (4) a. Susan dislikes her friends. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei.) b. John is unhappy. (John e nefericit.) It is obvious that sentences under (3) are structurally different from those under (4) in that they are marked by the presence of the negative word not. In the case of the sentences under (4), we can speak more of a negative meaning than of a negative structure, since the negative word not is not present there. There is also a difference in meaning between the two examples, since it is obvious that the meaning of (3) is not really equivalent to that of (4). A second distinction to be drawn here is between such examples as: (5) Not long ago, I met a girl named Susan. (Nu demult, am ntlnit o fat pe nume Susan.)

17

Nadina VIAN

In this case, just like in the case of word negation, we speak about local negation in the sense that the negative word not does not influence more than the first part of the sentence, more precisely the phrase it is part of. In other words, the whole sentence under (5) has an affirmative dimension and it is only the phrase not long ago that has a negative connotation. This is also called an instance of phrasal negation, since the negative meaning is restricted to one constituent only. Example (6) gives us however reason to speak about full negation, namely the whole sentence is negative and the word not influences the whole meaning of the sentence: (6) I didnt meet a girl named Susan long ago. (N-am ntlnit o fat pe nume Susan demult.) An interesting problem is posed by such examples as: (7) a. She was not an unattractive woman. (Nu era o femeie neatrgtoare.) b. He was not without intelligence. (Nu era lipsit de inteligen.) c. I was not a little worried. (Nu mic mi-a fost ngrijorarea.) The meaning of all these examples is a positive one: (7a) implies that she was an attractive woman, (7b) implies that the guy there was quite intelligent, whereas (7c) states that I was very worried about something. In other words, these sentences look negative, since the negative word not is present inside them, but their meaning tells us a different story. We can say that we are dealing with a combination of word and phrasal negation, where the word

18

Unit two

Sentence negation

negation (unattractive, without intelligence, a little worried) is cancelled by the presence of not: not unattractive = attractive. Another name for the distinction between full negation and local (that is word and phrasal) negation is supplied by the opposition syntactic vs. semantic negation. By syntactic negation we mean negation at the level of the sentence (i.e. the whole meaning of the sentence is negative). Semantic negation will consequently refer to sentence bits with a negative meaning. Pratice Which of the following sentences exhibit forms of semantic/ syntactic negation? Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant./ Bill isnt interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax./ He disapproves of mothers going out to work./ He doesnt approve of mothers going out to work./ Nikitas unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night./ Nikitas unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night./ Nikitas not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night./ Nikitas not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last night./ Nikitas not very unpleasant face didnt appear on TV last night. Translate the following sentences into English, paying attention to the distinction Activity 3 phrasal) negation: Nu era lipsit de graie i de frumusee. / Cnd a aflat vestea, nu s-a simit deloc ncntat. / Nu cu mult vreme n urm, toat lumea cltorea cu trsura. / I-a trebuit nu puin iscusin s rezolve problema. / Nu l prefer pe John n mod special. / l
19

between full and local (that is word or

Nadina VIAN

prefer pe John, dar nu n mod special. / Nu era neobinuit de detept. / Era neobinuit de mecher. / Era el destul de iste, dar nu neobinuit. / Deloc interesat de conferin, domnul Jones s-a ridicat i a plecat din sal. / Domnul Jones nu era deloc interesat de discuiile din sal. / Nu tocmai convini de ceea ce auziser, cei doi frai i-au luat inima n dini i au protestat. / Nu erau nelmurii, ci doar indecii. / Nu neg c aceast culoare m prinde de minune. / A negat cu trie orice legtur cu crima comis cu o sear nainte. / Nu mic i-a fost mirarea s vad ct de bine se nelegeau cei doi. Since this course is an attempt to clarify matters related to syntax we restrict the term negative sentences only to those sentences that qualify as syntactically negated. This means that negative sentences need to have a negative word present inside them that will influence the whole meaning of the respective sentences.

2.4. Negative vs. affirmative sentences. Tests for negativity


In this subsection we are going to answer two questions: a) What is the difference between negative and affirmative (positive) sentences? b) How do we tell when a sentence is syntactically negative? Are there any ways of checking on the sentences negativity? Let us start with the first question: the difference existing between negative and positive sentences is not only a semantic one (that is the fact that they express opposite truth values) but also a syntactic and pragmatic one:

20

Unit two

Sentence negation

As we were saying, syntactically negative sentences are marked by the presence of a negative structure (such as the word not, etc.) and sometimes by other syntactic changes. Compare (8) to (9): (8) I went there. (M-am dus acolo.) (9) I didnt go there. (Nu m-am dus acolo.) The second sentence has undergone certain syntactic changes, such as do insertion. (see subsection 1.1.). Let us now discuss the pragmatic differences between positive and negative sentences: basically, whenever we utter a negative sentence in a discourse, we imply the existence of its affirmative counterpart. For instance, in a negative sentence such as: (10) Harry didnt attack the government. (Harry nu a atacat guvernul) the implicit affirmative sentences existing in correlation to the negative sentences could be: attack it) Someone attacked the government (but it wasnt Harry). Harry did something to the government (but he didnt

21

Nadina VIAN

Pratice Which are the implied affirmative sentences with the following negative sentences? Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. / Susan did not get married to Jim. / I dont like her very much. / We dont come here often. / Susan was not bitten by a dog. / She does not hate animals./ They didnt leave. The second question that springs to ones mind is: but how do we tell when a sentence is negative, since sometimes examples can be so misleading? An efficient way of doing that was offered by Klima (1964) who distinguishes between four tests of negativity: 1. Tag-questions a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of an affirmative tag question (with a falling intonation): (11) (12) (13) Susan does not like her friends, does she? ( Lui Susan nu i place de prietenii ei, nu-i aa?) Susan dislikes her friends, *does she? Susan dislikes her friends, doesnt she?

Sentence (11) qualifies as negative, since it is followed by an affirmative question tag, whereas the sentence under (12) does not: the star placed at the beginning of the tag question indicates that the structure is ungrammatical, incorrect. The sentence allows only for a negative question tag (see example (13)) and is syntactically affirmative.

22

Unit two

Sentence negation

2. Not even-tags a sentence is syntactically negative if it allows for the presence of a not even-tag : (14) (15) (16) Susan does not like her friends, not even the smart ones. (Lui Susan nu-i place de prietenii ei, nici mcar de cei detepi.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends, *not even the smart ones. Susan dislikes/ likes her friends, even the smart ones.

Example (14) is syntactically negative, as is demonstrated by the presence of the not even tag. Compare this example to those under (15) and (16), which exhibit samples of affirmative sentences, since the not even tag cannot be applied to them. 3. Either conjoining a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be

followed by another negative sentence and the adverb either: (17) (18) Susan does not like her friends, and they dont like her either. (Lui Susan nu i place de prietenii ei i nici lor nu le place de ea.) Susan dislikes / likes her friends, * and they dont like her either.

Sentence (17) is syntactically negative because the either conjoining is possible, which does not happen in the case of (18), which is ungrammatical. 4. Neither tags a sentence is syntactically negative if it can be followed by a neither tag: (19) (20)
23

Susan doesnt like her friends, and neither do they like her. (Lui Susan nu i place de prietenii ei i nici lor nu le place de ea.) Susan likes / dislikes her friends, *and neither do they like her.

Nadina VIAN

Sentence (19) is syntactically negative since it can be combined with a neither tag, whereas sentence (20) is syntactically affirmative since its combination with neither is obviously impossible. In conclusion, whenever one wishes to check whether a certain sentence is negative from a syntactic point of view, they need to refer to these tests of negativity. By applying these tests to the sentence in question, one can tell if the sentence is negative or not. Pratice Say whether the following are instances of local or sentence negation by using the tests for negativity above: Activity 5 I dont know much about him. / I can hardly understand what they are saying. / You have never met her. / I havent ever seen such a thing. / Should they not have told her the truth? / Not infrequently, they go skiing in the mountains. / In no time he was able to solve the problem. / At no time was he able to solve the problem. / Not always a witty interlocutor, Jim felt rather at a loss for words. / They caused us no problems. / No problems were caused after all. / This boy is no good. / Few of them stayed behind. / A few of them stayed behind.

2.5. Instances of Negation


We shall now attempt to offer a classification of the various instances of negation present in English. The criterion we employ has to do with the position of the negative word inside the negative sentence: a) negative insertion (the negative word not is inserted in the auxiliary):
24

Unit two

Sentence negation

(21) (22)

John has not come. (N-a venit John). Susan could not go to the theatre. (Susan nu s-a putut duce la teatru)

The negative word not has been inserted inside the sentences under (21) and (22). This kind of negation is the most frequent one in English. A variation to this instance of negation is offered by those sentences in which the negative word is attached to the auxiliary verb by means of contraction: (23) (24) John hasnt come. Susan couldnt go to the theatre.

b) negative incorporation (the negative word is incorporated in a determiner, a pronoun or an adverb): (25) I saw no student. (N-am vzut nici un student) In example (25) negation is incorporated in the determiner (that is the article ) of the direct object. (26) I saw nobody. (N-am vzut pe nimeni). In this case negation is incorporated in the pronoun. (27) a . I went nowhere. (Nu m-am dus nicieri)
25

Nadina VIAN

b. I never went to his place. (Nu m-am dus niciodat la el.) In sentence (27) the negative word has been incorporated in the adverb of place. All the sentences discussed here are variants for : (28) a. I didnt see any student. (N-am vzut nici un student.) b. I didnt see anybody. (N-am vzut pe nimeni.) c. I didnt go anywhere. / I didnt ever go to his place. (Nu m-am dus nicieri. / Nu m-am dus niciodat la el.) c) negative attraction (the negative word is attracted by the nominal phrase

in the first position of the sentence; no incorporation takes place.) (29) a. Not all that glitters is gold. (Nu tot ce strlucete e aur.) b. Not a day passed without me thinking of him. ( N-a trecut o zi fr s m gndesc la el.) It is obvious that in such examples the negative word not has been attracted by the nominal phrase in sentence initial position. The sentences under (29) may be paraphrased by means of negative insertion or incorporation: (30) a. All that glitters is not gold. b. No day passed without me thinking of him.

26

Unit two

Sentence negation

The fact that these sentences may be paraphrased by means of other negative sentences makes us believe that the process of attraction is optional not obligatory. Pratice Distinguish between the sentences which exhibit negative insertion or contraction, negative attraction and negative Activity 6 incorporation: They didnt send many students abroad. / I showed him nothing. / Not many women are famous opera composers. / Not a word fell from her lips. / She said not a word when I spoke to her. / It didnt take him a minute to tell her the secret. / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret. / No one ever listens to her. / None of them liked house music. / Not one of them came to meet her./ They didnt come to meet her. / I saw nobody. / I didnt see anybody./ They never went there./ They didnt ever tell her what bothered them. / He should not be released. incomplete negation (negation in the sentence is made by means of the so-called incomplete negators such as hardly, scarcely, barely, seldom, rarely, etc.) the sentences that contain these negators are also considered syntactically negative, because they pass all the tests for negativity presented in 1.4.: (31) (32) (33)
27

I hardly met this man, did I? (Nu l-am cunoscut pe omul acesta.) They barely read any novels, not even short ones. (Nu citesc romane, nici mcar din alea scurte.) We seldom watch T.V, and we dont go to the theatre either.

Nadina VIAN

(Ne uitm rar la televizor, i nu mergem nici la teatru.) (34) They rarely talked to their friends, and neither did their friends talk to (Vorbeau rar cu prietenii i nici prietenii nu vorbeau cu ei.) Pratice Paraphrase the following instances of incomplete negation by means of negative insertion, negative attraction or negative Activity 7 incorporation: I can barely look him in the eye. / I could hardly wait to hear the news. / This is hardly the time to buy yourself a new fur coat. / I scarcely ever see her. / Hardly anybody liked him. / Youve eaten hardly anything. / I seldom look at her like that. / Few people came to see her. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. emphatic negation (emphasis is laid by placing the negative word or the incomplete negator in the first position inside the sentence, which triggers inversion): (35) a. Never have I met a more horrible person. (Niciodat n-am cunoscut un om mai ngrozitor.) b. Rarely have I done such a stupid thing. (Rareori am fcut un lucru aa de prostesc.) c. Hardly have they heard a thing like that. (N-am mai auzit aa ceva.) d. Not for the world would I do such a thing. (Pentru nimic n lume n-a face una ca asta.)
28

them.

Unit two

Sentence negation

Pratice Rephrase the following sentences making them emphatic: I shall never, never trust a man again. / One can have peace in Activity 8 life only by avoiding them altogether. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. / Nothing like that ever happened in our street before./ We seldom receive such generous praise. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. / She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. / We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. / You shouldnt wander away from the path under any circumstances. / I didnt leave the office at any time. / You must on no account touch this machinery. / She could rely on nobody but him. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. / The keys couldnt be found anywhere. negative transportation (the negative word is transported to the main clause from a subordinate that clause where it originates and belongs semantically): For instance, sentence (36) becomes (37): (36) (37) They think that he doesnt like them. (Ei cred c lui nu-i place de ei.) They dont think that he likes them. (Ei nu cred c lui i place de ei.) by undergoing a process of negative transportation. As you can see from the translation of these examples, the phenomenon is the same in Romanian. The difference between (36) and (37) is a pragmatic one, in the sense that the
29

Nadina VIAN

original sentence (36) is stronger from the point of view of its negative force. In sentence (37), the negative meaning is less strong. Negative transportation is optional and may appear with verbs of opinion,

intention, probability, etc.: think, believe, imagine, suppose, guess, expect, seem, appear, look like, sound/feel like, intend, choose, want, be probable, be likely, be supposed to, ought to, should be desirable, advise, suggest, etc. Pratice Reformulate the sentences below in such a way that they become instances of negative transportation: Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesnt trust him. / I suppose she doesnt care, does she? / Its likely that he wont help her. / I expect he wont come here again. / I thought I didnt have to do it myself. / They believe she does not like them. / They suggested that she should not meet Jim. / He reckoned he would not win her over.

2.6. Polarity Items


Sometimes a negative sentence is characterized not only by the existence of a negative word (such as not or hardly, barely, etc.) but also by the existence of certain elements that, although not negative in meaning, cannot appear in an affirmative context. For example, we can very well say something like: (38) a. She didnt lift a finger to help me. (N-a micat un deget s m ajute.) b. She doesnt like our chairman at all. (Nu-i place deloc de presedinte.)

30

Unit two

Sentence negation

In the above examples, I underlined the phrases (not) to lift a finger and at all that are specific for the negative context. They are not usable in an affirmative environment, and sentences such as: (39) a.*She lifted a finger to help me. b. *She likes our chairman at all. are clearly not grammatical. This means that the negative word not is so powerful that it literally imposes the presence of certain elements (such as lift a finger or at all) in its vicinity. These elements that can appear only in non-assertive contexts (see section1.2. for the definition of assertive/ non-assertive) are called negative polarity items. They are lexical items (that is words and phrases) and are sensitive to the polarity of the sentence (namely to the assertive or non-assertive nature of the respective sentence). The phenomenon is not restricted to English only as one can come up with examples of such items from Romanian: (40) (41) Nu e chip s vorbeti cu el. N-am vzut nici picior de ho prin preajm.

The fact that the italicized phrases above are indeed negative polarity items is demonstrated by their inadequacy in an assertive context. It is incorrect to say: (42) (43) * E chip s vorbeti cu el. * Am vzut picior de ho prin preajm.

Negative polarity items are sometimes paralleled by Affirmative Polarity Items, that is by items that can appear only in assertive contexts. That is
31

Nadina VIAN

exactly why, we can speak of pairs of Negative and Affirmative Polarity items: Any vs. some (I havent any money. / I have some money.) At all vs. somehow/ somewhat (I dont like him at all. / I somehow like him.) Yet vs. already (I havent seen him yet. / I have already seen him.) Any more vs. still (I dont love you any more. / I still love you) Either vs. too (I dont like it, either. / I like it , too.) Hardly ever vs. most of the times ( I hardly ever eat caviar. / I eat caviar most of the times.) Until vs. before (He didnt arrive until 5. / He arrived before 5.) Much vs. a lot (I dont like you much. / I like you a lot.), etc. Pratice Give the negative / positive counterpart of the following sentences; identify the polarity items: Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. / They say he once had someone very close. / Come on, you can still do something about it. / We will see them again somewhere sometime. / We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. / Well, I hope hes somewhat wiser now. / I somewhat like his proposal. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). / Dont worry, it will stop hurting before tomorrow. / Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did, too. / Alice doesnt live here any longer/ more. / I dont feel any better for having had a holiday. / Well, Im afraid her husband was never any good. / You neednt send her anything. / She hardly ever comes here. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. / Bob is still living at that address. / I can understand both of these
32

Unit two

Sentence negation

sentences./ I can understand all of these ten English words. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live / Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. / Peter knows some English and so does John./ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. / Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. / I nearly always have to clean it myself. / Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. / You must pay that fine. / You must be telling lies. Translate into English, paying attention to the following Negative Polarity Items: Activity 11 Budge, flinch, bat an eye(lid), give a damn/darn, find a trace, hear a peep, hurt a fly, last a minute, crack a smile, turn a hair, sleep a wink, touch a drop, leave a stone unturned, lift/raise/ stir a finger, lay a finger on someone, touch her/him with a ten-foot pole, move a muscle, see/ feel/ remember a thing, tell/ ask/speak to a soul, say / breathe/ understand a word, know a single person, have a care/ friend in the world, have/be worth a red cent. Ion nu e prea detept, de fapt nimeni din familia lor nu e prea detept. / N-a putut face el aa ceva! Nu e el chiar aa de detept! / Nu tiu ce s-a ntmplat cu ea; n-am vzut-o de ani de zile. / Ajut-m, te rog! Nu pot s clintesc din loc pietroiul sta. / Se spune c acest doctor n tiine n-a studiat niciodat nimic nicieri. / Nou nu ne-a spus nimeni nimic, nici unuia dintre noi. / Sunt convins c Mark nu s-a deranjat s telefoneze. / Jim e att de curajos! Nici n-a clipit mcar o dat. N-a zis nici ps cnd doctorul i-a pansat rana. / Ari att de obosit azi! -Nu e de mirare, n-am nchis un ochi toat noaptea (n-am lipit gean de gean). / A: Bei un pahar de vin? B: Nu, mulumesc, de cnd cu
33

Nadina VIAN

ulcerul sta, nu mai pun pictur n gur nainte de mas. / A: Tea afectat desigur foarte mult plecarea lui. B: Ai, nu-mi pas ctui de puin dac se ntoarce sau nu. / Poliia a scotocit peste tot, n-a lsat cotlon necercetat, ncercnd s prind criminalul. / Hotrt lucru, i se ntmplase ceva ngrozitor, dar ea nu-i mai amintea absolut nimic i nu scotea o vorb. / Nu tiu de ce plnge, nu e vina mea, n-am atins-o nici cu un deget! / Era singurul care ar fi putut s-o fac, dar n-a micat un deget s-i salveze! / Era un om tare, a primit vestea morii fiului su fr s clipeasc! / E un om fericit. N-are nici o grij pe lume, dar nici para chioar n buzunar. / Nu te lua dup el! Prerea lui nu face nici dou parale! / Scena era att de caraghioas, nct nu-i putea ine rsul. / S fiu al naibii dac mai vorbesc cu el vreodat! / A: A sunat clopoelul? B: Nu, n-a sunat nc. Translate into Romanian, paying attention to Polarity Items: No fool like an old fool. / Never trouble trouble till trouble Activity 12 troubles you. / Never is a long word. / No man is wise all the time. / No sooner said than done. / Nothing succeeds like success. / He wont make old bones. / Not to put too fine an edge point on it, hes a pig. / I had no end of trouble. / He is no end of a fellow. / No hands wanted. / No admittance. / No entry. / These guys never know whether theyre coming or going. / I couldnt make head or tail of it. / Nothing doing! / Sorry! No harm done! / Nothing daunted, he left the room. / No trouble at all. / Not that I care, but you really should do something about it. As you have noticed from the exercises above, there are cases when Polarity Items work in pairs (such as still and any more) and cases when there are only Negative Polarity Items (lift a finger, budge, etc) or Affirmative ones (would
34

Unit two

Sentence negation

rather). Normally, Negative Polarity Items (NPI) are more numerous than Affirmative ones (API), and this is helped by the fact that they can appear in any context that is non-assertive: they can appear in negative sentences, but also in interrogative ones (Have you seen anyone?) or in If-clauses (If you have anything to say, say it.) Pratice Identify the contexts that allow for Negative Polarity Items: a) He admitted saying something to some of the people present. / Activity 13 He denied ever saying anything to anyone. b) I love asking some funny remarks. / I hate making any commitments. c) He is anxious to say something. / He is reluctant to ever say anything. d) He is wrong / unwilling / unable to say anything about it. e) She is the cutest girl anyone has ever seen.

2.7. Negative concord / Non-negative concord


This subsection attempts to draw a distinction between negative concord languages (such as Romanian) and non-negative concord ones (such as English). Compare the following sentences: (44) (45) I did not see anyone./ I saw no one. N-am vzut pe nimeni.

In the case of the sentence under (44) there are two negative words in concord, which is not the case of the sentence under (45). Romanian is therefore a negativeconcord language and we can safely say that Substandard English that uses double negation exhibits negative concord, as well:
35

Nadina VIAN

(46)

I cant get no satisfaction. (The Rolling Stones)

The examples of double negation that are so frequent in Substandard English need not be, however, mistaken for the so-called ample negatives, that are instances of Standard English: (47) A: You cant really like this poem. B: Not this poem, I dont. (A: Doar nu-i place poezia asta. B: Nu, nu-mi place, nu poezia asta.) The example above is a sample of Standard English, in that it does not in fact contain two negative words in the same sentence. The second negation is somehow independent, it is just a copy of the first one for the sake of emphasis. The sentence under (47) is a rephrased emphatic variant of: (48) No, I dont like this poem. (Nu, nu mi place poezia asta.)

2.8. Conclusion. Key terms.


One of the most important issues discussed in this chapter is that of the negative status of a sentence. We have drawn a distinction between affirmative and negative sentences, from a syntactic point of view. Syntactic negation refers to those sentences that have a negative word/ phrase inside them that modifies the whole content of the sentences.

36

Unit two

Sentence negation

Semantic negation is related to the meaning of a sentence or phrase only, without taking into consideration form and structure. The second issue discussed here is connected to the changes performed on affirmative sentences when one needs to transform them into negative ones. From this point of view, it is crucial for one to understand the problem of Polarity Items. Negative Polarity Items are those elements that can appear only in nonassertive contexts. Affirmative Polarity Items are those elements (fewer in number) that appear only in assertive contexts. The third issue tackled here refers to the difference between negative concord and non-negative concord languages: English non-negative concord (does not allow for double negation) Romanian negative concord (negation is made up of two parts) Substandard English negative concord Pratice Translate the following into English and comment upon any difficulties of translation you can think of in relation to Activity 14* negativity: Exist un mare pericol: s nu degenerezi i s ajungi s vezi viaa altfel de cum este. / i era team s nu plece el mai devreme i s uite valiza acas. / Stau i pzesc cldirea i am grij s nu izbucneasc vreun foc la parter. / Trebuie s te fereti s nu se ntmple ceva ru. / N-a venit acas mai
37

Nadina VIAN

devreme pentru c nu tia dac el n-o s vrea s mnnce n ora. Abia cnd m-am pomenit btnd n poarta Mgurenilor, ncet, slab, fr prea mult hotrre, au nceput s mi se hipertrofieze brutal n minte dimensiunile aventurii n care m vrsem. Nu-mi fcusem mari iluzii, nu m ateptam s obin ceva de la Carol, dup cum nu crezusem c voi fi bruscat, expediat afar. (A. Buzura, Feele tcerii) Oricum distana care o ineau fa de mine nu-mi convenea, mi se prea amenintoare. N-aveam mai nimic comun, nu ne lega o singur amintire, ntmplare, ceva, nu mi se ivise prilejul s dovedesc, intr-un fel sau altul, c sunt om bun, cu nevoi ca ei. (A. Buzura, Feele tcerii) Cu nici unul dintre acetia N.S. nu se gsea n relaii deosebit de norocoase, ceea ce nsemna c ei nici nu-i vorbeau i nici binee nu-i ddeau. (L. Blaga, Peisaj i amintire) Nici o clip nu-mi trecuse prin minte c venind aici, la mnstire, a avea nevoie n bagajele mele de un frac. De fapt, nici nu doream s iau parte la petrecere. (t. Agopian, Tache de catifea) Pe locul hotrt se adunase, nc pn a nu se face ziu, atta lume, ct frunz i iarb, de nu se mai putea mica; i btrnul cu copiii abia gsir i ei un colior la o parte de unde s se poat uita i ei. N-apucar s se aeze bine i auzir un sunet de fluier. (P.Ispirescu, Basme) Era rndul meu s spun ceva, nu-mi aminteam ns unde rmsesem, de aceea fusesem obligat s-mi mrturisesc deruta: n realitate, nu neleg nimic din acest caz; povestea

38

Unit two

Sentence negation

dumitale, sau ceea ce am priceput eu din ea mi se pare c m depete cumva Eu o cred cel puin anacronic, o restan din alte vremuri A fi bucuros s fie aa.Din pcate, mi-e greu s-mi dau seama n ce lume trieti, rspunse el imediat, cu mult superioritate. Altfel arat lumea, nu cum i-o nchipui. Nu teoriile i celelalte, nu vorbele, ci faptele din orice moment, bune i rele, clare i nenelese, asta e lumea. Trebuie s o judecm aa cum este, nu cum am vrea s fie ori mai tiu eu. Gndeti cu totul greit, am putut s m conving (Augustin Buzura, Feele tcerii) Dup agitaia matinal, cnd nu ndrznea s-mi repete invitaia, dar nici nu prea s renune la ideea de a pleca i eu n B., Radu se linitise, sttea alturi, pe bancheta din fa, urmrind aproape indiferent peisajul monoton de pe malul rului. (Augustin Buzura, Feele tcerii) Nu-mi dau seama ce i-am vorbit asear, dac ai priceput ceam vrut s-i spun. Eram somnoros i obosit, iar nervii nici nu-i mai pun la socoteal. M-ai scos din srite, sta-i adevrul, i atunci mi-au venit n minte acei prieteni, singurii de altfel, i, de plcerea mea, m-am plimbat cu ei, mi-am fcut damblaua. Am mai vrut s-i spun c te simi om abia dup ce-i achii datoriile de orice fel. Uite, mergem, n curnd vom ajunge n ora, dac vei vrea, te vei duce la Ursu, dei eu nu cred, m-ai fi ntrebat ceva, oricum, te privete, nu in s-i calci pe contiin: o ai, e a ta, faci cum crezi, ine-o curat, clcat, exact cum ne purta pe noi Baciu, nu m bag. Un lucru m ntrebam aa, venind cu hodorogul sta de tren: nu-i vorba sut la sut de tine, dei i se potrivete, oare n spatele vorbelor mari, preioase, n spatele contiinei tale i
39

Nadina VIAN

aa mai departe, nu se gsete cumva frica, incapacitatea de a aciona, lenea chiar? Eu zici tu mai demult, m ascundeam dup arm i dup pumni; dar tu i Melania, voi, ai ieit sau ieii n fa, la btaie, sau totui v pitii i voi? Arma nsemna putere, ea rezolva ncurcturile, v cura drumul, din hrtoape v-a fcut asfaltul Chiar dac nu omorai neaprat, dumanul i tia de fric, i avea de ce. Fr for nu vd cum te-ai putea crede stpn, nu tiu cum ai inspira respect. (Augustin Buzura, Feele tcerii) Aadar, ce s fi neles tata? Cum s-i fi explicat lui toate astea, eu, care nu eram capabil s-mi explic mai nimic, eu, care pn atunci n-am reuit s spun mcar o dat, din ntmplare, cu convingere, da sau nu? Nu voiam s-l mint, dar nici s m mint, aa c ateptam resemnat s se oboseasc ori s schimbe subiectul, dei era foarte dificil, deoarece Iuliu, pentru a se distra, l irita mereu, lansa cte o ntrebare stupid sau i aducea aminte cu mult elegan c nu i-am rspuns nc. (Augustin Buzura, Feele tcerii) Ce nedreptate cumplit: nici nu te nati bine, nici nu reueti s deschizi suficient ochii, i, iat, trebuie s mori imediat. (Augustin Buzura, Feele tcerii) Popa Mitrea mi-a povestit mai trziu c, de fric s nu tie unde sunt, nici n-a desfcut plicul i, imediat ce l-a predat, s-a dus acas i dou zile nu s-a mai trezit din beie. Lumea, uimit, o punea pe seama preotesei, a altor femei, treptat ns a nceput s se obinuiasc i cu asta, satul nu era grozav de religios, oamenii ncercai de necazuri nu se fereau de butur, ea i fcuse mai indulgeni, faptele mrunte, chiar i adulterele sau btile, nu mai intrau n sfera interesului
40

Unit two

Sentence negation

general. (Augustin Buzura, Feele tcerii) mi desprinsei privirea de pe faa btrnului, hotrt s nu-i rspund imediat, dar nu pentru c nu a fi avut ce vorbi ci din simplul motiv c ntrebrilor lui nu reuisem s le gsesc o justificare logic. (Augustin Buzura, Feele tcerii) Choose the correct answer(s): a) In Not many people came to dinner there is an instance of Activity 15* 1. Negative dislocation insertion b) Which is the correct sentence? 1. She wont be able to come back home before tomorrow. 2. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. 3. She wont be able to come back home until tomorrow. c) In She didnt have a red cent in her pocket there is an instance of : 1. Semantic negation 2. Syntactic negation 3. Emphatic negation d) Which is correct? I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. has yet arrived 2. have arrived yet 3. has not arrived yet e) In the sentence It isnt likely that he will lift a finger to help her, will he? there is an instance of 1. Negative raising (transportation) 2. Semantic negation 3. Negative attraction f) Which is correct: 1. She doesnt admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. 2. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. 3. She admires neither Susan nor Jane. g) The sentence No one has found a solution to any of these problems is an instance of: 1. Negative transportation (raising) 2. Negative incorporation 3. Negative attraction 2. Negative attraction 3. Negative

41

Nadina VIAN

Identify and comment upon the (Negative and Affirmative) Polarity Items in the text. Translate the fragments: Activity 16* a) Sympathy was the last thing she wanted. She didnt have the faintest clue as to what she would do about herself. One thing she knew: she couldnt do without Jim and, yet, she couldnt marry him, either. (Iris Murdoch The Black Prince, slightly adapted) b) But it was rather late. Charlotte was no use to anybody any more. She could hardly move and so she didnt stir. Her stillness, her lack of motion would have to do; she couldnt be more right about it. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. (ibid.) c) He felt no spring of interest in her, which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. His spirit was too tired, too troubled, not happy at all. He could not at this moment lift a finger for anybody, much less for her. (ibid.) d) I would not give in one bit. I would make not the tiniest haste nor hint at the faintest urgency nor by any slightest gesture depart from what I once was. (ibid.) e) At length, and not a little unsteadily, he made his way to the screen; there wasnt a soul around and still, his heart was beating fast. (Salman Rushdie, The Satanic Verses, slightly adapted) f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions, and gave no encouragement whatsoever to the suitors at their barred gates. (ibid.) g) He saw that she hadnt aged so much as a day since he last saw her; if anything, she looked younger than ever, which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. (ibid.)
42

Unit two

Sentence negation

h) C. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called grand passion because there was nothing else about it that was any good; there was simply no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. (ibid.) i) What did C. care if the school were willing to treat him, on any visits he cared to make, as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to Cs vanity, but his father would have none of it. The point was, the school wasnt budging; the gift was useless, and probably an administrative headache as well. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything. Home receded from the prodigal son. (ibid.)

43

Nadina VIAN

44

THREE QUESTIONS
Aim of this unit: Objectives: to offer a brief presentation of the main issues related to interrogation in English to help students understand and identify the differences between English and Romanian with respect to an important grammatical process (i.e. interrogation). To help students learn how to correctly formulate interrogative sentences in English.

45

3.1. Direct vs. Indirect Questions

Contents:
46

3.2. Quirks Classification of Direct Questions


3.2.1 Yes/No Questions 3.2.2 Wh- Questions 3.2.3 Alternative Questions

3.3. Minor Types of Questions


3.3.1 Tag Questions 3.3.2 Echo Questions

3.4. Key Terms. Optional Exercises

Unit three

Questions

3.1. Direct / Indirect Questions


Like Romanian, English makes use of two main types of questions: direct questions (Did Susan give Tom the parcel? Why havent you done your homework yet? How long are you going to sulk?) indirect questions (He asked if Susan had given Tom the parcel. Bill asked his son why he hadnt done his homework yet. Bill asked Susan how long she was going to sulk.) We shall leave the problem of indirect questions aside, for a subsequent section. This section will only deal with the opposition between direct and indirect questions, focusing on direct questions mainly. If we try to analyze the examples above, it appears that direct questions are characterized by: a) the placing of an auxiliary in front of the subject (this phenomenon is also called subject auxiliary inversion): (1) Will Jane meet the president today? (O s fac Jane cunotin cu preedintele azi?) b) the initial positioning of an interrogative or wh element (2) Who will Jane meet? (Cu cine o s se ntlneasc Jane?) (3) What is she talking about? (Ce spune acolo?) c) rising question intonation (4) Can you do it? (Poi face asta?)

47

Nadina VIAN

As is obvious from the translation of the examples under (1), (2), (3) and (4), all the features that characterize interrogation in English are to be found in Romanian as well. However Romanian learners have difficulty in formulating Present and Past questions, due to the fact that: a) Romanian does not have do-insertion Compare the following examples: (5) Do you know English? (6) tii englez? b) unlike English, Romanian can drop the subject in a sentence since the verbal ending is sufficient enough for a speaker to know what kind of person it is that performs the action (e.g. the verbal form tii has an inflection that tells us that the subject is a second-person singular one) Due to these differences, Romanian students somehow have trouble formulating correct interrogative sentences in English. Pratice Translate the following questions in English, paying attention to the characteristics of interrogative sentences mentioned above: Activity 1 Unde eti, Bill?/ Pe cine iubeti mai mult i mai mult, pe mama, sau pe tata?/ Oare a plecat spre cas sau este nc acolo?/ Cnd vai cstorit?/ Cum ai ajuns aa de repede?/ Ct a costat fusta cea nou?/ Oare de ce nu se mulumesc cu ct ctig? It can be said that the interrogative force of direct questions is provided by two of the characteristics we mentioned: the fact that the subject changes places with the auxiliary, by means of Subject Auxiliary Inversion, and the specific rising intonation a speaker attaches to the sentence he utters.
48

Unit three

Questions

Unlike direct questions, indirect ones do not make use of Subject Auxiliary Inversion, and their intonation is not rising (and this is obvious even graphically, since we do not use a question mark with indirect questions). In the case of indirect questions, the interrogative force we were speaking about has been taken over by the main verb that introduces the indirect question. Compare: (7) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (8) He asked her where she was going. (A ntrebat-o unde se duce) The fact that the meaning of indirect questions is tightly linked to the main verb that introduces them is reinforced in English by the necessity that the tense within the indirect question should correspond to the tense in the main clause ( that is, the rules of the sequence of the tenses need to be observed: in example (5), the Past Tense in the main clause matches the Past Continuous in the subordinate). It would be therefore incorrect to say something like: (9) He asked her *where she is going. because, in this case, the sequence of the tenses is violated. Likewise, it would be wrong to say (in standard English): (10)He asked her *where was she going. Since the question is not direct any more, Subject Auxiliary Inversion is not required, and the sentence would be deemed grammatically wrong.

49

Nadina VIAN

Pratice Analyse the following sentences in terms of the opposition direct/indirect questions; identify the incorrect sentences. Activity 2 What is going on? / What have you two been up to? / What you two have been up to? / I wonder what have you two been up to? / I wonder what is going on. / I wonder: what is going on? / I wonder: what have you two been up to? / I wonder what you two have been up to. / I dont know whom she fancies. / Who does she fancy? / I dont know who does she fancy. / Who is she? / I dont know who is she. / I dont know who she is. / He asked me who she is. / He asked me who she was. / He asked me: who is she? Translate the following texts in English, paying attention to indirect questions: Activity 3 a) i, ca s fie limpede despre ce-i vorba, i povestete foarte amnunit ce fel de trup are, ce culoare are pielea, cum merge ea de obicei i cum merge dac se tie privit. b) N-ar fi drept s spun ce prere are el despre dragoste i despre felul de a fi al femilor ntruct experiena lui n materie e modest. c) tii ce, spune la un moment dat femeia, am s-i dau numele i adresa mea. Am s in minte numele i adresa ta. Nu tiu ct mai putem sta de vorb. d) Brbatul spune un nume i o adres. Femeia spune cum o cheam i unde locuiete, sau mai bine zis, unde locuia nainte s fie arestat. (Tudor Octavian Zid ntre un brbat i o femeie)

50

Unit three

Questions

3.2. Quirks Classification of Direct Questions


A first possible classification of questions is related to whether these questions are long or short. Short questions tend to lose some of their content, being typical of spoken language. Compare for instance: (11)What do you want? (Ce vrei/pofteti?) to (12)What? (Ce?) or (13) Where are you going? (Unde te duci?) to (14) Where to? (ncotro?) Pratice Transform the following long sentences into short ones: Is there any trouble? / Do you like my new T.V set? / Do you Activity 4 want me to come along? / What is it that you want? / Why dont you join us? / Would you like to have dinner with me? / Have you heard from her lately? / Are there any bad news? / Is there any mail for me today? / What should I do that for? Another criterion of classification is, as Quirk shows, the type of answer the respective question requires. In this case, one can speak of three classes of questions: those questions that need a yes/no answer, those that need an elaborate answer and those that need an alternative answer. Let us provide
51

Nadina VIAN

examples and a short presentation of each of the aforementioned types of direct questions. 3.2.1. Yes / No Questions As their name suggests, yes/ no questions are those particular questions that receive a yes/ no answer. Here are a couple of examples: (15) Have you read Great Expectations? (Ai citit Marile Sperane?) (16) Did you go to the party? (Te-ai dus la petrecere?) Pratice Form questions and say which of them are Yes/No questions: 1. (you / pick up the children from school) ? Activity 5 2. ( you / lend me some money) ? 3. (which / you like best) ? 4. (who / talk to last night)? 5. (you / hear from her these days) ? 6. (what time / shops close today) ? 7. (you / keep a secret) ? 8. (when / the accident happen) ? 9. (how long / wait for me?) 10. (what / you do lately) ? Since questions qualify as non-assertive contexts, one would expect them to make use of Negative Polarity Items:
52

Unit three

Questions

(17) Did anyone call last night? (M-a cutat cineva asear?) (18) Has the boat left yet? (A plecat deja vasul?) Those yes / no questions that prefer to use Affirmative Polarity Items, instead of Negative Polarity ones, are said to be positively oriented, that is the answers to these questions are supposed to be positive: (19) Did someone call last night? (M-a cutat cineva asear?) Yes, they did. (Da). (20) Has the boat left already? (A plecat deja vasul?) Yes, it has. (Da). A sub-type of yes/ no questions is represented by the so-called declarative questions, which are so named because they are not characterized by Subject Auxiliary Inversion. The declarative question is a type of question which is identical in form to a statement, except for the final rising question intonation: (21) You realize what the RISKS are? (i dai seama de riscuri?) (22) He didnt finish the RACE? (N-a terminat cursa?) Another sub-type of yes / no questions is supplied by negative questions: (23) Didnt you know she was my Mum? (Nu tiai c e mama mea?)
53

Nadina VIAN

(24) Cant you be more patient? (Nu poi s ai i tu mai mult rbdare?) (25) Wont you tell me who you went out with? (Nu-mi spui i mie cu cine te-ai ntlnit?) Pratice In the following dialogues, make negative questions using the words given and decide if the expected response would be Yes or Activity 6 No, as in the example: 1. A: Youre still in your pyjamas. Arent you supposed to be getting ready? (supposed to / get ready) B: No. Ive still got plenty of time. 2. A: Your mother is shouting for you. ? (hear her) B: . , but I want to play basketball a little longer. 3. A: Youve been learning German for years. .. . (speak yet) B: ., but Im too shy to try in front of strangers. 4. A: What a lovely hairdo! . (tell me who does it for you) B: .., because you always copy everything I do! 5. A: Why arent you coming to the party? (feel like getting out) B: , but Ive got to babysit tonight. 6. A: You look down. ? (enjoy the film) B: . It was the kind of film that really depresses me. 7. A: She had her tenants evicted. ..? (a mean thing to do)
54

Unit three

Questions

B: .. . Shes got a reputation for being heartless. 8. A: That was a rather tactless thing to say. (realise she was Anns sister?) B: .. . You could have mentioned it earlier. 9. A: There was a terrible car crash. .? (see it on the news) B: . I didnt get home until late last night. 10. A: Its past your bedtime. ? (be in bed by now) B: .. . Im allowed to stay up late at the weekend. 3.2.2 Wh questions Wh- questions are formed with the aid of one of the following simple interrogative words: Who/ whom/ whose, what , which When, where, how, why The wh-phrase appears in sentence-initial position and Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place: (26) a. On what did you base your prediction? (formal) b. What did you base your prediction on? (informal) (Pe ce i bazezi pronosticul?)

55

Nadina VIAN

Pratice Ask questions where the word/phrase in bold is the answer: Pete works for British Telecom./ Sara owns two cars. / Shes tall Activity 7 and fair. / Its nearly seven oclock./ I have French lessons twice a week. / I went to Hawaii on holiday. / There are six students in my class. / I wasnt at work today because I was ill. / Davids car was stolen. / Shakespeare wrote King Lear./ Weve lived here for ten years. / My new car cost 10,000dollars. / Kays gone out shopping. / Shirley got married to Ben. / Thats my pen. / She lives in the suburbs./ She dropped her glasses. Write questions in which the bold type words are the answers: So I was glad for the company of Rosalie. As more old buildings Activity 8 are demolished I must constantly shift about the city, trying to find places where I resided in life, places where a shred of my soul remains to anchor me. There are still overgrown bayou islands and remote Mississippi coves I visit often, but to give up the drunken carnival of New Orleans, to forsake human companionship (witting or otherwise) would be to fully accept my death. Nearly two hundred years, I cannot do that. (Poppy Z. Brite Short Stories) Note that there is a group of informal intensificatory wh words (who ever, what ever, why ever, etc) that convey to the question an emphatic meaning: (27) What ever did you do that for? (De ce oi fi fcut tu asta?) (28) Why ever didnt he tell me? (De ce oare nu mi-o fi spus?) There are, of course, other forms of intensification available: (29) Who on earth did this?
56

Unit three

Questions

(Cine o fi fcut una ca asta?) (30) Who the hell does he think he is? (impolite) (Cine naiba se crede?) (31) Why in heavens name did you say that? (impolite) (Pentru numele lui Dumnezeu, de ce ai spus aa ceva?) Pratice What is the syntactic function of the wh phrase in the following examples? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? / Which toys did they buy? / Whose card is this? / How large did he build his boat? / When do you meet Susan? / How long did that last? / Where shall I put these? / Why are you doing this?/ How did you solve the problem? / What job does he have?/ Who did he turn to be? There are certain cases where there are two wh phrases present in the question: (32) Susan has hidden something somewhere. What has she hidden where? (Ce a ascuns i unde l-a pus?) Where has she hidden what? (Unde i ce a ascuns?) 3.2.3. Alternative questions Alternative questions are those questions that receive an alternative answer: (33) A: Would you like to smoke a cigarette or a pipe? B: A cigarette. (A: Fumezi o igar sau o pip? B: O igar.)
57

Nadina VIAN

Any positive yes/no question can be converted into an alternative one by adding the phrase or not, or a matching negative clause: (34) Yes / no question: Are you coming? Vii? (35) Alternative question: Are you coming or not? (Vii sau nu?) Are you coming or arent you? (Vii sau nu vii?) Pratice Find the word which should not be in the sentence: 1. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? Activity 10 2. How far is it the cinema? 3. He used to work in a bank, didnt use he? 4. Didnt they not go to the concert last night? 5. Would you like have a piece of cake? 6. Lets stay for another few days, shall we stay? 7. How long is she be spending in America? 8. Could you mind come a bit earlier tomorrow? 9. How far is it the cinema? 10. He used to work in a bank, didnt use he? 11. Didnt they not go to the concert last night? 12. Would you like have a piece of cake? 13. Lets stay for another few days, shall we stay? 14. How long is she be spending in America? 15. What Anne does she plan to do in the summer? 16. There was a fax for you this morning, wasnt it there? 17. Who did left the gate open? 18. You cant be serious, can you be?
58

Unit three

Questions

19. Would you mind to photocopying this letter for me? 20. Dont forget to take some spare socks, will you not? 21. That was Jeremys brother, wasnt it he? 22. John goes jogging every morning, doesnt he go? 23. Would you mind to picking some things up at the supermarket? 24. Thats your car, isnt it this? 25. How long have you be lived in London? 26. Dont forget to ring the dentist, will you not? 27. How long time does it take to get there? 28. Would you to like a cup of coffee? 29. Didnt you not see him yesterday? 30. Who did told you about the problem? 31. Whose it is this book? 32. What did he say it about the assignment? Translate the following, paying attention to the different types of questions: Activity 11 A. Ani ntregi, uneori disperat, n-am fcut altceva dect m-am strduit s ngrop urmele de durere n mine, am ncercat smi repar deformaiile, s-mi nfrng frica, nelinitea infantil. Toate vechi, deci, acum ns parc m-am pierdut; particip la povestea asta cu sentimentele i nu cu raiunea. Pot reveni, deci, oricnd la vechile triri? Sau vreau doar s strng documente despre un univers tulbure, plin de germeni viruleni, despre o lume dur, necrutoare? Cui i-ar folosi ele? Cei ce vin au n spate zeci de secole de istorie, la fel ca i cei ce se duc, ca i cei ce au fost, dar cum nici lor nu le-a folosit experiena altora la nimic, nu vd cui i-ar folosi documentele mele? i cine-i judectorul, dac prin absurd
59

Nadina VIAN

exist? ntotdeauna vor exista stadii evolutie, iar protii, inactivii, laii, mediocritile vor fi majoritari si vor avea grij s condamne la anulare orice idee nou, strin priceperii lor, vor amna-o n cel mai fericit caz. Atunci? Smi argumentez ideea c oamenii se afl in preziua unui nou salt evolutiv? Dar i fr nite biografii n plus am aceast certitudine. Trebuie s se ntmple ceva () Poate m aflu n stadiul definitivrii unui drum propriu i, naiv, visez c odat cu mine se va schimba i lumea. Drumdar ce drum? Am multe anse pentru a m schimba, a ncepe ntr-un fel viaa de la capt, indiferent de risc. Riscul? Ratarea, pe care oricum am simit-o, i tiu gustul. B. Nu-mi amintesc din ntreaga poveste dect un singur lucru: stteam n cancelarie n faa mesei directorului i pe fa mi se proiecta lumina unei uriae lmpi de bioru: Unde ai fost? Ce-ai fcut pn la 12 noaptea?Cu cine ai avut ntlnire? Recunoate, c altfel i spunem noi! Nu-l vedeam din cauza luminii care m orbea, ghiceam doar unde se afl. Spune! striga el. Uit-te la mine dac ai curaj. Cu cine ai avut ntlnire? Lumina m ameea, simeam c nu m voi putea mica din cauza tranpiraiei. Ai fost n parc noaptea. Cu cine ai avut ntlnire, ce legturi ai? n ce scop? C. M obsedeaz mereu ansa pe care generos mi-am acordat-o atunci, dar i drumul, lung, negru, pe sub bolile din care, nentrerupt, picur apa roietic, murdar, obolanii trecnd indoleni prin faa mea i curenii de aer cald, umed, puturos. i, de atunci, n afar de faptul c mi-am acordat mereu cte o ans, m ntreb, contaminat desigur i de cinismul inteligentului meu unchi: La ci zei te poi opune ntr-o
60

Unit three

Questions

via, domnule profesor, cnd armele tale sunt rudimentare i trupele decimate? i Carol, nu se poate, exclus, absolut exclus s nu fi simit n secunda aceea uria atrnat deasupra lui, golul alb, orbitor, care i-a determinat alegerea, viaa? Oare e drept, e cinstit s-i obosesc degeaba, cnd nu-i pot face nici un bine, cnd n-am cum s-l ajut? i, la urma urmei, chiar cnd prin absurd a putea, ar avea rost s le fac dreptate? La ce le-ar folosi, cnd aceast cutare ncpnat a dreptii i mai ine n via? (Augustin Buzura Feele tcerii)

3.3. Minor Types of Questions


There are two minor types of questions we would like to mention in the following subsections: tag questions and echo questions. 3.3.1. Tag Questions Tag questions, or disjunctive questions are mostly typical of spoken English. They can be attached to: an imperative Deschide ua, da? (37) Lets go there, shall we? (Hai s mergem acolo, da?) but the most frequent kind of tag questions are the ones attached to: declarative sentences (S-a dus la Praga, nu-i aa?)
61

(36) Open the door, will you?

(38) She went to Prague, didnt she?

Nadina VIAN

We shall deal with the latter type in more detail. Depending on whether they match the polarity of the main sentence or not, tag questions can be: constant polarity tags Constant polarity tags have the same polarity as the host sentence (i.e. if the host or main sentence is affirmative, the tag is affirmative too; if the host sentence is negative, the tag is negative too). The suggestion is that in this case, the speaker using the tag disagrees with what the main sentence states. In this way, constant polarity tags can be a means of expressing irony, sarcasm; this is why constant polarity tags have also been called reactive tags, or comment tags, since they reveal the speakers reaction to the situation he comments upon: (39) John: And Sue hasnt graduated yet. (i Sue nu i-a dat nc licena) Harry: She hasnt graduated yet, hasnt she? (Aha, deci nu i-a dat licena, hm?) (40) A: Wheres the rest of the money? (Unde e restul de bani?) B: Im afraid its all spent. (Din pcate, au fost cheltuii.) A: Oh, its all spent, is it? (Deci, au fost cheltuii, hm?) reversed polarity tags Reversed polarity tags are those tags that are negative when the host sentence is affirmative and vice versa. Depending on whether the intonation of the respective tag is rising, or falling, reversed polarity tags can be split in their turn into two categories: with a rising intonation, the speaker is not sure about what he says and he expects an answer: (41) Theyre moving, arent they?
62

Unit three

Questions

(Se mut, nu?) with a falling intonation, the speaker is sure about what he says and doesnt really expect an answer: (42) He caused the accident, didnt he? (El e cel care a cauzat accidentul, nu?) Pratice Fill in the appropriate question tag: You have got enough money. / Surely you have enough money. / Activity 12 He will be on time. / There is enough food for everyone. / She used to talk a lot. / Everyone felt happy about it. / I am dressed smartly enough. / Thats your car over there. / You will pick me up, after all. / You will pick me up at 7. / Lets eat dinner now. / Dont leave without me. / Be a nice girl and bring me that stick. / You have been invited. / There are a lot of cars on that street. / She left an hour ago. / He hates his wife. / He simply hates empty words. / That was your father. / Tell me,/ Let me know, / Ann cant speak French. / She has a brother. / I am older than you. / I must go now. / I may not see you tomorrow. / I may see you tomorrow. / You ought not to smoke. / The boy never watched his sister. / The boy often watched his sister. / He hasnt any money in his pockets. / He had his tooth filled two weeks ago. / He has to marry Susan. / There are sure to be two books in that drawer. / There happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room. / Few people like her. / A few people like her. / Each of us is staying. / I dont think you like my music. / I think you dont like my music. / I think you like my music. / They said he liked music.

63

Nadina VIAN

Discuss the differences in meaning or emphasis (if any) between the sentences: Activity 13 1. He used to play squash, didnt he?/ He used to play squash, did he? / Didnt he use to play squash? / Did he use to play squash? 2. Isnt this a great party? / This is a great party! / This is a great party, isnt it? / Is this a great party, or what? 3. Didnt she do well in her exam! / She did very well in her exam. / How did she do in her exam?/ Didn t she do well in her exam? / Did she do well in her exam? 4. Isnt it strange that everyone thinks they are experts on education? / Its strange that everyone thinks that they are experts on education. 5. So you enjoyed my talk, did you? / So you didnt enjoy my talk? / So didnt you enjoy my talk? / So did you enjoy my talk? Add question tags to these sentences; then rewrite 1 to 4 as negative questions: Activity 14 Wed better stop work soon./ Im right about this. / Youd rather stay in bed than get up early / Anyone can apply for the scholarship / If we dont get a move on, there wont be much time left / Lets have a rest / Nobody anticipated what would happen / Do try to relax. / He never used to study so hard.. / They ought to work much harder a) Rewrite each sentence so that its meaning remains unchanged, using a question tag at the end. The passive is required in each Activity 15 one. b) Then rewrite each of your newly formed passive sentences as negative questions:
64

Unit three

Questions

Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time. / New uses One day robots and computers will do all our work for us. / All our work I dont think that computers could be installed in every classroom. / Computers No one has yet invented a robot teacher. / No robot teacher The government should pay teachers on results. / Teachers Students parents often support them. / Students Student loans might replace grants. / Grants 3.3.2. Echo Questions Quirk discusses two categories of echo questions: 2.3.2.1. Recapitulatory echo questions - questions which repeat part or all of the message, as a way of having its content confirmed In their turn, recapitulatory echo questions can be further split into: a) general echo questions characterized by the fact that they have the same order as declarative questions (see 2.2.1.) but a rising intonation (instead of a falling one, as is the case with declarative questions): (43) A: I didnt like that meat. (Nu mi-a plcut friptura aia.) B: You didnt like it? ( Nu i-a plcut?) (44) A: My husband speaks Chinese. (Soul meu tie chinez.) B: Chinese?
65

Nadina VIAN

(Chinez?) b) special echo questions the wh- word can be placed in sentence initial position or not. If the wh- phrase is fronted, Subject Auxiliary Inversion takes place, accompanied by rising intonation: (45) A:I saw Bill yesterday. (Ieri l-am vzut pe Bill.) B: You saw WHOM yesterday? (Pe cine ai vzut ieri?!) (46) A: Switch that light off. (nchide lumina aia.) B: Switch WHAT off? (Ce s nchid?!) (47) A:We went to Amsterdam. (Ne-am dus la Amsterdam.) B: WHERE did you go? (Unde ai fost?!) (48) A: He is an astronaut. (E astronaut) B: WHAT is he? (Ce e?!) Such sentences often express surprise, consternation, disbelief, misunderstanding: (49) A:My husband eats bugs. (Soul meu mnnc insecte.) B: He eats WHAT? (Ce mnnc_?!) 2.3.2.2. Explicatory Echo Questions ask for the clarification, rather than the repetition, of something just said. The difference between recapitulatory
66

Unit three

Questions

and explicatory echo questions lies in the type of intonation they possess: as we have seen, with recapitulatory echo questions, intonation is rising, whereas with explicatory echo questions, intonation is falling: (50) A: Take a look at this. (Uit-te la asta.) B: Take a look at WHAT? (La ce s m uit?) (51) A: Oh, dear, Ive lost the letter. (Vai, am pierdut scrisoarea.) B: WHICH letter have you lost? mean, rather than did you say, you have lost?) (Ce scrisoare ai pierdut?) Pratice Formulate echo questions in relation to the underlined word and comment on their meaning: Activity 16 My sister dyed herself green. / I think Ive found a solution. / I think Ive found a hair in my soup./ We are looking for a purse. / We are looking for a pixie. / He is interested in music./ He is interested in blue movies. (i.e. which letter do you

67

Nadina VIAN

3.4. Instead of Conclusions


ANEXA
indirect (I asked her when she would come.) yes/ no (Do you know the story?) questions major wh (Where is the book?)

direct minor

alternative (Do you want the steak or the omelette?)

constant polarity tags (So, she knows about it, does she?) tag reversed polaritz tags with rising intonation (They are moving, arent they? ) Speaker = certain with falling intonation (Th i t th ? ) S general (I actually enjoyed the concert. recapitulatory echo Y did?) k t i

special (surprise) (I enjoyed the concert. Y j d WHAT? )

explicatory (Take a look at this book. Take a look at WHAT? )

68

Unit three

Questions

Pratice Translate the following: 1.Nu tiam unde m duce, dar mi ddeam seama c avea o int: Activity 17* dup ce tcuse atta timp asupra a ceea ce a fi vrut s aflu, acuma sporoviala. ntre ce ani fusese student? Terminase oare facultatea? Cum ajunsese caseri, aa, n general, i la Oraca ndeosebi? Cine erau prinii ei? Fusese mritat? (nu, nu purta verighet, dar) Care fusese anturajul ei n acei ani cnd eu i Ion Micu frecventasem braseria? Venise i ea acolo des? Cu cine? i n ce sens era geloas pe noi doi? mi reteza, ca s zic aa, din fa dorina de a-i pune aceste ntrebri i o fcea cu o capacitate de a vorbi i a nu spune nimic enorm prin cumul de cuvinte, care ascundeau un humor secret Ce? parc spunea, nu e amuzant c nu e amuzant ceea ce povestesc? Ei, da, era! (Marin Preda Cel mai iubit dintre pmnteni) 2. Crezi tu, cumnat Fenia, c iepuoara asta de Vica, care e fata lui Andrei Mortu, i care s-a aciuat, stricata, n satul nostru, crezi tu c nu e ea n legtur cu houl de Andrei, cu ta-su? Ferete-l, Fenio, pe Condrat de Vica, numai la oameni buni le-a sucit capul cu dragostea ei pctoas: lui Petre Litr, lui Stavre Pici, lui Chizlinski, lui Luca Horobe, oameni aezai, cu o cas de copii. Are gust de oameni blnzi, erpoaica, s se ncolceasc mai bine, dup pofte. Degeaba crezi c a luat-o Condrat n ceata lui la pescuit, ast-toamn? Ferete-l Fenio, avei i aa numai necazuri, i apoi Vica ce zice, acum pun mai bine mna pe Condrat, c tot trebuie s plece pe front. () i de la Bogdaproste, unde crezi c a rsrit Vica? La Babadag! Ora mare, cu cale ferat i cu geamie. i cum crezi c-a rsrit
69

Nadina VIAN

Vica-n Babadag? n stamb nflorat, rou i galben, pn la clcie, i n cap cu piepteni albatri. n picioare i-ai gsit s mai umble cu tlpile goale! umbla-n sandale de catifea alb cu catarmi rotunde. i cui crezi c i-a sucit capul n Babadag? Lui Hogea, popa al ttarilor i al turcilor. L-a scos din geamie. Hogea, tinerel de aptezeci i opt de ani, curat ca pereii de Pati. Oamenii de la Babadag oameni subiri, de ora s-au fcut n-aude n-a vede de obrazul Hogii. (tefan Bnulescu Iarna brbailor) 3. De asta erai, deci, att de sigur pe tine? De asta ai lsat s treac sesiunea de var i ai continuat s-i vezi de munca aia simpl i grea din care mai ales ea nu vedea ce plcere poi obine? i o lsai s vin la tine o dat la dou sptmni? i ea credea c ai i renunat la facultate. Cum putea cineva s fie aa de sigur pe un examen de admitere n sesiunea din toamn, cnd ea fcea pe ea i la un biet colocviu pe an? i de asta rdeai cu superioritate acolo, sus, pe tren i-l ndemnai s vorbeasc pe tipul care s-ar fi ntors totui la C i ar fi cutat-o din nou pe Hertha, sau cum o chema, i i-ar fi spart la orice falca lu domnu Grasu, pe care l njurai i tu cu plcere, dei nici nu-l cunoteai? Pe urm i-a mai venit i o alt idee. Ai zis: dar Grasu sta n-are i el vreo fat?! i i-ai vzut deodat transfigurai. (Mircea Nedelciu Proz scurt) 4. Nu mai are chef s fac nimic pn disear. Chiar i pn la geam se duce fr chef, abia trndu-i picioarele. Pentru c ce o s vezi i acolo? Chiocul cu iedera, scaunele de rchit de sub nuc Aaaa! Cum de nu este Sophie la mansard s ngrijeasc glcile lui Grigore? Cum de a aprut aici? Ai putea crede c a ieit s-i controleze straturile de trandafiri, dar cum se face c a
70

Unit three

Questions

ales tocmai ora aceasta fierbinte? i ce exagerare s te mbraci aa! Ce voit epatant inut de grdin: cu plria de pai veche i fusta puin suflecat! Nu cumva are i saboi n picioare? Ai putea crede c a ieit s ude florile, dar de ce s uzi florile pe zpueal? i un ageamiu tie c nu se face! C i-a pierdut capul, se vede prea bine, furtunul curge n netire i a inundat aleile, niciodat n-a fcut grdinarul o asemenea mocirl! Dar oare cnd o fi avut vreme s fi cobort Sophie de la mansard? i pe unde? Pe scara de serviciu? i oare cum de a ajuns plria de panama pn n mijlocul grdinii? (Gabriela Adameteanu Diminea pierdut)

71

72

FOUR COORDINATION
Aim of this unit: Objectives: to define coordination in English, to offer a description of the various instances of coordination to offer students a guide on how to correctly formulate coordinated sentences in English

73

Contents:
74

4.1.Syndetic and Asyndetic Coordination 4.2.Coordination and Subordination 4.3.Sentence and Phrase Coordination 4.4.Coordinating Conjunctions 4.5.Verb Agreement with Compound Sentences 4.6.Key Concepts

Unit four

Coordination

4.1 Syndetic vs. Asyndetic Coordination


Before we proceed to discuss the notion of coordination, some comment is in order: the term coordination is going to be used mainly in relation to what some grammarians call syndetic coordination, i.e. that type of structure where there are explicit indicators that there are two more elements linked by coordination. This type is placed in opposition to asyndetic coordination, where there is no indication other than a comma, that elements are coordinated. Consider example (1) He looked at them sadly and reproachfully. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete si repros.) which is an instance of syndetic coordination. Example (2), on the other hand, is an illustration of the asyndetic type: (2) He looked at them sadly, reproachfully. (S-a uitat la ei cu tristete, cu repros.) Example (1) exhibits coordination by means of and, which is a coordinating conjunction or a coordinator. The terms linked by the coordinator are called conjuncts. We will use the term coordination in reference to the first type mentioned above, where a coordinator is overtly expressed (i.e. present) in the sentence.

75

Nadina VIAN

4.2 Coordination & Subordination


By definition, coordination (or conjoining) is a syntactic operation that puts together constituents of the same rank. Conversely, subordination (or Embedding) is a syntactic operation that involves rank-shifting, namely one constituent is subordinated to a higher-rank constituent. Consider the following examples where one can look at the same situation expressed differently from a syntactic point of view: (3) Hit my wife and youll die. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si vei muri.) (4) If you hit my wife, you will die. (Daca o lovesti pe sotia mea, vei muri.) Such examples, that have a lot in common from a semantic point of view, led grammarians to believe that coordination is the basic structure wherefrom subordination originated. Example (3) is an instance of coordination where constituents of the same rank are linked by means of the coordinating conjunction and. In example (4) one can notice a more complex structure, where the subordinating conjunction if plays a major part. We will come back to example (3) in a subsequent subsection. From the previously mentioned examples, we can already make at least two important remarks: a) that from a formal point of view, coordination differs from subordination in that it is realized by means of coordinating conjunctions.
76

Unit four

Coordination

b) that there might be important semantic similarities related to examples exhibiting coordinated, respectively subordinated constituents. However, we need to specify that, from a logical & semantic point of view, a major difference between coordination and subordination is that the information in subordinate clauses is not asserted, but presupposed. Compare: (5) John came back and gave her a piece of his mind. (John s-a intors si i-a spus vreo doua.) (6) John gave her a piece of his mind after he came back. (John i-a zis vreo doua dupa ce s-a intors.) Unlike in the case of (5) where we are dealing with assertion, the subordinate adverbial clause of time contains a presupposition: We presuppose that the event of Johns coming back happened. c) from a pragmatic point of view it is to be remarked that example (3) will be found more frequently in instances of dialogue and spoken language as it is obviously characterized by a rather informal tone. Pratice Coordination and style The following two passages are straightforward descriptive Activity 1 paragraphs taken from narrative works. The first is a vivid description of a sequence of actions; the second, a static description of a small town in nineteenth-century Ireland. The student will notice the almost complete absence of subordinate
77

Nadina VIAN

clauses from both passages. In the first, this adds to the graphic effect of the movement in the passage. In the second, the comparative looseness of the sentence construction is admirably suited to the evocative informality of description. Passage 1: The black cloud had crossed the sky, a blob of dark against the stars: The night was quiet again, Tom stopped into the water and felt the bottom drop from under his feet. He threshed the two strokes across the ditch and pulled himself heavily up the other bank. His clothes hung to him. He moved and made a slopping noise; his shoes squished. Then he sat down, took off his shoes and emptied them. He wrung the bottom of his trousers, took off his coat and emptied them. He wrung the bottoms of his trousers, took off his coat and squeezed the water from it. John Steinbeck, The Grapes of Wrath Reconstruct the paragraph, combining as many of the simple sentences as you feel reasonable into compound sentences with subordinate clauses. How does the effect of your passage differ from Steinbecks? Passage 2: Castlebar had preserved the appearance of a feudal town. Though the castle had vanished, on its site fortifications still frowned above steep and narrow streets, the houses were beautiful and ancient, built, with enormous solidity, of cut gray stone, adorned with cornices, stone-wreathed windows and carved doorways. In the late eighteenth century a Mall had been added to the town, with formal walks under rows of trees, but the
78

Unit four

Coordination

streets tailed off abruptly into mud cabins, curlews wheeled and cried in the centre of the town, and the walkers in the Mall had bare feet. Cecil Woocham Smith, The Reason Why Compare the previous two passages with the following in point of complexity of structure and formality of tone. Note that the more intricate construction of the third passage is correlated by the author to the difficult journey the character in the passage has to make: Passage 3: The Canon dressed and, waving the remonstrances of his housekeeper aside, left the house. Before him was a climb that would take at least three hours, over some of the roughest ground in the country. He walked up to the top of the village street and struck off up a boreen that went for a bit and then petered out as if discouraged. After that he had to make do with the narrow rocky footpath when he could see it or stumble a while over the tangled scrub and sharp stones till he found it again. The unwonted exercise made his heart pound and his head swim, and his clothes stuck damply to him: darkness fell before he was half-way up and although he had a torch the way in front was so strange and featureless he thought he should never arrive at his goal. His feet pained him from continually stubbing against the bits of rock: in spite of the long dry spell the mountain was soaking, and as the way is with Irish mountains, the higher he went the wetter it grew, until he found the water gurgling about his ankles and seeping over the top of his boots; and more than once he missed his footing and measured his length on the
79

Nadina VIAN

prickly ground. Honor Tracy The Straight and Narrow Path

4.3 Sentence vs. Phrase Coordination


Compare the following sentences: (7) I saw him yesterday and I had seen him the day before yesterday. (L-am vazut ieri si l-am vazut si alaltaieri.) (8) I saw him yesterday and the day before yesterday. (L-am vazut ieri si alaltaieri.) Example (7) is an instance of sentence coordination, the result of which is a COMPOUND SENTENCE. A compound sentence is to be placed in opposition to a COMPLEX SENTENCE, where there is a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses, as shown in (9). (9) If the authors and publishers of Dick Deadshot and such remarkable works were suddenly to make a raid on the educated class, were to take down the name of every man, however distinguished, who was caught at a University Extension lecture, were to confiscate all our novels and warn us to correct all our lives, we should be seriously annoyed. (G.K. Chesterton A Defence of Penny Dreadfuls ) Example (8) exhibits an instance of Phrasal Coordination, where we are dealing with a compound constituent, yesterday and the day before yesterday. As one can easily notice, this constituent can be considered to be the result of compressing the longer and much less economical compound sentence from
80

Unit four

Coordination

example (7). This phenomenon of compression and reduction is called ellipsis. Pratice Distinguish coordination; Activity 2 sentences: 1.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. 2. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. 3. Jane might sing but I dont think she will. 4. John is ready and Mary is ready. 5. John and Mary are ready. 6 John sang and Mary danced. 7. John and Mary are the newly married couple. 8. Her pet kitten is black and white. 9. Our flag is red, yellow and blue. 10. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. Read the following examples and state whether they have undergone ellipsis or not: Activity 3 My colleague failed, and I passed, our respective examinations. / Peter and John played football. / Bob and George are admired by their students. / Peter, but not John, plays football. / Joan plays many games, and even tennis. / John both composed the music and wrote the words. Ellipsis can be of two types: a) the so called forward ellipsis, when it operates on the second conjunct in the structure: (10) a. John writes poetry and Bill writes prose. (John scrie poezii si Bill scrie proza.)
81

between argue

sentence that both

coordination are basic,

and but

phrasal phrasal

coordination may also result from reduction of coordinated

Nadina VIAN

b. John writes poetry and Bill prose. (John scrie poezii si Bill proza.) In (10a) the second conjunct has been wiped out, or deleted, as can be seen in (10b). A deletion of the first conjunct would have been impossible in this case: (10) c. *John poetry and Bill writes prose.

b) backward ellipsis when it operates on the first conjunct in the structure: (11) a. John loves cigars and Bill hates cigars. (Lui John ii plac trabucurile iar Bill le uraste.) b. John loves and Bill hates cigars. (Lui John ii plac iar Bill uraste trabucurile.) c. * John loves cigars and Bill hates. Example (11b) predicts the correct deletion of the first conjunct, whereas (11c) shows the ungrammaticality of a deletion of the first conjunct in this case. Pratice Rewrite the following sentences by using ellipsis: 1. The message was ambiguous and was difficult to comprehend. Activity 4 2. A burglar must have broken in and he must have stolen the jewels. 3. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and why did you give a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. Bob may have been listening to music and he may have been humming the tune. 5. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John seems to be trying to get hard to get along with Susan. 6. Jane
82

Unit four

Coordination

forced John to shave himself and Susan forced John to wash himself. 7. Father begged Susan to get married and mother begged Jane to get married. 8. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his girlfriend. 9. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were flying. 10. We can demand payment and we will demand payment. Besides ellipsis, substitution is another reduction operation that can be applied to compound sentences. Consider the following: (12) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I bought a pair of shoes. (Am fost sfatuit sa cumpar o pereche de pantofi si am cumparat o pereche de pantofi.) The common element, i.e. the predication buy a pair of shoes, can be reduced by substitution, as can be seen in (13) I was advised to buy a pair of shoes and I did so/it. (Am fost sfatuit sa imi cumpar o pereche de pantofi si asta am si facut.) These two reduction methods can operate within compound sentences due to the fact that sometimes it is more economical to use a reduced structure, than a longer repetitive one. So, these syntactical processes, having to do with a change performed in the structure of a sentence, are in fact motivated by a pragmatic principle, the so-called Principle of Economy, that favours concision and efficiency in the use of language.

83

Nadina VIAN

Pratice Match the following two columns so as to obtain correct elliptical phrases: Activity 5 this book her son your work her idea that method your proposal many guests much satisfaction and Johns and his and the other and those and others or little or few and mine

Note that the following idioms are built on the same principle as the phrases above: one way or another, some reason or another, one or (the) other method. In certain cases, ellipsis may be a fruitful source of ambiguity, since one may interpret the compound noun phrase or sentence in Activity 6 question as having undergone ellipsis or not. Consider the following phrases and find as many possible interpretations for them as you can: 1. the old men and women 2. simple books and magazines for children 3. George and Jane are separated. 4. George and Jane went back to their parents. Translate the following sentences, using reduced structures: 1. S-a rastit la el si l-a palmuit. 2. Prefer propozitiile de mai jos Activity 7 ori de pe pagina urmatoare. 3. A citit, interpretat si tradus opera contemporanului sau. 4. Ii plac si are grija de toate pisicile

84

Unit four

Coordination

vagaboande de langa bloc. 5. Intotdeauna am luptat si voi lupta pentru progres. 6. Daca si cand se hotaraste sa plece in Noua Zeelanda este o problema mai veche. 7. Psiholingvistica si sociolingvistica sunt materii importante. 8. I-a invitat de ziua lui pe gineri si pe nurori. Some idiomatic phrases are in fact compound phrases, like: salt and pepper, fish and chips, sweet and sour, Marks and Spencers. Activity 8 Fill the gaps in these sentences with suitable expressions from the list below: 1.I searched .. for my wallet. 2. Can we discuss the .. of your proposals later on? 3. Can you show me the to support your argument? 4. Shes a wonderful storyteller: always the of the party. 5. They get on quite well together, even though they have their little .. 6.You gain some things and you lose others; its a case of 7. The police are responsible for maintaining . 8. Ive tidied up my room and now its 9. It was whether the rescuers would get there in time. 10 Theyve shared a lot of experiences: theyve been through together. 11. You cant claim on insurance for , only for damage. 12. I need another 100$ .. the amount Ive already saved up. 13. Nuclear physicists who are also best-selling writers are .. 14. A pendulum swings .. 15. He makes a little money out of writing but teaching is his . . 16. After all their adventures, they reached home. bread and butter / facts and figures / few and far between / high and low / law and order / life and soul / over and above / pros
85

Nadina VIAN

and cons / safe and sound / spick and span/ swings and roundabouts / thick and thin / to and fro / touch and go / ups and downs / wear and tear.

4.4. Coordinating Conjunctions


We can distinguish between three classes of coordinators: a) Copulative: and / both and /at once and / neither nor / as well as / no less than / not only but also, etc. We should also mention here rarer copulative coordinators, such as: alike and / nor nor / nor or : (14) (15) (16) His job is at once judicial and political She went to sleep alike thankless and remorseless. Nor sun, nor wind will strike to kiss thee. (Slujba lui este si juridica si politica.) (A plecat la culcare si nerecunoscatoare si lipsita de remuscari.) (Nici soare si nici vint nu te-or atinge cu vreun sarut.) There are, of course, semantic restrictions on the types of clauses that can be coordinated. For instance, one cannot couple two sentences with completely different semantic content, as in: (17) a. *Lions are mammals and Tom bought a car. b. *I hate plumbers and you learn syntax. In fact, the expressive function of coordination is, more often than not, to emphasize (semantic) parallelism or contrast, which is the case with b) adversative coordinators: but, and
86

Unit four

Coordination

(18)

I gave her the money but I didnt feel happy about it.

(I-am dat banii, dar nu am fost multumit de asta.) c) disjunctive coordinators: or, either or (19) She can either have the money or she can have the clothes. (Poate primi ori banii ori hainele.) Some of the aforementioned coordinating conjunctions have correlatives (either or, both and , etc); some of them allow ellipsis of the subject (and, or ; sometimes but, too): (20) a. I may see you tomorrow or (I) may phone later in the day. (S-ar putea sa te vad miine sau sa iti telefonez mai incolo.) b. He went to the safe and (he) took out the money. (S-a dus la seif si a scos banii.) c. I gave her the money but (I) didnt feel happy about it. (I-am dat banii dar nu mi-a convenit de loc.) In certain cases, the ellipsis of the subject is even required (see e.g. 20 (b)). If the coordinating conjunction links two subordinate clauses, where the subordinator is repeated, ellipsis of the subject is no longer accepted: (21)* I didnt object to his proposal since it was very apropiate and since apealed to me. Another property some of the coordinators above share is the fact that they can link more than two clauses: (22) They both liked Susan and respected her, and cherished her. (Ei o placeau pe Susan, o respectau si o indrageau.)

87

Nadina VIAN

An important property shared by coordinating conjunctions has to do with the fact that sometimes, these coordinators can impose a subordinating shade of meaning upon the conjunctions, like in the example we discussed at the beginning of this section: (3) Hit my wife, and youll die. (O lovesti pe sotia mea si ai sa mori.) In example three one can read a conditional meaning behind the lines. In this case, if we were to rewrite the example , we could not say something like: (23) *Youll die, and hit my wife.

Whenever the coordinating conjunction adds a subordinating tinge of meaning to the conjuncts, the order of these conjuncts is fixed. From this point of view, one can differentiate between a) a symmetric use of coordinators where the order of the conjuncts is reversible: (24) a. I like and admire her. (Imi place si o admir.) b. I admire and like her. (O admir si imi place.) b) an asymmetric use of coordinators where the order of the conjuncts is irreversible: (25) a. I washed and ironed my pants. (Mi-am spalat si calcat pantalonii.) b.* I ironed and washed my pants. Lets cast a swift glance at the asymmetric uses some conjunctions may have:
88

Unit four

Coordination

1. assymetric AND can impose different shades of subordinative meaning within the compound sentence: chronological sequence (temporal implications) He sliced and fried the potatoes. (First he sliced them and then he fried them) (A taiat cartofii si i-a prajit.) cause-effect relation He heard an explosion and (therefore) phoned the police. He didnt pay the rent and he was evicted from their apartment. (A auzit o explozie si a sunat la politie.) (28) (<Because he didnt pay, he was evicted) (N-a platit chiria si a fost dat afara din apartament.) if-then relation (supported by proper intonation) Give me the money and youll walk away safely. (If you do that, you will be safe) (Da-mi banii si poti pleca nevatamat.) concessive meaning (plus suitable intonation) John worked hard for the exam and he failed (Although he worked hard, he failed). (John a muncit din greu pentru examen si l-a picat.) while/whereas interpretation Dr. Smith experiments with guinea pigs and Dr. Brown experiments with humans. (Doctorul Smith face experiente pe cobai iar doctorul Brown face experiente pe oameni.) (While Dr. Smith performs his experiments with guinea pigs, Dr. Brown does it with humans)
89

(26)

(27)

(29)

(30)

(31)

Nadina VIAN

2. Assymetric BUT implies a contrastive effect like in the case of symmetric BUT but this effect results from an unexpected consequence. Compare (32) a. Jim is brave but John is a coward. (Jim e viteaz dar John e un las.) b. Jim likes computers but John hates them. (Lui Jim ii plac computerele dar John nu le suporta.) to (33) Jim is jobless but he is happy. (asymmetric use) (Jim n-are serviciu dar e fericit.) 3. Asymmetric OR implies again an if-then relationship: (34) a. You leave my daughter alone, or Ill break your neck. (Ori imi lasi fata in pace, ori iti rup gitul.) b. Stop that noise, or youll be punished. (Incetezi cu zgomotul, ori vei fi pedepsit.) This use is to be contrasted with the symmetric use of OR, which is in its turn of two types exclusive OR You can eat lobster, or you can eat caviar. (Poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa mananci caviar.) inclusive OR If you have enough money you can eat lobster, or you can have caviar or both.
90

(symmetric use)

(35)

(36)

Unit four

Coordination

(Daca ai destui bani poti sa mananci homar sau poti sa comanzi caviar sau din amindoua.) Pratice Distinguish between symmetric and asymmetric uses of conjunctions: Activity 9 1. John smoked cigarettes and Bill smoked a pipe. 2. John lit a cigar and Mary left the room. 3. John went to the cinema and saw a movie. 4. John cooked the steak and he ate it. / John ate the steak and he cooked it, too. 5. I am a professional man of letters and a typewriter is essential to my work. 6. That dog is very aggressive and he has never bitten me so far. 7. Lay a hand on me and youll scream. 8. Love me and Ill marry you. 9. John likes opera but Jim hates it. 10. John is good-looking but Kim is unattractive. 11. We slept late but we caught the train. 12. We want to buy a car but we have not enough money. 13. They killed him but he came back as a ghost. 14 (Either) we are visiting Aunt Susan or were staying home. 15. John might take them by car, (or) Mary might go with them by bus, or I might order a taxi for them. 16. People envy me for having a cellular phone, or they regard me as eccentric. 17. You must be kidding or else youre out of your mind. 18. Mary was sound asleep or (at least) she pretended to be. 19. Let go off me or Ill scream. 20. This is an early Rembrandt or it is an excellent Rubens. 21. It must be a Rubens or it would be in a museum. 22. I overslept and I arrived late at my office, and John was no longer there and (so) I had to deal with Mr. Brown alone.

91

Nadina VIAN

4.5 Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects


We shall discuss verb-agreement with compound subjects depending on the conjunction that is used: AND the compound subjects correlated by and are generally used with plural verbs: (37) a. Semantics and syntax are interrelated. (Semantica este strins legata de sintaxa.) b. Both your fairness and your kind nature have been appreciated. (Au fost apreciate atit corectitudinea ta cit si bunatatea ta.) When the verb appears before the subject, both plural and singular forms are generally accepted. The singular form is however restricted to informal speech: (38) There was/were a man and a woman in the room. (In camera erau un barbat si o femeie.) There are cases when the compound subject is not made up of the two semantically distinct conjunctions any more: (39) a. The hammer and the sickle was flying from the flagpole. (Secera si ciocanul fluturau sus pe steag.) b. Fish and chips is my favorite food. (Pestele cu cartofi prajiti este felul meu de mincare preferat.) In (39) the subject contains two conjuncts that are perceived as one semantic unit, hence the singular form of the verb.

92

Unit four

Coordination

OR, EITHER OR, NOT (ONLY) BUT ALSO compound subjects are subject to the rule of agreement by proximity: the verb agrees with the nearmost conjunct: (40) a. Not John, but his two brothers are to blame. (Nu John este de vina, ci cei doi frati ai lui.) b. Not Johns brother but he is to blame. (Nu fratele lui John, ci el este de vina.) NEITHER NOR compound subjects accept both the singular and the plural form of the verb since from a syntactical point of view Neither nor resembles either or, but semantically it is the negative counterpart of both and: (41) Neither he nor his wife have/has arrived. (N-au ajuns nici el si nici sotia lui.) Pratice Insert the appropriate verb form: a.1. Cathy and David (have arrived. 2. The bread and the butter Activity 10 (be) both more expensive this year. 3. The bread and butter (be) scattered on the floor. 4. The green and blue blanket (be) also to be washed. 5. The red and the blue shirts (be) washed yesterday. 6. My aim and object (be) to make the theory clear for all. 7. A carriage and a pair (be) standing at the door. 8. His friend and legal adviser (be) present at the funeral. 9. My son and heir (be) safe. 10. My son and daughter (be) twins. b. 1.There (be) a table and some chairs in the room. 2. There (be) some chairs and a table in the room. 3. Both the houses and the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 4. Not only the houses but also the garden (be) damaged by the fire. 5. Not John but his two sons
93

Nadina VIAN

(be) to blame. 6. A traffic warden or a policeman (be) always on the watch in this street. 7. Either Peter or John (have) had breakfast already. 8. Either the child or the parents (be) to blame. 9. Neither he nor his wife (be) here. 10. Neither Isabel nor I (be) timid people.

4.6. Key Concepts


Coordination is defined in opposition to subordination, as being a syntactic process where elements of the same rank are conjoined. This section also attempts to draw attention upon certain points of similarity between coordination and subordination, especially those related to the asymmetric uses of coordinating conjunctions. As shown, certain compound sentences can be reformulated as complex ones, namely as a main clause plus a subordinate one. Emphasis is also laid on the reductive methods that can be applied to compound sentences or to compound phrases: ellipsis (or deletion) and substitution. Pratice Translate the following, making use of the theoretical framework offered above: Activity 11* (1) 1. Sunt doctori i doctori pe lumea asta. 2. Frate nefrate, tot am s-i cer bani pentru medicamente. 3. O s stm mpreun, la bine i la ru. 4. Nu-i nici cal, nici mgar. 5. Sper c scrisoarea mea te gasete bine, sntos. 6. Cum o mai duci? N-am murit nc, mulumesc de ntrebare. 7. Soul ei e de mult mort i94

Unit four

Coordination

ngropat. 8. Au venit la mine cu cel i cu purcel. 9. Interzis consumul de alcool la volan. 10 S-a dus la culcare cu tot cu haine pe el. 11. Tr, grpi, tot am s termin lucrarea. (2) 1. Nu era nchipuit i nu se credea frumos, dar un instinct de conservare fizic l fcea s-i umfle bicepii i coul pieptului i s fandeze plastic cu piciorul drept inainte, pentru a obine maximul de volum al pulpei. 2. Vru s-i ncerce puterea braelor rezemndu-se cu toat greutatea trupului pe speteaza unui scaun, dar acesta trosni aa de tare, nct spre a evita un accident, Jim renun i se mulumi s boxeze arcurile desfundate ale canapelei i pernele din pat. 3. Bunica i bunicul au trit fr baie-n cas i a fost bine! Ai venit dvs. mai cu mo! 4. -Ce stai de vorbeti? Se scandaliza baba. Cum s-aduc eu -S mi-o aduci, altfel nu e de trai cu mine! 5. Jim sttu puin s se gndeasc, fiindc nu vedea nc modul de ntrebuinare. S atrne stropitoarea de cuiul din tavan i apoi s-i dea nclinare deasupra capului, n-avea nici cu ce-o lega i i era team s nu se surpe cumva tavanul. S toarne apa n lighean, ligheanul era prea mic. 6. Silivestru rmase i scrbit de platitudinea cugetrilor, dar i mirat de o precocitate pe care el n-o cunoscuse. 7. Doamn, iu s v declar c n-am venit dect s v cer nvoirea de a ne cstori i de a pleca apoi unde vom crede de cuviin. Nu numai c nu trebuie s v ngrijorai, dar v cer permisiunea de a m ocupa eu n chip exclusiv de acest eveniment i favoarea de a nu se mai vorbi de chestiuni
95

stropitoarea n cas?

Nadina VIAN

materiale. (G. Clinescu Cartea Nunii ) (3) 1. Dat dracului fusese madam Ioaniu la viaa ei, i pe ce punea mna-I ieea, odat ea era-n zor mare s termine o rochie a Ivonei, i-ntr-o doar I-a dat i lu madam Ioaniu s-I surfileze. i ce s vezi ? De cum a pus mna pe ac, foarte frumos i ngrijit surfila ; d-atunci I-a tot dat, surfila madam Ioaniu n fotoliu ei iI tot povestea, e-hei, cte trise ! Doi brbai avusese la viaa ei, i p-amndoi i ngropase ! i brbatu dinti fusese ditamai Profesoru, i cnd venise nemii-l bgase la zdup, ei tia unde-l bgase. Nu-l inuse mult, da el se-ntorsese neom, vezi c era mai btrior, i ce boal o mai fi avut, c repede-repede p-urm dduse ortu-popii. 2. l va asculta deci, ca de fiecare dat, cu un sentiment de triumf, a reuit, n fine, s-l aduc pe acest teren bine cunoscut, care este doar al lor. Pe acesta este convins nu-l mai mparte cu nici una dintre cele care I-au otrvit existena. La fel ca i acum treizeci de ani, el i deschide ochii asupra vieii, iar ea l ascult, cu expresie de atenie ncordat pe fa. Uneori chiar se gndete n alt parte ns l aprob din ochi, la intervale de timp egale. Din cnd n cnd i mai arunc o ntrebare ajuttoare, aa cum celandrul care se gudura pe lng Tudor venea de fiecare dat cu mingea n gur. Aducea mingea anume ca biatul s o arunce din nou, el s alerge spre ea n salturi mari, s se opreasc la jumtate de metru, o clip s stea nemicat i s miroas asfaltul, pe urm s ia din nou mingea, s-o duc, supus, la picioarele lui Tudor, iar la cel mai mic gest de mngiere al lui, s sar nalt, ncordat ca un arc.
96

Unit four

Coordination

(Gabriela Adameteanu Diminea pierdut) Read the following and comment on the conjunctions that link the phrases below; try to rewrite those phrases: Activity 12 A pleasant if talkative child / a shabby though comfortable armchair / a simple yet devout prayer / He looked at me kindly if somewhat skeptically / He drove quickly yet safe / an intelligent albeit rash leader (albeit rare, formal conjunction) / He spoke firmly albeit pleasantly.

97

Nadina VIAN

98

FIVE THE COMPLEX SENTENCE A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES


Aim of this unit: Objectives: to introduce the two main criteria of classification employed in classifying dependent clauses to help students get an overall picture related to correspondences between various categories of dependent clauses

99

Contents:
100

5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification 5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification 5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses 5.4 Key Concepts

Unit five

The complex sentence a classification of dependent clauses

As previously shown, the complex sentence is made up of at least one main clause and a dependent or a subordinate one. Unlike in the case of compound sentences - which are based on coordination - the complex sentence relies heavily on the process of subordination. This is the reason why a classification of subordinate clauses should be in order. Nota bene! The complex sentence is made up of main clauses and other subordinate clauses. e.g. If you want to listen to Bohemian Rhapsody, turn on the stereo and you will hear the most amazing combination of sounds which will certainly delight you.

5.1 The Functional Criterion of Classification


Classifying dependent clauses will employ two main criteria: the FUNCTIONAL one which, as the name suggests it, takes into consideration the syntactic function of the respective clause. From the functional point of view, subordinates can be classified into: a) subject clauses (1) Whoever did that was a genius. (Cel care a fcut acest lucru a fost un geniu.) (2) It seems that he is not your friend. (Se pare c nu i este prieten.)

101

Nadina VIAN

b) object clauses this class includes direct objects, indirect objects and prepositional objects: (3) I believe that he is not here. (Direct Object) (Cred c nu este acolo.) (4) I am afraid that he wont come (Prepositional Object) (Mi-e team c nu o s vin.) (5) I gave this to whomever wanted it. (Indirect Object) (Am dat asta cui a vrut-o.) At this point we need to provide some further explanation. An OBJECT refers to only those items (phrases, sentences) required by the verb (or, in certain cases, by an adjective + preposition, such as proud of, for example). They have the feature [+ obligatory] and, even on the rare occasions when they can be omitted, they are still presupposed by the speaker. For instance, the verb give is always accompanied in our mind by its obligatory complements (direct and indirect objects): (6) He gave the book (DO) to her (IO). (I-a dat cartea.) Whenever we think of this particular verb, we associate it with these objects. In a way, we presuppose their existence in connection with the presence of the verb give in a sentence. We do not presuppose however something like, for instance, an adverbial item, such as a manner adverbial: with pleasure/willingly. (7) He willingly gave the book to her. (I-a dat cartea de bun voie.)

102

Unit five

The complex sentence a classification of dependent clauses

In (7) we can identify the verbs obligatory objects (the book, to her) and one extra-item, an additional one, which is the adverbial willingly. These nonobligatory items are called adjuncts. The term comes from the verb to adjoin, i.e. to add something. Thus, a phrase such as willingly is adjoined to the verb and its obligatory objects. In other words, it is added to the verbal phrase in order to provide extra information. A second observation, related to example (4), has to do with why we consider the subordinate that he wont come to be a prepositional object. The explanation is simple: this subordinate can be easily replaced by a phrase preceded by a preposition, and this preposition is in fact required and presupposed as accompanying the adjective afraid: (8) a. I am afraid of his not coming/of this fact. (Mi-e team c n-o s vin.) b. I am afraid that he wont come. (Mi-e team c n-o s vin.) The example under (8a) is the basic structure: an adjective and the prepositional object it selects. The second example, under (8b) represents the derived structure: the prepositional object is replaced by a that clause. The subordinating conjunction THAT has completely replaced the preposition, since English no longer allows for a conjunction and a preposition to be put together: (9) *I am afraid of that he wont come. We presuppose that the preposition of has been deleted, but its effect remains even after its wipeout. That is why we choose to call prepositional object the that-clause following the adjective afraid.

103

Nadina VIAN

Last but not least, we need to draw attention to the important fact that direct objects are normally required by transitive verbs, such as want, like, make, etc. So, before you decide on what label to stick on an object, please check what particular item requires its presence in the sentence. If it so happens that the object appears after a transitive verb, then you have your typical case of direct object. So far we have discussed subject clauses and object clauses. The third class is made up of (c) adjuncts those clauses (or phrases) whose presence is not obligatorily required by a verb or an adjective. They normally have an adverbial (circumstantial) interpretation: (10) Before she left the room she closed all the windows. (nainte s plece din camer, a nchis toate ferestrele.) (11) If you dont marry me, Ill die. (Dac nu te nsori cu mine, am s mor.) (d) attributes or modifiers those clause (or phrases) that characterize nominal phrases: (12) The woman who was wearing red was sitting next to him on the platform. (Femeia n rou sttea lng el pe peron.) (13) The red-wearing woman was sitting next to him on the platform. (Femeia n rou sttea lng el pe peron.)

104

Unit five

The complex sentence a classification of dependent clauses

To sum up so far, the functional criterion we employed has helped us classify subordinate clauses as follows: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS e.g. Whoever did that was a genius. OBJECTS a) Direct: I is smart. this to whomever wants it. c) Prepositional: He was afraid that she might come back. Pratice Which of the following underlined items are obligatory and which are not? Activity 1 1.She came to him of her own will. 2. I cannot tell you what I heard about you. 3. Susan disappeared without saying a word. 4. Shes aware of his rage and that he might punish her. 5. She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. 6. After I told her the story, she looked at me sadly. [- obligatory] ADJUNCTS MODIFIERS you gave me was very boring.

e.g. They came to e.g. The book that because they home.

believe that he an agreement b) Indirect: Give wanted to go

105

Nadina VIAN

Read the following and identify the subordinate clauses, stating their function: Activity 2 1.He took an intelligent interest in her, which, though it was largely politeness, was a novelty to Mitzi. 2. When Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green she offered Austin the best rooms, but he declined, as he had just found the little Bayswater which he inhabited still. 3. At this time we know that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days and that our end as our beginning belongs to God. 4. Sometimes she thought that her own failure to marry Mathew was actually the cause of Austins marrying Dorina. 5. You must know that if you do not meet it right here at home, you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. 6. You suggestion that we should, at our age, remove our home yet again seems to us merely thoughtless. (Iris Murdoch An Accidental Man)

5.2 The Structural Criterion of Classification


The second criterion we employ to differentiate between various subordinate clauses is the STRUCTURAL one. We classify dependent clauses according to what introductory element they exhibit: a) complement clauses mainly those clauses introduced by THAT, WHETHER, FOR, etc. (the term complement is a false friend: it does not have the same meaning as the one we use in Romanian. The Romanian term is translated by object in English. As you can see, in example (16) the complement for him to leave fulfills the function of subject, not object.)
106

Unit five

The complex sentence a classification of dependent clauses

(14) I knew that he liked me. (tiam c m simpatizeaz.) (15) I didnt know whether he would visit me in jail. (Nu tiam dac o s m viziteze la nchisoare.) (16) It is advisable for him to leave. (E de dorit s plece.) (17) I wanted to leave immediately. (Am vrut s plec imediat.) b) wh-complements those clauses introduced by a wh-word/phrase (such as what, who, where, when, how, which, why, etc.) These include: indirect questions (Nu tiam cine l-a ucis.) relative clauses (Mi-era groaz de ce ar putea spune.) cleft sentences (John este cel care a fcut asta.) pseudo-cleft sentences (Cel care a fcut asta este John.) b. Where he went is London. (Locul n care s-a dus este Londra.) (16) a. Who did it was John. (15) It is John who did it. (14) I was afraid of what he might say. (18) I didnt know who had killed him.

107

Nadina VIAN

(c) adverbial clauses those clauses subordinated by such adverbial conjunctions as: although, if, before, etc. Unlike complement clauses, these ones are introduced by subordinating conjunctions with a distinct semantic charge. Compare, for instance, the following two clauses: (17) She told me that I was a fool. (Mi-a spus c sunt un prost.) (18) She told me this before she left. (Mi-a spus aceasta nainte s plece.) In (17) the meaning of the subordinate clause is imposed by the verb in the main clause. The subordinating conjunction that is abstract in meaning, and this is why it is the verb that has to dictate the sense of its object. In (18), however, the meaning of the subordinate (that of a time adverbial clause) is offered and imposed by the subordinating conjunction not by the main clause verb. In conclusion, consider the following table, which sums up this classification, done from a structural point of view, that is function of the subordinating conjunction/adverb/pronoun that introduces the respective clause. As you will see, the categories are reduced to only three in this case. But we are going to show that we can trace correspondences between the classes of embedded clauses mentioned under 4.1. and the ones we are characterizing in the table below:

108

Unit five

The complex sentence a classification of dependent clauses

SUBORDINATE CLAUSES COMPLEMENT CLAUSES whether: e.g. back. I dont WHCOMPLEMENTS by words: ADVERBIAL CLAUSES conjunctions/adverbs before, after, etc.: e.g. I will go there because I feel like it. Pratice Read the texts below and try to identify subordinate clauses from a structural point of view: Activity 3 a) My dearest son, Your father has suggested that I should write to you so that you can be sure that he and I are of one mind in this matter. I am not very good at this sort of letter and I did not earlier write because the discussion was between yourself and your father, you understand. Dear Ludwig, I cannot express to you how much we miss you. To say that I think of my dear son every day says little. I think of him every minute and remember what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times, and every night and indeed always in my thoughts I pray for him that he may be protected and guided to do the right. () Even leaving aside the concern which I know you have for our feelings, surely you cannot sincerely believe, at your young age, that you will wh Introduced by adverbial

Introduced by that, for, Introduced

know e.g. I will come back such as because, as,

whether he will come when I feel like it.

109

Nadina VIAN

never want to set foot in the US in your life again. We so much fear that you will suddenly decide to come later when it will all have such terrible consequences. Accidental Man) b)1.The day Monroe had died was in May. Late that afternoon, Ada had prepared to go out for a time with a box of watercolors and a piece of paper to paint the newly opened blossoms on a rhododendron by the lower creek. As she left the house, she stopped to speak to Monroe, who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree. He seemed tired and said that he doubted he had vitality even to finish the page he was on before he dropped off to sleep, but he asked her to wake him when she returned, for he did not want to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening. Too, he said, he feared he was just beyond the age at which he could rise unassisted from so low a chair. 2.It was with a familiar delicious tingle of pleasure, a tightening in her breathing, that she realized she was now similarly hidden away, that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there. If one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit to see about her welfare, she could sit motionless as they called her name and knocked at the door. She would not come out until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut. But she thought that no one would call again. The visits had tapered off in the face of her indifference to them. (Charles Frazier Cold Mountain) (Iris Murdoch An

110

Unit five

The complex sentence a classification of dependent clauses

5.3 A Cross-Classification of Dependent Clauses


Now that we have seen two possible ways of classifying subordinate clauses, let us try and look at how these two types of classification can be fit in the same picture. As you have probably noticed already, the four classes discussed under the first classification do not completely correspond to the three classes discussed under 4.2. However, a correspondence can be traced. Consider the following table: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES [+ obligatory] SUBJECTS Complements can be subjects: her was clear. Wh Complements can be subjects: e.g. Whoever did Wh can be objects: e.g. I dont know what you want (Direct)/ I am interested in what that was a genius. Complements OBJECTS Complements can be objects: [- obligatory] ADJUNCTS. Wh Complements MODIFIERS Wh Complements can be modifiers (or attributes): e.g. The book which/ that you left on the table is very Adverbials can be adjuncts: e.g. I told her everything after she arrived.
Nota bene! Relative that is not the same as Complement that, since they are translated differently in English: care vs. c

e.g. That he loved e.g. I know that he can be adjuncts: likes her (Direct)/ e.g. I helped her I was afraid that (Prepositional) whenever she she knew the truth asked me to.

interesting.

111

Nadina VIAN

you know (Prepositional)/ I gave this to whomever wanted it (Indirect). This table makes a few things obvious: firstly, none of the three classes we have mentioned under 5.2., i.e. complements, wh complements and adverbials can fulfill all the functions we introduced in the table under 5.1. Secondly, the only category that can fulfill any syntactical function is the one containing wh complements. So, whenever you identify a wh- complement, you will have to choose from the four possible functions mentioned here. We will come back to that in the next chapter. Thirdly, that complements are not the same as relative that complements: there is a clear-cut distinction between a sentence like (19) I think that she likes me. (Cred c m place.) and (20) The girl that likes me is pretty. (Fata care m place e frumuic.) The translation of the word that in Romanian disambiguates between these two readings. This problem will also be the topic of the next chapter. In the fourth place, adverbial clauses can only be adjuncts. This means that adverbial clauses are the easiest to identify, whereas wh complements are the
112

Unit five

The complex sentence a classification of dependent clauses

hardest to figure out. A very good reason for that is the fact that in the case of adverbials, their introductory elements (e.g. after, because, before, etc) give very clear information about the function and meaning of the subordinate they introduce. Nota bene! Wh Complements can have any syntactical function. Adverbials can only be adjuncts. Pratice Consider the following text. Identify subordinate clauses and state their type (the structural classification) and function (the Activity 4 functional classification): a) Those were the abilities that she marked down in her favour. None of them seemed exactly to the point when faced with the hard fact that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres, a house, a barn, outbuildings, but no idea what to do with them. It gave her pleasure to play on the piano, but she did realize that she could not weed a row of young bean plant without pulling half of them out along with the ragweed. b) She blew the paper to dry it and then scanned over what she had written with a critical eye. She mistrusted her handwriting, for no matter how she tried, she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship. The characters her hand insisted on forming were instead blocky and as dense as runes. c) I am coming home one way or another, and I do not know how things might stand between us. I first thought to tell in
113

Nadina VIAN

this letter what I have done and seen so that you might judge me before I return. But I decided it would need a page as broad as the blue sky to write that tale, and I have not the will or the energy. Do you recall that night before Christmas four years ago when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove and you told me you would forever like to sit there and rest your head on my shoulder? Now it is a bitter surety in my heart that if you knew what I have seen and done, it would make you fear to do such again. (Charles Frazier Cold Mountain)

5.4. Key Concepts


We classify dependent (i.e. subordinate or embedded) clauses according to their function into subjects, objects (which are always obligatorily required by a verb or adjective), adjuncts and attributes (or modifiers, because they modify, offer a plus of meaning to the nominal they accompany). According to a structural criterion, which regards the introductory conjunction / pronoun/ relative adverb of the subordinate, these clauses can be complements, wh-complements and adverbials (which normally correspond to he Romanian complement circumstanial). Dont forget three important points made in this chapter: there is no correspondence between the Romanian complement and the English one, since the English term has nothing to do with syntactical function. English makes use of prepositional objects that are normally required by the fact that the main verb/adjective is accompanied by an obligatory
114

Unit five

The complex sentence a classification of dependent clauses

preposition (e.g. think of, look at, interested in, etc.) We use the term prepositional object even for those cases when the preposition imprinted in the lexical entry of the verb is not visible: I thought that he was smart. The Romanian term complement indirect (i.e. indirect object) is only available in English for Dative objects, answering the question to whom? So, be very careful to use this term correctly, since it is not as frequent in English as it is in Romanian. A complete syntactic analysis of a sentence will have to take into consideration both criteria we have discussed in this chapter. Pratice Translate the following, making use of the information on subordinate clauses supplied by this chapter: Activity 5* 1. Cu cteva luni naintea rzboiului Anton Modan nu tia c de mult nu mai era om ndrzne, att de demult nct n ziua cnd afl nici mcar nu se mai trudi cu gndul s se ntoarc napoi i s-i dea seama de cnd. Nevasta secera n tcere, fr s-i ridice spinarea, i din micrile ei se putea nelege c e stpn pe un gnd care o inea mereu ncordat i ndrjit. Anton se uita la ea i se ntreba, ce o fi avnd. Tot timpul dimineii o vzuse c tace. Cnd Anton ls secerea unii se uitar la soare s-i dea seama dac mai e mult pn la prnz. () M, dar devreme mai mnnc Anton sta! gndir ei. Alii, ns, care i vzuser pe Anton i nevast-sa cum stteau cu secerile n mn i se uitau unul la altul, i spuseser c Anton, dup ce c are gru puin, nici pe la nu-l secer ca lumea. O zbughi napoi, dar dup ce alerg vreo douzeci de pai,
115

Nadina VIAN

simind c nu s-a luat nimeni dup el, se opri i se uit s vad ce isprav a fcut. Toat lumea nelesese c, de fapt, ameninarea aceasta semna mai mult cu o flacr care rmne o clip n aer, dei paiele de dedesubt sunt cenu, dect cu ameninare adevrat. Fiindc un on ndrzne nu se clatin pe drum, sau dac se clatin se ntoarce ndrt i nu mai amenin, fiindc i s nghii nu e puin, i pentru asta i trebuie curaj. (Marin Preda ndrzneala) 2. Nici acum, timp de un ceas, ct omul din mlatin urmri atent ntoarcerea acas a acestei familii, nu se zri nici prin apropiere i nici prin curte umbra unui brbat sau mcar a unui btrn. Unui lupttor nu numai atenia lui ncordat i semnele exterioare vizibile i semnaleaz prezena inamicului, ci l ajut i mirosul su pe ci mai ascunse, pe care el nu se bizuie n ntregime, dar nici nu le dispreuiete. Nang nvase s afle msura potrivit i n anumite mprejurri sfida pericolul, iar n altele era de o pruden exagerat. n cazul de fa avu acest sentiment c nu-l pndete nici o primejdie; nti, devenise limpede faptul c nu mai exista la acest punct de trecere peste ru nici un bac i c n general circulaia era ntrerupt total pe aceasta arter. Ct privete viaa acestei familii, izolate de sat, avea s vad la cderea nopii ce era cu ea i n ce msur i putea fi de folos. (Marin Preda Friguri) 3. Cu privire la mutarea lor la Brila, Costel de curnd scrisese acas c n-ar fi defel potrivit s se mute i c se mir c dumnealor struiesc si nu pricep. N-avea el dreptate? era destul s te uii la Ana, ct de bolnav era, i erau attea alte motive
116

Unit five

The complex sentence a classification of dependent clauses

Nu-i da ns seama c pn deunzi n toate scrisorile insista asupra putinei de a obine un post bun la Brila. Roise de necaz cnd mam-sa i rspunsese c se mir cum azi zice una i mine alta i i tot sucete ca pe ppui. Nu! El nu era ctui de puin sucit. Numai c avea subt ochi pe Ana, pe cnd dumnealor vorbeau de la deprtare. Ana nu putea suferi o mutare acum. Era bine de tiut, dei cam trziu, dup ce tatl lui si ea alergaser peste tot dup un post pentru el dar nu face nimic; acum sunt desluii, rmne totul balt i pace. Pace nu era. Costel nu nelegea nici s rmn totul balt, dei deocamdat n-ar fi vrut cu nici un pre s se mute din Bucureti. l supra i tonul mamei, aa de oetit. Pentru a o pedepsi si pentru c nu prea tia el singur ce vrea i nici ce s-i rspund, amnase scrisul. (Hortensia Papadat Bengescu Logodnicul) 4. Iat, de pild, aceast ntie zi cnd a nceput nelinitea mea, din cauza lui G Anioara, care ntr-un fel avea mania excursiilor n band, a cror promiscuitate mie mi fcea sil, a hotrt ca de Sfntul Constantin i Elena (cdea acum ntr-o smbt, iar luni era o alt srbtoare) s facem o excursie de trei zile la vie, la nite prieteni comuni, la Odobeti, cu automobilele unora dintre ei. De vreo dou-trei ori ne aranjasem n cele trei maini i de dou-trei ori ne-au schimbat, cci era cineva important care nu se simea bine plasat. n realitate, femeile cutau s se gseasc la un loc cu brbaii care le interesau, iar cnd nu izbuteau de la nceput, stricau totul, sub pretexte dintre cele mai neserioase. Partea dezagreabil era c urcam i coboram fr s tim de ce, iar asta ni se comunica simplu de ctre cei
117

Nadina VIAN

mbufnai i iniiai sumar. Iar ne dm jos? Dar ce e, frate, nu se mai termin? Aci rspundeau ridicturi din umeri plictisite, ale celor care se aranjaser bine i acum se temeau s nu li se strice socotelile. (Camil Petrescu Ultima noapte de dragoste, ntia noapte de rzboi)

118

SIX RELATIVE CLAUSES


Aim of this unit: to provide a classification of relative clauses, accompanied by a characterization of the introductory elements for these clauses Objectives: to provide students with useful information on relative clauses that will help them correctly use relative clause introducers (e.g. whose, of which, etc), subject relative clauses, etc.; the students will be able to identify the type and function of a relative clause as part of a complex sentence.

119

6.1. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives

Contents:
120

6.2. The Co-reference Condition 6.3. The Classification of Relative Clauses 6.4. Restrictions Imposed on the Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent 6.5. Relative Clause Introducers 6.6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding 6.7. Key Concepts

Unit six

Relative clauses

6.1. Relative Clauses and Other Kinds of Relatives


By relative clauses we understand: a) all the wh-complements mentioned in the previous section. b) other kinds of relative clauses such as that relatives (those relative clauses introduced by THAT) (Acesta este un cadou pe care l merii pe deplin.) participial relatives (Brbatul n haine ciudate este soul lui Jane.) infinitival relatives (Am nevoie de unelte cu care s repar maina.) We will mainly focus on wh-complements leaving aside other kinds of relatives and cleft sentences. (3) I need some tools with which to fix the car. (2) The fellow wearing those odd clothes is Janes husband. (1) This is a gift that you fully deserve.

6.2. The Co-reference Condition - a discussion of attributive relatives


As we shall see, relative clauses can have more than one syntactical function. The best-known function normally associated with relative clauses is that of modifier (or attribute). This section deals with relative clauses functioning as attributes. We have chosen to start this chapter with this particular topic because attributive relative clauses are considered the most basic kind of relative clause. It is therefore by explaining the mechanism that lies at their foundation that we will be able to extend our discussion towards other type of relative clauses.
121

Nadina VIAN

These relative clauses represent a type of subordination that is based on the fact that the main clause and the subordinate clause share a nominal constituent. Consider the following: (4) I met a woman. John loves that woman. By combining these two clauses, we obtain: (5) I met a woman whom John loves. (Am cunoscut o femeie pe care o iubete John.) What has happened? The common element woman appears in the main clause only and is resumed, reinforced by the relative pronoun introducing the second clause. We presuppose that the phrase the woman in the second clause under (4) has been transformed into a relative constituent (it has been relativized) and moved at the beginning of the clause to link it to the previous one. The place where the phrase the woman used to stand has remained empty, like a gap: (6) I met a woman whom John loves _____. Since the phrase a woman and the relative pronoun whom under (6) refer to the same object, we can co-index them (that is we place the same index under each of them): (7) I met a womani whomi John loves _____.

122

Unit six

Relative clauses

But how do we mark the fact that the verb loves used to have a direct object right after it that has been moved up front? We place the same index under the letter t (that stands for trace): (8) I met a womani whomi John loves ti . This way, we can clearly indicate that the co-reference condition that stipulated the necessity of a shared nominal for the main clause and the relative attributive clause has been observed. The relative pronoun preserves its function of a direct object within the relative subordinate. But there are other functions that the relative pronoun may fulfill. Let us supply an example where the relative pronoun functions as a prepositional object: (9) I met a woman. John offered flowers to that woman. The common element woman is present, so the co-reference condition (that the two clauses should have co-referring elements) is observed. The resulting structure can have two forms: (10) a. I met a womani whoi John had offered flowers to ti b. I met a womani to whomi John had offered flowers ti In point of terminology, we call the nominal that the relative clause refers to the antecedent of the relative clause. The element that has been moved in front position and transformed into a relative pronoun is called the relativized constituent.

123

Nadina VIAN

The mechanism that allows for the appearance of relative attributive clauses is movement: the movement of the relativized constituent in initial position, by leaving behind a trace. Is there a difference between (10a) and (10b)? Grammar books of usage show that the example under (10b) is the more formal one, frequently used in written language, whereas the first sentence is mainly used in dialogue, therefore in spoken English. Pratice Combine the following sentences so as to get relative attributive clauses (some of the sentences can be combined in two ways): Activity 1 1. She came to London. I went to London, too. 2. John told his friend a story about the king. The king was just passing by. 3. They met those students. None of the students agreed with them. 4. I bought Jim a book. He liked that book. 5. I introduced him to Jim. He told Jim everything about his plans. 6. Susan wants to meet Jane. She doesnt know anything about Jane. 7. I had a book. I lost the books cover. 8. This is my husband. I love my husband very much. 9. The students like their teacher. Any of the students would answer to questions. 10. The students like their teacher. All of them would answer their teachers questions. Write a sentence as similar as possible to the given one. Use the word in capitals without changing it: Activity 2 1. Whose is the car which is blocking the street? WHOM 2. This is the town in which Charles Dickens was buried. WHERE 3. It was silly of him to tell her the secret. WHICH 4. Hes the author who received the prize. WHO 5. These are people about whom we cannot tell much. WHO
124

Unit six

Relative clauses

6. That couple had their child abducted by terrorists. WHOSE 7. It was such a pity that you couldnt join the party. WHICH 8. To whom are you writing this letter? WHO 9. This is the guy that they first met in Monte Carlo. WHOM 10. These are the tulips that were awarded the big prize. TO 11. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi; most of them were from England. WHOM

6.3 The Classification of Relative Clauses


According to the criterion of form, relative clauses are divided into 1. dependent relative clauses (clauses that have an overt antecedent, i.e. whose main clause contains a nominal that can be co-indexed with the introducing relative pronoun) (11) This is the mani whomi I love. (Acesta este brbatul pe care l iubesc.) Under (11) the relative subordinate finds its antecedent in the main clause: the phrase the man. 2. independent relative clauses or Free Relative Clauses (those clauses which lack an overt antecedent, that do not have an expressed antecedent in the main clause) (12) (13)
125

Who breaks pays. (Cine stric platete.) Whoever swims in sin shall swim sorrow.

Nadina VIAN

(Cine pctuiete mult va suferi.) Example (12) is an instance of a relative clause (introduced by a wh-element) whose antecedent has been deleted, is no longer overtly expressed, unlike in the case of (14), where we are looking at a more obsolete (i.e. far-fetched) form of the same sentence: (14) Hei whoi breaks pays. (Cel care stric pltete.) So, in a manner of speaking, we can assume that Independent or Free Relative Clauses must have originated from dependent ones; only their antecedent is no longer expressed, it is covert. Unlike their sisters, these relatives cannot function as attributes, they currently fulfill the function of subjects or objects, as follows: Subject Free Relative Clause Whoever touches pitch shall be defiled. (Cine se atinge de smoal va fi ntinat.) Direct Object I would like to know what you need. (A dori s tiu ce vrei.) Indirect Object (the only clauses that can have this function in fact) He gave whoever came to the door a winning smile. (Oferea un zmbet cuceritor oricui venea la ua lui.) Prepositional Object You should vote for whichever candidate you think best. (Trebuie s votezi cu candidatul pe care l consideri cel mai potrivit.) Predicative This was what she intended. (Asta era ceea ce voise ea.)
126

(15)

(16)

(17)

(18)

(19)

Unit six

Relative clauses

Adjunct Go wherever you want. (Du-te unde pofteti.)

(20)

The second criterion that further classifies relative clauses has to do with meaning and is restricted to dependent relatives only. They can be thus divided into: 1. defining or restrictive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that identify an antecedent; they offer crucial information about this antecedent, they define it). (21) The man who came to woo me was a god. (Cel care a venit s ma peeasc era un zeu.) (Only that particular man that was my suitor looked like a god) 2. non-defining or non-restrictive or appositive relative clauses (those dependent relative clauses that do not offer crucial information about the antecedent. They only provide supplementary information about it.) (22) Mercury, who is the god of commerce, is my favourite god. (Mercur, care este zeul negoului, este zeul meu favorit.) (Mercury, who incidentally is the god of commerce, is my favourite god) The function of non-restrictive relative clauses is that of Appositive attributes. Their meaning is also reinforced by orthography, and by the intonation the speaker uses in uttering the whole sentence.

127

Nadina VIAN

In conclusion, a diagram would sum up the types of relative clauses discussed: Restrictive/defining Dependent Relative clauses The man who came to see me is a genius. Non-restrictive/non-defining That man, who came to see me, is a genius. Independent I dont know what you want. (free) Whoever came to see me was a genius.

A good way of identifying restrictive relative clauses is to look at their syntactic function. As we were saying, this type of relative clauses, i.e. restrictive relative clauses, can only function as attributes (or modifiers). Nota bene! If it is a restrictive relative clause, then it is an attribute. Pratice Identify the relative clauses stating their type in the sentences below: Activity 3 1.This is the village where I spent my youth. 2. Did he mention the time when the plane will take off? 3. Did they tell you the reason why they all left? 4. Shakespeare, who is a genius, is a great playwright. 5. The advantage of the supermarket is that you can buy what you want at a place where you can park your car. 6. On the day on which this occurred I was away. 7. He cannot have been more than twenty when we first met. 8. I have met him where I least expected. 9. She, on whom nobody could depend, was the one we all welcomed and admired. 10. They are what
128

Unit six

Relative clauses

their parents made them, however sad this may be.

6.4 Restrictions Imposed On The Relative Clause by the Determiner of the Antecedent
This section is dedicated to those relative clauses with a more special kind of antecedent. We shall look at what happens for instance to the relative clause when its antecedent is a proper noun, etc. Consider the following points of discussion: 1. When the antecedent has no determiner, it can only be followed by a nondefining relative clause (an apposition): (23) Freddie Mercury, who died a few years ago, composed The (Freddie Mercury, care a murit acum civa ani, a compus The Bohemian Rhapsody.) When combined with a restrictive relative clause, the proper name is recategorized into a common name and receives its own determiner (the, a, etc.): (24) (25) The Freddie Mercury I knew was a rock-star. (Freddie Mercury pe care-l cunoteam eu era vedet rock.) I know a Freddie Mercury who gives piano lessons. (Cunosc un Freddie Mercury care d lecii de pian.) 2. First and second person pronouns do not normally take restrictive relative clauses. They can be followed only by non-restrictive ones (appositions):
129

Bohemian Rhapsody.

Nadina VIAN

(26) (27)

I, who am your son, can see your shortcomings only too well. (Eu, care-i sunt fiu, i vd prea bine defectele.) Anybody else would have done something except myself, who am not (Oricine ar fi fcut ceva, numai eu nu, care nu sunt o femeie, ci o fat

a woman, but a peevish, ill-tempered, dried-up old maid. btrn morocnoas, iritabil i uscat.) (28) They come to me, who neither work nor am anxious. (Ei apeleaza la mine, care nici nu muncesc i nici nu sunt ngrijorat.) Third person pronouns however do accept restrictive relative clauses: (29) He who laughs last laughs best (archaic). (Cine rde la urm rde mai bine.)

Pratice Translate the following, paying attention to the restriction imposed by antecedent determiners on relative clauses: Activity 1 1. Acesta nu este Bucuretiul pe care-l tiu eu. 2. Dintre toate personajele prezente, prinul a ales-o pe Cenureasa, care era cea mai frumoas fat din sal. 3. Dintre toate persoanele de fa a trebuit s m alegi pe mine s vorbesc, care nu tiu s leg nici dou cuvinte. 4. Cine nu muncete nu izbndete. 5. Voi care v credei mari i tari, poftii n fa. 6. Cu toii doreau s-l aud pe acel Luciano Pavarotti care ncntase mii de iubitori de oper. 7. Mie, creia nu-mi plcea s las lucrurile neterminate, nu-mi convenea o astfel de situaie.

130

Unit six

Relative clauses

6.5 Relative Clause Introducers


Relative clause introducers are usually placed at the beginning of the relative clause. In literary English they may sometimes be found later in the sentence: after a present participle saying which he left the room ( care lucruri fiind spuse, prsi camera.) after an infinitive The African queen issued forth upon the Lake to gain which they had (Regina african se npusti spre lac sa redobndeasc cele pentru care trecuser prin attea pericole i avuseser parte de atta trud.) As the object of a preposition and after than: He consulted his watch at 10-minute intervals, in spite of which the (Se uita la ceas din zece n zece minute, i cu toate acestea slujba s-a terminat trziu.) (33) He was a railway fanatic, than whom few more can be more crashing. (Era un fanatic al mersului cu trenul, i puini oameni l ntreceau la asta.) Sometimes the preposition can have partitive value: (34) He was prone to an inevitable series of moods, each of which has evolved its own system of harmony. (Era nclinat spre stri schimbtoare, i fiecare din aceste stri i dobndise propriul sistem de armonie.) (35) The compositions of Cardan, some of the last notes of whose harp he (Compoziiile lui Cardan, ale cror ultime note de harp le auzise, erau acum n posesia lui.)
131

(30)

(31)

run such dangers and undergone such toils.

(32)

service finished late.

heard, were now in his possession.

Nadina VIAN

Aside from these marginal examples, relative clause introducers retain their clause initial position. We shall briefly have a look at the most important ones. 6.5.1. Relative Pronouns Who [+human] with its case forms whom [+human] and whose human] : (36) a. The woman who came to see my painting was the Queen itself. (Femeia care a venit s mi vad tabloul era Regina nsi.) b. The woman to whom you showed the painting was the Queen. (Femeia creia i-ai artat tabloul era Regina.) c. The woman whose painting I sold was very young. (Femeia al crui tablou l-am vndut era foarte tnr.) d. The painting whose buyer she was looked marvelous. (Tabloul al crui cumprtor era arta minunat.) Whose appears as the appropriate genitive form for both [+human] and [human] objects, as can be seen in (36d). The genitive form with which is still in use, too, but it is typical of the formal, literary style: (37) a. The book whose cover I lost was very expensive. (Cartea a crei copert am pierdut-o era foarte scump.) b. The book the cover of which I lost was very expensive. (Cartea a crei copert am pierdut-o era foarte scump.) (37b) is an example of relative clause introduced by a genitival pronoun where there is a form of inversion imposed by the presence of the genitive [

132

Unit six

Relative clauses

form of which. There are situations when inversion is not obligatory, but these ones are even more infrequent than those illustrated under (37b): (38) as if she were being gradually cornered by a cruelty of which he

was the almost unconscious agent. (Iris Murdoch, An Accidental Man) ( de parca era incet-incet incoltita de o cruzime al carei agent aproape inconstient era el.) Which [-human] The story which he claimed to have told was too fantastic for my taste. (Povestea pe care pretindea c a spus-o era prea fantastic pentru gustul meu.) There are a few exceptions when which can acquire the feature [+human]: When which has a partitive value: Which of the two men is nicer? (Care dintre ei este mai drgu?) However in rhetorical question who is still preferred: (41) Who of us will stain his hands with murder? (Cine dintre noi i va mnji minile cu o crim?) with archaic value: Our Father, which art in Heaven (Tatl nostru carele eti n ceruri)

(39)

(40)

(42)

133

Nadina VIAN

When a personal denotation refers not to an individual, but to a type or a function: a. Shaw is commonly regarded more as a funny man than as the (Shaw este n general privit mai degrab ca un tip hazliu dect ca

(43)

revolutionary which at bottom he is. revoluionarul care este n esen.) b. Freud is the analyst which we must enjoy. (Freud este psihanalistul pe care trebuie s-l citim) c. He is not the man which he used to be. (Nu mai este omul care era odat.) When its genitive form is used to give a very formal tone to the passage (but this is very infrequent): (44) Livia had just been delivered of twin boys, of which, by the way, (Livia tocmai nscuse doi baiei gemeni, al cror tat se pare c era Sejanus.) Both who and which are used for: collective nouns a. This was a tribe who moved from the Baltic Sea. (Acesta era un trib care venise de la Marea Baltic.) b. Asiatic tribes and American tribes which resemble each other. ( triburile asiatice i amer-indiene care seamn ntre ele.) states, animals, ships (that can be personified) a. Italy, which entered the war in May 1915 (Italia care a intrat n rzboi n mai 1915)
134

Sejanus seems to have been the father.

(45)

(46)

Unit six

Relative clauses

b. France, whom it concerned most closely, did however take certain precautions ( Frana, pe care o privea direct, i-a luat totui nite precauii) what can normally introduce only free relative clauses: I didnt know what they wanted. (Nu tiam ce vor.) On the rare occasions when what functions as an introducer of restrictive relative clauses, the use of this pronoun is: a) archaic (48) It is rich what gets the peaches, It is poor what gets the punches. (Cei bogai primesc onoruri, cei sraci se aleg cu ponoasele.) b) dialectal (49) a. the bloke what signs our books (tipul la de ne semneaz crile) b. One cant expect foreigners to ave the same ideas what we ave. (one cannot expect foreigners to have the same ideas that we have) (Nu poi s te atepi ca strinii s aib ce idei avem noi.) 6.5.2 Relative Adverbs: when, where, while, why, how, etc. When they introduce restrictive relative clauses, their antecedents are nouns expressing places, time, reason, etc. and can be replaced by prepositional phrases with adverbial function: (50) a. Poland is the place where Christine was born. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine.) b. Poland is the place in which Christine was born. (Polonia este locul in care s-a nascut Christine.)
135

(47)

Nadina VIAN

(51)

a. Ten oclock is the time when they have lunch. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul.) b. Ten oclock is the time at which they have lunch. (Ora zece este momentul cind ei iau prinzul.)

When they introduce free relative clauses, no antecedents are required: (52) a. He went where he had been before. (S-a dus unde mai fusese.) b.They left when they decided it was proper to. (Au plecat cind s-a hotarat ca este potrivit.) There are cases when these adverbs can appear in their older forms (in archaic passages): (53) a. The place whither he goes is unknown. (Locul catre care merge este necunoscut.) b. They returned to the land whence they had come. (S-au intors in tara din care venisera.) c. A system where by a new discovery will arise. (Un sistem prin care va aparea o noua descoperire) d. A dark forrest wherein dangers lurk. (O padure intunecata in care ne pandesc primejdiile.) e. This is the place wherefrom they came. (Acesta este locul din care au venit.) 6.5.3. Relative THAT Relative THAT normally appears as the introducer of restrictive relative clauses: (54) This is the book that pleased her most. (Aceasta este cartea care o ncnta cel mai mult.)
136

Unit six

Relative clauses

It is invariable, never preceded by prepositions and requires an antecedent with the exception of archaic idiomatic contents: (54) Handsome is that handsome does. (Only the person that behaves in a handsome way can be considered handsome). Moreover, the relative introducer THAT unlike its pair that introduces complement that-clauses can have almost any syntactic function within the relative clause: Subject (55) Did you see the letter [that came today?] (Ai vzut scrisoarea care a sosit azi?) Direct Object (56) Did you get the books [that I sent you?] (Ai primit crile pe care i le-am trimis?) Prepositional Object (57) That is the man [that I was talking about.] (Acesta este cel despre care vorbeam.) Predicative (58) He is not the man [that he was.] (Nu este omul care era odinioar.) Adverbial (59) Tuesday was the day [that he left.] (Ziua n care a plecat a fost o mari.) When do we prefer to use THAT instead of WHICH/WHO? When the antecedent is a compound nominal that refers to a human and a thing:
137

Nadina VIAN

(60)

The children were the parcels that filled the car. (Copiii erau pachetele ce umpleau maina.)

With a superlative antecedent She is the prettiest girl that I have ever seen. (Este fata cea mai frumoas pe care am vzut-o vreodat.)

(61)

With an antecedent preceded by determiners such as: all, every, any, not any, much, little: That ugly little house was all the home that I have ever had. (Csua aceea urt era singurul cmin pe care l-am avut vreodat.)

(62)

When the rule of euphony must be observed

(63) a. Who that knew her would help loving her? (Cine dintre cei care o cunoteau se puteau mpiedica s n-o iubeasc?) b.* Who who knew her could help loving her? 6.5.4. Other relative introducers There are of course other relative clauses introducers, but they are used very infrequently: as, but in standard language a. Honest man as he was, it went against the grain with him to step into (Cinstit cum era, era contrar naturii sale s l urmeze.) b. Ill get you such things as you may want.
138

(64)

his shoes.

Unit six

Relative clauses

(O sa i dau acele lucruri pe care le doreti.) c. This is the same one that/as you had before. (Este la fel cu cel pe care l-ai avut.) in dialect a. Uncle George, him as was in China (Uncle George, who had been in China ) (Unchiul George, l de fusese in China) b. Theres not many asll say that. (There arent many who will say that) (Nu-s muli s spuie asta) archaic use a. There is no man but feels pity for starving children. (There isnt a (Nu e om care s nu simt mil fa de copiii care mor de foame) b. There is no one of us but wishes to help you. (Nu este nimeni dintre noi care s nu vrea sa te ajute.) c. I never had a slice of bread Particularly long and wide But feel upon the sandy floor, And always on the buttered side. (Niciodat nu s-a ntmplat, cnd am avut o bucat de pine mricic, s nu mi cad pe podeaua murdar, i ntotdeauna pe partea uns cu unt.) Sometimes in colloquial or dialectal English, the relative clause introducer is omitted: (67)
139

(65)

(66)

man who doesnt feel pity )

a. Its the dry weather does it.

Nadina VIAN

(Its the dry weather that is to blame.) b. It was me made her think that was the best thing to do. (It was me who made her think) This phenomenon is usually met with cleft relative clauses such as those under (67). This remark brings us to another important question to ask: When can we delete relative clause introducers? The answer to this question is rather straight: relative introducers can be deleted whenever THAT can be used as an alternative to the respective relative introducer. For instance in (68) The man whom John met lives in Boston. (Omul pe care l-a ntlnit John locuiete n Boston) The relative pronoun whom can indeed be replaced by that: (69) The man that John met lives in Boston. (Omul pe care l-a ntlnit John locuiete n Boston) This means that both whom and that can be deleted without the sentence losing its grammaticality: (70) The man John met lives in Boston. (Omul pe care l-a ntlnit John locuiete n Boston) Note that deletion is impossible in (71) The man whom John spoke to is an idiot. (Cel cu care vorbete John este un idiot.)

140

Unit six

Relative clauses

since a replacement of the relative phrase with that cannot be performed in view of the fact that the relative introducer that cannot preceded by preposition (see subsection 5.5.3): (72) a. * The man to that John spoke is an idiot. b.*The man John spoke to is an idiot. When the preposition appears at the end of the clause, the replacement is allowed and deletion is indeed an option: (73) a. The man who John spoke to is a genius. (Cel cu care vorbete John este un geniu.) b. The man that John spoke to is a genius. (Cel cu care vorbete John este un geniu.) c. The man John spoke to is a genius. (Cel cu care vorbete John este un geniu.) Pratice Analyse the function of the relative clause and of the relative pronoun that introduces it: Activity 5 1. What Im saying is, we all have to come to some terms. 2. This is where we talk money. 3. What Inman remembered was this passage, which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon: That which shows God in me, fortifies me. That which shows God out of me, makes me a wart and a wen. 4. The words of the hymn seemed to look with passionate yearning to a time when they would be immersed in an ocean of love. 5. It was one job of his to think about why man was born to die. 6. Where he was from, the word river meant rocks and moss and the sound of white water moving fast under the spell of a great deal of collected gravity. 7. It seemed a thing
141

Nadina VIAN

of such wonder to Ada, who had not witnessed many dawns. 8.When Ada remarked that at least they could rest when winter came, Ruby said, Oh, when winter comes well mend the fence and piece quilts and fix whats broke around here, which is a lot. 9. The rudeness of eating, of living, thats where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month. 10. Ruby counted her first victory when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter. Her second victory was when she noted that Ada no longer always put a book in her pocket when she went out to hoe the fields. 11. It was not until Ruby was nearly grown that it occurred to her to wonder what kind of woman her mother had been to have married such a man as Stobrod. 12. Whatever his fate was, he had left Ruby high and dry. 13. Ruby said she had learned what little she knew in the usual way. () Partly, though, she claimed she had just puzzled out in her own mind how the worlds logic works. (Charles Frazier Cold Mountain) Comment upon the grammaticality of the following: a)The man who(m)/*which/that/ we saw was nice. b) The book Activity 6 *who(m)/which/that/ I read last night surprised me. c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/ came to dinner was very late. d) The book*whom/which/that/* deals with this problem is very good. e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/* we are looking is not here. f) The man who(m) I *which/that/ we are looking for is not here. g) The book for *whom/which/*that/* we are looking is in my bag. h) The book *who(m)/which/that/ we are looking for is in my bag.

142

Unit six

Relative clauses

Read the following and notice the literary effect caused by the phenomenon of recursiveness (repeated embeddings of sentences Activity 7 that become relative clauses) in the passage; try to translate the Romanian text using the same technique. This is the horse that kicked the policeman, that I saw trying to clear away the crowd that had collected to watch the fight that the short man had started. (Iris Murdoch, The Accidental Man) Guturaiul. Cumnatul meu avea, pe linie paterna, un var primar, al carui unchi pe linie materna avea un socru, al carui bunic pe linie paterna se-nsurase in a doua casatorie cu o tanara bastinasa, al carei frate intalnise intr-una din calatoriile sale o fata de care se indragostise si cu care a avut un fiu, care s-a casatorit cu o farmacista curajoasa, care nu era altceva decat nepoata unui subofiter de marina din marina britanica si al carui tata adoptiv avea o matusa care vorbea curgator spaniola si care era, poate, una din nepoatele unui inginer, mort de tanar, nepot la randul lui al unui proprietar de vie din care se obtinea un vin modest, dar care avea un var de-al doilea, vasnic, plutonier, al carui fiu se insurase cu o tanara foarte frumoasa, divortata, al carei prim sot era fiul unui patriot sincer, care s-a priceput sa-si creasca una din fete in dorinta de a face avere si care a reusit sa se marite cu un vanator, care-l cunoscuse pe Rothschild si al carui frate, dupa cesi schimbase de mai multe ori meseria, s-a casatorit si a avut o fata, al carei strabunic, pirpiriu, purta niste ochelari pe care-i primise de la un var.al lui, cumnatul unui portughez, fiu natural al unui morar, nu prea sarac, al carui frate de lapte luase de nevasta pe fiica unui fost medic de tara, el insusi frate de lapte cu
143

Nadina VIAN

fiul unui laptar, la randul lui fiul natural al unui alt medic de tara, insurat de trei ori la rand, a carui a treia sotie (Eugen Ionescu, Teatru)

6.6. Pied Piping and Preposition Stranding


If you go back to our discussion in 5.2, regarding the mechanism that licenses the formation of relative clauses, you will remember that a relative clause such as that in (74) She was the woman [who everybody listened to] (Ea era cea care pe care o ascultau toi.) appeared as a result of movement: (75) a. She was a woman. Everybody listened to that woman. b. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to______ . c. She was the womani whoi everybody listened to ti. The phenomenon by means of which the relativized prepositional phrase is moved in clause initial position but leaves its preposition behind is called preposition stranding: the preposition has been stranded at the end of the sentence. The opposite phenomenon, by means of which the whole phrase is moved up front (preposition and all) bears the name of pied piping, where the wh-word is the pied piper that drags after it another element: (75) She was the woman i to whomi everybody listened.

By extension, another case of pied piping is offered by the movement of the genitival phrase at the beginning of the relative clause: (77)a. This is the book. I lost the cover of the book.
144

Unit six

Relative clauses

b. This is the booki whosei cover I lost ti. (Aceasta este cartea a crei copert am pierdut-o.) In this case the wh-word drags the constituent cover in clause initial position, acting again as a genuine pied piper. The difference between (76) and (77), apart from the distinct syntactical functions the prepositional and the genitival phrase have, lies in the fact that in the case of (77) pied piping is obligatory. We couldnt say something like: (78)* This is the book whose I lost cover. Pratice Which of the following relative sentences can be reformulated by means of preposition stranding? Activity 8 1. The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. 2. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. 3. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other, and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. 4. In the interest of public decency, the safeguarding of which was actually not his task, he requested that the public be excluded. 5. The problem of safe transportation, no easy answers to which could be offered, has been troubling them forever. 6. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. 7. This was the icepick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. 8. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people, as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. 9. For the intense anxious sense of herself
145

Nadina VIAN

with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. 10. Irene, for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days, he rarely saw now. Identify the cases of Pied Piping in the following sentences: 1.His fathers friends, whose interest he most sincerely shared, Activity 9 were now all gone. 2. This story, the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life, was now complete. 3. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. 4. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mothers sisters. 5. His friends, no matter which, knew nothing of what he had been subjected to.

6.7 Key Concepts


Relative Clauses can be dependent and in that case they need an antecedent in the main clause, that is nominal phrase to which the relative clause introducer could send back. The relative clause introducer is also called the relativized constituent and it co-refers with the antecedent in the main clause. Dependent relative clauses (so called because they are dependent on their antecedent) can be further split into restrictive ones (that define and identify the antecedent) and non-restrictive ones (that offer additional information about the antecedent and have an appositive value). Both these types of relative clauses function as Attributes (appositive or not, as the case is). Independent relative clauses are also called Free Relative Clauses because their antecedent is missing, has been deleted. They do not function as attributes, but as subjects or objects (in fact fulfilling almost all syntactical functions, including that of Indirect Object which only they can have).

146

Unit six

Relative clauses

The mechanism that lies at the basis of dependent (and independent) relative clauses is movement, as can be seen in those particular sentences exhibiting preposition stranding or pied piping. Pratice Translate the following making use of the knowledge acquired about relative clauses: Activity 10* 1. De douazeci de ani, din sraca urbe provincial unde vegetau fr speran, capitala le pruse un pisc inaccesibil, spre care aveau drept sa nzuiasc numai cuteztorii cu glezna tare i plmnii largi. 2. Toate sfreau. Rmnea un vis urt i lung de care i amintirea va fugi mine cutremurat. 3. Cci pentru toi patru copiii, cu toat deosebirea de vrst i fire, capitala era necunoscutul miraculos () unde fiecare va afla tot ce-i poftete inima i tot ce i-a urzit, himeric, nchipuirea. 4. Nelu, al treilea frate n ordinea cronologic, nchipuia capitala ca un fabulos garaj de unde nu lipsete nici o marc de automobil din cele mai rarisime i ca o vast aren sportiv, unde n fiecare zi se dezlanuie competiia ntre dou echipe (). 5. Pentru alii, pentru dumneata bunoar, prect am neles din cele ce-mi vorbeai adineauri, sunt vrednic de invidiat. 6. A venit la mine s-mi cear s-i numesc un ginere director. Iam numit ginerele cum a vrut i unde a vrut, de altfel un biat bun! i nu tia cum s-mi mulumeasc. 7. Nu-i greu s-i dea seama ct m-am scandalizat i ce tmblu
147

Nadina VIAN

am fcut cnd vzui cum te-au lsat toi sa mucezeti ntr-o asemenea puturoenie de trg. 8. Vag i amintea c ntr-adevr () fusese chemat s dezlege o ntmplare tulbure i c n spiritul su drept i-a sacrificat prietenul pentru adevr. Dar ce anume a fost i cum s-a terminat povestea nu mai tia i nici n-ar fi crezut vreodat c exist cineva care s mai pstreze o att de fidel amintire. Fostul camarad i apru cu totul altfel de cum l socotise pn acum. 9. Eti proaspt sosit aici, nu-i dai poate nc deplin seama de cte intrigi i de cte presiuni uzeaz politicianismul chiar n justiie. 10. Dac le convingea vreo nsuire ct de mic, speram c aveai s faci dumneata ceea ce face un frate mai mare pentru unul mai mic. mi spuneam c nu se poate s nu banuieti n ce singurtate i dezndejde se afl un om tnr ntr-un ora unde totul i e dumnos! 11. Tot ce-ai citit dumneata inca nu nseamn nimic! S-i mai adaog i concluzia ultim, care nu figureaz nici n dezbaterile procesului, nici n searbda mea versiune, la care vd c tot tragi mereu cu ochii. () Ct golim cetile astea de cafea, i-o rezum la cteva cuvinte. 12. Ceea ce n-a facut preedintele de tribunal din Frana, cnd l invitase pe Henri Rochefort s ia n primire un sector electoral i s se aleag deputat, cu surle i cu tobe, a fcut el. (Cezar Petrescu Calea Victoriei slightly adapted) 13. De altfel chiar i idealuri de felul acesta m strduiesc s nu-mi mai fac pentru c am observat c mi se ndeplinesc i nu pot alege acum care dintre ele merge n sensul vieii mele
148

Unit six

Relative clauses

adevrate i care nu, nc netiind care este adevrata mea via. 14. Voi ncerca s-mi explic de ce la nceput mi s-a prut ca ai ochii verzi i de ce astzi, pn mai adineauri, ochii ti au fost cenuii. 15. Avea acum un fel de vertij, din care cauz pe Dora, dei att de aproape, o vedea ca de la o mare distan. 16. n spatele lor, pe strada Icoanei, tramvaiul venea cu duduit de avalan i bti de clopote trase furios de dupa o perdea roie i galben, printre strzile i casele din urm-le, dinspre Maria Rosetti, din direcia creia apoi, de unde venea i Marta, aprur, izvornde mereu ns tare ndeprtate, cu sclipiri abia vizibile, roiuri de fetie. 17. E foarte frumos ce-mi spui, zise ea cu ochii mari, pierdui ntr-o direcie vag. 18. Nici nu ndrznesc s m gndesc la bnuiala care m ncearc. Dar nu vezi? Mai nti ideea c a rmas srac, apoi c trebuie s lichideze tot i s plece i acum c e bolnav cnd de fapt cu toii tim c este sntos. Nu i se pare bizar la el care pn acum a fost un brbat att de energic, optimist i cumpnit? (Radu Petrescu Matei Iliescu) 19. Dac m lovea, nu tiu ce s-ar fi putut ntmpla. 20. Pe vremea cnd eram sraci nu ne vedeam aproape de loc cu aceast verioar, care era foarte monden, tria larg de tot, cci avea cas mare n Bucureti. Era una dintre acele femei elegante, despre care, fie pe strad, fie la teatru, toat lumea ntreba cine e.
149

Nadina VIAN

21. Simeam c nici nu era singura inferioritate pe care mi-o gsea. Pare-se c snobii, pe care ea i admira acum, aveau un stil al lor, pe care eu nu-l aveam, vedeam cum zi de zi femeia mea se nstrina, n preocuparile i admiraiile ei, de mine. 22. N-am putut s nu bag de seam, de sus de unde eram, plcerea cu care ea se lsa sprijinit toat de el, cnd au urcat rpa iar, pn n osea, dup ce maina a fost reparat. 23. Pentru mine ns, care nu triesc dect o singur dat n desfurarea lumii, aceste fapte au nsemnat mai mult dect rzboaiele pentru cucerirea Chinei, dect irurile de dinastii egiptene, dect ciocnirile de atri n necuprins. 24. Ct vreme unii copaci sunt nc verzi, alii au frunzele galbene ca nite caise strvezii. (Camil Petrescu Ultima noapte de dragoste, ntia noapte de rzboi)

150

SEVEN THAT COMPLEMENTS


Aim of this unit: to characterize the syntactic processes that these complements undergo and to offer a description of the distribution of that clauses Objectives: to help students understand the complexity of these syntactic processes. Students will acquire the ability of identifying these phenomena and of labeling that clauses, by stating their syntactic function.

151

7.1. Syntactic Properties That Characterize That Complements


7.1.1.Extraposition 7.1.2.Topicalization 7.1.3.Clause Shift

7.2. The Distribution of That Complements

Contents:
152

7.2.1. That Complements as Direct Objects 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects 7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects 7.2.4. That complements as Predicatives 7.2.5. That Complements as Attributes 7.2.6. That complements as Adverbials

7.3. That Deletion


7.3.1. When Can We Delete That? 7.3.2. When is That Obligatory? 7.3.3. When is That Deletion Obligatory?

7.4. The Sequence of the Tenses in Object That Clauses 7.5. Key Concepts

Unit seven

That complements

That complements constitute the most representative class of complement clauses (see section 4). Apart from those introduced by that, complement clauses can be preceded by for (E bine s tie matematic.) whether (Nu stiu dac se va nsntoi.) if ( when it is the equivalent of whether) (Spune-mi dac ai nevoie de ceva.) (Voiau s plece imediat.) (4) They wanted to leave immediately. (3) Tell me if you need anything. (2) I dont know whether he will recover. (1) It is good for them to know Mathematics.

7.1 Syntactic Properties That Characterize That Complements


7.1.1 Extraposition Extraposition is a very frequent structure in English, being found not only in the case of that-clauses, but also of infinitival ones. The term extraposition refers to a construction where the expletive (empty) pronoun it appears in front position, followed by the complement clause in peripheral position. In other words, the clause is extraposed, placed in a marginal position.

153

Nadina VIAN

This phenomenon is true of more than one syntactic function, but the subject position is the most frequently met in English: Subject Clause unextraposed: (5) That Dorothy flew from Kansas was a surprise to everybody. (A fost o surpriz pentru toat lumea faptul c Dorothy a plecat din Kansas.) extraposed (6) It was a surprise to everybody that Dorothy flew from Kansas. (A fost o surpriz pentru toat lumea faptul c Dorothy a plecat din Kansas.) Direct Object Clause

unextraposed: (7) The plumber wrongly figured out that the pipe needed replacing. (Instalatorul a considerat n mod greit ca eava trebuia nlocuit.) extraposed (8) The plumber wrongly figured it out that the pipe needed replacing. (Instalatorul a considerat n mod greit ca eava trebuia nlocuit.) Prepositional Object

unextraposed: (9) Can you swear that the accused spent the evening with you? (Putei jura c acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastr?) extraposed: (10) Can you swear to it that the accused spent the evening with you? (Puteti jura c acuzatul a petrecut noaptea cu dumneavoastr?)

154

Unit seven

That complements

Pratice Which of the following that clauses are extraposed ones? What is their syntactical function? Activity 1 1.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. 2. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. 3. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. 4.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. 5. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. 6. It appears that no one voted for him. 7. It was suggested that they should meet the President. 8. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. 9. I dont like it that he should be left alone in my flat. 10. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. 11. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. Try to undo the effect of It Extraposition in the following sentences: Activity 2 1. It worried me a bit that she didnt visit her aunt. 2. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. 3. It will be soon announced when you can leave. 4. Is it true that the children are sick? 5. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. 6. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. 7. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. 8. It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. 9. It is no use trying to convince her. 10. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. 11. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. 13. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. 14. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. 15. It is nice to meet you. 16 I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me 17. They considered it very silly of her to
155

Nadina VIAN

have married Bill. 18. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. Comment upon the grammaticality of the following sentences: 1.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. 2. Activity 3 It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. 3. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. 4. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. 5.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. Which of the following sentences are correct? Does tense influence the validity of extraposition? Activity 4 1.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. 2. I guess it that he will come back. 3. They never expected it that he would come back. 4. I dont expect it that he will come back. 5. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. 6.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! Translate into English, paying attention to extraposed that and infinitive clauses: Activity 5 1. Nu era nici o mirare c nuntrul colii stpnea un pronunat spirit schillerian. 2. Cnd se ntmpla s-l vd la capt de uli, m ascundeam n grab, unde se nimerea, dup pori, n gropi, n canal, sub poduri, de-ar fi fost cu putin a fi disprut i n gaur de arpe. 3. Fr ndoial c autoritile vor lua msuri ca s fim evacuai i transportai cine tie unde, zice Lionel. Eu voi cuta s rmn aici la adpostul uniformei mele de ofier, att
156

Unit seven

That complements

ct se va putea. E cert c trupele romne vor nainta repede. 4. Mi s-a prut chiar c, rzbtnd din noianul de fraze searbede sau neroade, cele cteva cuvinte pline de bun-sim rostite de mama au produs o oarecare derut n conversaia general. 5. mi plcea tot ceea ce era firesc n purtarea mamei. Se ntmpla ns ca avnturile ei s fie stvilite de respectul ce-l nutrea pentru conveniile sociale, precum i de urmele lsate de educaia burghez. (Nu ntotdeauna; astfel mi aduc aminte c mama a ndrznit s nu in seama de sfaturile pe care i le-a dat ntreaga familie i c s-a dus s ngrijeasc bolnavii din sat n timpul unei epidemii de tifos, cnd locuia n conacul din La Roque). Educaia burghez se dovedete a fi, fr ndoial, excelent, att timp ct este vorba numai de a ine n fru instinctele rele, dar nu trebuie uitat c tot ea nbue toate pornirile mrinimoase ce nesc din inim. 6. Aadar am crezut de cuviin c cel mai bun lucru pe care l aveam de fcut era s perfecionez armele ce existau atunci. 7. Greu este s poi pstra pn la urm hotrrea nestrmutat de a te ntoarce, hotrre pe care aromele i uitarea ce din ele se va revrsa asupr-i, precum i dorina de a afla i cte altele, vor cuta s o zdruncine. Ar fi desigur imprudent s se trag vreo nvtur din aceste constatri. Spunnd cele ce-am spus, n-am vorbit n calitate de moralist. Nu m numr printre aceia care caut i gsesc pretudindeni Lecii, lecii care din pcate nu-i ajut s devin mai nelepi. Nu fac parte nici din categoria celor ce spun Visez ca vara s dinuie venic i cred c este mai cuminte s te mulumeti, fr s crteti, cu ceea ce i se d.

157

Nadina VIAN

7.1.2. Topicalization Topicalization is the reverse of extraposition: a subject clause which is initially placed in the sentence is said to be topicalized. Compare: (11) (12) That my horse is the best in the world is absolutely evident. It is absolutely evident that my horse is the best in the world. (Este clar ca bun ziua ca armsarul meu este cel mai bun.) (Este clar ca bun ziua ca armsarul meu este cel mai bun.) While in the case of extraposition, subject clauses are the frequent situation, in the case of topicalization, this asymmetry is undone. Consequently, direct object clauses can equally appear topicalized and are by no means less frequent in this situation than subject clauses: (13) That Freddie likes to appear in kids nightmares I cannot deny. (C lui Freddie i place s apar n comarurile copiilor nu pot nega.) Extraposition is the structure that appears much more frequently in English and that is why we consider it to be the unmarked case; since topicalization appears mostly when a writer/speaker wishes to create a special effect of emphasis, we consider topicalization to be the marked case in the language. Pratice Read the following, noticing the effect of topicalization within the literary passages below. Is the phenomenon of topicalization Activity 6 restricted to that complements only? Does it apply to Subject Clauses exclusively? Find counter-arguments in the texts. 1. No wonder Alison had punished her and Matthew thought of
158

Unit seven

That complements

her only as an instrument. That she could still be an instrument might have comforted her once, but not now. 2. That she condemned herself in moral terms brought no consoling spring of vitality and even guilt gave her no energy. When this is so one is in extremity indeed. 3. Whether this despair made it easier or harder to act, whether it would finally carry her off, mere chance would decide. She had always been the slave of chance, let it kill her if it would by a random stroke. 4. This was another era. That he should have sat in his room and penned the letter yesterday, even today, was inconceivable. Austin had been lost in some ancient cataclysm. He was utterly gone. 5. His own confusion and misery were so great that he felt unable to cope with Dorina, he felt no spring of interest in her, he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. To walk by was an expression of his own despair. 6. Why she had originally left Valmorana she had by now forgotten. 7. To return to Valmorana seemed to her like death. To go back there now would be to climb into her coffin. 8. That Dorina should have electrocuted herself with an electric fire on a rainy morning in a small hotel in Bloomsbury made Ludwig feel disgust with himself and the world which was almost mysterious in its intensity. He did not blame Gracie. He did not think that Dorina had done it on purpose. The thing was pure chance and yet weighted with a significance of horror which he could not bear to contemplate. That he had actually seen Dorina on the day that she died and had
159

Nadina VIAN

passed her by was so nightmarish that he felt he would never be able to tell anybody about it. (Iris Murdoch An Accidental Man) 7.1.3. Clause Shift Clause Shift is a syntactic operation that parallels that of Heavy NP Shift. A NP (Noun Phrase) is said to be heavy when it has a large stretch of modifiers accompanying it: for instance the noun phrases the letter or the red letter are much lighter than the noun phrase the letter which he had just read. The rule of Heavy NP Shift stipulates that the heavy NP should be moved to the right and of the sentence foe semantic reasons. Compare: (14) to (15) He threw into the basket the letter which he had just decoded. (A aruncat la co scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase.) The sentence under (15) had undergone heavy NP shift by placing the long NP at the end of the whole structure so that the sentence could be more clearly understood. This rule is in fact an exceptional one in that it challenges the fixed word order rules in English, according to which a verb should not be normally separated from its obligatory complement. Clause Shift is a similar rule to Heavy NP Shift as it allows for the clausal structure to be moved to the right end of the sentence. This syntactic operation differs from extraposition in that there is no pronoun left behind and that He threw the letter which he had just decoded into the basket. (A aruncat scrisoarea pe care abia o descifrase la co.)

160

Unit seven

That complements

clause shift operates only on object clauses. The clausal constituent is moved over an adverb phrase or a prepositional phrase as follows: Since the sentence under (16) is not semantically acceptable, because the adverb phrase quietly may erroneously refer to the last verb phrase in the sentence (i.e. the verb to drive), clause shift operates and the resulting grammatical structure is the one under (17): (16) *Mary said [that she wanted to drive] quietly. (17) Mary said quietly that she wanted to drive. (Mary spuse linitit c vrea s conduc maina.) This way the adverb can no longer have ambiguous interpretation. It is obviously linked to the main clause verb as intended. Let us also supply an example where the clausal structure jumps over prepositional phrase. From the ungrammatical structure under (19) *They wrote that the firm was going bankrupt to the lawyers. we obtain, by means of clause shift: (20) They wrote ti to the lawyers [that the firm was going bankrupt] i (Le-au scris avocailor c firma urma s dea faliment.) I have used the notation ti (trace co-indexed with the that clause) to underline the fact that the clausal structure has been moved in a more semantically advantageous position.

161

Nadina VIAN

Pratice Comment on the following sentences from the point of view of the rule of Heavy NP/Clause Shift discussed above: Activity 7 1.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. 2.Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother. 3.He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. 4.He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh, who had just returned from Africa. /? He appointed Mr Hugh, who had just returned from Africa, prime-minister. / He appointed Mr Hugh primeminister, who had just returned from Africa. 5.They dismissed s unrealistic Mr Hughs proposal to build a new hospital. / They dismissed Mr Hughs proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. 6.? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. 7.*I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public./I found disgraceful Susans behaving like that in public. /I found Susans behaving like that in public disgrace. 8.He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water.

162

Unit seven

That complements

7.2. The Distribuition of That Complements


As it will be shown below, that complements can acquire a whole range of syntactical functions: Subject (Mary e puin enervat de ideea c soul ei ar putea fi Jack Spintectorul.) Direct Object They reported that the bridge had fallen down. (Au raportat c podul s-a prbuit.) Prepositional Object She was aware that her husband was lying to her. (Era contient de faptul c soul ei o minte.) Adverbial She remained at home so that she would look after the kids. (A ramas acas s aib grij de copii.) Predicative The important thing was that nobody knew about it. (Lucrul important era c nimeni nu tia despre asta.) Attribute The report that the bridge had fallen down was not true. (Raportul n care se spune c s-a prbuit podul este fals.) Let us supply a detailed list of verbs or adjectives that require the presence of these complements. We will begin by discussing the context where that complements appear as direct objects, since this is the most frequent function they fulfill.
163

(21) That her husband might be Jack the Ripper slightly annoys Mary.

(22)

(23)

(24)

(25)

(26)

Nadina VIAN

7.2.1. That Complements as Direct Objects Here is a list of classes of verbs after which that complements function as direct objects: a) Simple transitive verbs: such as assert, afirm, consider, deem, judge, estimate, deny, desire, predict, prefer, state, etc.: (25) a. He announced their engagement. (i-a anunat logodna.) b. He announced that they were engaged. (A anunat c sunt logodii.) (27) (28) I really dislike it that he is here. (Extraposed) (M deranjeaz faptul c este aici.) a. They believe that the man is guilty. (Cred c omul este vinovat.) b. They believe the man is guilty. (with that-deletion) (Cred c omul este vinovat.) (29) He asserted forcefully that he was innocent (with Clause Shift) (A susinut cu trie c este nevinovat.) b) Ditransitive verbs such as: say, promise, communicate, explain, suggest, etc. These verbs are called ditransitive because they require two obligatory complements: a direct object and an indirect object: (30) (31) They promised him a new house. They promised him that he would received a new house. (I-au promis o cas nou.) (I-au promis c va primi o cas nou.)

164

Unit seven

That complements

Since the direct object that clause is heavy, it tends to appear in peripheral position by means of several syntactic processes: (32) (33) I explained to Susan that I would be back very late. (Clause Shift) a. I explained it to Susan that I would be back very late. b. He owes it to his father that he became lawyer. (Extraposition) (Faptul c a devenit avocat i-l datoreaz tatlui su.) 7.2.2. That Complements as Subjects a) This position is filled by that complements in combination with a rather limited number of intransitive verbs: seem, appear, happen, turn out, matter, come about, follow, etc.: (34) It appeared that a life could be interesting, amusing, and ultimately (Iris Murdoch, An Accidental Man) (Se prea c o via poate fi interesant, amuzant, i in fine trivial.) Some of these verbs (seem, occur, appear) may optionally be followed by an indirect object: (35) a. It appeared to him that she was lying to him. (I se prea c l minte.) b. It occurred to John that he needed a new car. (i veni ideea c John are nevoie de o maina nou.) The most important thing to notice with this class of intransitive verbs is that only extraposed structures are grammatical: (42)
165

(I-am explicat lui Susan c m voi ntoarce foarte trziu.) (I-am explicat lui Susan c m voi ntoarce foarte trziu.)

trivial.

a. It appears to me that this is a new beginning.

Nadina VIAN

(Mi se pare c acesta este un nou nceput.) b. *That this is a new beginning appears to me. b) adjectives (evaluative adjectives, that express a belief of the speaker): likely, unlikely, certain, sure, etc. clear, possible, probable, appropriate, fair, good, interesting, etc. a. It was in any case obvious that Marriage was Dorinas lot. (Era n orice caz clar c era n firea lucrurilor ca Dorina s fie cstorita.) b. It was not just that Austin was an object of interest because of the Matthew legend. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu conta numai faptul c Austin constituie un obiect de interes din cauza legendarului Matthew.) Sometimes the adjective can appear alone, or without the copula: (37) a. Odd that one should so naturally wish to lie upon ones bed to go to sleep forever. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Ciudat c poi dori cu atta naturalee s te ntinzi n pat i s adormi pe vecie.) b. for a few days I thought it possible that you wanted simply to nerve yourself to break things off. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) ( cteva zile am crezut c e posibil s i doreti pur i simplu s ai curajul s distrugi totul.) Some of these adjectives my take indirect objects: (38) a. That he knew nothing about Poland was obvious to all his friends. (Era clar pentru toi prietenii lui c nu tia nimic despre Polonia.) b. It was obvious to all his friends that he knew nothing about Poland.
166

(36)

Unit seven

That complements

(Era clar pentru toi prietenii lui c nu tia nimic despre Polonia.) b) Nouns that come from the same semantic area as adjectives: problem, idea, impediment, surprize, miracle, pity, wonder, etc. (39) It is a wonder that you werent killed. (E mare minune c nu ai fost ucis.) The noun can appear in isolation, as is illustrated in (40): (40) a. A pity that men were so impatient. (J. Galsworthy Over the River) (Pcat c brbaii sunt aa de lipsii de rbdare.) b. A pity men were so impatient. (that deletion) (J. Galsworthy Over the River) (Pact c brbaii sunt aa de lipsii de rbdare.) d) ing forms (verbal nouns) (41) a. There was no denying that business was rotten. (Nu ncpea nici o urm de ndoial c afacerile mergeau prost.) b. There was no denying business was rotten. (that-deletion) (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (Nu ncpea nici o urm de ndoial c afacerile mergeau prost.) e) psychological transitive verbs : alarm, amaaze, annoy, confuse, please, frighten, interest, pain, relieve, soothe, tempt, trouble, etc.: (42) a. It stirs me that I was thought worthy (M impulsiona faptul c m credeau vrednic.) b. That everybody blames him obviously depresses him. (Faptul c toat lumea d vina pe el l deprim evident.)
167

Nadina VIAN

7.2.3. That Complements as Prepositional Objects It is known that the presence of THAT normally excludes the possibility that a preposition could appear in front of the that complement. We assume that prepositions are dropped in front of that-clauses. We retain however the name prepositional object clause for these particular that-complements because the basic structure it is derived from is a predicate + a preposition: e.g. decide on something > decide that (43) a. She decided on coming here. (S-a hotrt s vin aici.) b. She decided that she would come here. (A hotrt c va veni aici.) In example (43) we consider that the underlined clause functions as a prepositional object required by the verb decide. That complements appear as prepositional objects after: a) simple intransitive prepositional verbs: decide on, pray for, see to, admit of, ask for, brg about, rejoice at, theorize about, vote for,etc.: (44) a. He wondered that she was still there. (S-a mirat c mai este acolo.) b. They voted that the strike should go on. (Au votat s continue greva.) c. You may depend upon it that he will agree with your terms. (Extraposed) (Poti conta pe faptul c va fi de acord cu condiiile tale.)
168

Unit seven

That complements

b) transitive prepositional verbs: advise somebody of, accuse somebody of, blame somebody for, congratulate somebody on ,etc.: (45) He informed them that he would leave. (I-a informat c pleac.) c) the exceptional case of the verb remind somebody of where there is an indirect object present: (46) They reminded him that she should leave. (I-au amintit s plece.) d) adjectives : afraid of, confident in, alarmed at, happy about (47) a. I was afraid that she might not come. (M temeam c s-ar putea s vin.) b. I was fully aware of it that things were so bad. (Extraposed) (mi ddeam perfect seama c lucrurile stteau prost.) 7.2.4. That complements as Predicatives They appear in equative copulative sentences (of the type X is Y or Y is X) when the subject is an abstract nominal such as: fact, idea, statement, claim, reason, etc. : (48) a. The fact is that he cannot join us tomorrow. (Fapt e c nu poate veni cu noi mine.) b. The second reason for my departure was that I didnt love Bill any more. (Al doilea motiv pentru plecarea mea era acela c nu-l mai iubeam pe Bill.)

169

Nadina VIAN

7.2.5. That Complements as Attributes after abstract nouns (idea, fact, etc ) after de-verbal nouns (nouns derived from verb): claim, wish, proposal, etc. : (49) The fact that she is in debt bothers his wife immensely. (Faptul c are datorii o deranjeaz enorm pe nevast-sa.) One has to bear in mind that the examples above contain that complements, not wh-ones. We included that-relative clauses in the larger class of whcomplements (although relative that, just like how, are not wh-words graphically). The examples here contain only that complements and this is explained by the fact that they are required only by nouns that are either abstract, or derived from verbs. Compare the example under (50), where that is replaceable by which (i.e. the book which I gave him), to the one under (51): (50) (51) the book that I gave him (cartea pe care i-am dat-o) the wish that he should return the money. (dorina ca el s napoieze banii) In (51), the that-clause can be seen as the former complement of the verb wish: (52) She wished that he should return the money. (Dorea ca el s napoieze banii.) A further argument against interpreting the that-clause from (51) as a relative clause is the fact that the introductory element cannot be replaced by which in this case:
170

Unit seven

That complements

(53)* the wish which we should return the money. Pratice Which of the following are that-relative clauses and which are complement-clauses? Activity 8 1.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. 2. The idea that he had had earned him good money. 3. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. 4. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. 5. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. 5. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. 7.2.6. That complements as Adverbials Adverbial that clauses can be divided into two classes according to what pattern of subordination they observe: a) the prepositionl phrase model where prepositional phrases are used to introduce that-adverbial clauses: for fear that, on the ground that, in order that, to the end that, in the hope that, in/with the intent that, on purpose that, in event that, on condition that, with a view that, etc.: (54) a. They dislike her on the ground that she is too proud. (O antipatizeaz pe motiv c e prea mndr.) b. They paid her a large salary in the hope that she would stay with them. (I-au dat un salariu mare n sperana c va ramne la ei.)

171

Nadina VIAN

In example (54) the Conjunctive phrases introducing it are formed by means of a prepositional phrase and that. The noun within the prepositional phrase indicates the meaning, the interpretation of the adverbial clause: ground => reason, hope =>purpose. The nouns in these constructions tend to become grammaticalized (i.e. they lose their meaning, become abstract) and that is why they may lose their ability to take determiners and adjectives: we say, for example, on condition that, not *on the condition that exactly because the noun is losing its autonomous meaning and is becoming more and more part of the conjunctive phrase. In older stages of English, prepositions were allowed in front of that-clauses, but nowadays there are very few examples of this kind left: (55) (56) (57) Before that man came I saw you. (this example is a sample of archaic Te-am vazut nainte ca el s vin.) I like him in that he is smart. (this is one of the few examples still used (mi place de el pentru c e detept.) A similar situation is exhibited in: (58) a. now that Charlote had insinuated herself into the flat there was (acum c Charlote se insinuase n apartament nu mai avea unde s o aduc pe Dorina) b. She has everything save that she lacks intelligence. (Nu-i lipsete nimic, cu excepia faptului c nu e inteligent.) nowhere to bring Dorina (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) language, similar to the construction existent in Romanian):

in contemporary English.)

172

Unit seven

That complements

c) adverbial subordination by means of that conjunction phrases where there are no prepositional phrases available: Result: so +adverb/adjective that in this structure the degree word (so, such) is crucial for the grammaticality of the sentence in question: (59) (60) (61) (62) He is so competent a teacher that every student loves him. (Este un profesor att de competent nct toi studenii l iubesc.) *He is a competent teacher that every student loves him. He is such a nice man that women instantly fall for him. (Este un om aa de drgu c femeile se ndrgostesc imediat de el.) *He is a nice man that women instantly fall for him.

That can be deleted, as is shown in the following: (63) He placed his chair by the window so he would see her pass. (i-a pus scaunul lng fereastr, s o vad trecnd.) When the structure contains the word such, the noun following it is deletable: (64) a. His answer was such an answer that we couldnt doubt its wisdom. (Astfel suna rspunsul lui nct nu ne puteam ndoi de nelepciunea sa.) b. His answer was such that we couldnt doubt its wisdom. (Astfel suna rspunsul lui nct nu ne puteam ndoi de nelepciunea sa.) On some occasion SUCH can optionally move: (65) a. He gave such an answer that we couldnt doubt it. (I-a dat un asemenea rspuns c nu ne-am putut ndoi de el.) b. He gave an answer such, that we wouldnt doubt it. (I-a dat un asemenea rspuns nct s nu ne putem ndoi de el.) (66)
173

a. He gave such an answer as had expected.

Nadina VIAN

(I-a dat genul de rspuns pe care l atepta.) b. He gave an answer such that I had expected. (I-a dat un rspuns pe care l atepta.) Pratice Comment on the distribution and syntactic function of the that complements in the following sentences: Activity 9 1.We discovered that our map has disappeared. 2) Was it true that she was ill? 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. 7) The truth is that we havent met them. 8) I am afraid that I have to go now. 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzis arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that, for better or worse, they were chained to each other forever. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.)

174

Unit seven

That complements

7.3 That Deletion


7.3.1. When Can We Delete That? It is impossible to delete that in unextraposed clauses: That he will ever come back is a question still. (nc ne ntrebam dac se va mai ntoarce.) (68) * he will ever come back is a question still.

(67)

That deletion is more acceptable if the verb/adjective/noun requiring the complement clause is a frequently used item or if it is frequent in combination with that-clauses.

(69)

a. He showed he was able to do it. (A dovedit c poate s fac asta.) b. He got word they were coming. (A prins de veste c ei vin.) c. He said he had borrowed her money. (A spus c a mprumutat bani de la ea.)

The omission of that is an indication that the speaker does not want to be formal, that he uses a relaxed tone. If the verb in question is not a very frequently used one (like, for instance, say, tell), omission of that is impossible: (70) *He objected it was already too late to leave.

175

Nadina VIAN

7.3.2. When is That Obligatory? That can be deleted if it follows the main verb/adjective/noun directly, but it is usually required if the complement clause is separated from the main verb by intervening material: (71) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that,

for better or worse, they were chained to each other forever. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) (De asemenea, condusese la certitudinea c trebuiau s fie mpreun i c, bune, rele, erau legai pe veci unul de cellalt.) (72) *It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and, for better or worse, they were chained to each other forever. In example (71) we interpret the last clause as being coordinated with the main clause not with the first that clause, because that has been deleted. That deletion is blocked if an object clause has been extraposed: a. I like it that he was here. (mi place c e aici.) b. *I like it he was here. 7.3.3. When is That Deletion Obligatory? That deletion is absolutely obligatory if the subject of the complement clause is questioned or relativized. You say: (73) Who did you say was coming? (Cine spui c a venit?)
176

(73)

Unit seven

That complements

But you can never say: (74) *Who did you say that was coming?

This is explainable by the fact that who is the subject of the that clause. The presence of that can lead to a double subject construction, which is ungrammatical in English. Pratice Delete that where possible: 1)I didnt get the message that they were coming. 2) They Activity 10 chortled that it was only a joke. 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. 4) I hate it that you wont be with me. 5) Where would you guess that he went? (Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go?) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. 7) They maintain, you want me to believe, that they were not too late to leave. 8) I reminded them that they had to leave.

7.4. The Sequence of Tenses in Object That Clauses


The tenses in complement clauses are oriented towards the tenses of the main clause, thus showing the temporal relation (anteriority, simultaneity, posteriority) holding between the actions of the main and the subordinate clause. The changes in the embedded clause are as follows: Present ----- Past (75) a) She is there, he said. (Este acolo, spuse el.) b)He told me that she was there. (Mi-a spus c ea este acolo.)
177

Nadina VIAN

Past Present Perfect Past Perfect (76) a. She was here, he said. (Era acolo, spuse el.) b. He told me that she had been there. (Mi-a spus c a fost acolo.) Future ------- Future in the Past (77) a. I will leave her. (Am s o prsesc.) b. He said he would leave her. (A spus c o s o prseasc.) Future Perfect ------Future Perfect in the Past (78) a. He will have arrived by the time she leaves. (Pna s plece, vine el.) b. He said he would have arrived by the time she left. (A spus c, pn pleac ea, o s vin el.) Let us discuss those particular cases when these rules are optional: 1. The Present complement). In the example below, the verb realize is said to be a factive verb, exactly because the complement clause required by this verb is interpreted as true.
178

Past Perfect

----- Past

rule can be optional with the so-called

FACTIVE verbs (namely verbs that presuppose the truth of their

Unit seven

That complements

And this important thing is demonstrated by the fact that even if we negate the main clause, the truth value of the complement clause remains the same. Consider the following: (79) (80) I realize that he is a genius. (mi dau seama c este un geniu.) I dont realize that he is a genius (that means still that he is a genius, realize it). only I dont

The implication one can derive from both examples is that he is a genius and this fact holds true irrespective of the polarity of the main clause. This is what verifies the factivity of the main verb. With such factive verbs as realize, forget, mention, regret, discover, show, notice, be amazed/concerned, say, report, etc. the rule of the sequence of tenses Present --- Past is optional: (81) a. Bill reported that coconuts grew high upon trees. (Bill a anunat c nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus n copac.) b. Bill reported that coconuts grow high upon trees. (Bill a anunat c nucile de cocos sunt situate foarte sus n copac.) On the other hand, there is a whole range on verbs that require that the rule should be observed: know, be aware, think, believe, dream, wish, hope, insist, whisper,etc. (82) It seemed/was likely/possible/unfortunate that the new leader of the

group was/*is an undercover agent. (Prea / era probabil/ posibil/ neplcut c noul conducator al grupului era agent secret.)

179

Nadina VIAN

If we consider this rule outside the domain of that complements, we notice that general truths, expressed by the Generic Present are normally preserved in the present even if they can be found right in the middle of a narration: (83) It was and was not like the first day of the honeymoon when the newly

married pair, in tender deference to each other, feign habits which are not their own. (Iris Murdoch, The Black Prince) (Era i nu era ca n prima zi a lunii de miere cnd perechea proaspt cstorit, cu un respect tandru reciproc, simuleaz obiceiuri care nu le aparin.) The Past Tense imposes itself when the action it expresses is relevant to some point in the past, with which the speaker does not wish to identify himself: (84) a. She still believed that the earth was flat. (Ea tot mai credea c pmntul este plat.) b. She believed that the earth is round. (Ea tot mai credea c pmntul este rotund.) In (84a) The Past is used to show that the speaker does not agree with what the character she considers to be a general truth. Consider also: (85) a. She realized that all men are fools. (i-a dat seama c toti brbaii sunt niste proti.) b. He knew that she thought all men were fools. (tia c ea crede c toi brbaii sunt nite proti.) In (85b) he disagrees with her opinion and that is why Past Tense is used.

180

Unit seven

That complements

2.) The rule Past ----- Past Perfect is sometimes disregarded in certain complements which contain a non-durative, simple Past Tense (that) cannot be seen as simultaneous with the verb in the main clause: (86) a. She suspected that Bill had left before the police arrived. (Ea bnuia c Bill plecase nainte s soseasc poliia.) b. She suspected that Bill left before the police arrived. (Ea bnuia c Bill a plecat nainte s soseasc poliia.) Both sentences are grammatical and the presence of the adverbial clause before the police arrived contributes to the optional character of the rule, since it indicates that the event of Bills leaving is anterior to the arrival of the police. Compare the example under (87) to the next one: (87) She suspected that Bill had been there. (Bnuia c Bill fusese pe acolo.) In (88), the durative character of the verb be makes it impossible for the rule to be broken: (88) She suspected the Bill was here. (Bnuia c Bill este acolo.) In this case the meaning of the sentence is changed. (87) shows the anteriority of Bills being there whereas (88) shows that the two events suspect and be there are simultaneous. 3. Future ----- Future in the Past this rule is rarely optional. There are however cases, such as (89) a. Peter said that John would leave at 5. (Peter a spus c John o s plece la 5.) b. Peter said that John will leave at 5.
181

Nadina VIAN

(Peter a spus c John o s plece la 5.) In (89b) the sequence of tenses is not observed because for us it isnt yet 5 oclock. Imagine, for instance, that you are uttering this sentence in front of your friend. The time is 3 oclock. Of course in this case you will use the Simple Future instead of the Future in the Past. Pratice Comment on the auxiliary in the complement clause: a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. b) John heard that Mary Activity 11 was pregnant. c) John said that Harry is leaving. d) John said that Harry was leaving. John said that Harry will leave. f) John said that Harry would leave. g) John thought that Harry ran. h) John thought that Harry had run. b) a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. c) a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. d) a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. e) I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. f) a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. g) Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. But
182

Unit seven

That complements

John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. h) John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. a. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. b. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. c. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. Translate the following, paying attention to any violation of the Sequence of Tenses rules discussed above. Comment on them: Activity 12 A) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck, geese both grey and white, whistling swan, nighthawk, bluebird, jaybird, quail, lark, kingfisher, Coopers hawk, redtailed hawk. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town, finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where theyve been and what theyve done while shed stayed right here. B) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky, Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow, finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. She noted with disapproval that many a bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. Crows will relish what presents itself. She admired their keenness of wit, lack of pridefulness, love of practical jokes, slyness in a fight. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow, which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy, as evidenced by its drear plumage.

183

Nadina VIAN

C) Their talk turned to the war and its effects, and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years, which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle, its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. It was fought as they all were lately against dreadful odds. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion, a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. A companion stooped and cradled his head to soothe his dying. But as the battle raged around them, the young officer, in the very act of expiring, rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. He died erect, with the hammer snapping on empty loads. [] During the latter stages of the tale, Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips, but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. D) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher, and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. He had fought hard through the war, he claimed. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at Williamsburg. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting, and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. Now here he stood jailed. And they might just hang him, war hero though he was. (Charles Frazier Cold Mountain)

184

Unit seven

That complements

7.5 Key Concepts


That complements differ from that relatives in that they appear as required by a verb, adjective or by a de-verbal noun. The most important syntactic properties these complements exhibit are extraposition (by means of which the clause is placed at the end of the sentence and announced by the pronoun it), topicalization (the reverse of extraposition and a means of emphasis) and clause shift (a syntactic operation of placing the clause at the end of the sentence when the main clause contains, adverbial or prepositional phrases related to the main clause verb). A very important point to make here is that these syntactic operations are shared by that-clauses with other complement clauses (such as TO-infinitives or wh-complements). That-complements can hold any sort of syntactical function, from the very frequent subject, object ones up to the attributive function, which they share with wh-complements. On certain occasions that can be deleted, on other occasions it has to stay there, or else. That object clauses normally observe the rules of the sequence of tenses with a few (significant) exceptions.

185

Nadina VIAN

Pratice Translate the following by making use of the information on thatcomplements supplied in this section: Activity 13* 1. Cnd m-a vzut a nchis albumul, a srit de pe banc i a alergat spre mine. Dar cnd a ajuns n faa mea mi-am dat seama c nu-i pot spune vestea cea mare. Cum i explici aceasta? M-am sfiit. tiam c orice cuvinte a alege acelea nar fi putut cuprinde tot ce voiam s-i spun i nici fericirea c venise clipa s-i anunt ce-aveam de anunat. 2. Mama, peste puin, s-a dus acas i eu am rmas singur s termin desenul. Regretam c m-a lsat singur. Cci presimeam c mi se va ntmpla ceva neplcut. Cnd au vzut c mama a plecat, bieii s-au adunat n jurul bncii mele. i ineau minile n buzunare. Unul din ei, cel mai mare, cred c avea vreo aptesprezece-otsprezece ani, avea albea la un ochi i purta un tricou albastru de marinar. Prul rar i era plin de mtrea. 3. l privi uimit i cu toate c din cauza ntunericului nu-i vedea chipul distingea totui c tremur i nu tiu dac s rd c pentru a-i face o asemenea declaraie o deteptase n puterea nopii, ori sa se team de turbarea lui, care l mpinsese la un asemenea gest bizar, neconvenabil i primejdios. Totui sfrli prin a se simi bine la ideea c d att pre prerilor sale i ncerc dorina tandr de a-l liniti, de a-i arta c ia prea mult n seam nite ruti fr consecin. Uit ora i situaia scandaloas. 4. Totui trebuie s tii, spuse domnul Albu la urechea lui Matei, c nu se vorbete att de mult cu sora Angelei. Fiind
186

Unit seven

That complements

de o idioie celebr, s-ar putea interpreta c i-ai cutat lng ea un refugiu. 5. Se temu c mrturisirea pe care i-o fcuse el pornea din orgoliu i regret susceptibilitatea lui. Totui era curios c el se gndise c, nvinuindu-se de lucruri att de neplcute, va fi mai interesant pentru ea. 6. Abia prinse de veste cnd ea l prsi i nu se ntreb de ce venise, dac va mai veni. Simplul fapt c ea fusese acolo l stpnea ca o beie. Se mira, fericit, de ce constata n sine. Toate simurile i se ascuiser, cptase deodat puterea de a vedea consistent, luminos i apropiat i cnd, venind de la avocat, ea, care l pndise, i strecur n mn un bilet n care citi c, cel puin pentru un timp, trebuie s nu se mai vad pentru a nu cdea amndoi prad unei iluzii vulgare ce i-ar putea costa nespus de mult i c, tiind c el nu ar izbuti s se opreasc de a o cuta, va pleca din ora la vie, pentru o edere mai ndelungat care le va face bine amndurora, nu nelese nici de data asta dect c ea i-a scris, c ine n mn o hrtie care fusese n mna ei i peste care se aplecase gndindu-se la el. 7. Lui Matei i se pru c mama tie mai multe despre motivele plecrii Dorei la vie ns i fu cu neputin s o ntrebe ce tie anume. 8. Ultima dat cnd ne-am vzut aci m-ai speriat pretinznd c nu ai nici o ambiie pentru viitor. tii c nu-i deloc frumos pentru un tnr ca tine s nu fie ambiios, s nu aib un ideal? Cred c nu mi-ai spus adevrul. 9. Nu i-a trecut, aa, niciodat prin minte c trebuie s ajungi un Pasteur sau un Alexandru cel Mare, un vis de acesta
187

Nadina VIAN

nebunesc i nflcrat pentru realizarea cruia s-i dedici toat viaa? () Matei socoti c e mai nelept s bat n retragere.(Radu Petrescu Matei Iliescu) 10. Lud apoi ideea cea nou de a face o fabric, spunnd c se cunoate numaidect isteimea gndirii tinereti i nrurirea strintii. Lui i btrnului nu le-ar fi dat niciodat prin minte aa ceva! dar bucuria cea mare Urmatecu a pstrat s i-o arate n cuvinte calde pentru faptul c Bubi a simit chemarea i datoria de a lua parte la munca i rspunderea lor. 11. ncntarea lui Bubi pentru neateptata lui nelegere era att de mare, nct nu a bgat de seam nici iscodirea, nici batjocura lui Urmatecu. Dac pn n cele din urm va avea ntreaga lui nelegere, aceasta nsemna c tatlui su nu-i mai rmnea dect s aprobe. Astfel de va fi, lucrul era nfptuit, iar el ieea biruitor! Ceea ce nu simea ns Bubi n aceast alunecare era c el nu luptase cu Urmatecu aa cum dorise, ci c se svrise aproape totul prin voina celuilalt. i mai ales ceea ce n-a aflat (pentru c fusese fcut cu adevrat cunoatere de oameni i mprejurri) a fost nvluirea n care se gsea acum bine, tocmai pentru c avea toate colurile unei potrivnicii roase de viclenia lui Iancu. Acesta, linitit, urmrea un gnd ce i se mpletea n minte. 12. La ceea ce m gndesc, firete, e c n-avem ce face cu moioarele astea! Pe ele le vinzi sau nu le vinzi! 13. Erau aci i bucuria c a scpat cu bine, i mndria c a biruit, dar i teama c, nc o dat, cu tatl su i cu noua chestiune a ipotecii poate c nu ar avea att noroc. Apoi Bubi era i
188

Unit seven

That complements

obosit de ncordare i de emoii. Pe toate, Urmatecu le-a citit n el i a zmbit. Ceea ce ns I-a rmas nedescoperit a fost nerbdarea din sufletul tnrului, care ntr-adevr l mna n tain, mai puternic dect oricnd, spre Jurubia, unde alerga s mrturiseasc totul. Bubi era ncredinat c ei I se cuvine ntreaga spovedanie, dup cum, pe drumul acesta al marilor sinceriti de care avea nevoie, simea c se apropie tot mai mult de ea. 14. A doua zi de diminea a venit veste de la spital c Dorodan a murit. Urmatecu a chibzuit cteva clipe cum e mai bine s fac. i n cele din urm s-a hotrt s trimit pe cineva la btrnul baron, fr o vorb scris, ci numai aa, s duc vestea din gur i s o spun oricui, lsnd s se neleag c o s vin i el pe curnd, s le lmureasc pe toate. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu Sfrit de veac n Bucureti)

189

Nadina VIAN

190

EIGHT INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS


Aim of this unit: Objectives: to provide a classification of infinitive structures by employing several distinct criteria to provide students with useful information on infinitive structures that will help them correctly use and identify these structures.

191

8.1.What Are Infinitive Complements 8.2.A Classification of Infinitives 8.3.The Distribution of PRO-TO Constructions

Contents:
192

8.4.The Distribution of FOR-TO Constructions 8.5.Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and For-TO Constructions 8.6.Verbs of Obligatory Control 8.7.The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction 8.8.The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction 8.9.Key Concepts

Unit eight

Infinitive complements

8.1. What Are Infinitive Complements


Infinitive complements can be integrated into: 1. complement clauses (if we consider them from a structural point of view see section 4 for further details). From this perspective, infinitive complements are part of the same class as that-complements: (1) a. I told her that she should be more careful in the future. (I-am spus s fie mai atent pe viitor). b. I told her to be more careful in the future. (I-am spus s fie mai atent pe viitor) One can easily notice the similarities existing between the two constructions, and the relatively synonymous dimension the two structures have. There are data that can be interpreted as arguments for this view (that infinitive and that complements share a lot of similar features). Consider the following: like that complements, infinitive ones can be extraposed: (E important s tii ce i trebuie.) b. It is important for you to know what you need. (E important s tii ce i trebuie.) like that complements, infinitive ones can be topicalized: (E minunat c o iubeti.) b. To love her is something really wonderful. (A o iubi pe ea este ceva de-a dreptul minunat). (2) a. It is important that you should know what you need.

(3) a. That you love her is something wonderful.

193

Nadina VIAN

like that complements, infinitive ones can be subject to the rule of clause shift:

(4) a. She wished with all her heart that every man in the universe should stay away from her. (i dorea din tot sufletul ca toi brbaii de pe lume s stea departe de ea.) b. She wished with all her heart to be left alone by every man in the universe. (i dorea din tot sufletul s fie lsat n pace de toi brbaii de pe pmnt) c. * She wished that every man in the universe should stay away from her with all her heart. d. * She wished to be left alone by every man in the universe with all her heart. 2. non-finite mood structures (if we look at what kind of mood the verb inside the construction has) From this point of view, we distinguish between: finite moods (such as the Indicative, the Conditional, the Subjunctive) (in Romanian we call these moods moduri personale) non-finite moods (such as the Infinitive, the Gerund, the Participle) (i.e. moduri nepersonale) By convention, English grammar analyses non-finite structures as clauses, that can hold a syntactical function within the complex sentence (so, when one provides the syntactical analysis of a complex sentence, they will distinguish between infinitival clauses, gerundial clauses, participial clauses, etc.) The main characteristic exhibited by non-finite structures, as opposed to the finite ones, is the fact that they do not have temporal features. For instance,
194

Unit eight

Infinitive complements

the phrase to go there or going there does not express an event that is anchored in a certain time. The speaker cannot tell for sure when these events of going there happened. The only features these constructions still have are the aspectual features and that is why one can notice that the Infinitive has four tenses: present : to leave perfect: to have left continuous or progressive : to be leaving perfect continuous or perfect progressive: to have been leaving

Here are a few examples with these forms: (5) a. To have succumbed to such base passions was a shame indeed. (Era ruinos c s-a lsat prad unor pasiuni att de josnice.) b. They are known to be doing all sorts of vile things. (Se tie c se ndeletnicesc cu tot felul de lucruri urte.) c. He knew her to have been knitting a scarf for a year. (tia c croeteaz un fular de un an de zile) Due to this lack of temporal features, the infinitive construction is often subjectless (because normally the subject needs the Nominative case and the infinitive cannot assign it since there are no temporal and personal features associated with it. If the verb form has no temporal and personal features, namely no ending, it cannot be in agreement with the subject and cannot assign it the Nominative case.)

195

Nadina VIAN

Pratice Look at the following sentences and comment upon a) the tense of the infinitive b) the grammaticality of the sentence: Activity 1 1.She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. 2. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. 3. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. 4. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. 5. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. 6. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susans birthday. 7. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. 8. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. 9. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. 10. It is vital this factory to be reopened.

8.2. A Classification of Infinitives


There are three criteria we shall employ in this classification: 1. the criterion of form, according to which there are long or full infinitive forms: (I-au spus sa plece.) short or bare infinitive forms: (Au vzut-o plecnd.) The verbs that normally require the bare infinitive are:
196

(6) They told her to leave.

(7) They saw her leave.

Modal verbs: he can come any time Make : he made her smile

Unit eight

Infinitive complements

Let: he let her go Help (optionally): he helped her climb the stairs Have (with the meaning to cause somebody to do something): he had her clear the table Perception verbs such as see, hear, watch: they watched him cry

An important thing to remember here is that by passivization, the bare infinitive becomes a full form: (8) She was made to go there. (A fost forat s se duc acolo.) The only verb that does not follow this rule is let: (9) The grass was let grow. (Iarba era / a fost lsat s creasc.) Pratice Translate the following sentences: M-au pus s-l duc pe Tom la coal. / Eram deseori lsat s plec Activity 2 de acas. / Au vzut-o c pleaca. / I-a ajutat s ridice pachetul acela greu. / L-a observat cum mnnc un pachet ntreg de ciocolat. / A fost obligat s l trimit pe Tom pe front. / A pus-o pe Maria s i fac curat n camer. / A obligat-o pe Maria s i fac curat n dormitor. / L-au auzit cum a cntat dou cntece patriotice. 2. according to whether an adverb appears between to and the infinitive, we can distinguish between: unsplit infinitive She likes to look at the painting often. (10)
197

Nadina VIAN

(i place s se uite adesea la tablou.) Split infinitive (or the Star Trek infinitive) She likes to often look at the painting. (i place s se uite adesea la tablou.) (12) Captain Picard wanted Starship Enterprise to boldly go and explore (Cpitanul Picard dorea ca nava Starship Enterprise sa ptrunda cu avnt i s explore universul.) For a long period English grammarians considered the Split Infinitive to be a not very elegant construction, uncharacteristic for literary English. However, this structure is more and more frequent in every-day language and is no longer considered so inelegant, although it is still seen as typical of relaxed speech. Pratice Translate the following, trying to use the Split Infinitive: Vrea s fie ntr-adevr recunoscut pe plan mondial. / A plecat n Activity 3 strintate ca s nvee mai bine metodele moderne de educaie. / A fi n mod stupid tentat s i vinzi locuina pe un pre de nimic este exact lucrul de care ne temem cu toii. / Ceea ce s-a ntmplat i-a forat s devin pe dat contieni de problemele existente. / Nu vreau s te mai vd niciodat./ Pentru a nelege pe deplin ce scrie n carte, trebuie s te concentrezi un pic mai mult. 3. the third criterion of classification refers to the way in which the logical subject of the infinitive is treated (I underlined the phrase logical subject,
198

(11)

the universe.

Unit eight

Infinitive complements

because, as I have already mentioned, we cannot speak about a syntactical subject inside the infinitive, since its lack of temporal features precludes the assignment of the Nominative case see previous subsection.) From this point of view we can distinguish between: Infinitives where the logical subject is not lexically overt: Harry tried __ to leave. (13)

We place a gap between the main clause verb and the infinitive to show that the agent of the action expressed by the infinitive is not expressed. By convention we can name the missing logical subject PRO, that is something that stands for an item missing: (14) Harry tried PRO to leave.

Further on, we can co-index the subject Harry with the PRO form, so as to show that it is in fact Harry that performs the action expressed by the infinitive: (15) Harryi tried PROi to leave.

In other words, to use the appropriate technical term, we say that the subject Harry controls the logical covert subject for which we have used the notation PRO: Harry is the controller of PRO. Since we have used the notation PRO for the logical unexpressed subject of the infinitive, we call this class of infinitival clauses the PRO-TO constructions, or the control constructions.

199

Nadina VIAN

Infinitives where the logical subject is lexically expressed in the form of a prepositional phrase introduced by the preposition FOR. That is why this class of infinitival constructions is called the FOR TO infinitives:

(16)

It is important for him to come back home. (E important ca el s se ntoarc acas.)

In this situation, the logical subject, namely the agent of the event, gets its case from the preposition for and can appear in the clause. So far, we have mentioned the control construction and the for-TO construction. What is it that they have in common? a) the fact that they are not required by a certain class of verbs in the main clause b) both of them can hold practically the same syntactical function, as is demonstrated below: Subject: (17) a. PRO to err is human, PRO to forgive divine. (E omenete s greeti, i cretinete s ieri.) b. It is important for him not to err. (E important ca el s nu greeasc.) Object: (18) a. He tried PRO to persuade her of his innocence. (A ncercat s o conving c este nevinovat.) b. I hoped for him to be there in time. (Am sperat ca el s vina la timp.)

200

Unit eight

Infinitive complements

Adjunct: (19) a. He bought a new house PRO to please his nagging wife. (A cumprat o cas nou ca s o mulumeasc pe ciclitoarea lui nevast.) b. He stepped aside for her to enter. (S-a dat la o parte ca s i fac loc s intre.) The Accusative + Infinitive construction , where the logical subject of the infinitive is in the Accusative and required by the main clause verb wherefrom it gets its case: (20) I believe him to be a good linguist. (Cred c este un lingvist competent.) The interesting thing with this class of infinitives and in fact the reason why they are so called is that the direct object of the main clause verb is in reality the logical subject of the infinitive. In other words, the pronoun him gets the Accusative from the verb believe but it is the agent of the verb phrase to be a good linguist. We must distinguish between such examples as that under (20) and the following one: (21) I persuaded him to be a better linguist. (L-am convins s fie un lingvist mai bun.) What is the difference between two examples that look so similar? The distinction lies in the fact that in (21), him is not the agent of the infinitive, but the patient of the verb persuade. Semantically, him is related to the main clause verb, not to the infinitive. The second example is not an accusative + infinitive structure, but a PRO-TO one:
201

Nadina VIAN

(22)

I persuaded himi PROi to be a better linguist.

Also consider the following examples: (23) (24) I want animals to be tortured. I hate animals to be tortured. (Vreau ca animalele s fie chinuite) (Nu suport ca animalele s fie chinuite.) A good test by means of which you can decide which of these examples is an accusative + infinitive construction and which is a PRO-TO one is that of inference: for instance, from example (20) you cannot infer the sentence I believe him, whereas example (22) implies I persuaded him. This fact indicates that in the first case him was rightfully part of the infinitival construction, but in the second case it belonged with the main clause verb persuade. Likewise, from (23) you hopefully cannot infer I want animals, nor can you infer from (24) that you hate animals. This means that both (23) and (24) are accusative + infinitive structures, since the direct object animals does not semantically belong with the main clause verbs, but with the infinitive in the subordinate. Pratice Distinguish between the following infinitive structures. Which are accusative + infinitive ones and which are control Activity 4 constructions? I would like people to visit me every day. \ She wanted him to leave. \ She promised him to leave. \ They tempted him to leave. \ I would love them to come. \ I allowed them to come. \ He persuaded her to come. \ They convinced her to come back. \
202

Unit eight

Infinitive complements

They would have hated her to come back. \ They really asked her to come back. \ They did not wish her to come back. Last but not least, there is the Nominative + Infinitive construction, so called because the syntactical subject in the main clause is in fact the logical subject of the infinitive. Since this item cannot get case from the infinitive it goes back to get the Nominative from the main clause verb: (25) (26) He appears to be a good linguist. (Pare s fie un lingvist bun.) He seems to be a good linguist. (Pare s fie un lingvist bun.) In examples (25) and (26), the subject is not the agent of the main clause verb, hence you cannot infer something like: he appears or he seems. But it is clear that he is a good linguist. This means that the subject he is in fact related to the infinitive verb not to the indicative one. Compare these examples to: (27) I managed to get a good job. (Am reuit s obin o slujb bun.) where the subject I is the agent of the main clause verb, and wherefrom you can infer a sentence like I managed something. So, this example contains a PRO TO infinitive: (28) Ii managed PROi to get a good job. What is it that these last two classes of infinitive structures have in common? a) First, it is the fact that both of them borrow items from the main clause to round up their meaning.

203

Nadina VIAN

b) Second, both of these constructions appear only with certain main clause verbs, with special semantic and syntactic properties. In that they differ from the first two classes discussed above, which are said to be free, that is not required by certain verbs. The last two structures are said to be lexically governed because they are required by special verbs (such as want, seem, hate, appear, etc.). To sum up the discussion, here is a diagram that will help you to remember these classes more easily: INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS Free Control constructions to meet her. Pratice Translate the following sentences, bearing in mind that there are different classes of infinitival structures: Activity 5 Se pare c a jefuit toate bncile din vecintate. / Se tie c a ncercat s se sinucid. / Se crede c a sedus-o pe fata milionarului care sta lng noi. / Asasinul necunoscut se pare c a mai comis o crim la etajul 6. / Era important ca el s asculte toat mrturia ei. / E de dorit s vin i s recunoasc faptul c sunt vinovai. / Nu-i prea trziu s nvee. /I-am nvat s vorbeasc corect i s scrie fr greeli./ Se presupune c o cunoate de un car de ani. / N-am tiut niciodat s m port cum trebuie n faa ei. / Vreau s-i spun ce cred despre tine. / Vreau FOR-TO constructions Lexically governed Accusative infinitive + Nominative infinitive admire her. +

They came PRO It is good for They wanted him He is known to him to meet her. to meet her.

204

Unit eight

Infinitive complements

s pleci din casa mea. / E greu s l supori./ S-a ntmplat s fie prin apropiere, aa c am invitat-o s bea o cafea.

8.3 The Distribution of PRO - TO Constructions


In this subsection we discuss which are the most likely contexts in which these structures appear: a) verbs that imply the idea of responsibility and control: attempt, fail, try, manage, agree to, aspire to, seek (= try), endeavour, contrive, refuse, decline, condescend, deign, presume, venture, arrange, omit, scheme, care to, etc. (28) Hei sought PROi to find out the truth about Freddie Mercurys death. (A cutat sa afle adevrul despre condiiile n care a murit Freddie Mercury.) b) verbs such as abide, bear, afford, deserve, need, scorn, etc.: (29) Ii cannot abide PROi to see such cruelty. (Nu pot suporta s vd asemenea cruzime.) c) verbs of liking and disliking: choose, desire, expect, like, dislike, intend, mean, hate, prefer, propose, want, wish, hope, etc.: (30) Shei wanted PROi to become a famous opera singer. (Dorea s ajung o cntrea de oper renumit.) Some of these verbs accept an accusative + infinitive variant as well. Compare: (31) a. Shei expected PROi to receive an expensive gift from her boy(Se atepta s primeasc un cadou scump din partea prietenului ei.)
205

friend.

Nadina VIAN

b. She expected her boyfriend to give her an expensive present. (Se atepta ca prietenul ei s-i fac un cadou costisitor.) Some of these verbs also allow a FOR-TO construction or a that clause: (32) a. I would like for him to become president of the country. (Mi-ar plcea s ajung preedintele rii.) b. I hate that you should say a thing like this. (mi pare ru s aud aa ceva.) d) verbs of mental state and linguistic communication: remember, forget, ask, conclude, claim, threaten, suggest,etc. Most of these verbs allow alternative that constructions: (33) a. I remembered that I had to go to the post office. (Mi-am amintit c trebuie s m duc la pot.) b. Ii remembered PROi to go to the post office. (Mi-am amintit s m duc la pot.)

8.4 The Distribution of FOR TO Constructions


These structures normally appear in combination with intransitive verbs or adjectives: arrange, endeavour, verbs of liking and disliking, bear, stand, be important, possible, desirable, etc. The complement clause is usually extraposed: (34) a. For all of them to have been killed is, however, unlikely. (Ca ei toi s fie omori este puin probabil.) b. It is however unlikely for all of them to have been killed. (Este puin probabil ca ei toi s fie omori.)

206

Unit eight

Infinitive complements

The logical subject of the FOR-TO construction can be also represented by the expletive there subject as well: (35) It is impossible for there to be a war between your country and mine. (E imposibil s existe un rzboi ntre ara mea i a ta.)

8.5 Syntactic Functions of PRO-TO and FOR-TO Constructions


1. Subject Clauses In this category we can mention the less frequent cases, where PRO is coindexed with a nominal in the main clause: (36) It was nice of youi PROi to allow me to come here. (A fost amabil din partea ta s-mi dai voie s vin aici.) The more frequent situation is when PRO is interpreted generically: (37) PRO to love ones parents so deeply is a natural thing. ( Este un lucru natural s-i iubeti prinii att de mult.) The generic interpretation of PRO is also supported by the presence of the generic pronoun one within the infinitive. The most frequently met subject FOR-TO infinitives are those extraposed: (38) It was important for them to be there. (Era important ca ei s fie acolo.) 2. Predicative Clauses (39) a. The tendency was for the instructions to be more detailed. (Exista tendina ca instruciunile s fie mai detailate.) b. Ouri task is PROi to investigate the details of this case. (Sarcina noastr este s investigm detaliile legate de acest caz.)
207

Nadina VIAN

3. Direct Objects (39) a. I meant for him to be alone with her tonight. (Am vrut ca el s rmn singur cu ea n seara asta.) b. Ii would love PROi to listen to this concert. (Mi-ar plcea foarte mult s ascult acest concert.) 4. Prepositional Objects They appear after verbs or adjectives which normally select Prepositional complements. Like in the case of that complements, the preposition is deleted, but the meaning remains; this is why we call these objects prepositional objects: (40) a. I decided for John to represent us. (Am hotrt s ne reprezinte John.) b. Ii am curious PROi to see whether they will come on time. (Sunt curios s vd dac vor sosi la timp.) 5. Attribute This situation happens with: a) relative infinitive constructions (40) They bought her a book with which PROi to step on the path of (I-au cumprat o carte cu ajutorul creia s peasc pe drumul cunoaterii.) b) complement constructions (after abstract nouns derived from verbs or adjectives) (41) Myi attempt PROi to escape her was a failure. (ncercarea mea de a scpa de ea s-a soldat cu un eec.)
208

knowledge.

Unit eight

Infinitive complements

The distinction between relative infinitives and complement infinitives is similar with the one we made between relative clauses and complement clauses in a previous section. 6. Adverbial Here we can notice several different cases: a) when the infinitive functions as a restrictive modifier the infinitive is viewed as an adverbial, not as an object because adjectives (or nouns) such as pretty, delicious, bastard do not normally require a prepositional object after them like in the case of adjectives like aware of, curious about, etc.: (42) a. She is pretty to look at.

(Este o fat care i bucur ochii.) b. The stew is delicious to eat. (Tocana e foarte bun la gust.) c. He is a bastard to work for. (Este un ef care te pune la munc din zori pna n sear.) d. Youre an idiot to go there. (Eti un prost dac te duci acolo.) e. This paint is like concrete to work with. (Vopseaua asta este tare ca betonul.) b) adverbial of purpose (the most common function met with adverbial infinitives) (43) Ii slapped him PROi in order to calm him down. (I-am tras o palm ca s l calmez.) c) adverbial of result
209

Nadina VIAN

(44) (45)

The plate was too hot to touch. (Farfuria era prea fierbinte ca s poat fi atins.) Will you be so kind as to give me the plate?

(Eti asa drgu s mi dai farfuria?) d) exclamatory, final or introductory infinitive In this case, the infinitive is an independent clause: (46) (47) (48) To be perfectly frank, youre a bad driver. (introductory) (S-i spun drept, conduci prost.) Ive never met him, to tell you the truth. (final) (Nu-l cunosc, drept s spun.) Oh, to be young again! (exclamative) (Ehei, s fii iari tnr!) Pratice Translate the following sentences, trying to use the PRO-TO or FOR-TO infinitives with the syntactical functions discussed Activity 6 above: Oh, cnd te gndeti c pe vremuri tia s cnte aa de frumos la vioar! / Iarba era prea ud ca s stai pe ea./ Este indicat ca persoanele fr paaport s se prezinte la poliie. / E destul de bogat s-i permit o blan i o main nou. / Ehei, s mai fii tnr i s te poi bucura din plin de via/ i-a cumprat bilet din timp, s nu piard trenul. / E ntr-att de lipsit de inim nct e capabil s nu i mai dea banii pentru apartament. / Nu-i chiar att de btrn nct s nu o ia de la capt. / Pe leau, nu mai am nevoie de tine i nici de serviciile tale. / Ca s nu mai lungim
210

Unit eight

Infinitive complements

vorba, nu mai vreau s te vad. / S-a ntors din cltorie doar ca s dea de nevast-sa ntr-o poziie compromitoare. / Am o vorb s i spun. / E o persoan cu care poi comunica uor. / Nu-i greu s locuieti cu el. / Tu eti de vin c a explodat fabrica.

8.6 Verbs of Obligatory Control


By verbs of obligatory control we mean those classes of verbs that demand that only a certain nominal inside the main clause should be co-indexed with PRO, that is with the covert logical subject of the infinitive. According to this, we can distinguish between: a) verbs of subject control (where the subject in the main clause must control PRO) the most frequent case in fact: attempt, promise, swear,etc. (49) a. Hei attempted PROi to murder his wife. b. Hei promised her PROi to give her a new ring. (I-a promis sa ii dea cadou un inel.) The fact that only the subject he is allowed to control (hence be co-indexed with) PRO is reinforced by the impossibility of interpreting PRO as controlled by the indirect object her: (50) * He promised heri PROi to watch a new show. b) verbs of direct object control (where the direct object of the main clause verb must control PRO) here mostly verbs of causation are included: authorize, direct, enable, encourage, induce, influence, oblige, need, inspire, press, urge, inform, etc.: (51) a. He forced the prisoneri PROi to kneel down in front of him. (L-a obligat pe prizonier sa ingenuncheze in fata lui.) b. His curses inspired the boyi PROi to utter foul words himself. (Injuraturile lui i-au dat ideea baiatului sa vorbeasca si el urit.)
211

(A incercat sa isi ucida sotia.)

Nadina VIAN

In this category of verbs one can also mention a small class including: appoint, elect, choose, nominate, name, vote, etc.: (52) She elected her husbandi PROi to run the hospital. (L-a ales pe sotul ei in conducerea spitalului.) c) verbs of prepositional object control (where the prepositional object inside the main clause must control PRO): rely on, count on, prevail on, depend on, look to, etc. (53) You may rely on mei PROi to help you. (Te poti baza pe ajutorul meu.) d) verbs of indirect object control (where the indirect object in the main clause must control PRO): tell, order, command, allow, permit,etc.: (53) (54) He told the maidi PROi to announce her. I leave it to youi PROi to take care of it. (I-a spus servitoarei sa o anunte.) (Las lucrurile in grija ta.)

Pratice Identify the predicates requesting infinitival constructions; which of them are expressed by verbs of obligatory control? Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. / I do not intend to tell him that myself. / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. / and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once./ I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral./ And now he
212

Unit eight

Infinitive complements

refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive. (Iris Murdoch, An Accidental Man)

8.7 The Distribution of the Nominative + Infinitive Construction


As previously mentioned, this construction is lexically governed, i.e. it normally appears after certain verbs with special semantic properties: a) A- verbs: appear, seem, happen, etc.: (55) She appears to like him. (Se pare c i place de el.) b) inchoative verbs (or change of state verbs): get, grow, come,etc. (56) She grew to like him in the end. (n cele din urm ajunse s-l simpatizeze.) c) constructions including the verb be: be to, be about to, be going to, etc. (57) He is to come any day now. (Trebuie s soseasc zilele astea.) With be going to there are two interpretations: The Nominative + Infinitive one: I am going to be late / faint. (O s ntrzii/ lein.) Control construction Ii am going PROi to meet her at 5. (M ntlnesc cu ea la 5).
213

(58)

(59)

Nadina VIAN

The meaning of (58), that of intention, is well supported by the syntactical analysis, that presupposes the fact that PRO is controlled by the subject of the main clause. In (57), the subject cannot control the action in any way (since we cannot speak about the intention of the subject to be late or faint), hence there is no control situation whatsoever. d) modal expressions such as have to or ought to: (60) Hei has PROi to tell her the truth. (Trebuie s-i spun adevrul.) e) verbs of mental perception in the passive: be said, be thought, be rumoured, be claimed, be considered, be alleged, be reported, etc.: (61) He was rumoured to have murdered his wife. (Se zvonea c i omorse soia.)

8.8 The Distribution of the Accusative + Infinitive Construction


This construction normally appears in combination with: a) verbs of physical perception basic ones that require bare infinitival structures: see, hear, feel, watch, overhear, etc.: (62) They heard him insult her. (L-au auzit insultnd-o.) neological verbs that require full infinitival structures: notice, observe, perceive,etc.: (63)
214

I perceived him to be known in his neighbourhood.

Unit eight

Infinitive complements

(Am observat c era cunoscut n cartier.) An interesting property of physical perception verbs is that they can make up both the Nominative + Infinitive structure and the Accusative + Infinitive one. However, there is a clear difference in meaning between the two possibilities. Compare: (64) (65) They heard Freddie Mercury sing last night. (Accusative +Infinitive) (this is probably because he sings as a rule) Freddie Mercury was heard to sing last night. (Nominative + (this was an exceptional occurrence, since he does not normally sing in public) b) causative verbs: with a bare infinitive: make, have, let Ill have you learn this in no time. Infinitive)

(66)

(Te fac sa inveti asta cit ai zice peste.) with a full infinitive: get, cause, occasion, necessitate I couldnt get them to pay me my money. (N-am reuit s-i fac s-mi dea banii.) c) verbs of mental perception : assume, believe, consider, understand, figure, picture, find, imagine, remember, recollect, judge, deem, presume, know, discover, prove, etc.: (68) I believe him to be a genius. (Cred c este un geniu.)
215

(67)

Nadina VIAN

d) verbs of permission and command: allow, permit, suffer, order, command, etc.: (69) I allowed the trees in the yard to be cut down. (Am permis s fie tiai pomii din curte.) These verbs have the special characteristic that can be combined with PROTO constructions as well: (70) I allowed the gardeneri PROi to cut down the trees. (I-am permis grdinarului s taie pomii.) e) verbs of liking and disliking: like, love, prefer, want, wish, desire, expect, mean, choose,etc.: (71) I would like him to be there at 5. (A vrea s fie acolo la ora 5.) Like in the case of the previous class of verbs, these ones allow PRO-TO constructions as well: (72) Ii would like PROi to go there. (A vrea s m duc acolo.) Pratice Identify the infinitive structures in the following texts; state their type and function: Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec to let him drive them home. The drinks hadnt cheered him up; they had depressed and fuddled him. Harold, who wasnt used to men with moods, thought that the best and kindest policy was to ignore Alecs. if he himself was out of spirits, he hated anyone to comment
216

Unit eight

Infinitive complements

on it. It was a measure of self-protection dating from his schooldays, when a long face was a sign of weakness and the whole pack would turn on him if they saw him looking sad. A cheerful countenance was the first line of defence. Most of Harolds men friends felt the same, and if they had seen one of their number looking quite suicidal, would never have dreamt of asking him the reason. b) During the visit Harolds own outlook had undergone a good many changes. It was natural to him to feel critical of another environment than his own. He suspected hostility at once; the herd instinct was very strong in him. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group; he didnt envy those above it, though he tended to look down on those below it. Both seemed to him a little unreal, and as if they didnt know what life was about. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wifes outfit, for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum, he appeared to have the freedom of several but to be indigenous to none. (L.P.Hartley A Perfect Woman) c) I obliged him to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. A little crossly, Marjanah told me to spend the night with him as well, so that we might get to the future and have done. She was even inclined to remain in the bedroom with us, to make sure we attended strictly to business, but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. (John Barth The Last Voyage of Somebody the Sailor)

217

Nadina VIAN

8.9 Key Concepts


The analysis of infinitival structures is built upon a few criteria of classification: from this point of view, we can speak about bare and full infinitives, about split and unsplit ones and about infinitives with no expressed logical subject or with an expressed logical subject. The last criterion, having to do with the presence of a logical subject inside the infinitive, is connected to the fact that infinitive constructions can have no syntactical subject within them. This happens because the infinitive mood exhibits no temporal features and is limited to aspectual features only. From this perspective, we can speak about free constructions (required by no special semantic class of verbs): the PRO-TO and the FOR-TO constructions. We can equally speak about lexically governed infinitive constructions (which appear after special verbs with semantic particularities): the Nominative + Infinitive and the Accusative + Infinitive constructions. Their characteristic lies in the fact that both of them resort to main clause verbs to assign case to their logical subjects. The logical test of inference offers the modality of checking whether a structure belongs to this class or not.

218

Unit eight

Infinitive complements

Pratice Translate the following texts, making use of the information on infinitival clauses supplied in this section: Activity 9* a) Bietei mame i se rupea inima cnd se gndea c peste o lun are s-i rmie casa pustie; dar cnd avem nevoie s mngiem pe alii, pare c uitm propria noastr durere. b) E greu de calculat efectele unui principiu. c) Cltoriile cu liftul, spre deosebire de acelea cu trenul ori cu avionul, sunt mult prea scurte ca s te nfioare cu gndul unei predestinri. d) De ce-o fi el att de trist? Cu ce ar putea fi ajutat, s nu mai arate att de sumbru? Exist cineva care s nu se simt singur? Orice om are momente cnd i vine s se spnzure, firete, dar trebuie s ai o fire cu totul aparte ca s i se ntmple asta tocmai cnd cnt corul acesta. e) Cnd doi oameni, un brbat i o femeie, stau zile ntregi ntre zidurile ngheate i tot ce le rmne de fcut e s ciocne rar i prudent n peretele ce-i desparte, ce reuesc ei s-i spun astfel precum i circumstanele n care comunic nu seamn, de bun seam, cu una din discuiile acelea foarte agreabile ce au loc n cazul unei atingeri de fire, bunoar, sau cu ocazia unui numr format greit. E posibil, ntr-o zi, ca omul din spatele zidului s fie schingiuit, dar s nu-i spun. i tu s fii, de asemenea, lovit i umilit. (Tudor Octavian Zid ntre un brbat i o femeie) f) E important timpul care trece, e important ce ntrebri pui, dac vrei ca povestea s aib un sens, s-l capete, mai bine219

Nadina VIAN

zis, dac vrei ca toate aceste obscure i candide neadevruri, pe care le cladeti cu team i nfiorare, cu sila i ruinea de a fi nevoit s-o faci, - s se ntoarc la tine cu fiecare sunet, mai pline de neles, mai verosimile dect nsi evidena. S spui de pild, c eti tnr. i s ncepi s crezi c eti tnr. (Tudor Octavian Zid ntre un brbat i o femeie) g) Nu tia ce s mai fac s-o opreasc din plns. h) Vreau s mergem! Rspunde apsat d-na Moroi. Vreau fiindc vreau trebuie s nelegi odat c nu pot tri ca o pustnic. Ne-au invitat oamenii i e superiorul dumitale. Ai dori s te privesc ca p-o icoan, s traiesc numai cu tusea, cu junghiurile i palpitaiile dumitale? (B.t.Delavrancea, Nuvele) i) Ideea d-a nu nu mica ne obosea i capul ncepea s ne tremure. Locul unde fundul estii se njuga cu ira spinrii ne durea. De era var, ndueala ncepea s ne curg pe obraji i pe dup urechi, n jos, d-a lungul gtului. Cu neputin ca cei mai slabi s nu mite o mna, un picior; sau, gdilai de iroaiele de ndueal, s nu vrea s se tearg. (B.t.Delavrancea Nuvele) j) Paul Achim nu era copt, nc, s-i aduc aminte nu numai de doctorul Stroescu, aa cum i apruse el, n ploaie, ci i de conversaia lor din acea noapte, pe care deja o uitase. Desi discuia merita s fie inut minte. ns Paul Achim trise, n parte, mai bine de dou decenii, ca s nu i-o aminteasc, nici mcar n acele puncte unde, n parte, avusese dreptate. Dar era mult mai comod s-i uite dreptatea, care exista prin opoziie fa de lucruri pe care fiecare om aproape le trece n tcere, n conversaiile sale cu el nsui.
220

Unit eight

Infinitive complements

Nu putuse s-l lase n strad pe doctorul Stroescu, dei, de fapt, ar fi vrut s fie lasat n pace, n acea clip de aleas fericire cnd era la nceputul unei iubiri, fie ea i grbit. (Al.Ivasiuc lluminri) k) Cu zestrea asta, caut un so cruia s m drui i cruia s-i fiu supus; deopotriv cu jurmntul de a-mi schimba felul de via, i-a aduce acestui brbat o grij cum nu s-a mai vzut, de a-i fi pe plac i de a-l sluji. M laud singur, pentru c nu ncape ruine n privina aceasta cnd te silete nevoia. ntr-un cuvnt, vreau s spun c eu caut un so care s m apere, s-mi porunceasc i s m respecte, i nu un amant, care s m serveasc i s m njure. Dac domnia-ta accepi ceea ce-i pot drui, sunt aici cu tot ce am, gata s m supun oricrei porunci, fr s m pun n vnzare (pentru c asta nseamn s te dai pe mna mijlocitoarelor), cci nimeni nu se pricepe s mijloceasc mai bine dect prile nsele. (Proz picaresc) l) Dar nu mai are timp s ajung la ua din spate-a tramvaiului, i prin fa, orice-ar fi, ea nu se urc: nu-i att de btrn s se urce pe-acolo pe un se coboar, prin fa e coborrea, orice bucuretean tie. m) Cea mai machiavelic nscocire a lor a fost s fac din fiecare un posibil suspect: s ne suspectm unii pe alii iat pe ce se bazeaz n fapt puterea lor! n) Au intrat ntr-un gang, o mizerie, un miros ngrozitor, au btut la tot felul de ui... ca s afle c tmplarul lui Muti se prpdise cu o sptmn nainte!... ei, biata Muti, dintr-o dat a fost att de ocat! o) Nici un motiv special ca s-i evite privirea, nici ca s
221

Nadina VIAN

vorbeasc att de repede, parc la ntmplare, ca i cnd s-ar teme de ntrebrile pe care, n realitate, niciodat ea nu i le pune. (Gabriela Adameteanu Diminea pierdut)

222

NINE ING COMPLEMENTS


Aim of this unit: Objectives: to establish a distinction between three forms of ing structures: gerunds, participles, verbal nouns. to provide students with useful information on ing structures that will help them correctly use and identify these types of constructions

223

9.1.The Participle

Contents:
224

9.1.1.Participial Constructions 9.1.2.Characteristics of Participial Constructions

9.2.The Gerund
9.2.1.A Classification of Gerundial Forms 9.2.2.Characteristics of Gerunds 9.2.3.Differences between Participles and Gerunds

9.3.The Verbal Noun 9.4. ING Forms and Infinitives 9.5 Key Concepts

Unit nine

Ing complements

The last section of this course concerns itself with the remaining non-finite forms: Participial and Gerundial structures. The characteristic these forms share with the infinitival ones is the fact that they have no temporal features. Like in the case of infinitival constructions they exhibit aspectual features and cannot assign case to their logical subject. One of the problems always present when discussing the Participle and the Gerund is the fact that both of these moods have the same ending: -ing. This makes it sometimes difficult for us to differentiate between them. Due to this situation, we shall have to point out the specific features of each construction. Let us start with the Participle:

9.1. The Participle


The first distinction to be made here is that between present participle and past participle. These are the tenses of this mood and they differ in point of ending: the present participle ends in ing and makes the object of our discussion. The past participle ends in en (or -ed) and will be marginally tackled in this section. Let us now see the main contexts where we can identify participial forms: 9.1.1. Participial Constructions The main context in which the present participle appears is when it is part of a continuous tense form: (1) Susan is sleeping. (Susan doarme.)

225

Nadina VIAN

In (1) the ing form that appears within the Present Continuous VP (verb phrase) is a present participle. This fact is also true of past participle forms and perfect or passive verb phrases: (2) a. Susan has come. (A venit Susan) b. Susan has been killed. In (2) the forms come, been and killed are past participle forms. A context where the present participle frequently appears is when it is combined with a noun phrase and has a modifying function, i.e. it functions attributively. Here we have two situations: a) when it appears before the noun in question: (3) The running man is my boss. (Omul care alearg este eful meu.) b) when it appears after the noun in question: (4) The man running on the track is my boss. (Omul care alearg pe pist este eful meu.) As you can see in this second case, the participle may be accompanied by additional complements (on the track). This situation is also characteristic for past participles, especially when they are placed in front of the nominal and appear in compounds: (5) His clean-shaved face was shining in the moonlight. (Faa lui bine brbierit strlucea n lumina lunii.) More infrequently, the past participle can appear after a noun, too: (6) Her eye-lids, blood-shot and painted, were closing.
226

Unit nine

Ing complements

(I se nchideau pleoapele injectate i date cu fard.) The participle can also frequently appear as an adverbial and here we can notice two situations: a) when it has no expressed logical subject (7) a. Arriving here, they started singing. (Sosind aici, ncepur s cnte.) b. Knowing who the guy was, she ran away. (tiind cine era el, ea o lu la fug.) c. When singing, people should pay attention to high notes. (adverbial of time + time conjunction) (Atunci cnd cnt, oamenii trebuie s fie ateni la notele nalte.) d. If provoked, a lion can attack. (adverbial of condition + conditional conjunction) (Dac este provocat, leul poate s atace.) b) when it has an expressed logical subject : the Absolute Participle (8) a. God willing, I will arrive there on time. (adverbial of condition) (adverbial of (adverbial of reason) (adverbial of time)

(Cu voia lui Dumnezeu, o s ajung la timp.) b. Weather permitting, I will arrive there on time. condition) (Dac vremea mi permite, o s ajung la timp.) c. Oh, he will eventually marry her, mother permitting. (adverbial of condition) (Se va cstori pn la urm cu ea dac maic-sa i d voie.)

227

Nadina VIAN

The logical subjects in (8) are God and weather, respectively. This construction is called the Absolute Participle after the model of Latin where there is the Absolute Ablative an elliptical construction made up of nouns and non-finite forms in the Ablative, which stands for an adverbial clause. The participle may also appear in the so-called independent participial constructions: i. Nominative + Present / Past Participle

(9) a. He was found stealing. (L-au descoperit c fur.) b. He was found killed by a bullet. (L-au gsit ucis de un glonte.) ii. (10) Accusative + Present / Past Participle a. I found him stealing. (L-am descoperit furnd.) b. They found him killed by a bullet. (L-au gsit ucis de un glonte.) Let us make up a list of verbs and adjectives that require the presence of the independent participial constructions: a) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Present Participle Verbs of physical perception: see, hear, smell, watch, behold, notice, perceive (11) I felt her trembling.

(Am simit-o tremurnd.)


228

Unit nine

Ing complements

(12)

He was noticed crying.

(A fost vzut plngnd.) Causative verbs: get, have, set, start, keep, send, leave, etc. a. Ill have you all speaking fluent English soon. (O s v fac s vorbii toi curnd o englez bun.) b. Hell soon get things going. (O s pun repede lucrurile n micare.) c. He was sent rolling by the heavy blow. (Lovitura l-a trimis nvrtindu-se.) mental perception verbs: remember, recollect, find, etc.: Imagine him saying a thing like that. (nchipuiete-i-l spunnd una ca asta.) b) Verbs requiring Nominative and Accusative + Past Participle Verbs of physical perception: see, hear, feel, etc.: a. I heard it said that men are a bore. (Am auzit spunndu-se c brbaii sunt plicticoi.) b. He was seen covered in mud from head to toe. (L-au vzut acoperit de noroi din cap pna n picioare.) verbs of mental perception: imagine, confess, know, recollect, etc.: When she heard his words, she knew herself dismissed. (Cnd i-a auzit cuvintele i-a dat seama c a concediat-o.) Causative verbs: get , have, make a. I must get my hair cut. (Trebuie s m duc s ma tund.) b. You must get get that leg of yours taken care of. (15)

(13)

(14)

(16)

(17)

229

Nadina VIAN

(Trebuie s te duci la doctor s i ngrijeti piciorul.) verbs of permission, command I ordered my bill made out. (I-am spus chelnerului s-mi aduc nota.) Verbs of liking and disliking a. Men like shopping made easy. (Brbailor le place s termine repede cu cumprturile.) b. He wanted his car fixed immediately. (Dorea s-i fie reparat maina imediat.) Pratice Translate the following sentences into English, using the types of participial structures discussed above: Activity 1 Am s pun s fii arestat dac m mai deranjezi mult. / Nu dup mult vreme, l vrji n aa hal nct i mnca din palm. / L-au descoperit aruncat intr-un col./ Cel care tocmai vorbete cu Maria este fratele meu./ Lovitura l-a lsat lat sub mas. / Nu-l mai ine s atepte./ Jim a pornit motorul n doi timpi i trei micri./ S-a dus s-i extrag o msea. / Vrei s v dm unghiile cu lac? / i de unde ai gsit un ifonier att de ncptor? L-am facut de comand. / De ce ai uitat robinetul deschis? / O s pun casa la punct rapid./ L-a trimis la cumprturi./ Nimeni n-a bnuit c la doar cteva zile dup aceast discuie, aveau s se trezeasc cu casa spart. / A fost descoperit ntins n spatele unor lzi, lovit i plin de snge. / Iar am gsit copilul neschimbat, ce-ai fcut toat ziua? / Prefer s i ii gura dac nu poi vorbi cuviincios!

(18)

(19)

230

Unit nine

Ing complements

Identify the participial structures in the following sentences: Riding was something of a passion with her, so that it always Activity 2 made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse. / We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum, if you put in a defence and then didnt appear. / And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrids face, with its lips drawn back, as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. / She went into Adrians after leaving him, and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there. / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the corespondent was seen coming out of the respondents stateroom. / Dinny, sitting taut between her father and her sister, feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own, heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. / In any case, you gave instructions to have your wife watched. / My Lord, before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent, I should be glad to recall the petitioner. (John Galsworthy Over the River) 9.1.2. Characteristics of Participial Forms The main property participles have in opposition to gerundial forms is the verbal quality of these structures. Unlike the gerund, the participle has no nominal properties whatsoever. We shall enlarge upon this point in the section on gerunds. A second differentiating feature is the frequency with which the participle appears as a modifier or as an adverbial. The only contexts in which the participle functions as an object is when it is part of the independent participial constructions (i.e. Nominative or Accusative + Participle).
231

Nadina VIAN

The participle lacks tense but exhibits: aspectual features: Having seen this, I left. (Vznd acestea, am plecat.) Voice (can appear in the passive) Having been noticed by the teacher, I left. (Dup ce m-a remarcat profesorul, am plecat.) A nominative subject (in absolute participial constructions) God willing, the rain will stop. (Cu voia lui Dumnezeu, se va opri i ploaia.) A conjunction to precede it optionally Although not knowing the language, she enjoyed her trip to Spain. (Desi nu tia limba, a avut parte de o excursie plcut n Spania.) Pratice Join each of the following pairs of sentences, using either a present participle, or a past participle: Activity 3 1.She didnt want to hear the story again. She had heard it all before. 2. I turned on the light. I was astonished at what I saw. 3. I have looked through the fashion magazine. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. 4. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation. They are lying face downwards in a sea of mud. 5. The tree had fallen across the road. It had been uprooted by the gale. 6. People were sleeping in the next room. They were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. 7. I knew that the murderer was still at large. I was (20)

(21)

(22)

(23)

232

Unit nine

Ing complements

extremely reluctant to open the door. 8. Mother punished me for my mistake. I slammed the door of my room. 9. He fed the dog. He sat down to his own dinner. 10. They found the treasure. They began quarreling about how to divide it. The following sentences contain misrelated participles. Read the sentences and try to correct them. How do you account for the Activity 4 term misrelated? 1.Running into the room, a rug caught her foot and she fell. 2. Riding in the first race, his horse fell at the last jump. 3. Knowing me to be the fool of the family, the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. 4. Reading in bed, my hands often get very cold. 5. Leaving the cinema, it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. 6. Climbing down the tree, one of the eggs broke. 7. Barking furiously, I let the dog out of the room. 8. Getting out of bed, a scorpion bit him. 9. Sitting in the dentists chair, an idea suddenly occurred to me. 10. Dropped by parachute, the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. 11. Tied to the post, the sea was tossing the post up and down. 12. Passing under a ladder, a pot of paint fell on my head. Match a word in list (a) with a word in list (b) to form a compound word: Activity 5 a) fair, broad, red (twice), bald, three, many, cloth, stony, narrow, open, fishy, empty, lion, sharp, wooden, quick, dark, eagle, straight, open. b) Headed (5 times), haired (twice), eyed (3 times),shoulder, hearted (twice), cornered, coloured, covered, minded (3 times), skinned, handed. 6 Same instructions as before: a) molten, drunken, lighted, mown, roast, shaven, stricken,
233

Nadina VIAN

sunken, shorn, hidden, shrunken, bounden, ill-gotten, rotten, graven. b) grass, candle, meat, deer, man, lead, eyes, head, meaning, stream, lamb, plank, image, duty, wealth. In the following pairs of sentences, the same verb is missing twice, once used as a present participle and once as a past Activity 7 participle. Insert the correct form in each gap: 1.Books ________ out of the library must be returned within three weeks. / People ______ books oout which havent been stamped will be banned. (take) 2. The film, _______ by S.Spielberg, is expected to be a great hit./ Power stations _______ enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. (produce) 3. Crops _______ under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. / Farmers ________ such crops can therefore catch the early markets. (grow) 4. I stared at the canvas for ages, ________ the artists skill and eye for detail. / Swiss watches, _______ for their elegance and precision, are sold throughout the world. (admire) 5. The escaped prisoner, ________ hiding in a barn, was today taken back to prison. / Many old people ,_______that their savings have been eaten into by inflation, are having difficulties in making both ends meet. (find) 6.I fell on the ice, _______ my arm. / Three people, _____ when their car crashed on the M1, were taken to hospital. (injure). 7. Whales, _______ for their valuable oil and meat, are in grave danger of extinction. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today, _______ for a bargain. (hunt). Translate into English: 1. Toate liniile ei erau pline i rotunde: bucla de pe frunte i de pe lng urechile descoperite; umerii abia ascuni sub o
234

Unit nine

Ing complements

Activity 8*

dantel; snii chinuii n strnsori; oldurile plesnind sub un corsaj ascuit care le tia, lsndu-le s joace libere i ghicite sub largile falduri. O umbrelu, cnd strns, cnd deschis, plina i ea de ape i valuri, arunca pe faa i fiina femeii umbre i culori ce micau i nviau nencetat toate liniile. 2. Dei clipa i era tulburata mai adnc, o plcere nelmurit a trecut iute prin Bubi. S-a simit alturi de tatl su i el stpn la curtea lor, i nc recunoscut de femeia pe care o dorea. 3. Dup ctva timp, struina acestei fraze risipi mbtarea lui Bubi, silindu-l s-I cerceteze nelesul. i sufletul su, nesigur i moale, biruit venic de o ndoial, trezit, destrma n oviri puterea din jurul su. I se pru c refrenul lui Dorodan sun ca o proorocire misterioas. Se simi deodat ncolit de un necunoscut pe care l uitase i care venea nspre el din toate prile. nlimea de entuziasm unde stat o clip se neca n apa mare i tulbure de ovieli. i, descletndu-i braele de pe umerii btrnului, ncepu s priveasc nelinitit primprejur, ca i cum, deodat sufocat, ar fi cutat aer i un liman. 4. Sttea n jurul ei tot ce avea s fie o mas mbelugat: carnea roie, mpnat cu vine galbene de grsime, petii cu solzi srii sub cuit, legume date prin mai multe ape, psri tiate, aruncate n ligheane i risipind un abur greos de pene oprite, precum i foile de plcint, ntinse, i moi, cu praf de fin uoar i lipicioas pe ele, toate trecnd prin minile pricepute ale coanei Mia, care le rnduia, le fierbea, le cocea. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu Sfrit de veac n Bucureti)

235

Nadina VIAN

9.2. The Gerund


9.2.1. A Classification of Gerundial Forms We classify gerunds, function of the presence or absence of a logical subject within the gerundial structure. According to this criterion, one can distinguish between: a) gerunds without an expressed logical subject: (24) PRO seeing is PRO believing. (Dac vezi, crezi.) b) gerunds with an expressed logical subject: This class of gerunds can be further split into two subclasses: (25) the full gerund (or the possessive ING) Johns coming here was a mistake. (Venirea lui John aici a fost o greeal.) (26) the half gerund (or the Accusative ING) It all depends on him coming here. (Totul depinde de venirea lui aici.) We call the first subclass of b) possessive ING because of the genitive form in which the logical subject appears. Likewise, the second subclass bears the name Accusative + ING due to the case of the logical subject within the gerund. If there are two possibilities with class b) it means that there must be some differences between them. The main difference lies in the fact that the accusative + ing is more like a clause whereas the possessive -ing looks more like a nominal.
236

Unit nine

Ing complements

How do we know that? Answer: By looking at the way these constructions agree with the main clause verbs when coordinated: The possessive -ing in a compound subject agrees with the verb in the plural, just as it happens with any normal compound subject made up of two nominal phrases: (27) a. His winning and your losing were both surprising. (M-a surprins faptul c el a ctigat i tu ai pierdut.) b. His victory and your defeat were both surprising. (M-au surprins n egal msur victoria lui i nfrngerea ta.) Coordinated accusative + ing requires a singular verb, just as it happens with coordinated Subject that clauses: (28) a. Him winning and you losing was surprising. (M-a surprins faptul c el a ctigat i tu ai pierdut.) b. That he won and you lost was surprising. (M-a surprins faptul c el a ctigat i tu ai pierdut.) 9.2.2. Characteristics of Gerunds In the previous subsection on participles I was saying that participles have [+ verbal] features, whereas gerunds have [ + verbal ] and [ + nominal ] features. In that, gerunds differ from participles. Consider the following table, where ING structures are ordered according to their main features. Notice that part of the table is left incomplete. [+ verb] Participles [+ verb, + noun] Gerunds [+noun] ?

237

Nadina VIAN

Below we offer a few reasons why participles are seen as [+ verb]: 1. Participles look more like clauses and more often than not are translated by means of a clause: (29) I saw him smiling and was surprised. (L-am vzut c zmbete i am fost surprins.) Unlike participles, gerunds look more like noun phrases and are often translatable by means of a noun phrase: (30) His slapping Susan terrified the audience. (Faptul c a plmuit-o pe Susan a ngrozit publicul.) 2. An important characteristic of gerunds is that they do not normally

extrapose (if you remember, extraposition is one of the main syntactic features that characterizes that clauses, which are seen as [+ verb] structures): (31) a. It was illegal to grow a beard. (Nu era legal s-i lai barb.) b. *It was illegal growing a beard. In (31) extraposition is possible with infinitives but not with gerunds. (31 b) is ungrammatical because we get a double subject construction. This behaviour of gerunds concerning extraposition resembles that of relative clauses which are themselves very similar in behaviour to noun phrases. Consider (32), which proves that extraposed relative clauses give birth to ungrammatical structures because of the double-subject restriction: (32) *It was illegal what she said.

A conclusion to this discussion is represented under the table below. A similarity is thus drawn between that clauses and participles, as being verbal
238

Unit nine

Ing complements

in nature, and between relative clauses and gerunds as being more nominal in nature: That clauses Participles Relative clauses Gerunds

There are very few exceptions to the extrapositon restriction under which gerunds are. The examples we can offer are analysed as idiomatic phrases: (33) a. Its no use crying over spilt milk. (proverb) (Mortul de la groap nu se mai ntoarce.) b. Its no good talking to her. (N-are sens s vorbeti cu ea.) 3. Just like in the case of noun phrases, gerunds can be combined with Prepositions: (34) a. She was surprised at his knowing the business so well. (Era uimit de ct de bine tia el dedesubturile afacerii.) b. He looked at their wrestling on the muddy floor. (S-a uitat cum se lupta pe podeaua nnoroiat.) 9.2.3. Participles vs. Gerunds After discussing the characteristics of gerunds, it would be very useful for us to have a look at differences between participles and gerunds, as offered in the table below:

239

Nadina VIAN

PARTICIPLES GERUNDS [+ verb] [+ verb, + noun] 1. Participles can be part of tense Gerunds do not make up tense forms. forms: continuous , perfect, passive ones She was crying. 2. Participles may be preceded by Gerunds conjunctions: While sleeping, babies suck their thumb. 3. Participles may function adverbials: house. (adverbial of time) 4. Participles do not function as Gerunds objects unless they appear dependent constructions: I saw her crying. Participle) function as direct and in prepositional objects: She started crying. (direct object She was interested in him marrying her. (prepositional object clause) 5. Participles may function as Gerunds may function as attributes preposition for: walking flying attributes and are paraphrasable by but are paraphrasable by means of the who/that/which isVerb + ing: walking flying the walking man = the man who is the walking stick = stick used for the flying fish = the fish which is the flying saucer = saucer used for She waited for his coming home. as Gerunds do not function as adverbials with few exceptions: project. may be preceded by prepositions:

Coming here, he built himself a She angered him by stealing his

(Accusative + clause)

240

Unit nine

Ing complements

Pratice Translate into English, remembering that the gerund is always used of a preposition, a prepositional verb or a phrasal verb: Activity 9 Nu este nici o speran s se gseasca supravieuitori dupa prbuirea avionului. / Te-ai scuzat pentru c l-ai deranjat? / Am renunat s joc / la jocul de fotbal cnd am terminat coala. / Teai sturat probabil s faci acelai lucru zi de zi. / John a fost sever mustrat pentru c teroriza bieii mai mici dect el. / Publicul a fost avertizat de pericolul de a se plimba prin parc noaptea. / Nu-l intereseaz deloc s-i creasc copiii. / Se pare c-i place foarte mult s subliniezi defectele altora. / Minerii sunt ntotdeauna avertizai s nu duc chibrituri n mine. / Cine rspunde de ncuiatul uilor i paza cldirii noaptea? / Ar trebui s te gndeti s economiseti bani n loc s speri c vei ctiga la cri. / Rspunsul la problema locuinelor pare s rezide n construirea de noi blocuri. / Nu vedeau nici un motiv pentru ca ei s nu fac aa cum plnuisera iniial. / Doctorul m-a sftuit s renun la fumat i grsimi. / A trebuit s amnm plecarea n vacan. / Compania aceea este specializat n fabricarea mobilei de birou. / Ar trebui s se impun tuturor i s se abin de la a fuma n restaurante i alte locuri publice. / Trebuie s-mi cer scuze c am ntrziat aa de mult. / Judectorul a fost acuzat de a nu fi dat juriului obiective clare. / Se mndrete c e totdeauna bine mbrcat. / I-am spus s nu-i bat capul s pun lucrurile la loc. / A trebuit s suportam mojicia tot timpul cltoriei. / Am cerut sfatul unui avocat nainte de a ne decide s acionm n justiie. / Dup ce a hruit-o bine pe vnztoare, a plecat din magazin fr s cumpere nimic. / n ciuda faptului c a trebuit s lupte cu o

241

Nadina VIAN

mare agitat, nottoarea a reuit s traverseze canalul n timp record. Identify the gerundial and participial constructions and state their function: Activity 10 1. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. 2. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. 3. Gambling is his favourite pastime. 4. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. 5. What I dont understand is you suddenly turning against me. 6. The only reason for selling was the owners getting a new car. 7. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. 8. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. 9. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. 10. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. 11. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. 12. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. 12. He was spotted talking to her. 13. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. 14. Shes looking forward to having lots of children. 15. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. Discriminate between gerunds and participles by means of paraphrase: Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum; shooting gallery / shooting star; boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water; crying game / crying woman; swimming duck / swimming trunks; pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions; eating habits/ eating people; paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong.

242

Unit nine

Ing complements

9.3. The Verbal Noun


The verbal noun is here placed in opposition with the gerund. The verbal noun is an ING form but is not part of non-finite forms: it is part of the nominal system, as it is a noun phrase which just happens to look like a gerund or participle. But how can we tell when an ING form is a verbal noun? Compare: (35) to (36) Shooting the attacker was an ugly episode. (Uciderea celui care i atacase era un episod urt.) Although the meaning of the two underlined structures is similar, they differ formally: The first sentence contains a verbal noun, which can be identified by: The presence of the (i.e. the determiner) The presence of the of phrase (i.e. of the attacker) The fact that the ing form can be combined with an adjective: The cruel shooting of the attacker The second sentence contains a gerund due to : 243

The shooting of the attacker was an ugly episode. (Uciderea celui care i atacase era un episod urt.)

The absence of a determiner like the, a The absence of an of phrase, but the presence of a direct object (i.e. the attacker) The possibility of its combination with an adverb:

Nadina VIAN

Shooting the attacker cruelly The problem with verbal nouns and gerunds is that they are both ended in ING and can take a possessive: Georges shooting of the attacker vs. Georges shooting the attacker. The test that always helps you out of trouble is that of combining these constructions with an adjective or an adverbial: The first construction takes an adjective: Georges cruel shooting of the attacker, whereas the second structures takes an adverb: Georges shooting the attacker cruelly. This means that the first structure is a verbal noun while the second is a gerund. GERUNDS can combine with an VERBAL NOUNS can combine adverb Shuffling the cards quickly with an adjective The quick shuffling of cards

Sometimes the verbal noun can appear without its of phrase: (37) His beautiful singing was a blessing to everyone. (Faptul c tia s cnte aa de frumos era o binecuvntare.) In (37) there are two verbal nouns: his beautiful singing and a blessing. How can we tell? In the first case, we can identify the verbal noun by means of the adjective that accompanies it. In the second situation, the verbal noun blessing is accompanied by a determiner which is an indefinite article. These are features that normally characterize any noun. Thus, if we were to go back to our incomplete table, we could safely fill in the blank space with the following information:
244

Unit nine

Ing complements

[+ verb] Participles (After) shooting

[+ verb, + noun] Gerunds

[+noun] Verbal nouns sudden

the Jims suddenly shooting Jims/the

sheriff, Jim left quietly. the sheriff. very large.

the sheriff alerted the shooting of the sheriff alerted the whole town. Are you still interested What is your opinion about the new shooting gallery?

They saw him shooting whole town. This shooting star is in shooting the sheriff?

Pratice Identify the verbal nouns in the following: Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have Activity 12 for shopping. / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake. / His coming there puzzled her./ His sudden coming puzzled her./ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. / Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten./ All newspapers commented on Johns robbing the bank. / Johns robbing of the bank was widely commented on. / The unexpected robbing of the bank didnt pass unnoticed.

245

Nadina VIAN

9.4. ING Forms and Infinitives.


The aim of this subsection is mainly to help you better understand why those verbs or adjectives that can be combined both with gerunds and with infinitives have a different meaning in each case. It has been noticed that, whenever a verb can appear both with an infinitive and with a gerund, the meaning is different. However, we can trace a common feature for all these special verbs. All of them change their meaning according to the grammatical information offered by the construction they are followed by. For instance, whenever we meet an ing form, we expect it to have something to do with an event that has already happened (and then we are dealing with a gerund) or is happening (and we are looking at a participle). With the infinitive, we expect it to refer to something that might happen or that is going to take place. Look, for example, at the following: (38) He saw Susan crossing the street. (A vzut-o pe Susan traversnd strada.) as opposed to (39) He saw Susan cross the street. (A vzut cum Susan a traversat strada.) The difference in meaning is well expressed by the Romanian translation and is motivated by what each form means: the ing form ( a participle) expresses something still happening ( so the guy in the example is watching Susan as she advances across the street)
246

Unit nine

Ing complements

the infinitival form (a bare infinitive) by opposition with the participle suggests that we are watching the whole event of the crossing of the street (so the guy in the example has watched the entire crossing)

Another example, and the most well-known one, is that of the verb stop: Compare: (40) to (41) She stopped eating a sandwich. (S-a oprit din mncat.) The first example, containing an infinitive, suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich is going to take place (the potential, future-oriented value of the infinitive). The second example containing a gerund suggests the fact that the eating of the sandwich had already commenced and was then interrupted (the gerund expresses an event happening in the past, prior to the one expressed by the main clause verb.) After looking at this example, we can notice that in most cases the gerund expresses something that has already happened, anterior to the verb in the main clause. On the other hand, the infinitive expresses something that is yet to happen, posterior to the verb in the main clause: while the gerund is pastoriented, the infinitive is future-oriented. This is exactly why the Perfect form of the gerund (e.g. having left) is infrequently used in English. Compare
247

She stopped to eat a sandwich. (S-a oprit s mannce un sandwich.)

Nadina VIAN

(42) (43)

She remembered having posted the letter earlier in the morning. She remembered posting the letter earlier in the morning. (i-a amintit c a pus scrisoarea la pot n cursul dimineii.)

As you can see, both sentences are translated the same in Romanian, which means that they are similar in meaning. The fact that both (42) and (43) have the same meaning indicates that the gerund no longer needs to specify anteriority by means of a perfect form (i.e. having posted) since it already expresses the idea of anteriority in its simple form. This is why the perfect gerund is nowadays an indication of educated speech (and will be mostly found in literary language). Let us now follow this line of thought which traces an opposition between the semantics of the gerund and that of the infinitive. We will examine other verbs like the ones we have already mentioned under (40) and (41), i.e. verbs that can be followed both a gerund and an infinitive (but with a significant change in meaning): a) Remember, recollect, forget (44) versus (45) Remember to fill the tank with petrol. (Adu-i aminte s umpli rezervorul cu benzin.) The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened; the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen. b) Regret
248

She remembers filling the tank with petrol. (i-aduce aminte c a umplut rezervorul cu benzin.)

Unit nine

Ing complements

(46) versus (47)

I regret filling the tank with petrol. (mi pare ru c am umplut rezervorul cu benzin.) I regret to fill the tank with petrol, but thats it. (mi pare ru c o s umplu rezervorul cu benzin, dar asta este.)

The example with the gerund suggests that the filling of the tank has already happened; the example with the infinitive suggests that the filling of the tank is going to happen. c) Try (48) I tried filling the tank with petrol and then I did some car washing. (nti am ncercat s m ocup cu umplerea rezervorului cu benzin, apoi m-am ocupat de splarea mainilor.) versus (49) I tried to fill the tank with petrol but found it no easy job. (Am ncercat s umplu rezervorul cu benzin, ns nu mi s-a prut treab uoar.) The first example implies the fact that the guy there has already filled the tank with petrol several times. In the second example, the petrol tank is not filled yet, the action is not completed. d) Mean (50) versus (51) This means revealing her all my secrets. (Asta nseamn s-i dezvlui toate secretele mele.)
249

I mean to tell her the truth. (Am de gnd s-i spun adevrul.)

Nadina VIAN

In the first example, the event has not happened yet, it is bound to happen as a result of the subjects intentions. In the second example, mean has the sense signify. e) need, want With [+ human] objects, these verbs are used in combination with the infinitive: (52) He wants / needs to learn English. (Vrea / trebuie s nvee englez.) With [- human] objects, they can be combined with the gerund and acquire the same interpretation as when they are followed by a passive infinitive: (51) a. The house needs repairing. (Casa trebuie reparat.) b. The house needs to be repaired. (Casa trebuie reparat.) f) go on (53) versus (54) After he talked about his plans he went on to talk about his daughters (Dup ce a vorbit despre planurile lui, s-a apucat s vorbeasc despre nunta fiicei sale.) wedding. He goes on reading from that cheap novel. (Continu s citeasc din romanul acela ieftin.)

250

Unit nine

Ing complements

In the first case we understand that the event of reading has already begun, whereas in the second case, the event of becoming a lawyer is yet to happen. Pratice Complete the following dialogue by putting the verbs in backets into the correct form, gerund or infinitive, as required: Activity 13 a) I remembered my husband (say) that I must look out for myself. And I realized how silly I was in not (know) that I was being watched. Tell me, Lady Corven, why did you defend this action? Because I knew that, however appearances were against us, we had done nothing (be) ashamed of. Dinny saw the Judge (look) towards Clare, (take) down her answer, (hold) up his pen and (speak). On that night in the car you were on a main road. What was to prevent you from (stop) another car and (ask) them (give) you a lead into Henley? I dont think we thought of it, my Lord; I did ask Mr. Croom (try) (follow) one, but they went by too quickly. In any case, what was there to prevent you from (walk) into Henley and (leave) the car in the wood? I suppose nothing really, only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley; and I thought it would be more awkward than just (stay) in the car. And I always had wanted (try) (sleep) in a car. And do you still want to? No, my Lord, its overrated. b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have (call) and (thank) him. So do look out for me about six oclock

251

Nadina VIAN

tomorrow. I spend all my time (hunt) a job, and am beginning (realise) what it means to poor devils (turn down) day after day. c) I think youre splendid (want) to be independent. Its quite impossible for me not (be) in love with you and (long) (be) with you all day and all night too. But Im going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is (cause) you uneasiness of any sort. d) (look up) Sir Lawrences number in Mount Street, he addressed the note, licked the envelope with passion, and went out (post) it himself. Then, suddenly, he did not feel inclined (return) to the Coffee House. e) I thought youd never forgive me for (ask) at such a moment. Always delighted for you (ask) anything at any moment. I must go back now, but Ill hope (see) you again very soon. f) The word national is winning this election, said Clare. Where I went (canvas) in the town they were all Liberals. I just used the word and they fell. (hear) that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning, the sisters started about eleven oclock. There was so much (come) and (go) round the doors that they did not like (enter). I do hate (ask) for things, said Clare. Especially when they go on (ignore) you like that. Then you shall simply have to go on (ask) and after (get) it you can go on (become) whatever you wish.

252

Unit nine

Ing complements

9.5. Key Concepts In this subsection we have dealt with ING forms. We made an important distinction between ING complements (which appear either as Present Participles or as Gerunds) and Verbal Nouns. The main difference between Present Participles and Gerunds lies in their special features. Participles mainly function as adverbials, whereas gerunds function mainly as subjects/objects. The common function these two structures share is that of attribute but the similarity is deceptive, since paraphrase can correctly identify which is which. Another special feature is which elements these two structures can be preceded by: a preposition for gerunds and a conjunction for participles. There are also important differences between gerunds and verbal nouns, although one can mistake them due to the fact that both forms can combine with a possessive nominal. The main test of disambiguation is that of combining the two forms with either an adverb (for the gerund) or an adjective (for the verbal noun). Last but not least, dont forget that certain verbs can take both ING forms and infinitives after them but the meaning changes according to the main shade of meaning each of the aforementioned constructions exhibits. Pratice In the following texts, identify the ING forms and analyse them syntactically: Activity 14 a) He remembered entering the village and then the ground, the
253

Nadina VIAN

very earth opening up. First the crack snaking its jagged way along the concrete, then the noise and the cracking stone, and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up, the enormous split in the earth. The two sides were moving apart, their edges crashing inwards, down, down into God knows where. The sight of the two children, the man and his bike disappearing in the hole. The collapsing shops he remembered seeing the shops on one side collapsing and then the ragged mouth reaching towards him. (James Herbert The Fog) b) The people above heard the cry for help coming from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village. He looked up towards the daylight, hoping he would see somebody up there, someone looking for survivors. Then he saw movement at his feet. At first, he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance, but then he saw it billowing up from below. It was like a mist, slowly rising in a swirling motion, slightly yellowish although he couldnt be sure in the gloom. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split, moving up towards his chest, covering the girls head. She started coughing. (James Herbert The Fog) c) The importance attaching to the meeting of two young people depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting. (John Galsworthy Over the River) d) Spying on other people being, according to the books he read, the chief occupation of the people of these islands, it
254

Unit nine

Ing complements

had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. (John Galsworthy Over the River) e) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard, the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. (John Galsworthy Over the River) f) Mr. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other: Gee! Hes on us! with an interest which never prevented his knowing that his two young people were listening too. (John Galsworthy Over the River) g) Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. Im sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough, my dear. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in doesnt really count. (John Galsworthy Over the River) h) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath, for Dornford was busy on an important case. She finished what jobs there were, looking idly out over the Temple lawn, whence fine-weather mist was vanishing, and sunlight, brightening to winter brilliance, slanted on to her cheek. (John Galsworthy Over the River) i) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes stopped dead, examining her dark eye-lashes resting on her cream-coloured cheeks, and the little twitchings of her just touched-up lips. Having a French governess, they were well-bred little boys without prospect of sticking pins into her or uttering a sudden whoop.
255

Nadina VIAN

(John Galsworthy Over the River) j) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence, and then went riding with her in the rain. Dinnys morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture while the family were up in town. (John Galsworthy Over the River) Translate into English, making use of the information supplied in this section: Activity 15 1. Aa c vrnd-nevrnd, eram toi adunai n camera aceea, mama mea, cei doi Mamona, Vaucher i cu mine, i ateptnd ca tot ce avea s se ntmple s se ntmple cu adevrat i nu numai n nchipuirea mea sau a lor. i ca la un semnal care anuna un nceput, se deschise o u i venind o slug, totul se anim deodat. Ridicndu-se, Mamona cel Tnr prsi ncperea fr s spun un cuvnt, dar lsnd n urma lui civa stropi de snge, nveselind privirea cu roul lor fierbinte i prevestitor. n urma slugii, mpiedicndu-se de Mamona cel Tnr plecnd, venir alte dou i crnd fiecare cte un cufr. 2. Intrnd n casa noastr n anul 1812, ntr-o joi, Vaucher a nceput prin a-l bate pe Mamona cel Tnr sub privirile mele i ale mamei mele nepstoare i a sfirsit n anul 1821, () omort fiind de ctre Mamona cel Tnr, ucenicul su necredincios. Numai c toate astea sunt departe i nc de nenchipuit. Dar nu att de nenchipuit nct, ieind din bltoaca lui i apropiindu-se de Mamona cel Tnr pentru a-l lovi, s nu-mi inchipui c peste puin vreme m va lovi i pe mine i atunci, nchiznd ochii, apsndu-mi pleoapele peste privirea din ei, frica i nepsarea m-au cuprins precum i
256

Unit nine

Ing complements

gndul c ntr-o zi cineva l va omor pe Vaucher i tiind c nu eu o voi face, am tiut i cine. i poate c stnd n bltoaca lui, Vaucher a tiut i el, arta n orice caz ca cineva care tie, dar spernd c totul va fi altfel pna la urm. 3. Aa c atunci cnd a intrat Mamona cel Btrn, cu un sac ud pe umeri i mirosind tare a ploaie i a sudoare, ne-a gsit pe fiecare la locul lui, pe mama mea prnd absent, dar tiutoare, aezat cu spatele la noi, la mine, care stteam cu ochii aproape nchii, pe Vaucher, aezat n bltoaca pe care o fcuse apa scurs din hainele lui, i pe Mamona cel Tnr, stnd cu capul n tavan i cu o mna ridicat n sus, dup cum i spusese mama, prnd ns c ne salut sau c vrea s-i ia rmas bun de la cineva. Ne-a privit o clipa i, fr s-i lepede sacul de pe umeri, neostenindu-se s fac nici asta, nicidecum s ne salute sau s spun ceva, se duse lnga mama i, aplecndu-se puin, o srut pe frunte. Neclintii, continuam s stm i s ateptm. (tefan Agopian Tache de catifea) 4. Vorbea despre strngerea forelor, despre neprecupeirea efortului, despre concentrarea tuturor resurselor, despre salvgardarea realizrilor, afar ploua n continuare, din cnd n cnd ei i frecau ochii i fetele nerase ca s se in treji, vntul fcea pereii baracii s vibreze ntr-un fel aproape emoionant i, dei m aflam pentru prima oar acolo i nu-i mai vzusem niciodat pe oamenii aceia, totul mi se prea cunoscut, privit, auzit i zadarnic, parc totul mai fusese cndva i fusese degeaba, iar eu eram obosit de moarte s tot vd i s tot ascult, s tot nsemn n carneele i s tot transcriu pe curat. i deodat, n timp ce frazele continuau s
257

Nadina VIAN

curg n felul tiut i ploaia continua s cad i vntul s bat, m-am gndit ce-ar fi ca Dunarea s fi desprins ntre timp insula i s o fi mpins ncet la vale, cu tot cu baraca, i cu soba, i cu stiva de lemne, i cu masa lung de scndur, i cu faa de mas roie ptat de cerneal i ars de igri, i cu brbaii din jurul mesei care ascultau frecndu-i obrazurile nerase, i cu cel ce le vorbea odihnit, i cu mine care notam aceleai i aceleai vorbe, ce-ar fi ca totul s fi pornit de mult fr s ne dm seama, fr s bnuim mcar Apoi au urmat propunerile. 5. De ajuns au ajuns ntr-o diminea frumoas, una dintre acele diminei de toamn limpezi i rcoroase, a cror rcoare nu infirm zpueala amiezii, ci o pregtete i o pune n eviden. Au cobort din camion ncet, oprindu-se fiecare o clip nainte de a sri, cltinndu-se sub lovitura luminii i apoi dndu-i drumul n jos ca ntr-o ap al crei fund nu se ateptau s fie att de aproape. Dup ce ultimul dintre ei coborse, i, fr ca cineva s fi spus un cuvnt, camionul a plecat, au ncercat s se uite n jur i s neleag, dar, ca i cum ar fi uitat ceva, camionul s-a oprit cteva sute de metri mai departe, cineva a aruncat din el mai mule sape i greble s-au vzut numai cozile de lemn rotindu-se n cdere prin aer i o voce cu asprime estompat de deprtare i de uruitul motorului le-a strigat batjocoritor c li se d posibilitatea s i ctige singuri pinea i le-a comunicat c nu au voie s se ndeprteze, s se apropie de aezrile din jur. Cnd au rmas singuri s-au numrat nc o dat: erau nou. i de jur mprejurul lor era Brganul. Aezrile de care nu aveau voie s se apropie nu se vedeau. Tot ce se vedea era un
258

Unit nine

Ing complements

plc de arbori nu mai mult de cteva sute. Primul lucru pe care l-au fcut a fost s adune uneltele din locul unde fuseser aruncate. Al doilea s se apropie de fntn.

259

Nadina VIAN

260

TEN REVISION EXERCISES

261

262

Unit ten

Revision exercises

Exercise 1 Analyse syntactically: 1. Of course it was no accident that he had mismanaged the whole thing so horribly. 2. How much, apart from his distress for parents, this would really hurt, he had not yet been able to estimate. 3. He suffered his pangs of guilt and fear and loss and waited for these sufferings to pass. 4. He did not know whether he was glad or sorry that she had accepted them without puzzlement, without profound questioning. 5. With his claim for British nationality pending it was, he had been advised, unthinkable that he should be extradited as a deserter. 6. He had thought a good deal less about Garth in recent weeks, though when he had first arrived light months ago the return of Garth had been the thing to which he had most looked forward. 7. There had seemed to be another place where Dorina walked barefoot in the dew with her hair undone 8. How this time was to come, unless perhaps borne by a swift horse, was unclear to Mitzi, and she kept intending to leave and then deciding not to, because of pity, because she doubted whether she would find another job and because she thought that if she hung on she would get some money, whereas if she went away she would get none. 9. You have been much in my thoughts, and this particularly of late, since I have decided, for a number of reasons of which I shall tell you at leisure, to retire early from my employment. 10. You must know that if you do not meet this matter properly now, in some way, and meet it right here at home, you are choosing exile from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland. 11. Having regard to the date of drafting, Mr Livingstone advises that you profess to have been traveling in continental Europe and not have received the papers. 12. I am sorry not to have seen you, but I am afraid I am terribly busy at present. 13. That they saw the war differently was probably their most rational area of disagreement, and that
263

Nadina VIAN

was difficult enough. 14. No one seemed to want to talk about it or to be interested or to understand. 15 Meanwhile the big talk with Garth to which he had been so much, even for months, looking forward had not yet taken place. 16 It was but too possible that Garth despised him for this match and felt already that they were hopelessly divided. 17. Sometimes too she would see something in it which she knew to be a ghost, the figure of a woman protecting from the waist upwards high up in the wall opposite to her, like the prow of a ship and moving slightly as if tortured. 18 He surrounded her with anxious possessive jealous tenderness, but in obedience to what he professed to think were her wishes, he did not come to see her. 19. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other, and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know the secret could not take place. (Iris Murdoch An Accidental Man) Exercise 2 Correct the following sentences: Climbing down the tree, one of the eggs broke. / The sweetly-smelling flowers in the garden are his most prized possession. / Before you go on changing the subject, please consider his proposition. / He bought himself a new suit of clothes, for attending his sisters wedding. / The incessant shouting around the house woke Susan up; she could hear her heart beat wildly and her blood race in her veins. / Whenever I visited my aunt, I was made say Grace before every dinner. / I would very much like walking out in the rain, so shall we? / Billy was said to murder his parents when he was only five. / In the end, I never got used to listen to Susans endless gossiping about her friends. / You oughtnt behave so rudely to your best friends; this always makes us feel embarrassed.
264

Unit ten

Revision exercises

Exercise 3 Translate the following: 1. a) She accused Hugh Whitebread, of all people, (and there he was, her old friend Hugh, talking to the Portuguese Ambassador) , of kissing her in the smoking-room to punish her for saying that women should have votes. Vulgar men did, she said. And Clarissa remembered having to persuade her not to denounce him at family prayers which she was capable of doing with her daring, her recklessness, her melodramatic love of being the centre of everything and creating scenes; and it was bound, Clarissa used to think, to end in some awful tragedy. Instead of which she had married, quite unexpectedly, a bald man with a large buttonhole who owned, it was said, cotton mills at Manchester. And she had five boys! (Virginia Woolf Mrs Dalloway) b) Clare lay in a very hot bath. She felt as when, a little girl, she had done something unpleasing to her governess, without discovery. But poor dear Tony! A pity men were so impatient. They had as little liking for cool philandering as for shopping. They rushed into shops, said: Have you such and such? No? and rushed out again. They hated trying on, being patted here and there and turning their heads to look at their back views. To savor what was fitting was to them anathema. Tony was a child. She felt herself much older by nature and experience. Though much in request before her marriage, Clare had never come into close contact with those who, centered in London and themselves, were devoid of belief in anything but mockery, motion and enough money to have from day to day a good time. At country houses she had met them of course, but withdrawn from their proper atmosphere into the air of sport. Essentially, an open-air person, of the quick and wiry, rather than the hefty type, she observed unconsciously the shibboleths of sport.
265

Nadina VIAN

Transplanted to Ceylon, she had kept her tastes and spent her time in the saddle or on the tennis ground. Reading many novels, she professed, indeed, to keep abreast of the current, with all its impatience of restraint, but lying in her bath, she was uneasy. It had not been fair to put Tony on such strain as that of last night. The closer she allowed him to come to her, short of the contacts of love, the more she would be torturing him. (John Galsworthy - Over the River) 2. Dupa ce a facut tirgul cu negustorul, Belizarie nu s-a grabit sa mearga si sa vada daca are ceva de facut sau sa afle daca Gora vrea ceva in afara de plata cuvenita. Nici Gora nu l-a chemat un timp. Cind l-a chemat, nu a facut-o pentru asta. ea a fost mereu printre putinii din Metopolis care l-au socotit totusi pe Belizarie medic si, cu ochiul ei sigur de a cintari oamenii, il numea pe Belizarie o fiinta mindra, sensibila si ofensata de rautatile fara sir ale lumii. Ori de cite ori s-a simtit bolnava nu se temuse sa-l cheme, dincolo de metodele lui brutale pe care nu le aplica oricui si oricum, era un bun sfatuitor, numai sa fi stiut sa-i cistigi increderea. Nu la multa vreme de la transferul de proprietate, Gora a inceput sa-l cheme tot mai des. Bolnava nu se simtea, dar vizitele acestui om din topor, viguros si vesel in felul lui, ii faceau bine. Se auzea aproape zilnic din casa Gorei risul gros al lui Belizarie. (Stefan Banulescu Cartea de la Metopolis) 3.Rindurile dvs.au reusit sa ma insenineze o vreme si sa-mi risipeasca tristetea nedeslusita care a insotit aparitia Jurnalului. Pesemne incordarea cu care am asteptat sa-l vad aparut mi-a epuizat resursele bucuriei. Sau poate senzatia ca m-am despartit, astfel, de ceea ce ar fi trebuit sa ramina capitalul meu de intimitate in spirit? Paginile acestea, cre s-au nascut lent, de-a lungul a cinci ani de zile, reprezentau forma mea de a-mi satisface nevoia fireasca a participarii la un mister. De uitat, nu puteam sa le uit, si in plus, aveam tot mai

266

Unit ten

Revision exercises

mult impresia ca experienta de exceptie cuprinsa in ele implica urgenta comunicarii. 4. Cind a murit Gora Serafis, s-a intimplat ca Belizarie Belizarie sa fie in odaia ei. A fost gasit plingind in urlete, pe scaunul lui tare, tropaind furios cu talpile late pe podea. (St. Banulescu ibid.) 5. Masura pe care o foloseste Polider e aceea pe care I-o da memoria lui asupra clientului, vaazut cindva, o data sau de doua ori. Cind intilneste un om sau chiar cind numai il zareste de departe, ochiul lui Polider ii cuprinde talia, lungimea picioarelor, latimea si ascutisul labei, chiar daca omul cu pricina nare deocamdata nevoie de pantaloni. (St. Banulescu ibid.) 6.Neputinta batrinelor de a se ingriji singure si de a trai omeneste, cit mai au de trait, poate fi compensata, in schimbul micilor averi pe care le detin, printr-o asistenta activa din afara, care insa trebuie sa nu sustina, ci sa bazeze negotul particular de ani, desfasurat haotic si fara perspectiva privind renasterea orasului luat in intregimea lui. (St. Banulescu ibid.) 7. Pe Glad nu-l pricep si poate ca e inutil sa-l pricepi si sa-l explici. I-am dat haine de general pentru ca in acelea de soldat nu-mi dovedea nimic si, mi-am zis, ca si tine, sa incerc maximumul pentru a obtine macar minimumul. Ce a iesit, se stie. Personal, nu pricep nimic. Daca tu, Milionarule, poti face ceva sa-l explici si sa-l justifici, fa-o. are nevoie. (St. Banulescu ibid.)

267

Nadina VIAN

Exercise 4* Consider the following texts. Translate them, paying attention to the way symmetry is built through subordination: 1. And by the Leem lived a lock-keeper. Who was may father. Who was a phlegmatic yet sentimental man. Who told me, when I was even younger than you, that there was no one walking the world who hadnt once suckedWho was wounded at the third battle of Ypres. And had a brother killed in the same battle. Who when asked about his memories of the War, would invariably replay that he remembered nothing. Yet who when he was not asked would sometimes recount bizarre anecdotes of those immemorial trenches and mudscapes, as if speaking of things remote and fantastical in which his involvement was purely speculative. (..) Who fell in love with one of the nurses. Who came home from the war, a wounded soldier, and married the nurse who nursed him back to health. A story-book romance. Who, delivered from the holocaust, could scarcely believe that this enchanted chapter of events was happening to him. Whose love was returned with surprising readiness. 2. Could he be blamed, my grandfather, Ernest Richard Atkinson, for being a renegade, a rebel? Could he be blamed for showing but scant interest in his future prospect as head of the Atkinson Brewery and the Atkinson Water Transport Company? Could he be blamed having been sent by his father, Arthur Atkinson M.P., to Emmanuel College, Cambridge, to receive the finest education any Atkinson had so far received for squandering the time in
268

Unit ten

Revision exercises

undergraduate whims, for flirting with ideas (European socialism, Fabianism, the writings of Marx) directly aimed at his fathers Tory principles; for spending large parts of his vacations in nefarious sojourns in London, where he was called upon by the police to explain his presence at a rally of the unemployed (he was there out of curiosity) and whence he brought back to Kessling Hall in the year 1895 the woman, Rachel Williams, daughter of an ill-paid journalist, to whom, he brazenly declared (omitting to mention other ladies with whom he had toyed), he had already engaged himself? 3. But does merriment belong to him who gives it? Testimonies from those times amply confirmed by his last years, and by the photographs which I still possess of my maternal grandfather (brooding brows, deep-set, glowering eyes) suggest that even in his restless youth Ernest Atkinson was a melancholy, a moody man. That the flightiness of those early years was merely pursued as is so often the case to combat inner gravity; that his dabbling with socialist doctrines was not done solely to spite his father but out of an inclination (true to his name) to take the world in earnest; that he dedicated himself to the manufacture of merriment because despondency urged him, and because but this is mere speculation, mere history teachers conjecture he had learnt such dark things (what death-bed confessions preceded old Arthur to the grave in 1904?) about his far-reaching progenitors that he wished for nothing more than to be an honest and unambitious purveyor of barrels of happiness. 4. He described I have in my possession a verbatim copy of this brave and doomed speech how it was conscience alone and no love of taking public stances (heckles from rear) that had spurred him into the political field. How
269

Nadina VIAN

fear for the future had already soured his pleasure-giving role of brewer. How he foresaw in the years ahead catastrophic consequences unless the present mood of jingoism was curbed and the military poker-playing of the nations halted. How civilisation (had Ernest inherited the prophetic gifts of Sarah? Or was he, as many suspected and attested with nudges to their neighbours, just plain drunk?) faced the greatest crisis of its history. How if no one took steps an inferno (Graham Swift Waterworld) 5. Unele lucruri sunt sortite s rmn venic netiute, nu-i de ajuns s vrei s le ptrunzi, trebuie s te vrea i ele; uneori se ntmpl s nu afli singurul adevr pe care ar fi trebuit s-l cunoti, ca rostul vieii tale s fie altul. S fi tiut de pild Ion Constantinescu istoria adevrat a morii tatlui su. Cum lucra tata odinioar cu Gheorghe la un atelier mecanic. Cum s-a mbtat Gheorghe, omul care trage azi s moar i l-a lovit pe tatl lor cu o rang n cap. Cum erau ei mici i au rmas fr tat. Cum s-a fcut o anchet i nimeni n-a spus un cuvnt despre Gheorghe, ca s fie accident de munc i s primeasc maic-sa pensie, ca s-i ridice copiii i s-l ie pe el, Ion, la coal. Cum a stat Gheorghe n sat, tiindu-i tot satul fapta. Cum a fcut el cincizeci de ani de nchisoare la rani, fr s poat pleca nicieri. Cum l-au pzit cu toii s-i ispeasc vina acolo. Cum a ajuns el, Ion, om mare, fr s cunoasc nimic din toate acestea. Cum a trit el, satul, cu taina aceasta, ca s ajung Ion om vestit. Cum au tcut ei, ca Ion s nu duc povara unui secret att de ngrozitor. Cum a fost viaa lui ca lacrima i cum a fost a lor.

270

Unit ten

Revision exercises

Cum Gheorghe e n pat de un an de zile i nu poate s moar, dac nu-I iertat de nevasta celui ucis, de mama lor. Cum umbl sora cea btrn a lui Gheorghe s-I roage pe fraii lui s o nduplece pe mama. Cum se poate tri o via i viaa s aib un rost. Cum preul vieii a fost ntotdeauna altul dect acela pe care l-a cunoscut el. Cum toate sunt numai cum sunt i pururea altfel. (Tudor Octavian Istoria unui obiect ciudat) 6. Ceea ce s-a ntmplat dup aceea nu e treaba nimnui i nici chiar a mea: le adun i le las pentru btrnee, cnd voi fi singur, cnd Ipu va fi mort i putrezit: e o poveste foarte lung, cum am ajuns eu stpnul lui, singurul lui stpn, cum s-a bgat slug la biseric i la printele Ioan numai ca s fie aproape de mine i s m slujeasc, mpotriva tuturor; cum mi-am dat seama ct de greu e s ai putere asupra cuiva; cum o singur greeal ca aceea de azi, cind i-am spus c o s ne jucm mai trziu - pune totul in discuie, te umple de disperare pentru c-i dai seama c nu eti pregtit pentru via i c dac se adun, cu sau fr voie, greeli dintr-astea, ajungi pe nesimite n rndul stpnilor-robi, ncepi s te simi bine i nu e bine! (Titus Popovici Moartea lui Ipu) Exercise 5 Translate into English, paying attention to the syntactical concepts studied in the classroom: 1. E un barbarism monstrous care ar scoate din mormint pe toti luptatorii limbii literare. L-au derivat cei din teatru, din franuzete, mai nti ntr-o locuiune rmas culiselor cu exclusivitate: a face foame. Cnd actria,
271

Nadina VIAN

tnr i frumoas, e ndrgostit de un actor, tnr i frumos i el, care-i cere s-l ia de brbat, ea i rspunde cu chibzuin: Eti nebun? Vrei s facem foame amndoi ? 2. Pe lng noi treceau grupuri care parc nu aveau altceva de fcut dect s ne examineze. Desigur c toate grupurile se examinau i ntre ele, dar nu puteam s mi dau seama efectiv de acest fapt, dect cnd noi eram obiectul lui. Tot aa, de pild, nevasta-mea, uneori i astzi chiar, privindu-m n ochi, viu i cu o strlucire pasionat, mi ddea impresia c numai pentru mine are aceast privire. 3. Sptmnile urmtoare m-am simit din ce n ce mai mult convalescent. Aceste ntrevederi cu nevast-mea m fceau s suport nesfrit mai uor ruptura i eram foarte mulumit de bunul gnd pe care-l avusesem, provocndu-le. Deprtarea nu mai era o dram unic i distrugtoare de organe, ci un sistem de acomodare. 4. ntr-o vreme, parc ncepusem s-o uit. Descoperisem un soi de preocupri, care o lsau pe ea pe planul al doilea. Niciodata nu ajunsesem la o att de mare putere de concentrare. Reluasem studiul i cteva zile am avut impresia c am gasit o explicaie menit s revoluioneze filozofia. Era n mine o claritate binefctoare, asemeni calmului pe care i-l d morfina. 5. Pe strad umblam aproape automat, cu toat atenia rsfrnt nuntru. Nu tiam nici pe ce strzi merg, nu auzeam nimic n jurul meu i cteodat, traversnd, dam buzna peste automobile. Tot ce era raz de lumin era absorbit n interior. S-a ntmplat s pesc i necazuri penibile, sau ridicole. 6. Nu ineam minte nimic din ceea ce fceam. Era s am din cauza asta un duel. Am fost oprit pe bulevard de un domn i o doamn, fost prieten din copilrie. Am nceput, pe jumtate prezent, s-i srut mna ei i pe urm, continund, i-am srutat-o i domnului. A devenit palid, i-a tras mna brusc i m-a dezmeticit i pe mine. Abia mai trziu lucrurile s-au lmurit.

272

Unit ten

Revision exercises

7. Am nceput, firete, iar, s merg ntins, cci dac suferisem pn s obin nvoirea, acum pream scpat ca dintr-o pratie i nebunia revederii cretea n mine ca un spasm, pe care nimic nu l-ar mai fi putut opri pn la istovirea lui. Ajuns nc dimineaa n pia, simeam c mi se dilat inima, cutnd o trasur pentru Cmpulung. 8. n clipa aceea am simit c voi dezerta pentru trei zile, orice s-ar ntmpla cu mine, ca s viu prin surprindere s vd ce face. I-am rspuns c nu tiu, c nu m-am gndit la asta. Adevrul e ns c m gndisem. De multe ori imaginam cte o btlie i m vedeam conducndu-mi plutonul cu o bravur att de extraordinar, nct toi efii mei s se entuziasmeze. 9. Dac nemii naintau, m puteau prinde fr lupt, cci e nendoios c n-a fi fost n stare s m apr. De altminteri, nici nu mai aveam cui comanda, cci nu aveam lng mine dect apte oameni. E o problem, care i n cealalt via m-a obsedat mereu, nc din ultimul an de liceu : sunt inferior celorlali de vrsta mea ? 10. De la o vreme oboseala mi d ca un val de nebunie. De trei zile i trei nopi n-am dormit dect asear, n anul oselei dou ore si azi dup-mas alte dou. Acum picioarele nu mai gsesc nici mcar sprijin, n noroiul care alunec sub ele, de parc am cauciuc la genunchi. A vrea s m las jos, s treac peste mine bocancii camarazilor. 11. Dac prin absurd nu se ntmpl nimic, i dac merg ntins, aa ca un cadavru ambulant, singur n picioare n tot largul cmpului, fr s m opresc o clip, orice s-ar ntmpla, sfertul de ceas trebuie s treac. Dar nu trebuie s m opresc sub nici un cuvnt, i nici s fiu atent la ce e in jurul meu ca s-mi pierd curajul, i s nu ameesc, ca un acrobat, care nu trebuie s se uite n jos 12. A doua zi m-am mutat la hotel pentru saptamina pe care aveam s-o mai petrec in permisie. I-am daruit nevesti-mi inca o suma ca aceea ceruta de ea la Cimpulung si m-am interesat sa vad cu ce formalitate ii pot darui casele de la

273

Nadina VIAN

Constanta. I-am scris ca-i las absolute tot ce e in casa, de la obiecte de pret, la carti... de la lucruri personale, la amintiri. Adica tot trecutul. 13. La un moment dat, Prunoiu incepu sa spuna cum se muncise la formarea comitetului. Auzindu-l, Anghel se dadu mai aproape si se facu atent. In curind, de uimire, nu mai pricepu nimic. Se asteptase ca Prunoiu sa nu pomeneasca nimic despre organizatie. Nu numai ca pomeni tot timpul de organizatie, dar si lauda Grozav pe Mitrica si pe Pascu. Numai de Anghel nu pomeni nici un cuvint. 14. Ilie i-a povestit apoi ca acolo, la fata locului, a stat mult pe ginduri pina sa le spuna prietenilor pe sleau ceea ce gindea. Ii venea greu, stia bine ca dupa aceea ei au sa-l ocoleasca. Ii parea rau si de Gavrila, care era un om de treaba si cu care se ajuta la nevoie. Greu era din partea asta, dar nu se mai putea, trebuia sa le spuna. 15. Ilie se mira de purtarea curierului. Stan arata foarte ingrijorat de ce-o sa pateasca Ilie ca nu venise mai dereme. Se vedea ca fusese el insusi luat la rost ca nu-l adusese pina acum pe Ilie Barbu. Ii spuse sa mai astepte nitel, dar nu-i spuse si de ce, ca si cind faptul ca tovarasul presedinte si Anghel se dusesera sa stea la masa ar fi fost un secret pe care Ilie nu trebuia sa-l stie. 16. Ilie nu-l asculta. Se uita nemiscat la Iancu, cu mirare, cu un soi de ciudata nedumerire. Nu semana deloc cu Iancu acela de-acum cincisprezece ani. Nici macar cu cel de acum trei ani, de la proces, nu mai semana. Acum trei ani i se uita in fata cu indrazneala. Acum isi ferea privirea, se uita in jos, parca i-ar fi fost frica. 17. Lui Iancu ii era frica intr-adevar sa se uite la Ilie, dar nu pentru ceea ce-si inchipuia acesta. Iancu se stapinea sa nu-i sara lui Ilie in git. Trebuise sa se scoale la vederea lui si sa mai joace si o comedie. Uite, acum trebuia sa-i raspunda lui Ghioceoaia : - Ma, eu am venit sa va intreb, nu trebuie sa va suparati, spuse el cu un glas ciudat, parca ar fi vorbit in vis.
274

Unit ten

Revision exercises

18. Zimbea siret, bagase de seama ca Anghel se preface. Vazuse apoi ca ceilalti se uitau din cind in cind la omul ala pe care Ilie nu-l cunostea, apoi se uitau la Ilie, apoi din nou se intorceau spre omul ala. Ilie nu intelesese nimic, dar, fara sa-si dea seama de ce, i se paru ca aici e ceva. Se uita si el mai staruitor la tovarasul necunoscut. Ridica sprincenele plin de uimire : omul ii intimpinase privirea deschis, zimbind foarte bucuros si clatinind a mustrare din cap. 19. Lui Prunoiu i-ar fi placut mai mult ca Sergiu sa-i spuna direct ce crede, asa cum facuse pina acum, nu sa-i pomeneasca de Turlea. Aici era ceva, trebuia sa se poarte cu grija. Rau a facut ca a baut aseara la circiuma cu ceilalti. Nu era nevoie, le facuse si-asa destula astmosfera, cum zicea Anghel. E adevarat ca lumea stie ca sint prietenii lui, dar prietenia e una si treaba e alta. 20. - Ce sa fac, ma gindesc la lumea asta care te da asa la o parte, raspunse Ilie aratind cu capul spre birou. Cel care intrebase nu zise nimic, i se paru prea indraznet raspunsul lui Ilie. Ar fi vrut sa auda ceva mai ocolit, vorbe asa si-asa, care puteau fi intoarse dupa cum ar fi fost nevoie . se indeparta nepasator. Nu poti vorbi ca lumea cu Ilie asta , parea sa spuna cu nepasarea lui. Exercise 6* Analyse the following texts syntactically; comment on the underlined phrases: 1. Henry would have been so touched to believe that a man he deeply admired should care a straw for him that he wouldnt play with such a presumption if it were possibly vain. In a single glance of the eye of the pardonable Master he read - having the sort of divination that belonged to his talent that this personage had ever a store of friendly patience, which was part of his rich outfit, but was versed in no printed page of a rising scribbler. There was even
275

Nadina VIAN

relief, a simplification, in that: liking him so much already for what he had done, how could one have liked him any more for a perception which must at the best have been vague? 2. It was necessary to Pauls soreness to believe for the hour in the intensity of his grievance all the more cruel for its not being a legal one. It was doubtless in the attitude of hugging this wrong that he descended the stairs without taking leave of Miss Fancourt, who hadnt been in view at the moment he quitted the room. He was glad to get out into the honest dusky unsophisticated night, to move fast, to take his way home on foot. He walked a long time, going astray, paying no attention. 3. Winterbourne wondered whether she was seriously wounded, and for a moment almost wished that her sense of injury might be such as to make it becoming in him to attempt to reassure and comfort her. He had a pleasant sense that she would be very approachable for consolatory purposes. He felt then, for the instant, quite ready to sacrifice his aunt, conversationally; to admit that she was a proud, rude woman, and to declare that they neednt mind her. But before he had time to commit himself to this perilous mixture of galantry and impiety, the young lady, resuming her walk, gave an exclamation. 4. It was impossible to regard her as a perfectly well-conducted young lady; she was wanting in a certain indispensable delicacy. It would therefore simplify matters greatly to be able to treat her as the object of one of those sentiments which are called by romancers lawless passions. That she should seem to wish to get rid of him would help him to think more lightly of her and to be able to think more lightly of her would make her much less perplexing. But Daisy, on this occasion, continued to present herself as an inscrutable combination of audacity and innocence. 5. He flattered himself on the following day that there was no smiling among the servants when he, at least, asked for Mrs.Miller at her hotel. She was one
276

Unit ten

Revision exercises

of those American ladies who, while residing abroad, make a point, in their own phrase, of studying European society; and she had on this occasion collected several specimens of her diversely born fellow-mortals to serve, as it were, as text book. Her daughter, on the other hand, was not a young lady to wait to be spoken to. She rustled forward, in radiant loveliness, smiling and chattering, making Paul stop and look at her. 6. When Daisy cane to take leave of Mrs.Walker, this lady conscientiously repaired the weakness of which she had been guilty at the moment of the young girls arrival. She turned her back straight upon Miss Miller and left her to depart with what grace she might. Daisy turned very pale and looked at her mother, but Mrs Miller was humbly unconscious of any violation of the usual social forms. She appeared, indeed, to have felt an incongruous impulse to draw attention to her own striking observance of them. 7. I preferred that crumbling things should be allowed to crumble at their ease. My goddaughter was quite of my way of thinking; she had a high appreciation of antiquity. Advising with me, often, as to projected changes, she was sometimes more conservative even than I, and I more than once smiled at her archaeological zeal, declaring that I believe she had married the Count because he was like a statue of the Decadence. I had a constant invitation to spend my days at the Villa, and my easel was always planted in one of the garden-walks; so I finally grew to have a painters passion for the place. 8. He left me musing, uncomfortably, and wondering what the deuce he meant. The Count certainly chose to make a mystery of the Juno, but this seemed a natural incident of the first rapture of possession. I was willing to wait for permission to approach her, and in the meantime I was glad to find that there was a limit to his constitutional apathy. But as the days elapsed I began to be conscious that his enjoyment was not communicative, but strangely cold and shy and sombre. That he should admire a marble goddess

277

Nadina VIAN

was no reason for his despising mankind; yet he really seemed to be making invidious comparisons between us. 9. H. was only half satisfied with this, for it was by no means definite to him that Bohemians were also to be saved; if he could be sure perhaps he would become one himself. Yet he never suspected Mr Vetch of being a govermental agent, though E. Poupin had told him that there were a great many who looked a good deal like that: not of course with any purpose of incriminating the fiddler, whom he had trusted from the first and continued to trust. The agent became a very familiar type to H, and, though he had never caught one of the infamous brotherhood in the act there were plenty of persons to whom he had no hesitation in attributing the character. 10. H. wondered what they were talking about, and perceived that it must be something important, for the stranger was not a man who would take an interest in anything else. H. was immensely struck with him, could see he was remarkable, and felt slightly aggrieved that he should be a stranger: that is that he should be apparently a familiar of Lisson and yet that M.Poupin should not have thought his young friend from Lomax Place worthy up to this time to be made acquainted with him. I know not to what degree the visitor in the other chair discovered these reflections on Hs face. 11. The close logic of this speech and the quaint self-possession with which the little bedridden speaker delivered it struck H. as amazing and confirmed his idea that the brother and sister were a most extraordinary pair. It had a terrible effect on poor Lady Aurora, by whom so stern a lesson from so humble a quarter had evidently not been expected and who sought refuge from her confusion in a series of pleading gasps, while Paul, with his humorous density, which was deliberate, and acute too, not seeing, or at any rate not heeding, that she had been sufficiently snubbed by his sister, inflicted a fresh humiliation in saying: Rosys right, its no use trying to buy yourself off.
278

Unit ten

Revision exercises

12. She got up quickly when Paul had ceased speaking; the movement suggested she had taken offence and he would have liked to show her he thought she had been rather roughly used. But she gave him no chance, not glancing at him for a moment. Then he saw he was mistaken and that if she had flushed considerably it was only with the excitement of pleasure, the enjoyment of such original talk and of seeing her friends at last as free and familiar as she wished them to be. 13. It may easily be believed that he criticized his inclination even while he gave himself up to it, and that he often wondered he should find so much to attract in a girl in whom he found so much to condemn. When he himself was not letting his imagination wander among the haunts of the aristocracy and stretching it in the shadow of the ancestral beech to read the last number of some fashionable magazine, he was occupied with contemplations of a very different kind: he was absorbed in the struggles of millions whose life flowed in the same current as his and who, though they constantly excited his disgust and made him shrink and turn away, had the power to chain his sympathy. 14. At his suggestion she had retracted the falsehoods with which she had previously tried to put the boy off, and had made at last a confession which he was satisfied to believe as complete as her knowledge. H. could never have told you why the crisis had occurred on such a day, why his question had broken out at that particular moment. The strangeness of the mater to himself was that the germ of his curiosity should have developed so slowly; that the haunting wonder which now, as he looked back, appeared to fill his whole childhood, should only after so long an interval have crept up to the air. 15. His having the courage to disinter from The Times in the reading-room of the British Museum a report of his mothers trial for the murder of Lord Purvis, which was very copious, the affair having been quite a cause celebre; his resolution in sitting under that splendid dome and, with his head bent to hide his hot eyes, going through every syllable of the ghastly record had been
279

Nadina VIAN

an achievement of comparatively recent years. There were certain things Pinnie knew that appalled him; and there were others, as to which he would have given his hand to have some light, that it made his heart ache supremely to find she was honestly ignorant of. 16. At the theatre, he felt there was a pleasing inconsequence in Marys being moved to tears in the third act of the play, where the Pearl of Paraguay, disheveled and distracted, dragging herself on her knees, implored the stern hidalgo her father to believe in her innocence in spite of circumstances appearing to condemn her a midnight meeting with the wicked hero in the grove of coconuts. It was at this crisis none the less that she asked H. who his friends were in the principal box on the left of the stage and let him know that a gentleman seated there had been watching him at intervals for the past half hour. 17. There was not a country in the world he appeared not to have ransacked, and to H. his trophies represented a wonderfully long purse. The whole establishment, from the low-voiced inexpressive valet who, after he had poured brandy into tall tumblers, solemnized the very popping of soda-water corks, to the quaint little silver receptacle in which he was invited to deposit the ashes of his cigar, was such a revelation for our appreciative youth that he felt himself hushed and depressed, so poignant was the thought that it took thousands of things he then should never possess nor know to make a civilized being. 18. H. had seen plenty of women who chattered about themselves and their affairs a vulgar garrulity of confidence was indeed a leading characteristic of the sex as he had hitherto learned to know it but he was quick to perceive that the great lady who now took the trouble to open herself to him was not of a gossiping habit; that she must be on the contrary, as a general thing, proudly, ironically reserved, even to the point of passing with many people for a model of the unsatisfactory. It was very possible she was capricious; yet
280

Unit ten

Revision exercises

the fact that her present sympathies and curiosities might be a caprice wore in her visitors eyes no sinister aspect. 19. H. didnt mind, with the poor, going into questions of their state it even gave him at times a strange savage satisfaction; but he saw that in discussing them with the rich the interest must inevitably be less: the rich couldnt consider poverty in the light of experience. Their mistakes and illusions, their thinking they had got hold of the sensations of want and dirt when they hadnt at all, would always be more or less irritating. It came over H. that if he found this deficient perspective in Lady Auroras deep conscientiousness it would be a queer enough business when he should come to pretending to hold the candle-stick for the princess. 20. One evening in November he had after discharging himself of a considerable indebtedness to Pinnie still a sovereign in his pocket a sovereign that seemed to spin there under the equal breath of a dozen different uses. He had come out for a walk with a vague intention of pushing as far as Audley Court; and lurking within this nebulous design, on which the damp breath of the streets, making objects seem that night particularly dim and places particularly far, had blown a certain chill, was a sense of how nice it would be to take something to Rose, who delighted in a sixpenny present and to whom he hadnt for some time rendered any such homage. (Henry James The Princess Casamassima) Exercise 7* Explain the ungrammaticality of the starred underlined

words/phrases/sentences: 1. No one ever listens to her./ * Anyone doesnt listen to her. 2. Neither the teacher nor the students *understands the problem. 3. *Old, young men were invited.
281

Nadina VIAN

4. *Bucharest I have known for ages is not a city easy to forget. 5. I didnt go to the concert and *nor went my sister. 6. She didnt ever buy anything anywhere on that trip./ *She ever bought nothing anywhere on that trip. 7. Alice is the cutest girl I have *always seen. 8. They threw all the people and parcels *who filled the bus. 9. Either John or he * have got to give in. 10. That house *of which garden you liked so much is not for sale. 11. He put back the book he consulted *on the shelf. 12. Who do you think they killed *him? Exercise 8*: Identify the non-finite forms in the texts below. State a) their type b) their function c) what kind of logical subject they have. Can you identify any verbal nouns in these texts? a) At the same moment my stomach seemed to come sliding from somewhere else. There was a soft awkward scraping at the end of the row as six people rose hastily to let me out. I blundered by, slipped on some steps, the terrible relentless sweet sound still gripping my shoulders with its talons. I walked fast. I was definitely going to be sick. b) I got up and got well away from her this time, walking quickly. I saw her as a vision, her red and blue silk tulip dress spread by her legs, striding like a Spartan maid, her shining blue feet twinkling, her arms held out. And now again she made me stop in front of her shining figure. c) When I saw her sitting there, I came straight out of the flat and closed the door behind me and said, Oh, Rachel, how marvellous to see you! Im just going to do some urgent shopping, would you like to walk along with me? I did not want to let her in but I was very glad to see her.
282

Unit ten

Revision exercises

Exercise 9*: Choose the most correct answer. One or more solutions can be valid: 1. In the sentence I remembered to mention the problem to him but didnt have the time the interpretation of the infinitive is a) potential b) factual c) future-oriented 2. The sentence Let there be an end to this misunderstanding exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) control construction c) Nominative + Infinitive 3. Accusative + Infinitive are characterized by such grammatical phenomena as a) topicalization b) reflexivization c) passivization 4. The sentence It is fun for Mary to prove this theorem exhibits an instance of a) Accusative + Infinitive b) For-to construction c) extraposition 5. Participial constructions differ from gerundial ones in that they: a) have aspectual features b) can be modifiers c) are fully verbal constructions 6. Gerunds are characterized by: a) extraposition b) combination with particles and conjunctions c) the ability to fulfill a subject/object function 7. The sentence Bill shouted to me for the next recruit to be tall exhibits an instance of a) obligatory Indirect Object control b) for-to infinitive c) extraposition 8. The infinitive construction shares the following features with that complements: a) extraposition b) topicalization from object position c) passivisation 9. The sentence I bought a gun to kill rats with exhibits an instance of a) relative infinitival clause b) complement infinitve c) pied piping 10. Verbal Nouns differ from gerunds in that they may exhibit: a) a possessive determiner b) an of phrase and an adjective c) an of phrase and an adverb
283

Nadina VIAN

Exercise 10*: Consider the following texts; analyse that clauses and relative complements in these texts: 1. Rosa could hardly think of anything she would not have given to know Mischa Foxs mind at the moment. What terrified her most was that she found deep in her heart a strong wish, which was really alarming, that Mischa might indeed want to reopen negotiations. 2. And then I ventured to add that, if they were poor, it was all the more reason for them to let me rent them their rooms. I was confident they must have had a second kitchen, where my servant, who is a wonderfully handy fellow, could cook my meals. 3. I notified her that he had faults and peculiarities that made mammas life a long worry and a martyrdom that she hid wonderfully from the world, but that we saw and pitied. I said it wasnt fair that we should let another person marry him. 4. The old women spoke no English, and how much she was aware at all of where she was and what was going on around her Rosa was unable to decide. 5. I remember the quiver that took me when I perceived that the niece was in the room. It almost exceeded my courage that I should be left alone with so formidable a relic as the aunt. I felt sure it was a decisive moment of my life. (Iris Murdoch The Flight from the Enchanter)

284

Key To Chapter One Practice

KEY TO PRACTICE
KEY TO CHAPTER ONE PRACTICE INTRODUCTION
Activity 2 1. Margaret was anxious to settle on a house before they left town to pay their annual visit to Mrs. Munt. Constituents: Margaret, was anxious, to settle, on a house, before they left town, to pay their annual visit, to Mrs Munt Some of these constituents are further decomposable: e.g. was anxious = was + anxious, etc. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. Constituents: He, was informed, on Saturday, at noon, that he was going to be fired Some of these constituent can be further decomposed as follows: that he was going to be fired = that + he + was going to be fired, etc. How much, apart from his distress for parents, this would really hurt, he had not yet been able to estimate. Constituents: how much, apart form his distress for parents, this, would really hurt, he, had not been able to estimate, yet Some of the constituents are further decomposable: e.g.apart from his distress = apart from, his, distress, etc.

285

Nadina VIAN

KEY TO CHAPTER TWO PRACTICE - SENTENCE NEGATION


Activity 1 They like her a lot. assertive/ Are you listening to me? non-assertive, interrogative, positive/ Arent you listening to me? non-assertive, interrogative, negative/ We didnt come here just to talk. non-assertive, negative/ Come with me. assertive/ Dont do that. non-assertive, negative. / If you like her, dont bother her. first clause is non-assertive, second clause is non-assertive, negative/ She cant wait to read that book. assertive (cant wait = is eager to)./ She finally admitted, didnt she? assertive sentence + tag question, which is not assertive./ Hasnt she arrived? non-assertive, interrogative, negative/ If you like jazz, listen to this. first clause is an ifclause, and is non-assertive. Second clause is an imperative, it is assertive. / She is more interesting than anyone I have ever seen. comparison, nonassertive/ It is odd that you should like Sartre so much. it is odd requires to be followed by a subjunctive, which context is non-assertive. Activity 2 His observation is non-scientific and it is also irrelevant. semantic negation/ Bill isnt interested in syntax and his friends are not interested in syntax.syntactic negation for both clauses/ He disapproves of mothers going out to work.- semantic negation/ He doesnt approve of mothers going out to work.syntactic negation/ Nikitas unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday night.- semantic negation/ Nikitas unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday night.- semantic negation + syntactic negation/ Nikitas not very unpleasant face did not appear on TV last Thursday. first instance is not really negative: double negation cancellation. The sentence is however
286

Key To Chapter Two Practice

syntactically negated due to the negative word placed in front of the verb. / Nikitas not very unpleasant face appeared on TV last Thursday. double negation cancellation. Activity 3 She was not without grace or beauty./ When he learned the news, he was hardly pleased./ Not long ago, everybody used to travel by coach./ He needed not a little skill to solve that problem./ She doesnt have a special preference for John. / She does like John, but not more than she does others. / He wasnt unusually bright./ He was exceptionally cunning./ He was smart enough, but nothing out of the ordinary./ Hardly interested in the conference, Mr Jones stood up and left the hall./ Mr Jones was not interested in the talk in the conference room at all. / Not really convinced by what the had heard, the two brothers dared to protest./ They werent really confused, only irresolute./ I must admit that this colour suits me to perfection./ He firmly denied any connection with the murder committed the previous night./ He was not a little surprised to see how well the two got on with each other. Activity 4 They did not tell Susan the truth about Jim. they told the truth to somebody else./ Susan did not get married to Jim - but to someone else. / I dont like her very much. I like somebody else. / We dont come here often we visit some other place. / Susan was not bitten by a dog someone else was. / She does not hate animals. someone hates animals, but it isnt Susan. / They didnt leave. someone did that, but it wasnt them. Activity 5 I dont know much about him, not even this thing. / I can hardly understand what they are saying, not even when its quiet around. / You have never met
287

Nadina VIAN

her, not even when you were very young. / I havent ever seen such a thing, not even in my dreams. / Should they not have told her the truth, not even part of it? / Not infrequently, they go skiing in the mountains, *not even at weekends / In no time he was able to solve the problem, * not even this week / At no time was he able to solve the problem, not even this week / Not always a witty interlocutor, Jim felt rather at a loss for words, *did he?/ They caused us no problems, did they? / No problems were caused after all, were they? / This boy is no good, is he? / Few of them stayed behind, did they? / A few of them stayed behind, *did they? Activity 6 They didnt send many students abroad. negative insertion (contraction)/ I showed him nothing.- negative incorporation / Not many women are famous opera composers.- negative attraction / Not a word fell from her lips.negative attraction / She said not a word when I spoke to her. negative attraction / It didnt take him a minute to tell her the secret.- negative insertion (contraction) / Not a minute did it take him to tell her the secret.- negative attraction (+ emphasis) / No one ever listens to her.- negative incorporation / None of them liked house music.- negative incorporation / Not one of them came to meet her.- negative attraction/ They didnt come to meet her.negative insertion (contraction) / I saw nobody.- negative incorporation / I didnt see anybody.- negative insertion (contraction)/ They never went there.negative incorporation/ They didnt ever tell her what bothered them. negative insertion (contraction)/ He should not be released. negative insertion. Activity 7 I can barely look him in the eye. I cannot look him in the eye. I could hardly wait to hear the news. I couldnt wait to hear the news. / This is hardly the
288

Key To Chapter Two Practice

time to buy yourself a new fur coat. This is not the time / I scarcely ever see her. I never see her. / Hardly anybody liked him. Almost nobody liked him. / Youve eaten hardly anything. You havent eaten a thing. / I seldom look at her like that. I dont often look at her like that. / Few people came to see her. Not many people came to see her. / You can hardly blame me for your mistakes. You cannot possibly blame me for your mistakes. / I hardly ever look at those paintings. I almost never look at those paintings. Activity 8 I shall never, never trust a man again.- Never shall I trust a man again. / One can have peace in life only by avoiding them altogether. Only by avoiding them altogether can one have peace in life. / A truer word has seldom been spoken! Seldom has a truer word been spoken! / This nation scarcely ever in the past faced so great a danger. Scarcely did this nation face so great a danger in the past. / There is rarely an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way. Rarely is there an opportunity for us to serve the community in this way./ Nothing like that ever happened in our street before.- Never before did anything like that happen in our street./ We seldom receive such generous praise. Seldom do we receive such generous praise. / Ann gave him the use of her flat and lent him a car as well. Not only did Ann give him the use of her flat, but she also lent him a car./ She had no idea he was a man on the run from the police.- Little did she know that he was a man on the run from the police./ We never thought he was that sort of fellow. Never did we think that he was that sort of fellow./ We little suspected when we started our holiday that it would be like this. Little did we suspect that it would be like this, when we started our holiday. / You rarely see such an outstanding bargain. Rarely do you see such an outstanding bargain. / You shouldnt wander away from the path under any circumstances. Under no circumstances should you wander away from the path. / I didnt leave the
289

Nadina VIAN

office at any time. At no time did we leave the office. / You must on no account touch this machinery. On no account must you touch this machinery. / She could rely on nobody but him. Only on this man could she rely. / We not only ran into the fog but it began to rain. Hardly had we run into the fog when it began to rain. / The keys couldnt be found anywhere. Nowhere could the keys be found. Activity 9 John claims that Susan doesnt trust him. John doesnt claim that Susan trusts him / I suppose she doesnt care, does she? I dont suppose she cares, does she?/ Its likely that he wont help her. It isnt likely that he will help her./ I expect he wont come here again. I dont expect he will come here again./ I thought I didnt have to do it myself. I didnt think I had to do it myself. / They believe she does not like them. They dont believe she likes them./ They suggested that she should not meet Jim. They didnt suggest that she should meet Jim. / He reckoned he would not win her over. He didnt reckon he would win her over. Activity 10 We have already had some snow this winter. We havent had any snow this winter yet. / They say he once had someone very close. They say he never had anyone very close. / Come on, you can still do something about it. Come on, you cant do anything about it any more. / We will see them again somewhere sometime. We wont see them again anywhere anytime./ We were somehow surprised by that sudden appearance. We werent surprised by that sudden appearance at all./ Well, I hope hes somewhat wiser now. Well I hope he isnt any wiser./ I somewhat like his proposal.- I dont like his proposal at all. / I think I can help him (to) some (extent). I dont think I can help him to any extent. / Dont worry, it will stop hurting before tomorrow.
290

Key To Chapter Two Practice

It wont stop hurting until tomorrow./ Susan got a passing grade in English and her friend did, too. Susan didnt get a passing grade in English and her friend didnt, either. / Alice doesnt live here any longer/ more. Alice still lives here. / I dont feel any better for having had a holiday. I feel much better for having had a holiday. / Well, Im afraid her husband was never any good. Well her husband has always been a good person. / You neednt send her anything. You should send her something. / She hardly ever comes here. She almost always comes here. /This experiment has revealed something of importance already. This experiment hasnt revealed anything of importance yet./ Bob is still living at that address. Bob is no longer living at that address (is not living at that address any more)/ I can understand both of these sentences. I cant understand either of these sentences./ I can understand all of these ten English words. I cant understand any of these ten English words. / Hundreds of students can find somewhere comfortable to live Hundreds of students cannot find anywhere comfortable to live./ Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. He didnt know how to answer any of the questions on this test./ Peter knows some English and so does John.- Peter doesnt know any English and neither does John (and John doesnt, either)/ Both John and Peter have pretty wives. Neither John nor Peter have pretty wives./ Daddy drinks a lot of coffee as he always has. Daddy doesnt drink much coffee and he never has./ I nearly always have to clean it myself. I hardly ever have to clean it myself. (I almost never have to clean it myself)/ Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. Hardly anyone of them did well on that exam. / You must pay that fine. You neednt (dont have to) pay that fine. / You must be telling lies. You cant be telling lies.

291

Nadina VIAN

Activity 11 Ion isnt very smart, in fact I dont know a single person in that family who is. / He cant have done a thing like that. He isnt that smart./ I dont know a thing about her, I havent seen her in years. / Please, give me a hand, I want to lift this stone but it wont budge./ They say this Ph.D. has never studied anywhere./ Nobody told us a thing, to any of us./ Im sure Mark didnt stir a finger to make that phonecall. / Jim is so brave. He didnt move a muscle. He didnt even flinch when the doctor dressed his wound./ You look so tired today. Its no wonder, I didnt sleep a wink all night./ Would you like a glass of wine? No thanks, ever since I got this ulcer, I havent touched a drop before dinner./ You took his leaving you very hard. Oh, I dont give a damn if he comes back or not./ The police didn't leave a stone unturned in search for the murderer./ It was clear that something awful had taken place, but she couldnt remember a thing and couldnt say a word./ I dont know why shes crying, I havent done anything, I havent laid a finger on her!/ He was the only one who could have helped them, but he didnt lift a finger to save them./ He was a tough man, he didnt move a muscle when he heard about his sons death./ Hes a happy man. He doesnt have a red cent in his pocket. / Dont go on believing him. His opinion isnt worth a cent. / The scene was so funny that he couldnt help laughing. / Ill be damned if I ever talk to him again./ Have they rung the bell? No, not yet. Activity 12 Nu-i nimic mai rau pe lume decit un prost batrin. / Nu chema necazul asuprati./ Nu spune nu niciodata./ Nimeni nu-i destept tot timpul./ Zis si facut./ Norocul la noroc trage./ N-o sa faca prea multi purici pe-aici./ Ca sa nu o mai lungesc, e un magar./ Am avut un car de necazuri./ E un baiat de zahar./ Navem nevoie de mina de lucru./ Intrarea oprita/ Accesul interzis./ Astia nu stiu niciodata pe ce lume sunt./ N-are nici cap nici coada./ Nimic de facut./
292

Key To Chapter Two Practice

Scuze. Nici o problema./ Deloc descurajat, parasi camera./ Nu-i nici un deranj./ Nu ca mi-ar pasa, dar ar trebui sa faci ceva in legatura cu asta. Activity 13 a) deny negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive b) hate - negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive c) reluctant - negative meaning of the verb makes its complement nonassertive d) wrong/ unwilling/ unable - negative meaning of the verb makes its complement non-assertive e) cutest comparison is a non-assertive context since only a personal opionion is expressed and nothing is in fact asserted. Activity 14* Theres a great danger: you might degenerate and get to see life in a different light. / He was afraid he might leave earlier and forget his suitcase at home./ I sit and watch the building so there is no fire on the ground floor. / You have to take care that nothing bad will happen./ He didnt come home earlier because he didnt know whether he would want to eat out. Only when I found myself knocking at the Magureanus gate, feebly, slowly, without too much determination, did the proportions of the adventure I was in start to brutally expand in my mind. I hadnt really expected miracles, I didnt believe I would get anything from Carol, but I really hadnt thought I would be treated roughly, thrown out. Anyway I didnt really fancy the fact that they kept their distance, for I thought this threatening. We had nothing in common, no memory, no story, nothing; I had never had the opportunity to prove, one way or another, that I was a decent man, with the same needs they had.

293

Nadina VIAN

With none of these persons was NS on very good terms, which meant that they didnt really talk or greet each other. Not for a moment had I thought that, by coming here to the monastery, I might need a tuxedo in my suitcase. In fact I didnt really want to go that party.

It wasnt daybreak yet and the appointed place was teeming with people. It was so packed with people that you could hardly move, so the old man and the kids had trouble finding a spot wherefrom they could watch. Hardly had they sat down when they heard a flute.

It was my turn to say something, but I didnt remember where I was so I had to admit my confusion: I really dont understand a thing from this case; your story, or the bits I got from it seem to be beyond my comprehensionI think it anachronical, to say the least, a leftover fom other times Well, Id be so happy if it were so. Unfortunately, I find it hard to understand where you are at, he immediately answered me patronizingly. The world is something completely different from what you imagine it to be. Its not made up of theories and the like, its not words, but facts, things you do any moment, good, bad, clear or confusing, thats what the world is about. We have to judge it as it is, not as we would like it to be or some other way. Your judgement is false, I have had the occasion/ plenty of opportunities to see that

After all that morning excitement, when he hadnt been able to repeat the invitation but hadnt seemed to give up the idea that I would join him on his trip to B., Radu had calmed down, he was sitting beside me, on the front seat, watching the dull landscape on the bank of the river almost indifferently.

I cant really tell what it was that I said last night, or if you understood what I meant. I was sleepy and tired, let alone irritable. You really made me mad, I admit, and then I suddenly thought about those friends, the only

294

Key To Chapter Two Practice

ones I had, and I acted on a whim and went for a walk with them, just to please myself. I also wanted to tell you that you feel right only after you pay your debts, no matter how huge they are. Look, we are leaving, soon well be in town, and if you like, you can go to Ursus, although I dont really believe you will you would have asked me about it otherwise. Anyway, its your problem, keep your conscience clean: you have one, its yours, you do as you think fit, keep it squeaky clean, as Baciu would have us be, I wont interfere. But I was just wondering, as I was travelling in the same compartment with that old dog. This question is not really about you although it suits this situation: could it be that behind all this big conscience of yours, behind these big, precious words, fear might be hiding, and an inability to act, and even indolence? You used to say that I was hiding behind a gun and my fists. But what about you and Melania, did you ever step up front, to fight, or you are lying hidden, too? A gun is power, it solves troubles, clears your way, makes highways out of bumpy roads For even if you didnt pull the trigger to really shoot somebody, your opponent would fear you and with good reason. Without weapons theres no way you could be in control, or call the respect of others. So, what would have dad made out of it? How could I have explained to him all this, me, a man incapable of explaining the smallest thing, me, who had never managed to say a convincing yes or no up to that moment? I didnt want to lie to him, but I didnt want to lie to myself, either, so I had resigned myself to waiting for him to get tired or change the subject, although it was a difficult thing to do, because Iuliu kept taunting him for his own pleasure. He would fire away these stupid questions or slyly remind him that I hadnt answered his own question yet. What unspeakable injustice: hardly have you got born, hardly have you got your bearings in this world when you are supposed to die.

295

Nadina VIAN

Father Mitrea told me later that he was so reluctant to know where I was that he didnt even open the envelope and, as soon as he delivered it, he went home and didnt stop drinking for two days . The surprised villagers put it down to problems with his wife, or some other woman, but they gradually got used to it. The villagers were not very religious, they had had their share of misfortune and this had made them forgiving: small things, even adultery or fights were no longer a matter of general interest.

I turned my eyes from the old mans face, firmly determined not to answer immediately. But it was not because I had no answer to give, but for the simple reason that I hadnt managed to find any logic in his questions.

Activity 15*: a) Not many people came to dinner- Negative attraction b) 1. She wont be able to come back home before tomorrow.- incorrect, because before is a positive polarity item 2. She will be able to come back home before tomorrow. - correct 3. She wont be able to come back home until tomorrow. - correct c) She didnt have a red cent in her pocket - Syntactic negation d) I have ordered the pizzas but none of them 1. has yet arrived -correct 2. have arrived yet the agreement is wrong, the sentence is incorrect 3. has not arrived yet double negation, incorrect sentence e) It isnt likely that he will lift a finger to help her, will he?- Negative raising (transportation) f)1. She doesnt admire Susan or Jane nor Mimi. incorrect, correlatives are mixed 2. She admires neither Susan nor Jane nor Mimi. -correct 3. She admires neither Susan nor Jane.- correct g)No one has found a solution to any of these problems - Negative incorporation

296

Key To Chapter Two Practice

Activity 16*: a)Sympathy was the last thing (API) she wanted. She didnt have the faintest (NPI) clue as to what she would do about herself. One thing she knew: she couldnt do without (NPI) Jim and, yet, she couldnt marry him, either (NPI). (Iris Murdoch The Black Prince, slightly adapted) Ultimul lucru pe care i-l dorea era s fie comptimit. N-avea nici cea mai mic idee cum s procedeze n cazul ei. Dar tia un lucru: nu putea tri fr Jim i nici nu se putea cstori cu el. b) But it was rather (API) late. Charlotte was no use (NPI) to anybody (NPI) any more (NPI). She could hardly (NPI) move and so she didnt stir. Her stillness, her lack of motion would have to do (API); she couldnt be more right (NPI) about it. No one should know to what torture she was subjected. (ibid.) ns era cam trziu. Charlotte nu mai era de folos nimnui. Nu putea s se mite, astfel c nici nu se mic. Vor trebui s se mulumeasc cu imobilitatea ei, incapacitatea ei de a se mica. tia c are dreptate. Nimeni nu va ti ns la ce tortur era supus. c) He felt no spring (NPI) of interest in her, which meant that he almost felt resentment at seeing her now. His spirit was too tired, too troubled, not happy at all (NPI). He could not at this moment lift a finger (NPI) for anybody (NPI), much less ((NPI) for her. (ibid.) Nu simea nici o frm de interes pentru ea, ceea ce nsemna c aproape c avea resentimente la vederea ei. Avea sufletul prea obosit, prea rscolit, nu era

297

Nadina VIAN

deloc fericit. Nu putea in aceasta clip s mite un deget pentru nimeni, cu att mai puin pentru ea. d) I would not give in one bit (NPI). I would make not the tiniest(NPI) haste nor hint at the faintest (NPI) urgency nor by any (NPI) slightest (NPI) gesture depart from what I once was. (ibid.) Nu voiam deloc s cedez. Nu aveam de gnd s m grbesc nici un pic sau s fac vreo aluzie ct de mica la faptul c ar trebui cumva s ne grabim i nici prin cel mai mic gest s m ndeprtez de la ceea ce fusesem cndva. e) At length, and not a little unsteadily, he made his way to the screen; there wasnt a soul around (NPI) and still, his heart was beating fast. (Salman Rushdie, The Satanic Verses, slightly adapted) n cele din urm, i destul de hotrt, se ndrept spre paravan. Nu era nici picior de om n jur i totui, inima i batea nvalnic. f) The women inside were entirely unimpressed by these devotions, and gave no encouragement whatsoever (NPI) to the suitors at their barred gates. (ibid.) Femeile din casp nu erau deloc impresionate de gesturile lor de devotament i nu ncurajau ctui de puin peitorii din faa porilor ferecate. g) He saw that she hadnt aged so much (NPI) as a day since he last saw her; if anything (NPI), she looked younger than ever (NPI), which gave credence to the rumours which suggested that her witchcraft had persuaded time to run backwards for her within the confines of her tower room. (ibid.) i ddea seama c nu mbtrnise prea tare de cnd n-o mai vzuse. Ba dimpotriv, arta mai tnr ca oricnd, ceea ce susinea zvonurile cum c,
298

Key To Chapter Two Practice

fiind vrjitoare, reuise s conving timpul s mearg ndrt ntre pereii odii ei din turn. h) C. told himself that what all this sex-talk revealed was the weakness of their so-called grand passion because there was nothing else about it that was any (NPI) good; there was simply (NPI) no other aspect of their togetherness to rhapsodize about. (ibid.) C. i spuse c toat discuia asta despre sex nu dezvluia dect punctele slabe ale aa zisei lor mari pasiuni ntruct nu exista nimic altceva n ea care s fie pozitiv n afar de acest lucru. Pur i simplu nu se gsea nici un alt aspect al apropierii lor despre care s fii n al noulea cer. i) What did C. care if the school were willing to treat him, on any (NPI) visits he cared to make, as a visiting Head of State? That sort of thing appealed to Cs vanity, but his father would have none of it (NPI). The point was, the school wasnt budging (NPI); the gift was useless, and probably an administrative headache as well. He wrote to his father refusing the offer. It was the last time his father tried to give him anything (NPI). Home receded from the prodigal son. Ce-i pas lui C. c coala voia s l trateze pe el, sau orice vizite ar fi fcut, ca pe un preedinte de stat? Acest gen de comportament i gdilau vanitatea, ns tatl su nici nu voia s aud aa ceva. Problema era ns aceea c coala nu fcea nici o micare. Darul respectiv era de fapt inutil i probabil o pacoste administrativ. i scrise tatlui su i refuz oferta. Aceasta fu ultima dat c tatl su ncerc s-i dea ceva. Cminul primitor i inchise porile pentru fiul rtcitor.

299

Nadina VIAN

KEY TO CHAPTER THREE PRACTICE - QUESTIONS


Activity 1 Where are you Bill?/ Who do you love best? Mother or father?/ Did he go home or is he still there?/ When did you get married? / How did you get here so quickly?/ How much did the new skirt cost?/ Why cant they be happy with the money they make? Activity 2 What is going on? direct question, correct/ What have you been up to? direct question, correct/ I wonder what have you two been up to? indirect question, incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ I wonder what is going on. indirect question, correct/ I wonder: what is going on? direct question since there is no real subordination, correct/ I wonder: what have you been up to? direct question since there is no real subordination, correct/ I wonder what you two have been up to indirect question, correct/ I dont know whom she fancies indirect question, correct/ Who does she fancy? direct question, correct/ I dont know who does she fancy. - indirect question, incorrect due to subject auxiliary inversion/ Who is she? direct question, correct/ I dont know who is she indirect question, correct since who is the subject in this sentence and there is no subject auxiliary inversion, as required/ I dont know who she is indirect question, correct: in this case who is the predicative and she is the subject/ He asked me who she is indirect question, incorrect because the sequence of tenses is not observed/ He asked me who she was indirect question, correct/ He asked me: who is she? direct question since there is no real subordination, correct.

300

Key To Chapter Three Practice

Activity 3 a) And, to make her story clear, she gives him details about what kind of body she has, what sort of colouring she has, what sort of gait, and how she walks when she knows men are looking. b) It wouldnt be fair for him to state his opinion about romantic love and about what women are like since his experience is very limited. c) You know what, the woman says at a certain point, Im going to give you my name and address. Ill remember your name and address. For I dont know how long we will be able to talk. d) The man tells her a name and an address. The woman tells him what her name is and where she lives, or better said, where she used to live before she was arrested. Activity 4 (Any) trouble?/ Like my new TV set?/ Want me to come along?/ What?/ Join us?/ Have dinner with me?/ Heard from her lately?/ Any bad news?/ Any mail for me today? / What for? Activity 5 1. Did you pick up the children from school? yes/no question 2. Will you lend me some money? yes/no question 3. Which do you like best? wh- question 4. Who did you talk to last night? wh- question 5. Have you heard from her these days? yes/no question 6. What time do shops close today? wh- question 7. Can you keep a secret? yes/no question 8. When did the accident happen? wh- question 9. How long did you wait for me? wh- question 10. What have you been doing lately? wh- question
301

Nadina VIAN

Activity 6 1. Your mother is shouting for you. Didnt you hear her?/ Yes, I did, but I want to play basketball a little longer. 2. Youve been learning German for years, arent you able to speak yet?/ Yes, I am, but Im too shy to try in front of strangers. 3. What a lovely hairdo! Wont you tell me who does it for you?/ No, because you always copy everything I do! 4. Why arent you coming to the party? Dont you feel like getting out?/ Yes, but Ive got to babysit tonight. 5. You look down, didnt you enjoy the film?/ No, I did not. It was the kind of film that really depresses me. 6. She had her tenants evicted. Wasnt that a mean thing to do? / Yes, it was. Shes got a reputation for being heartless. 7. That was a rather tactless thing to say. Didnt you realize she was Anns sister?/ No, I didnt. You could have mentioned it earlier. 8. There was a terrible car crash. Didnt you see it on the news?/ No, I didnt. I didnt get home until late last night. 9. Its past your bedtime. Arent you in bed by now?/ No, Im allowed to stay up late at the weekend. Activity 7 What company does Peter work for?/ How many cars does Sara own?/ What does she look like?/ Whats the time?/ How often do you have French lessons?/ Where exactly did you go on holiday?/ How many students are there in my class?/ Why wasnt I at work today?/ Whose car was stolen?/ Who wrote King Lear?/ How long did we live here?/ How much did my new car cost?/ What did Kay go out for?/ Who did Shirley get married to?/ Whose pen is that?/ Where does she live?/ What did she drop?
302

Key To Chapter Three Practice

Activity 8 How did I feel about the company of Rosalie?/ What was I glad for?/ What sort of buildings are demolished?/ Where must I constantly shift?/ What am I trying to find?/ What is there left to anchor me?/ Who is it that my soul anchors?/ What places do I often visit?/ What would I never give up?/ Whose death would I accept?/ For how long havent I been able to do that? Activity 9 Whoever opened my letter? subject/ Which toys did he buy? attribute/ Whose card is this? attribute/ How large did he build his boat? Adverbial of manner, degree word/ When do you meet Susan? Adverbial of time/ How long did that last? - Adverbial of manner, degree word/ Where shall I put these? Adverbial of place/ Why are doing this? Adverbial of reason/ How did you solve the problem? Adverbial of manner/ What job does he have? Attribute/ Who did he turn to be? Predicative Activity 10 1. mind 2. it 3. use 4. not 5. have 6. stay 7. be 8. Anne 9. it 10. did 11. be 12. to 13. not 14. it 15. go 16. to 17. this 18. be 19. not 20. time 21. to 22. not 23. did 24. it 25. it Activity 11 A. For years, sometimes desperately, I did nothing but try to bury the traces of pain deep inside me, I tried to mend my deformities, to face my fears, my childish anxieties. Nothing new so far, but I feel somehow lost; I am involved in this story but it is with my heart, not my mind. So, will I be able to go back to whatever feelings I had before this incident? Or am I only interested in gathering a file on a troubled germ-filled universe, a tough merciless world?
303

Nadina VIAN

What good would that do? Those that are coming after us have tens of centuries of history behind them and so do those that are leaving or those that used to be. Since they didnt benefit from other peoples experience, either, why gather data for this file after all? And who can judge us, if there is such a person? There always will be stages of evolution, and the stupid, the idle, the cowardly, the mediocre will always make a majority and take care to abolish any new idea that they wouldnt comprehend. Or they would postpone it indefinitely, at best. Then what? Should I argue for this idea of mine that men are on the brink of a new evolutionary leap? But file or no file, I still have this certainty. Something is bound to happen () Maybe I am on the verge of finding my own path and I am naively dreaming to change the world as I am changing. A new path what sort of path in fact? I have a chance to change, to turn over a new leaf, no matter the risk. The risk? That is too mild a word. I mean failure, the failure I have tasted so many times. B. There is only one thing I can remember from the whole story: I was standing in the department room, right in front of the headmasters desk, blinded by a huge desk lamp: Where were you? What did you do until midnight? Who did you meet? Confess, or well tell you what to confess! I couldnt see the man because of the blinding light, I could only guess where he was. Come on, speak! he would shout. Look me in the eye and tell me if you are man enough. Who did you meet? The light made me dizzy, I felt I couldnt budge because of the sweat. You were in the park last night. Who did you meet, who is your contact? And to what purpose? C. I am still obsessed with he chance I so generously granted myself back then; and with the long dark trip I took under those vaults leaking with reddish dirty water, the rats idly scuttling past, the warm humid stinking air. And, ever since, notwithstanding the fact that I have been granting myself
304

Key To Chapter Three Practice

another chance, I have been constantly wondering, contaminated by the cynicism of my intelligent uncle: Professor, how many gods can you stand up to in a lifetime when your weapons are rudimentary and your troops scarce? And it is absolutely out of the question, Carol cant have helped feeling that white blinding void that dictated his choice, sealed his fate in that particular moment pending upon him. Is it fair, is it right to annoy him for nothing, when in fact I cannot do him any good, when there is no way I can help him? After all, even if I could do that, against all odds, what would be the point in settling scores? What good would that do to them, when this obstinate quest for justice is the only thing that is actually keeping him alive? Activity 12 You have got enough money, dont you?/ Surely you have enough money, dont you?/ He will be on time, wont he?/ There is enough food for everyone, isnt there?/ She used to talk a lot, didnt she?/ Everyone felt happy about it, didnt they?/ I am dressed smartly enough, arent I?/ Thats your car over there, isnt it?/ You will pick me up, after all, wont you?/ You will pick me up at seven, wont you?/ Lets eat dinner now, shall we?/ Dont leave without me, will you?/ Be a nice girl and bring me that stick, will you?/ You have been invited, havent you?/ There are a lot of cars on that street, arent there?/ She left an hour ago, didnt she?/ He hates his wife, doesnt he?/ He simply hates empty words, doesnt he?/ That was your father, wasnt he?/ Tell me,, will you?/ Let me know,, will you?/ Ann cant speak French, can she?/ She has a brother, doesnt she?/ I am older than you, arent I?/ I must go now, mustnt I?/ I may not see you tomorrow, will I?/ You ought not to smoke, ought you?/ The boy never watched his sister, did he?/ The boy often watched his sister, didnt he?/ He hasnt any money in his pockets, does he?/ He had his tooth filled two weeks ago, didnt he?/ He has to marry Susan, doesnt he?/ There are sure to be two books in that drawer, arent there?/ There
305

Nadina VIAN

happened to be a spare seat in the back of the room, wasnt there?/ Few people like her, do they?/ A few people like her, dont they?/ Each of us is staying, arent we?/ I dont think you like my music, do you?/ I think you like my music, dont you?/ They said he liked music, didnt they? Activity 13 1. reversed polarity tag/ constant polarity tag - disagreement on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative/ interrogative 2. negative interrogative/ exclamative/ exclamative + reversed polarity tag asks for the interlocutors approval/ interrogative + emphatic tag the meaning is similar with the previous sentence, but the register is more informal 3. negative interrogative/ declarative/ interrogative/ negative interrogative/ interrogative negative interrogatives have a similar meaning with interrogatives with a reversed polarity tag 4. same as 3 5. interrogative + constant polarity tag disbelief on the part of the speaker/ negative interrogative it has a similar meaning with the previous sentence but it is less emphatic/ negative interrogative + subject auxiliary inversion the speaker has some doubts about whether his interlocutor enjoyed his talk less emphatic as the first two/ interrogative no disbelief on the part of the speaker, the speaker only tries to find out whether the interlocutor liked the talk, no emphasis Activity 14 Wed better stop work soon, shall we?/ Im right about this, arent I?/ Youd rather stay in bed than get up early, wouldnt you?/ Anyone can apply for a scholarship, cant they?/ If we dont get a move on, there wont be much time left, shall we?/ Lets have a rest, shall we?/ Nobody anticipated what would
306

Key To Chapter Three Practice

happen, did they?/ Do try to relax, will you?/ He never used to study so hard, did he?/ They ought to work much harder, oughtnt they? Wed better not stop work too soon, shall we?/ Im not right about this, am I?/ Youd rather not stay in bed up early, would you?/ No one can apply for a scholarship, can they? (or: Not anyone can apply for a scholarship, can they?) Activity 15 Experts are finding new ways of using the computers all the time./ New uses of the computers are being found all the time, arent they?/ New uses of the computers arent found all the time, are they? One day robots and computers will do all our work for us./ All our work for us will be done by robots and computers one day, wont it?/ Not all our work will be done by robots and computers, will it? I dont think that computers could be installed in every classroom./ Computers couldnt possibly be installed in every classroom, could they? No one has yet invented a robot teacher./ No robot teacher has been invented yet, has he? The government should pay teachers on results./ Teachers should be paid on results, shouldnt they?/ Teachers should not be paid on results, should they? Students parents often support them. / Students are often supported by their parents, arent they?/ Students arent often supported by their parents, are they? Student loans might replace grants./ Grants may be replaced by student loans, wont they?/ Grants may not be replaced by student loans, will they?

307

Nadina VIAN

Activity 16 She dyed herself WHAT?/ WHAT do I think Ive found?/ Ive found WHAT in my soup?/ WHAT are we looking for?/ We are looking for WHAT?!/ WHAT is he interested in?/ He is interested in WHAT? Activity 17 1. I didnt know where she was leading me to, but I could tell her talking had a clear purpose: after she had kept silent on the subjects I was really interested in for such a long time, now she was chatty. During what period had she been a student? Had she really graduated from school? How had she chosen to become a cashier and why in Oraca, of all places? Who were her parents? Had she been married? (no, she didnt wear a ring, but) Who had she been seeing all those years when Ion Micu and I had been regular customers of that pub? Had she come to that pub often? Who with? And how was she jealous of the two of us? She managed to somehow nip in the bud my own desire of asking her these questions by her talkativeness and by the way in which she didnt communicate anything through these wordy, secretly humorous confessions What? she seemed to be saying, arent my stories funny? Well, yes, they were. 2. Now, Fenia, do you really think that this vixen, Vica, daughter of Andrei Mortu and the slut of our village, do you honestly think she hasnt kept contact with her thief of a father? Fenia, keep Condrat away from her, for she has a knack of making honest men lose their head with her sinful lovemaking: look at Petre Litra, Stavre Paici, Chizlinski, Luca Horobet, all godfearing husbands and fathers. She has an eye for gentle men, the bitch, she likes to entrance them, to make them lust after her. Do you think it a coincidence that Condrat let her join his fishing crew last autumn? Keep him away from her, Fenia, you are in enough trouble as it is, and then what do you
308

Key To Chapter Three Practice

think Vica wants? She figures shed better catch him now, when he hasnt been taken to the army yet.() And where do you think Vica landed? In Babadag! Big city, with a railway station and a mosque. And how do you think she landed there? In red and yellow, ankle-long flowered calico, her hair pinned with blue combs. Her feet were shod in round-buckled white velvet sandals she was now above walking barefoot, the slut! And whose head do you think she turned? None other than the mullah, the minister of Tartars and Turks. He got him out of his mosque. The mullah, a seventy-eight year old lad, as pure as freshly whitewashed walls on Easter. The folk from Babadag city-bred fine people that they were pretended to hear or see nothing for his sake. 3. So thats why you were so self-confident! Thats why you let the summer exam session pass and kept doing that simple hard work which she couldnt understand why you were so keen on? Thats why you let her visit you every other week? While all this time she figured you had given up college completely. How could anyone be so sure to pass an entrance exam in autumn when she for one was beside herself with worry even for a yearly ordinary exam? And is this why you kept casting patronizing smiles up there on the train and kept prompting that guy to talk; after all he would have gone back to C and would have looked for Hertha, whats her name, and would have broken Mr Gs jaw, whom you kept cursing even if you didnt know him at all? And then you had this brilliant idea. You said: Doesnt this guy, G, have a girlfriend, too? And you suddenly saw them transported. 4. He doesnt feel like doing anything until evening. It even takes him a while to go to the window, dragging his feet listlessly. For what is there to look at? The ivy-clad kiosk, the wicker chairs under the nut-tree Aaah! Why isnt
309

Nadina VIAN

Sophie up in the attic, tending to Gs neck lumps? Why is it that she has come here? You might think she went out to check on her rose bushes. But why then did she choose this ungodly hot moment of the day? And how grossly exaggerated her clothing looks! What a deliberately ostentatious gardening suit: an old straw hat and a slightly rolled-up skirt! Is she wearing clogs by any chance? Even a layman would tell you it isnt done! That she has lost her mind is obvious, for the hose is leaking away and has made a pool of the alleys, and the gardener has never in his life made such a swamp out of the garden paths. But when could she have descended from the attic? And how? Could she have used the exit stairs? And how come the Panama hat is in right the middle of the garden?

310

Key To Chapter Four Practice

KEY TO CHAPTER FOUR PRACTICE - COORDINATION


Activity 2 1.Bob entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. sentence coordination 2. They are living in Italy or they are spending a vacation there. sentence coordination (further reducible) 3. Jane might sing but I dont think she will. sentence coordination (second sentence is reduced) 4. John is ready and Mary is ready.- sentence coordination (further reducible) 5. John and Mary are ready. phrasal coordination (it is the result of reduction performed on coordinated sentences: John is ready and Mary is ready) 6 John sang and Mary danced. sentence coordination 7. John and Mary are the newly married couple.- phrasal coordination (in this case, due to the reciprocal verbal expression, the structure does not obtain from an elliptical sentence coordination) 8. Her pet kitten is black and white. phrasal coordination (originates from coordinated sentences: Her pet kitten is black and her pet kitten is white.) 9. Our flag is red, yellow and blue. similar situation 10. His speech was coherent and understood by almost everybody. similar situation Activity 3 My colleague failed, and I passed, our respective examinations. elliptical structure (obtained from: My colleague failed his examination and I passed my examination)

311

Nadina VIAN

Peter and John played football. ellipsis (obtained from: Peter played football and John played football) Bob and George are admired by their students. ellipsis (obtained from: Bob is admired by his students and George is admired by his students) Peter, but not John, plays football. ellipsis (obtained from: Peter plays football, but John does not play football.) Joan plays many games, and even tennis. ellipsis (obtained from: Joan plays many games and she plays even tennis) John both composed the music and wrote the words. ellipsis (obtained from: John composed the music and John also wrote the words). Activity 4 1.The message was ambiguous and difficult to comprehend. 2. A burglar must have broken in and stolen the jewels. 3. Why did you give a gold watch to your secretary and a pair of gloves to your wife? 4. Bob may have been listening to music and humming the tune. 5. Bob seems to be trying hard to get along with Jane and John with Susan. 6. Jane forced John to shave himself and Susan to wash himself. 7. Father begged Susan to get married and mother Jane. 8. Bob thought of his girlfriend and Tom dreamed of his. 9. Yesterday large flags were flying and this morning small flags were. 10. We can and will demand payment. Activity 5 This book and the other, her son and others, your work and mine, her idea and Johns, that method and those, your proposal and his, many guest or few, much satisfaction or little

312

Key To Chapter Four Practice

Activity 6 (a) the old men and women the old men and the old women/ the old men and the women (b) simple books and magazines for children simple books for children and simple magazines for children / books are simple but not for children, magazines are for children but not simple / books are simple and for children, magazines are only for children, but not simple, etc. (c) George and Jane are separated George is married to Jane/ George is married to some other woman (d) George and Jane went back to their parents George and Jane are siblings/ George and Jane are not related, each went back to his own parents Activity 7 1. He snapped at him and slapped him. (He snapped at and slapped him) 2. I like the sentences below or those on the next page. 3. He read, interpreted and translated the work of his contemporary. 4. He likes and takes care of all stray cats around his building. 5. I have always fought and will fight for progress. (I have always fought for progress and always will.) 6. It is an older problem whether and when he decides to go to New Zealand. 7. Psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics are important subject matters. 8. He invited his sons and daughters in law to his birthday party. Activity 8 1. High and low 2. The facts and figures 3. Pros and cons 4. Life and soul 5. Ups and downs 6. Swings and roundabouts 7. Law and order 8. Spick and span 9. Touch and go 10. Thick and thin 11. Wear and tear 12. Over and above 13. Few and far between 14. To and fro 15. Bread and butter 16. Safe and sound
313

Nadina VIAN

Activity 9 1. symmetric 2. asymmetric: cause-effect 3. asymmetric: temporal sequence 4. asymmetric: temporal sequence. Compare to the next sentence where the conjuction is symmetrically used 5. asymmetric: cause-effect 6. asymmetric: concessive tinge of meaning 7. asymmetric: conditional tinge of meaning 8. similar situation 9. symmetric 10.- symmetric 11. asymmetric: stronger contrast 12. Symmetric 13. asymmetric stronger contrast 14. symmetric, exclusive 15. symmetric, inclusive 16. symmetric, exclusive 17. asymmetric 18. Asymmetric 19. Asymmetric 20. Symmetric 21. Asymmetric temporal sequence, cause-effect Activity 10 1. Cathy and David have arrived. 2. The bread and the butter are both more expensive this year. 3. The bread and butter was scattered on the floor. 4. The green and blue blanket is also to be washed. 5. The red and the blue shirts were washed yesterday. 6. My aim and object is to make the theory clear for all. 7. A carriage and a pair was standing at the door. 8. His friend and legal adviser was present at the funeral. 9. My son and heir is safe. 10. My son and daughter are twins. b. 1.There is a table and some chairs in the room. 2. There are some chairs and a table in the room. 3. Both the houses and the garden were/was damaged by the fire. 4. Not only the houses but also the garden were/was damaged by the fire. 5. Not John but his two sons are to blame. 6. A traffic warden or a policeman is always on the watch in this street. 7. Either Peter or John has had breakfast already. 8. Either the child or the parents are to blame. 9. Neither he nor his wife was/were here. 10. Neither Isabel nor I were timid people.

314

Key To Chapter Four Practice

Activity 11 (1) 1. There are doctors and doctors. 2. Brother or no brother, Ill still ask for money for the medicine. 3. Well stick together, for better or worse. 4. Hes neither fish, nor fowl. 5. I hope my letter finds you alive and well. 6. How is it going? Im fine and dandy, thanks for asking. 7. Her husband is long dead and buried. 8. They came to me, bag and baggage/ part and parcel / kit and caboodle. 9. No drinking and driving. 10. He went to bed, clothes and all. 11. By hook or by crook, Ill still finish this paper. (2) 1.He was neither conceited nor thought of himself as good-looking, but a preservation instinct made him show his biceps and pecs to advantage, pressing his leg forward in order to show off the corded muscles of his calf. 2. He wanted to check the strength of his arms and he pressed down on the back of a chair but the chair groaned under his weight, so he gave up and was content with punching at the old sofa and its cushions. 3. Grandma and grandpa lived without a toilet in the house and did fine. Now youve come with all these new ideas. 12. What do you mean? the old woman felt outraged. How am I supposed to bring the can in the house? / You bring that can, or therell be hell to pay! 13. Jim thought it over for a while, for he couldnt see how he could use the can. Should he hang it from the ceiling and tip it over his head, there was no hook to hang it from and he feared the ceiling might crumble. Should he pour water in the basin, it was too small. 14. Silivestru felt both disgusted with the triteness of those statements, and surprised at the boys unheard-of precocity. 15. Madam, Im telling you I have only come to ask for permission to get married and leave wherever we think fit. Not only should you rest

315

Nadina VIAN

assured, but I am also asking for permission to take care of this event personally, without mentioning financial matters. (3) 1. Mrs. Ioaniu had been a hell of a woman all her life. Whatever she tried her hand at, it would work out fine. Once Vica had been hard pressed to finish one of Ivonas dresses, and she had this idea to ask Mrs. Ioaniu to help her to sew the hem. What do you know? The moment Mrs. Ioaniu laid her hand on the needle, she started doing a great job. So Vica took to asking her for help and Mrs. Ioaniu would sit in her armchair and sew hems and keep spinning tales from her youth; the things she had lived! Shed had two husbands, both dead and buried. Her first husband had been a professor, an important man, and when the Nazis had taken over theyd thrown him in this prison, whats its name. They hadnt kept him there too long, but hed come out a cripple. You know, he was rather old and he might have already been ailing, so hed gone down and died in no time. 2. So shell listen to him, as she always does, triumphantly: shes finally managed to bring him on common ground, their common ground. This, she knows for sure, is the one place she doesnt have to share with any of those women that have been poisoning her life. And, just like when he was thirty, he starts lecturing her about life and things, and she listens to him, tense with concentration. Sometimes she even thinks elsewhere, but she blinks in approval, at equal intervals. From time to time she will launch a helping question, just as this puppy that used to prance about Tudors knees came back every time carrying the ball in its mouth. The dog would carry back the ball for the boy to throw it again, so he could leap in pursuit, stop dead in his tracks, stand there for a minute and sniff at the pavement, then grab the ball and carry it obediently back to Tudors feet; and then, hed leap high, tense like a bow, whenever Tudor would attempt to pat him.

316

Key To Chapter Five Practice

KEY TO CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICE - THE COMPLEX SENTENCE A CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES
Activity 1: She came to him of her own will. obligatory elements: she, came, to him I cannot tell you what I heard about you. obligatory elements: I, cannot tell, you, what I heard about you Susan disappeared without saying a word. Susan, disappeared Shes aware of this rage and that he might punish her. she, is aware, of this rage and that he might punish her She told whomever wanted to listen about her problems at home. she, told, whomever wanted to listen, about her problems at home After I told her the story, she looked at me sadly. she, looked, at me Activity 2: 1. which was a novelty to Mitzi subordinate, functioning as a modifier though it was largely politeness - subordinate, functioning as an adjunct 2. when Mitzi bought the house in Brook Green - subordinate, functioning as an adjunct as he had just found the little Bayswater - subordinate, functioning as an adjunct which he inhabited still - subordinate, functioning as a modifier 3. that we are mortal beings with but a short span of days - subordinate, functioning as an object (direct) and that our end as our beginning belongs to God subordinate, functioning as an object (direct), coordinated with first subordinate

317

Nadina VIAN

4. that her own failure to marry Matthew was actually the cause of Austins marrying Dorina subordinate functioning as an object (prepositional, since the main verb is think of something) 5. that you are choosing exile - subordinate, functioning as an object (direct) if you do not meet it right here at home - subordinate, functioning as an adjunct from what you are fortunate enough to call your homeland - subordinate, functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase exile) 6. that we should, at our age, remove our home yet again - subordinate, functioning as a modifier (for the noun phrase suggestion) Activity 3 a) that I should write to you that complement/ so that you can be sure that complement/ that he and I are of one mind in this matter that complement/ because the discussion was between yourself and your father adverbial/ how much we miss you wh complement/ to say complement / that I think of my dear son every day that complement/ what times in our day and night are his bed-time and his getting-up-times wh complement/ that he may be protected and guided that complement/ to do the right- complement b) 1. Monroe had died wh complement/ to go out for a time complement / to paint the newly opened blossoms complement/ as she left the house adverbial/ to speak to Monroe complement/ who sat reading a book in a striped canvas campaign chair under the pear tree wh complement/ that he doubted that complement/ he had vitality that complement/ even to finish the page complement/ he was on wh complement/ before he dropped off to sleep adverbial / to wake him complement/ when she returned wh complement/ for he did not want adverbial / to lie sleeping into the damp of the evening complement/ he
318

Key To Chapter Five Practice

was just beyond the age that complement/ at which he could rise from so low a chair wh complement 2. that she realized that complement/ she was now similarly hidden away that complement/ that anyone walking from the gate to the porch would never know she was there that complement/ if one of the ladies from the church made an obligatory visit adverbial / to see about her welfare complement/ as they called her name adverbial / and knocked the door adverbial coordinated with the previous one/ until long after she had heard the gate latch clack shut adverbial/ no one would call again that complement Activity 4 a) that she marked down in her favour relative that complement, modifier (attribute) / when faced with the hard fact wh complement, adjunct (time)/ that she now found herself in possession of close to three hundred acres, a house, a barn, outbuildings, but no idea relative that complement, modifier (attribute)/ what to do with them wh complement, modifier (attribute)/ to play on the piano - complement, subject/ that she could not weed ragweed that complement, direct object b) to dry it complement, adjunct (purpose)/ what she had written wh complement, direct object/ for she had never mastered the flowing whorls and arcs of fine penmanship adverbial, adjunct (reason)/ no matter how she tried wh complement, adjunct (concession)/ her hand insisted on forming wh complement, modifier (attribute) c) how things might stand between us wh complement, direct object/ to tell in this letter complement, prepositional object/ what I have done wh complement, direct object/ and seen wh complement, direct object, coordinated with the previous one/ so that you might judge me that complement, adjunct (purpose)/ before I return adverbial, adjunct (time)/
319

Nadina VIAN

it would need a page as broad as the blue sky that complement, direct object/ to write that tale complement, adjunct (purpose)/ when I took you in my lap in the kitchen by the stove wh complement, modifier (attribute)/ and you told me - wh complement, modifier (attribute)/ you would forever like that complement, direct object/ to sit there complement, direct object/ and rest your head on my shoulder complement, direct object/ that it would make you fear that complement, subject/ to do such again complement, direct object/ if you knew adverbial, adjunct (condition)/ what I have seen wh complement, direct object/ and done wh complement, direct object. Activity 5 1.A few days before the war, Anton Modan had no idea that he had long ceased to be a bold man, so long that the day he found out he didnt even try to go back and figure for how long. His wife was reaping the wheat silently, without straightening her back, and from the way she moved one could tell that she had this thought on her mind, that kept her constantly tense and grim. Anton was looking at her and was wondering what could be wrong with her. He had seen her silent/ brooding all morning. When Anton put the sickle down, some people looked up at the sun to figure out how long it was until lunchtime. () Well, this Anton sure eats early! they thought. But other people, who had seen Anton and his wife standing like that, sickle in hand, staring at each other, had said to themselves that Anton had only a few acres of wheat and he still couldnt harvest it properly. () He dashed back, but after he ran a yard or so he realized nobody was following him, so he stopped and looked to see what he had done. Everybody had understood that in fact that threat looked more like a flame, that stands frozen for a moment although the straw beneath is burnt to ashes
320

Key To Chapter Five Practice

already, rather than a real threat. For no bold man really falters, or if he does, he will turn back and no longer be daring, for even swallowing your food is a big deal, you need courage even for this small thing. 2. Not even at this point, although it was more than an hour since the man in the swamp had watched for this family to come home, had he managed to spot the shadow of a young man or an old one close by or in the yard. A warrior doesnt make use only of his intense concentration or the visible external clues to sense the presence of an enemy, but also his sharp nose, or other more hidden means, which he doesnt rely on completely, but he doesnt spurn either. Nang had thus learned to find a balance in all this and under certain circumstances he would even laugh in the face of danger, while on other occasions he would show caution. In this case he had this feeling that there was no hidden danger awaiting him. First, it was clear that there was no bridge or barge left to cross the river and that traffic had ceased on this tributary completely. As for the life of this family who lived isolated from the village, he would see what it was about at nightfall and whether they could be of any use to him. 3. Costel had recently written this letter on the topic of their coming back to live in Braila, saying that it wouldnt be a good thing to do so and that he was really surprised that his parents kept insisting on it and wouldnt get his point. Wasnt he right? You only needed to look at Ana to know she was seriously ill, and then there were other reasons On the other hand he didnt realize that in all his previous letters he had touched this matter of finding a good position in Braila. And he had been speechless with indignation that his mother had answered him saying that she couldnt understand why he would ask for one thing one day and then change his mind the next one, as if they were at his beck and call. Why! He was not of two minds, that was for sure. Only he had Ana to think of, while they spoke from miles away. Ana could not stand a trip now.
321

Nadina VIAN

That was clear, although he could have said so earlier, not after his father and she had been job hunting for him everywhere but never mind now, they knew better and wouldnt say another word and everything would be ok. But it was not ok. Costel didnt want to give up this job, although he by no means wished to leave Bucharest at this moment. He was also upset at the rather sour tone of his mothers letter. So, in order to punish her and since he didnt know what he wanted himself or how to answer her, he had postponed writing back. 4. And heres how this first day looked, when my problems started because of G Anisoara, who had this sort of mania to take trips accompanied by all the gang thing which really sickened me because they were a promiscuous lot decided to take this trip on St Helens day (it was a Saturday, and on Monday followed another feast). We were going to drive to a vineyard, to see some mutual friends, in Odobesti, by the cars of some of us. Twice did we get in the car, and twice we were requested to get out, for there was always somebody of note that felt they were not in the right car. In fact, it was the women, who kept trying to be in the same place with the men they fancied, and when things didnt go as planned, they would ruin the arrangement, under the silliest of pretexts. The bad part was that we kept climbing in and out, without really knowing why, and there were some rather clueless people who got upset over it and kept complaining: Oh, come on, are we getting off again? What is wrong, lets be done with it! And the ones who had found a good seat and were afraid that their plans might be spoiled would shrug a bored shoulder in reply.

322

Key To Chapter Six Practice

KEY TO CHAPTER SIX PRACTICE - RELATIVE CLAUSES


Activity 1 1.She came to London where I went too. 2. John told his friend a story about the king, who was just passing by. 3. They met those students none of whom agreed with them. 4. I bought Jim a book that he liked. 5. I introduced him to Jim to whom he told everything about his plans. 6. Susan wants to meet Jane about whom she doesnt know anything. 7. I had a book whose cover I lost/ the cover of which I lost. 8. This is my husband whom I love very much. 9. The students, any of whom would answer to questions, like their teacher. 10. The students like their teacher, all of whom would answer to his questions. Activity 2 1. To whom does the car blocking the street belong? 2. This is the town where Charles Dickens was buried. 3. He told her the secret, which was silly of him. 4. He is the author who they gave a prize to. 5. These are people who we cannot tell much about. 6. That is the couple whose child was abducted by terrorists. 7. You couldnt join the party, which was a pity. 8. Who are you writing this letter to? 9. This is the guy whom they first met in Monte Carlo. 10. These are the tulips to which they awarded the big prize. 11. A lot of tourists went on a trip to Delphi, most of whom were from England. Activity 3 1. where I spent my youth - restrictive 2. when the plane will take off restrictive 3. why they all left - restrictive 4. who is a genius non-restrictive 5. what you want free/ where you can park your car - restrictive 6. on which this occurred - restrictive 7. when we first met - free 8. where I least expected
323

Nadina VIAN

- free 9. on whom nobody could depend non-restrictive/ we all welcomed and admired - restrictive 10. what their parents made them, however sad - free Activity 4 1. This isnt the Bucharest I know. 2. Of all the persons there, the prince chose Cinderella, who was the most beautiful girl in the hall. 3. Of all the persons there you had to choose me, who cannot say a word. 4. He who doesnt work will never succeed. 5. You, who think so highly of yourselves, come up front. 6. All wanted to hear that Luciano Pavarotti who had delighted thousands of opera lovers. 7. I, who didnt like to leave things unfinished, was very displeased with the situation. Activity 5 1. What Im saying subject. What direct object 2. where we talk money predicative. Where - adjunct 3. What Inman remembered subject. What direct object / which Monroe had repeated four times at dramatic intervals throughout the sermon attribute. Which direct object/ which shows God in me attribute. Which subject 4. when they would be immersed in an ocean of love attribute. When - adjunct 5. about why man was born to die prepositional object. Why - adjunct 6. Where he was from adjunct, where predicative 7. who had not witnessed many dawns appositive attribute. Who - subject 8.When Ada remarked adjunct, when adjunct /when winter came adjunct, when adjunct/ when winter comes adjunct. When adjunct/ whats broke around here direct object. What subject/ which is a lot apposition, which - subject 9. where Ruby seemed to aim Ada every day that first month predicative. Where - adjunct 10. when Ada succeeded in churning cream to butter adjunct, when adjunct/ when she noted predicative, when adjunct/ when she went out to hoe the fields adjunct, when - adjunct 11. what kind of woman her mother had been prepositional
324

Key To Chapter Six Practice

object, what - attribute 12. Whatever his fate was adjunct, whatever predicative 13. what little she knew direct object, what attribute/ how the worlds logic works direct object, how - adjunct Activity 6 a)The man who(m)/*which/that/ we saw was nice. which is ungrammatical due to the [- human] property it has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent b) The book *who(m)/which/that/ I read last night surprised me who(m) is ungrammatical due to the [+ human] feature this element has and which does not match the [-human] feature of the antecedent c) The woman who/*whom/*which/that/ came to dinner was very late whom is ungrammatical due to the fact that it is an oblique case form and the antecedent is a nominative form; which is ungrammatical due to the[- human] feature this element has and which does not match the [+human] feature of the antecedent d) The book *whom/which/that/* deals with this problem is very good - whom is ungrammatical due to the [- human] feature of the antecedent which does not match that of the pronoun; the zero article is ungrammatical due to the fact that that cannot be deleted when it follows after a subject antecedent e) The man for whom/*who/*which/*that/* we are looking is not here who is ungrammatical due to the presence of the preposition, which requires an accusative form; which is ungrammatical because it is [-human] and it does not match the feature of the antecedent; that is ungrammatical because it is invariable and cannot mark the accusative form required by the preposition; the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase f) The man who(m) *which/that/ we are looking for is not here which is ungrammatical due to the [-human] feature which does not match the feature of the antecedent g) The book for *whom/which/*that/* we are looking is in my bag whom is ungrammatical because it is [+ human]; that is ungrammatical because it
325

Nadina VIAN

cannot be selected by a preposition, due to its invariable character; the zero article is ungrammatical because the preposition must select a noun phrase h) The book *who(m)/which/that/ we are looking for is in my bag who(m) is ungrammatical because it is [+human] Activity 7 The Flu. My brother-in-law used to have a paternal first cousin, whose maternal uncle used to have a father-in-law, whose paternal grandfather had got married for the second time to a young native girl; whose brother had met a girl during his voyages, and they had a son who got married to a brave chemist, who was none other but the niece of a British navy officer and whose adoptive father used to have an aunt who spoke Spanish fluently and who might have been one of the nieces of an engineer; who had died very young and who was also the nephew of the owner of a vineyard that produced a mediocre wine, but whose second cousin, a sergeant, had a son who had married this very beautiful young lady, a divorcee whose first husband was the son of a true patriot; who had raised his daughter with the desire of marrying into fortune and who finally managed to get married to this hunter who had met Rothschild and whose brother, having changed quite a number of jobs, got married and had a daughter; whose great-grandfather, a rather tiny looking man, used to wear a pair of glasses which he had got from a cousin, the brother-in-law of a Portuguese and natural son of a miller, who was quite well-off and whose foster brother had married the daughter of a retired country physician, who was himself the foster brother of a milkman, who, in his turn, was the son of another country physician who had been married three times and whose third wife

326

Key To Chapter Six Practice

Activity 8 1.The first question with which Ambrose had to deal was that of the statue of victory in Rome. yes 2. The time at which he ate breakfast was inconvenient. - yes 3. Thus they remained utterly obsessed with themselves and each other, and some natural healing process of which Dorina felt she ought to know. no 4. In the interest of public decency, the safeguarding of which was actually not his task, he requested that the public be excluded. - no 5. The problem of safe transportation, no easy answers to which could be offered, has been troubling them forever. yes 6. She was the very woman about whom I knew absolutely nothing. - yes 7. This was the ice pick with which one had seen her stab her husband to death. yes, although the distance between preposition and relative pronoun is a bit too long 8. She had fully realized how much her love for Austin cut her off from other people, as if she were being gradually cornered by a relentlessness of which he was the almost unconscious agent. no 9. For the intense anxious sense of herself with which she was suddenly invested she was quite untrained. - yes 10. Irene, for whom he had sacrificed his nights and days, he rarely saw now. - yes Activity 9 1.His fathers friends, whose interest he most sincerely shared, were now all gone. obligatory pied piping 2. This story, the unravelling of which had cost her many minutes of her life, was now complete. - obligatory 3. She had lying in front of her a number of books and dictionaries most of which had been shipped from remote countries. - obligatory 4. The only relatives she would have liked to put up with were her mothers sisters. no pied piping 5. His friends, no matter which [pied piped phrase, with deletion of the noun friends], knew nothing of what he had been subjected to. no pied piping

327

Nadina VIAN

Activity 10 1. For twenty years, since they had been leading a rather dull hopeless life in their small provincial town, the capital had been an unattainable peak where only the bold possessors of sturdy ankles and strong lungs could hope to arrive. 2. Everything was ending. Only an ugly endless dream remained, which even ones imagination would strive to evade the next day. 3. For all the four children, irrespective of age and nature, felt that the capital was the great unknown where they will all grasp what they wished for and what their imagination had forged as a dream. 4. Nelu, the third born son, thought of the capital as of a fantastic garage which was endowed with the rarest sort of cars, or as of a vast arena, where two teams battled every day 5. In other peoples opinion, yours, for instance, I am to be envied, or so I gathered from what you were telling me a moment ago. 6. He came to me to ask me to appoint one of his sons-in-law as a manager. I did so, I even let him choose the place he wanted to manage for he was a sound fellow - and he couldnt thank me enough. 7. It is not difficult for him to realize how mad I got and how much I protested when I saw how they all left you to rot in this god-forsaken town. 8. He vaguely remembered that he had indeed been called to get to the bottom of this rather murky incident and that his honest spirit had forced him to sacrifice his friend in the name of truth. But what really happened and how the story ended he couldnt tell and anyway, he would have never believed that there might still be someone who remembered all that so clearly. The image of his old mate was now completely different from what he had remembered him to be.

328

Key To Chapter Six Practice

9. You are newly arrived here, and you might not really understand how much plotting and pressure can be applied by politicians even in a court of law. 10. If any of your qualities were to persuade them, I hoped that you would perform the duty of an elder brother for a younger one. I told myself you had to have a notion of the loneliness and despair a young man might feel in a city where everything appeared hostile to him. 11. All that you have read is rubbish. Let me tell you my last conclusion, which is not to be found in the minutes of the trial or in my rather insipid version, that you keep peeping at Ill sum it up for you while we empty these cups of coffee. 12. He managed to do what the Chair of the High Court from France had not been able to do when he had invited H.R. to take over a whole elective section and get elected with quite a lot of publicity. 13. Actually I am trying not to cherish this kind of high hopes for I have noticed that they come true and then I cannot decide which of them follows the course of my real life and which doesnt, since I dont really know which my true life is. 14. I will try to explain to myself why at the beginning I thought that you had green eyes and why not two minutes ago your eyes looked gray to me. 15. He was suffering from dizziness, which was why he saw Dora very far away, although she was standing quite close to him. 16. Behind them, on Icoanei street, the tram was rattling along, amidst much rumbling and tolling of bells, furiously pulled from behind a red and yellow curtain, leaving streets and houses behind, from MR street, where from Marta was coming too, and wherefrom a swarm of little girls appeared far away, barely glittering in the distance. 17. What youre saying sounds very nice, she said, staring aimlessly.

329

Nadina VIAN

18. I dont even dare to think of the suspicion that is assailing me. But, cant you see? First the idea that he was broke, then that he had to sell out and leave and that he is so sick while we all know that he is not. Doesnt this kind of behaviour seem strange in a person that used to be so energetic, so optimistic and composed? 19. If he had hit me, I dont know what might have happened. 20. While we were poor, we didnt use to visit this cousin who was quite the socialite. She was a woman of means, had a huge house in Bucharest. She was one of those impeccably dressed women, who prompted everyone on the street, or in the theatre hall to ask who she was. 21. I felt this was not the only inferior trait she found in me. Those snobs whose ardent admirer she was now, had a personal style in clothes, which I did not posses. So, day by day, I could see my woman falling away from me, in her pursuits, likes and dislikes. 22. From the vantage point I was in, I couldnt help noticing the pleasure with which she heavily leant on him while they climbed from the ravine back to the highway, after the car was fixed. 23. But for me, who only lived once in this world, these facts meant more than the wars for the conquest of China, or the many Egyptian dynasties, or the clash of stars above. 24. While some trees are still green, others leaves are as yellow as some transparent apricots.

330

Key To Chapter Seven Practice

KEY TO CHAPTER SEVEN PRACTICE - THAT COMPLEMENTS


Activity 1: 1.It occurred to him that people were laughing behind his back. extraposed, subject 2. Nobody knew that they were sorry for what they had done. unextraposed, direct object 3. It was known to no one that Peter had tried to take his own life. extraposed, subject 4.The crowd resented it that the police had been sent for. extraposed, object 5. Magellan regrets it that the world is round. extraposed, object 6. It appears that no one voted for him. extraposed, subject 7. It was suggested that they should meet the President. extraposed, subject 8. It is too bad that they always make fun of Gilian. extraposed, subject 9. I dont like it that he should be left alone in my flat. extraposed, direct object 10. He will answer for it that his son is innocent. extraposed, prepositional object 11. You may depend on it that I will pick you up. extraposed, prepositional object Activity 2: 1.It worried me a bit that she didnt visit her aunt. possible: That she didnt visit her aunt worried me a bit. 2. It is not quite clear whether the trains would be running tomorrow. possible: Whether the trains would be running tomorrow is not quite clear. 3. It will be soon announced when you can leave. questionable, a clause starting with when will normally be taken for a time adverbial clause 4. Is it true that the children are sick? impossible, for pragmatic reasons 5. It so happens that I know the secret cipher. 6. It seems such a shame that he never takes her out. impossible 7. It is incredible how many good students drop out of school for lack of money. the same as 3. 8.

331

Nadina VIAN

It will suit me best for you to arrive before dinner. possible: For you to arrive me before dinner will suit me best. 9. It is no use trying to convince her. possible: Trying to convince her is no use. 10. It will be a pity if we have to tell her the truth before he gives us permission to. impossible 11. You know it only too well that he will not marry you. impossible unless accompanied by clause shift: You know only too well that will not marry you. 12 You may take it from me that he is a stinking liar. impossible, main verb includes it idiomatically 13. Rumour has it that U2 will visit us this year. same as 12. 14. The pebble in my shoe made it painful to walk. the same as 12. 15. It is nice to meet you. impossible, idiomatic formula 16. I found it disgraceful that she hid the truth from me impossible, same as 12. 17. They considered it very silly of her to have married Bill. impossible, same as 12. 18. I find it difficult to tell her my thoughts. impossible, same as 12. Activity 3: 1.It bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. grammatical, although a bit intricate 2. It amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. grammatical, but pragmatically impossible 3. It appears that it amazes Bill that it bothers me that it is obvious that money means everything. - grammatical, but pragmatically impossible 4. That it is obvious that money means everything bothers me. grammatical, a bit too intricate 5.That it amazes Bill that it is obvious that money means everything bothers me.- grammatical, but pragmatically impossible Activity 4 1.I was the one who guessed it that he would come back. correct 2. I guess it that he will come back. incorrect, tense influences the validity of extraposition 3. They never expected it that he would come back. - correct 4. I dont expect it that he will come back. - incorrect, tense influences the
332

Key To Chapter Seven Practice

validity of extraposition 5. She was the woman who ordered it that all men would be executed in public. correct 6.Are you going to order it that all men be executed in public?! - incorrect, tense influences the validity of extraposition Activity 5 1. It was no surprise that a deeply Schillerian spirit reigned on the premises of that school. 2. When it so happened that I spotted him at the end of the lane, I hurriedly hid wherever I could, behind gates, in the pits on the road, in the ditch, under bridges, I would have vanished into thin air if I had been able to. 3. Doubtlessly the authorities will see to it that we are evacuated and taken who knows where, Lionel says. I for one will try to stay here for as long as I can, since I am protected by my officers uniform. It is certain that the Romanian troops will advance fast. 4. It even seemed to me that mothers few sensible words that penetrated through that avalanche of dull or stupid sentences had the effect of creating a sort of confusion in the general conversation. 5. I liked all that was natural in mothers behaviour. Yet it happened that her momentum was checked by the respect she had for social convention and by the deep impact her bourgeois education had had on her. (Not always, though; thus, I remember that mother dared to disregard the advice of all her family members and went to tend to the sick of the village during a typhus epidemic, when she used to live in the La Roque mansion). Bourgeois education undoubtedly proves to be an excellent asset while it is vital that we keep our bad instincts in check, but it should never be forgotten that it is this very education that stifles all our generous impulses that come from our heart.

333

Nadina VIAN

6.

Therefore I thought it appropriate to perfect what weapons we had at the time.

7. It is difficult to stick to your unwavering decision to return, which the scents and the oblivion with which these scents will infuse you will try to change. As they will try to change your desire to find out more and many other things you might feel. 8. It would of course be rash to draw a general conclusion from these observations. By saying this, I was not in fact speaking like a moralist. I am not one of those that will seek and find lessons everywhere, for these lessons will unfortunately not help anyone to become wiser. Neither am I one of those who will say: I dream so that summer could last for eternity and I believe that it is much better to be content with your lot, without trying to protest too much. Activity 7 1.? Susan burnt the letter (which) she had just written to the last page. / Susan burnt to the last page the letter she had just written. the second sentence has undergone clause shift. It is less ambiguous than the first. 2. Susan told her mother that she had just been fired. / ?Susan told that she had just been fired to her mother. the first sentence is the better of the two, because it is less ambiguous, owing to the clause shift process that characterizes it. 3. He was informed on Saturday at noon that he was going to be fired. / He was informed that he was going to be fired Saturday at noon. the position of the prepositional phrase changes the meaning of the sentences. 4. He appointed prime-minister Mr Hugh, who had just returned from Africa. /? He appointed Mr Hugh, who had just returned from Africa, prime-minister. / He appointed Mr Hugh prime-minister, who had just returned from Africa. the second sentence is questionable, since the
334

Key To Chapter Seven Practice

material dividing the main verb from its obligatory predicative adjunct is too heavy. 5. They dismissed as unrealistic Mr Hughs proposal to build a new hospital. / They dismissed Mr Hughs proposal to build a new hospital as unrealistic. both sentences are grammatical owing to the unequivocal meaning of the adverb as. 6. ? I considered to be outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. / I considered outrageous what he had done to his wife in front of so many people. / I considered what he had done to his wife in front of so many people outrageous. the presence of the infinitive to be in the first sentence creates confusion with respect to its subject. The second and third sentences are grammatical, although the third one has not undergone clause shift. This is possible because the adjective outrageous cannot be related to the preceding material and does not give rise to ambiguities. 7. *I found for Susan to behave like that in public disgraceful. /*I found disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public./ I found it disgraceful for Susan to behave like that in public./I found disgraceful Susans behaving like that in public. /I found Susans behaving like that in public disgrace. the first two sentences are ungrammatical because the idiomatic construction find + it + adjective + that/to clause is not complete. As we have already shown in a previous exercise, extraposition is obligatory here. The last two sentences are grammatical because there is no that/to complement involved, so there is no need for extraposition. 8. He sprinkled with water the pavement he had been cleaning. / He sprinkled the pavement he had been cleaning with water. both sentences are grammatical, but the position of the prepositional phrase influences the meaning of each sentence.

335

Nadina VIAN

Activity 8 1.His idea that men are smarter than women led him to total ruin. complement 2. The idea that he had had earned him good money. relative 3. His order that all the men in the village should be killed was instantly disobeyed. - complement 4. The order that he had given was instantly disobeyed. relative 5. Their proposal that he should run for Congress was the best ever. complement 5. The proposal that they came up with was no better than hers. - relative Activity 9 1.We discovered that our map has disappeared. direct object 2) Was it true that she was ill? subject, extraposed 3) They are not aware that they are in a dangerous position. prepositional object, required by adjective + preposition 4) The idea that men from Mars were landing was absurd. complement that clause, required by deverbal noun 6) John made it clear that he disagreed. direct object, extraposed 7) The truth is that we havent met them. predicative 8) I am afraid that I have to go now. - prepositional object, required by adjective + preposition 9) It struck me that the bus was behaving pretty strangely. subject, extraposed 10) She was so careless that she left the door unlocked. adverbial of sequence/result, correlated with degree word 11) The suggestion was that they should leave at once. predicative 12) He loved her to such an extent that he could give his life for her. - adverbial of sequence/result, correlated with degree word 13) The shock of having been found by Dorina in Mitzis arms first prostrated him with such a sense of uncleanness and shame that he could not face his wife. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) adverbial of sequence/result, correlated with degree word 14) It had also produced the certainty that they belonged together and that, for better or worse, they were chained to each other forever. (Iris Murdoch, ibid.) complement that clauses, coordinated, required by deverbal noun
336

Key To Chapter Seven Practice

Activity 10 1)I didnt get the message that they were coming. that is obligatory 2) They chortled that it was only a joke. that is obligatory, the verb of propositional attitude is a rare verb 3) That such things still happen is no wonder. that is obligatory, since it introduces a subject clause 4) I hate it that you wont be with me. that is obligatory, being part of an extraposed structure 5) Where would you guess that he went? that deletion is possible.(Compare to: *Who did they imagine that wanted to go? in this case, that deletion is obligatory, for otherwise the sentence would have a double subject) 6) The fact that they were unprepared leaked out. that is obligatory 7) They maintain, you want me to believe, that they were not too late to leave. that is here obligatory because the paranthetical clause intervenes between the conjunction and its main verb 8) I reminded them that they had to leave. that deletion is possible Activity 11 1 a) John heard that Mary is pregnant. b) John heard that Mary was pregnant. the first sentence is possible because the subordinate reflects a situation that is still available c) John said that Harry is leaving. d) John said that Harry was leaving. the same as for the first two e) John said that Harry will leave. f) John said that Harry would leave. the same as for the first two g) John thought that Harry ran. h) John thought that Harry had run. g) is different from h) in that Harrys running is a habit in g) but an anterior event in h) 2. a) John said that Harry was leaving tomorrow. b) John thought that Montreal played Boston tomorrow. c) *Harry was leaving tomorrow. d) *Montreal played Boston tomorrow. e) Harry is leaving tomorrow. f) Montreal plays Boston tomorrow. a) and b) are indirect speech
337

Nadina VIAN

formulations of e) and f) but not of c) and d) which are impossible in isolation because their past tense is not compatible with the deictic time adverbial 3. a) It was obvious that everyone would leave if coffee was not provided at the meeting next day. b) It was objected that people had left the meeting the day before because coffee had not been provided. grammatical sentences, sequence of tenses is observed 4. a) She thought that Maggie arrived the day before b) She thought that Maggie had arrived the day before. both sentences are grammatical, in a) the Past Tense Past Perfect rule is optional because the subordinate verb phrase expresses an event not a state 5. I knew that poor Chris believed he was of royal blood. sequence of tenses is observed 6. a) John said that his car *has run out of gas. / b) John said that his car is out of gas. a) is excluded because the subordinate verb phrase needs to show anteriority to the event expressed by the main verb. b) is possible because the subordinate expresses a situation still available at speech time 7. Look the dipstick shows oil right up to the full mark. But John mumbled that his car was/*is out of oil. the present in the subordinate is excluded because it does not reflect a state of facts available at speech time, as is apparent from the larger co-text 8. John indicated to Mary that she should go to bed early. sequence of tenses is observed 9. a. John told Mary that she should bake a pie. b. *John told Mary that she had baked a pie. c. John told Mary that she had baked an excellent pie. b) is impossible because it is irrelevant (unless Mary suffers from amnesia) so the sentence is pragmatically wrong

338

Key To Chapter Seven Practice

Activity 12 a) The brightening sky was busy with resident birds and with traveler birds moving south ahead of the season: various patterns of duck, geese both grey and white, quail, lark, hawk. All these birds and others Ruby remarked upon during their passage to town, finding a thread of narrative or evidence of character in their minutest customs. Ruby assumed the twitter of birds to be utterance as laden with meaning as human talk and claimed to like especially the time in spring when the birds come back singing songs to report where theyve been and what theyve done while shed stayed right here. generalization on habits of birds, present instead of simple past, present perfect instead of past perfect. Compare the present perfect form theyve done to the past perfect shed stayed here. While the first is possible because of the generalization, the second is necessary because it refers to the characters speech situation. One of the few times when present perfect appears in close association with past perfect. Translation: Cerul care se nsenina era mpestriat de psrile de prin partea locului precum i de psri cltoare care zburau ctre sud n rile calde: diferite soiuri de rae i gte, cenuii i albe, prepelie, ciocrlii i oimi. Toate aceste psri i multe altele fur obiectul remarcelor lui Ruby n drumul ei ctre ora, i ea descoperi cte ceva de povestit sau vreo trstur de caracter n cele mai nensemnate obiceiuri ale acestor vieti. Ruby considera c ciripitul lor era la fel de gritor i de ncrcat de nelesuri ca i vorba oamenilor i susinea c momentul ei preferat era primvara, cnd psrile se ntorc cntnd cntece prin care povestesc pe unde-au fost i ce-au fcut n timpul n care ea a rmas s locuiasc aici. b) When three crows harried a hawk across the sky, Ruby expressed her great respect for the normally reviled crow, finding much worthy of emulation in their outlook on life. She noted with disapproval that many a
339

Nadina VIAN

bird would die rather than eat any but food it relishes. Crows will relish what presents itself. She admired their keenness of wit, lack of pridefulness, love of practical jokes, slyness in a fight. All of these she saw as making up the genius of the crow, which was a kind of willed mastery over what she assumed was a natural inclination toward bile and melancholy, as evidenced by its drear plumage. the Present --- Past rule is optional in this case, due to the presence of the factive verb in the main clause. The generic present is used in this case, a situation that is similar to the one in the examples under (a). Translation: Cnd cele trei ciori ncepur s urmreasc un oim pe cer, Ruby i exprim respectul deosebit pe care-l avea fa de att de ponegrita cioar, gsind c concepia despre via a acestei psri era demn de urmat. Mai observ cu dezaprobare c multe psri prefer s moar de foame dect s mnnce altceva dect hrana care le place cu adevrat. Ciorile ns se ndeamn s prefere ce li se pune n fa. Ruby le admir spiritul ager, lipsa de vanitate, firea glumea i viclenia n lupt. Toate aceste nsuiri reprezentau pentru ea geniul cioarei, o modalitate voit de a nvinge ceea ce se presupunea a fi o nclinaie natural ctre amrciune i melancolie, dup cum o sugera penajul lor cernit. c) Their talk turned to the war and its effects, and Mrs McKennet held opinions exactly in accord with every newspaper editorial Ada had read for four years, which is to say Mrs McKennet found the fighting glorious and tragic and heroic. Noble beyond all her powers of expression. She told a long and maudlin story she had read about a recent battle, its obvious fictitiousness apparently lost on her. It was fought as they all were lately against dreadful odds. As the battle neared its inevitable conclusion, a dashing young officer was grievously wounded to the chest. He fell back bleeding great gouts of heartblood. A companion stooped and cradled his
340

Key To Chapter Seven Practice

head to soothe his dying. But as the battle raged around them, the young officer, in the very act of expiring, rose and drew his pistol and added his contribution to the general gunfire. He died erect, with the hammer snapping on empty loads. [] During the latter stages of the tale, Ada developed an itch just to either side of the nose. She touched the places discreetly with her fingertips, but then she found that the corners of her mouth would stay down only with great trembling effort. the Past ----- Past Perfect rule is optional in this case, because it is clear from the larger co-text that the fight could only have been anterior to the time of the main story line. Translation: i ndreptar apoi conversaia ctre rzboi i efectele sale, iar doamna McKennet i exprim opiniile n acord cu toate articolele de fond din ziare pe care le citea Ada de patru ani de zile, ceea ce nsemna ca doamna McKennet gsea c lupta lor era glorioas, tragic i eroic. Att de nobil nct nu avea cuvinte s o descrie. Povesti apoi o istorie lung i lacrimogen pe care o citise despre o btlie recent, a crei dimensiune fictiv nu pruse s o impresioneze. Oamenii luptaser n ciuda sorilor potrivnici, cum de altfel se ntmpla mai tot timpul n ultima vreme. Pe msur ce btlia se apropiase de inevitabilul su sfrit, un tnr i chipe ofier fusese rnit grav n piept. El czuse pe spate, din inima sa prelingndu-se picturi mari de snge. Un tovar al su se oprise i i inuse capul n brae, ncercnd s-i uureze chinul. ns pe msur ce fur mpresurai de iureul luptei, tnrul ofier, exact cnd urma s-i dea sufletul, se ridicase n picioare, i scosese puca i i adusese contribuia la ultimul schimb de focuri general. Murise n picioare, iar puca sa continu s trag pn rmase fr cartue. d) He talked in the urgent meters of a street preacher, and he had drawn a crowd with the rage in his voice. He had fought hard through the war, he claimed. Had killed many a Federal and had taken a ball to the shoulder at
341

Nadina VIAN

Williamsburg. But he had recently lost faith in the war and he missed his wife. He had not been drafted but had volunteered for the fighting, and all he did by way of crime was unvolunteer and walk home. Now here he stood jailed. And they might just hang him, war hero though he was. similar situation to the one under (c). Notice the use of a perspectiveshifting time adverbial (now), which turns the reader back to the time of the main story line. Translation: Vorbea cu modulaiile naripate ale predicatorului de pe strad, i adunase o mulime mare de oameni cu mnia ce-i rsuna n glas. Luptase din rsputeri n rzboi, susinea el. Omorse muli yankei i ncasase un glon n umr la Williamsburg. ns i pierduse nu de mult ncrederea n acest rzboi i i era dor de soie. Nu fusese chemat la arme ci se nrolase voluntar, i nu fcuse dect s se dezroleze i s se duc acas. Acum sttea aici, n nchisoare. i probabil urma s fie spnzurat, dei era erou de rzboi. Activity 13 1. When he saw me, he closed the album, jumped off the bench and ran towards me. But when he reached me, I realized I could not tell him the big news. How can I explain? I just felt shy. I knew that no matter what words I would pick, they could not convey all that I wanted to tell him, nor could they express the joy I felt because the time had come for me to make that announcement. 2. A short while later, mother went home and I was left alone, to finish my drawing. For I had this dreadful feeling that something bad would happen. When the boys saw that mother had left, they gathered around my desk. They all had their hands in their pockets. One of them, the oldest, around seventeen or eighteen years old, had a bad eye and was wearing a sailors blue shirt. His sparse hair was full of dandruff.
342

Key To Chapter Seven Practice

3. She looked at him in wonder and in spite of the fact that she could not see his face because of the dark, she could still see that he was trembling and she didnt know what to do : laugh because he had woken up in the dead of the night to propose to her, or fear his rage, which had prompted him to do such an awkward thing, such an inconvenient dangerous gesture. And yet she ended by feeling good about the thought that he cared so much about her opinion and instantly had this tender wish to soothe him, to show him that he was paying too much attention to some inconsequential mean acts. She even forgot about the late hour and the impropriety of it all. 4. I am afraid I have to tell you that one does not talk to Angelas sister too long, Mr. Albu whispered in Mateis ear. As it is common knowledge that she is an idiot, one might think that you sought refuge by her side. 5. He feared that the confession he had made to her sprang from wounded pride and he regreted his suspicious nature. And yet it was strange that he had thought he would make himself more interesting to her by accusing himself of such unpleasant things. 6. He hardly noticed that she had left him and he didnt wonder why it was that she had come to see him, or if she would do so again. The mere fact that she had been there overwhelmed him, as if he had been drunk. He was happily surprised at what he could see in himself. All his senses were now keen, he had suddenly acquired the ability to see things consistently, brightly and closely. So when coming from her lawyer she who had been lying in wait for him slipped a piece of paper in his hand, in which he read that at least for a while they would have to stop seeing each other so they would not fall prey to some vulgar illusion that might cost them dearly and knowing that he could not help visiting her she had decided to leave town for a while, for her vineyard, for a longer stay that would do both a power of good, he could only think of the fact that she had written
343

Nadina VIAN

to him, that he was holding a piece of paper that had been touched by her hand and over which she had bent, thinking of him. 7. Matei thought that his mother knew a lot about the reasons of Doras departure to the vineyard, but he could not find it in himself to ask her what it was that she knew. 8. The last time when we met here you scared me, claiming you had no ambition for the future. You know it is not nice that a young man such as yourself should be unambitious and have no ideal, dont you ? I believe you did not tell me the whole truth. 9. Has it never occurred to you that you should become a Pasteur or an Alexander the Great, have you never had one of these crazy passionate dreams for the pursuit of which you should pledge your whole life ? Matei thought it wiser to beat a retreat. 10. Then he applauded the new idea to build a factory, saying that the brightness of a young mind and the influence of an education abroad was unquestionably apparent. Neither he nor the old man would have ever thought of such a thing ! but Urmatecu held back his greatest joy expressing it only later, with warm praise for the fact that Bubi had felt himself called and indeed had seen it his duty to take part in their work and responsibility. 11. Bubis delight in his fathers unexpectedly reasonable attitude was so great, that he did not notice Urmatecus inquisitiveness or derision. If his father had finally shown him his whole sympathy, it meant that he would approve of him from then on. And if things were so, he would achieve his goal and be a victor. But what Bubi did not really see in this development was that he had not beaten Urmatecu as he had planned, but that Urmatecu had managed to set things the way he had wanted. And what he had not found out (for Urmatecu had done this fully knowing human nature and their circumstances) was the thick web of deceit in which he was wrapped
344

Key To Chapter Seven Practice

now, exactly because now he was the object of Iancus cunning aversion. And Iancu was quietly following the threads of a plan that was being woven in his mind. 12. Of course my thought is that there is nothing we could do with these small estates. We either sell them or we dont. 13. He felt both joy for having emerged safe and sound from this and pride for having won this turn, and fear that once again the opposition of his father and the new problems brought about by the mortgage might prevent him from achieving everything as planned. Then Bubi was also exhausted by the tension and nervousness he had experienced. Urmatecu read all this on his face and smiled. Nevertheless there was one thing that he did not understand, namely the impatience of this young man, which secretly drove him, more urgently than ever, towards Jurubita, where he would run to confess everything. Bubi was confident that she deserved his full confession, as he had felt he more close to her since he started to travel on this road of supreme honesty. 14. Next day news of Dorodans death came from the hospital. Urmatecu thought of the best course to take for a while. And at length he decided to send someone to the old baron, without putting anything in a note, but instructing the man to carry word to everyone around concerning Urmatecus promise to arrive soon to clear every problem

345

Nadina VIAN

KEY TO CHAPTER EIGHT PRACTICE - INFINITIVE COMPLEMENTS


Activity 1: 1. She needed a stick with which she to beat up the old man. simple infinitive, grammatical 2. It was an awful thing to be sitting there abandoned. infinitive continuous, grammatical 3. It is nice she to have a dog as a friend. ungrammatical (either a that clause, or a for-to infinitive should replace the subordinate) 4. It was nice for her to have a dog as a friend. simple infinitive, grammatical 5. To be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime. infinitive continuous, grammatical 6. She reminded him to pick up the flowers for Susans birthday. - simple infinitive, grammatical 7. He to be looking at her for hours seems his favourite pastime.- ungrammatical (a that clause should replace the subordinate) 8. Everybody knew him to have been working as a plumber for more than twenty years. perfect infinitive, the perfect aspect is required by the for phrase, grammatical, 9. It is vital for our factory to be reopened. simple infinitive, grammatical 10. It is vital this factory to be reopened. - ungrammatical Activity 2 : They made me take Tom to school. / I was often allowed to leave home/ let leave home. / they saw her leave. / He helped them lift the heavy parcel. / She noticed him eat a whole chocolate bar. / He was forced to send Tom on the front. / He had Mary clean her room. / He forced Mary to clean her bedroom. / They hear him sing two patriotic songs.

346

Key To Chapter Eight Practice

Activity 3 : She wishes to really achieve world-wide recognition. / He went abroad to better study modern educational strategies. / To be stupidly tempted to sell your place for practically nothing is the very thing we all fear. / What happened forced them to suddenly become aware of the problems they had. / I want to never see you again. / In order to fully understand what that book is about, you need to try harder. Activity 4: I would like [people to visit me every day.] Accusative + Infinitive. Test: * I would like people. \ She wanted [him to leave.] Accusative + Infinitive. Test: *She wanted him. \ She promised him PRO to leave. Test: She promised him. \ They tempted him PRO to leave. Test: They tempted him. \ I would love [ them to come. ] Accusative + Infinitive. Test: *I would love them. \ I allowed [them to come.] Accusative + Infinitive. Test: *I allowed them. \ He persuaded her PRO to come. Test: He persuaded her. \ They convinced her PRO to come back. Test: They convinced her. \ They would have hated [her to come back.] Accusative + Infinitive. Test: *They would have hated her. \ They really asked her PRO to come back. Test: They asked her. \ They did not wish [her to come back.] Accusative + Infinitive. Test: *They did not wish her. Activity 5: He seems to have robbed all the banks in the neighbourhood. / He is known to have attempted to commit suicide. / He is believed to have seduced the daughter of the millionaire who is living next to us. / The unknown assassin seems to have committed another murder on the sixth floor. / It was crucial for him to listen to all her confession. / It is not too late for him to learn. / I taught them to speak and spell correctly. / He is believed to have known her
347

Nadina VIAN

for years. / I have never known how to behave in her presence. / I want to tell you what I think of you. / I want you to leave my house. / He is hard to stand. / She happened to come by so I invited her to have a cup of coffee. Activity 6 Oh, to think he used to play the violin so beautifully !/ The grass was too wet to sit on. / The persons without a passport are asked to go to the authorities. / She is rich enough to afford a new furcoat. / Oh, to be young again to be able to enjoy life to the full/ He bought himself a ticket in advance, not to miss the train. / She is heartless enough to be able not to give him the money for his flat any more. / He is young enough to start again. / To make a long story short, I dont need you or your services. / He came back from his trip only to find his wife in a compromising situation. / I have a word to tell you. / He is easy to talk to. / He is easy to live with. / You are to blame that the factory exploded. Activity 7 I presume you do not want to figure in my life merely as a pest. obligatory subject control verb / I do not intend to tell him that myself. - obligatory subject control verb / I have no wish to uproot ourselves at our age and no inclination to return to a part of the world which has for us only the unhappiest of associations. - obligatory subject control verb / and when you have done so there is little doubt but that they will advise you to your own country at once. obligatory direct object control verb / I hope to call on you and your husband a day or two after the funeral. - obligatory subject control verb / And now he refuses to see me and has written me a disgusting missive. - obligatory subject control verb

348

Key To Chapter Eight Practice

Activity 8 a) Harold persuaded Alec [PRO to let 1] [him drive them home 2]. The drinks hadnt cheered him up; they had depressed and fuddled him. Harold, who wasnt used to men with moods, thought that the best and kindest policy was [ PRO to ignore Alecs 3]. If he himself was out of spirits, he hated [anyone to comment on it 4]. 1 PRO- to, Prepositional object 2 Accusative + Infinitive, Direct object 3 PRO to, Predicative 4 - Accusative + Infinitive, Direct object b) During the visit Harolds own outlook had undergone a good many changes. It was natural to him [PRO to feel critical of another environment than his own 1]. He suspected hostility at once; the herd instinct was very strong in him. In so far as he was a snob his snobbery only operated within his own social group; he didnt envy those above it, though he tended [PRO to look down on those below it 2]. Both seemed to him a little unreal, and as if they didnt know what life was about. And this was especially the case with Alec and his wifes outfit, for Alec belonged to no group or social stratum, [he 3] appeared [to have the freedom of several 3] but [to be indigenous to none 4]. 1 PRO-to, Subject, extraposed 2 PRO-to, Object 3 Nominative + infinitive, Subject 4 Nominative + infinitive, Subject, coordinated with 3 c) I obliged him [PRO to recopy twice the episode of his first inspection of me aboard the Zahir. 1] A little crossly, Marjanah told me [PRO to spend the night with him as well 2], so that we might get to the future and have done. She was even inclined [ PRO to remain in the bedroom with us 3],

349

Nadina VIAN

[PRO to make sure 4] we attended strictly to business, but her husband cautioned against becoming of a jealous and suspicious later. 1 PRO-to, PRO controlled by him, object 2 PRO to, PRO controlled by me, direct object 3 PRO to, PRO controlled by she, adjectival adjunct 4 PRO to, PRO controlled by she, adverbial of purpose Activity 9*: a) The poor mother felt heart broken to think that in a months time her house would be empty. But when we need to comfort others, we seem to forget about our own pain. b) The effects of a principle are hard to estimate. c) Unlike plane trips, elevator rides are much too short to terrify you with the idea of fatality. d) Why is he so sad? How could he be helped not to look so grim? Is there anyone who doesnt feel alone? In any mans life there is a moment when he feels like hanging himself, true, but you need to have a very special nature to let this happen to you right when this choir is singing. e) When two persons, man and woman, sit for days within these frozen walls and all there is for them to do is to knock against this partition, slowly, cautiously, what they manage to tell each other as well as the circumstances in which they communicate are clearly not like when you dial a wrong number. One day, the man might be tortured but he would not tell you. And you might also be hit and humiliated. f) The passing time is important, as are the questions you ask if you want your story to have a meaning, or better said, if you want all these vague candid truths that you create fearfully, excitedly, so ashamed and reluctant for having been forced to do so to come back to you with every sound you make, more meaningful, more believable than evidence itself.
350

Key To Chapter Eight Practice

To say, for instance, that you are young. And to actually start to believe you are so. g) He didnt know what to do to stop her from crying. h) I want us to go, Mrs. Moroi says heavily. That is it. You have to understand once for all that I cannot live like a hermit. These people invited us and the man is your boss. Would you like me to look at you transfixed, to live only with your coughing, your spasms and your chest pains? i) The idea that we shouldnt move exhausted us and our heads would start shaking. That spot where your head is screwed on your backbone hurt us. If it was summer, perspiration would start trickling down our cheeks and behind our ears, all down our neck. It was impossible for the weaker ones not to move a hand or a foot; or, tickled by the trickles of sweat, not to want to wipe it off. j) Paul Achim was not yet ready to remember Dr. Stroescu, as he had appeared to him in the rain, or their talk that night, which he had already forgotten. Although that talk deserved to be remembered. But Paul Achim had lived for two decades with the express desire of never remembering it, not even those parts where he had been half-right. But it was much easier for him to forget about his being right, since this situation existed only by opposition with things that almost every man keeps silent about in his private talks with himself. He had not been able to leave Dr. S. in the street, although the man would have really wanted to be left alone, in that moment of exquisite happiness of early love, even when this love is hurried. k) With this considerable dowry, I am looking for a husband to love and obey, while swearing to change my way of life. And I would care for this man so deeply, my wish being only to please and serve. I am indeed praising my own merits, for there is no shame in it when need drives you.
351

Nadina VIAN

In a word, I mean to say that I am looking for a husband to be protected commanded and respected by, rather than a lover to be served and cursed by. If you will have what I can give you, here I am with all of my own, ready to submit to any demand, without putting myself on sale (for this would mean relinquishing your fortune to matchmakers), for no one can mediate better than the parties involved. l) But she doesnt have time to reach the last door of the tram and she wont get on it through the front door, no matter what. She isnt so old as to use the exit door to get on the tram, for thats the door people get off by, every Bucharester knows it. m) Their most diabolical invention was to make a suspect out of every man: to make people suspect each other thats where their power lay! n) They entered the passage, met by squalor and terrible smells, they knocked at every door only to find out that Mutis carpenter had passed away a week before. Well, poor Muti, she was suddenly so shocked. o) Theres no special reason for him to avoid her eyes, or to speak so fast, haphazardly, as if he were afraid of the questions that in fact she never asks him.

352

Key To Chapter Nine Practice

KEY TO CHAPTER NINE PRACTICE - ING COMPLEMENTS


Activity 1 Ill have you arrested if you keep bothering me. / In a short while she managed to bewitch him so completely that she had him eating out of her hand. / They found it thrown in a corner. / The one talking to Maria right now is my brother./ The blow left him sprawled under the table./ Dont keep him waiting./ Jim got the engine started in the twinkling of an eye./ He went to have a tooth pulled./ Would you like your nailes varnished ?/ So where did you find such a roomy wardrobe ? I had it made. / Why did you leave the water running ? / Ill have the house arranged in a second./ She sent him shopping. / Nobody guessed that only a few days after this discussion they were going to have their house broken into./ He was discovered lying flat behind some crates, badly beaten and bloodied.. / You didnt change the babys diaper, what have you been doing all day?/ Ill have you shut up if you cant keep a civil tongue in your head. Activity 2 Riding was something of a passion with her, so that it always made her restive to see someone else riding a good horse. Accusative + present participle/ We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal sum, if you put in a defence and then didnt appear. Accusative + past participle/ And before her suddenly closed eyes came Wilfrids face, with its lips drawn back, as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. Attributive past participle; Accusative + present participle / She went into Adrians after leaving him, and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel waiting for her there. Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction);
353

Nadina VIAN

Accusative + present participle / I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the co-respondent was seen coming out of the respondents stateroom. Nominative + present participle / Dinny, sitting taut between her father and her sister, feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own, heard the slow rich voice striking in behind her. Attributive present participle; Attributive present participle; Accusative + present participle / In any case, you gave instructions to have your wife watched. Accusative + past participle / My Lord, before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent, I should be glad to recall the petitioner. Adverbial present participle (preceded by conjunction) Activity 3 1.She didnt want to hear the story again, having heard it all before. 2. Turning on the light, I was astonished at what I saw. 3. Having looked through the fashion magazine, I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. 4. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible conversation, lying face downwards in a sea of mud. 5. The tree had fallen across the road, having been uprooted by the gale. 6. Sleeping in the next room, the people were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. 7. Knowing that the murderer was still at large, I was extremely reluctant to open the door. 8. Having been punished by mother for my mistake, I slammed the door of my room. 9. Having fed the dog, he sat down to his own dinner. 10. Finding the treasure, they began quarreling about how to divide it. Activity 4 1.Running into the room, a rug caught her foot and she fell. As she was running into the room, a rug caught her foot and she fell./ Running into the room, she caught her foot in a rug and fell. The participle is misrelated to the main clause for the simple reason that the subject of the participle does not
354

Key To Chapter Nine Practice

identify with that of the main clause, and this phenomenon gives rise to ambiguities. 2. Riding in the first race, his horse fell at the last jump. As he was riding in the first race, his horse fell at the last jump. 3. Knowing me to be the fool of the family, the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. As he knew me to be the fool of the family, the news that I had won a scholarship astonished him. / Knowing me to be the fool of the family, he was astonished at the news that I had won a scholarship. 4. Reading in bed, my hands often get very cold. When I read in bed, my hands often get very cold./ Reading in bed, I often get very cold hands. 5. Leaving the cinema, it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. As he left the cinema, it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. 6. Climbing down the tree, one of the eggs broke. As he was climbing down the tree, one of the eggs broke. / Climbing down the tree, he broke one of the eggs. 7. Barking furiously, I let the dog out of the room. As the dog was barking furiously, I let it out of the room. 8. Getting out of bed, a scorpion bit him. As he was getting out of bed, a scorpion bit him. / Getting out of bed, he was bit by a scorpion. 9. Sitting in the dentists chair, an idea suddenly occurred to me. As I was sitting in the dentists chair, an idea suddenly occurred to me. 10. Dropped by parachute, the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. As I had just been dropped by parachute, the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. 11. Tied to the post, the sea was tossing the post up and down. As he was tied to the post, the sea was tossing it up and down. 12. Passing under a ladder, a pot of paint fell on my head. As I was passing under a ladder, a pot of paint fell on my head. Activity 5 Fair-haired, broad-shouldered, red-handed, bald-headed, three-coloured, many-coloured, cloth-covered, stony-hearted, narrow-minded, open-minded, fishy-eyed, empty-headed, lion-hearted, sharp-eyed/minded, wooden-headed,
355

Nadina VIAN

quick-eyed, dark-skinned, eagle-eyed, straight-shouldered, open-hearted. (other combinations are possible as well) Activity 6 Molten lead, drunken man, lighted candle, mown grass, roast meat, shaven head, stricken deer, sunken eyes, shorn lamb, hidden meaning, shrunken stream, bounden duty, ill-gotten wealth, rotten plank, graven image, Activity 7 1.Books taken out of the library must be returned within three weeks. / People taking books out which havent been stamped will be banned. (take) 2. The film, produced by S.Spielberg, is expected to be a great hit./ Power stations producing enough energy to supply several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. (produce) 3. Crops grown under glass mature more quickly than those in the open. / Farmers growing such crops can therefore catch the early markets. (grow) 4. I stared at the canvas for ages, admiring the artists skill and eye for detail. / Swiss watches, admired for their elegance and precision, are sold throughout the world. (admire) 5. The escaped prisoner, found hiding in a barn, was today taken back to prison. / Many old people, finding that their savings have been eaten into by inflation, are having difficulties in making both ends meet. (find) 6.I fell on the ice, injuring my arm. / Three people, injured when their car crashed on the M1, were taken to hospital. (injure). 7. Whales, hunted for their valuable oil and meat, are in grave danger of extinction. / Thousands of people went shopping in the sales today, hunting for a bargain. (hunt). Activity 8 1. Her figure had full round curves: the tendrils of hair hanging on her forehead and around her bared ears; the shoulders barely hidden by lace;
356

Key To Chapter Nine Practice

the breasts squeezed by the tightly fitting garment; the hips bursting from the tight bodice that bit into them, yet left them room to sway free, barely perceived under the rich folds of fabric. A parasol, now taken down, then put up, would cast on the womans face and figure shadows and colours that kept dancing and relighting her curves. 2. Although the moment was deeply disturbed, a strange thrill shot through Bubi. He felt close to his father, in charge of his house and lands, and moreover, acknowledged and welcomed by the woman he desired. 3. After a while, the urgency of those words cleared Bubis elation/euphoria away, forcing him to ponder over their meaning. And his soul, hovering uncertain and soft, always seized by doubts/ beleaguered with doubts/ struggling with doubts, was now awakened and driving away all its strength by its hesitations. It seemed to him that Dorodans refrain sounded like some mysterious prophecy. He suddenly felt surrounded by some unknown long-forgotten danger which was now assailing him. the feverish enthusiasm he had felt got drowned in the deep murky waters of doubt. So, freeing the old mans shoulders from his clasp, he started peering anxiously around as if, suddenly suffocated, he were struggling for breath, seeking some promised land. 4. She was surrounded by all that was going to turn into a rich meal: the red meat, streaked with yellow veins of fat, the fish, its scales scraped off by the knife, the twice rinsed vegetables, the carved chicken, thrown in the pots, with its sickening smell of scalded feathers, and the puffed pastry beds, flat and soft, sprinkled with sticky flour, all this passed through Mistress Mitas skilled hands who would lay them out carefully, boil them, bake them.

357

Nadina VIAN

Activity 9 Theres no hope of finding any survivors afther the plane crash. / Did you apologize for disturbing him ? / I gave up playing football when I graduated from highschool. / You re probably fed up with doing the same thing every day. / John was severely reprimanded for bullying younger boys. / The public was warned against the danger of walking alone through the park at night. /Hes not interested in bringing up his children./ It seems youre rather keen on pointing to other peoples shortcomings. / Miners are always advised against bringing matches into the mine./ Who is responsible for locking the door and watching the building during the night ?/ You should think about saving money instead of hoping to win it by playing cards./ The answer to the housing problem seems to reside in building new blocks of flats. / They saw no reason for not continuing as planned. / The doctor advised me against smoking and eating fat foods. / I had to put off my leaving on holiday. / That company specializes in manufacturing office furniture. / She should assert herself and abstain from smoking in restaurants and other public places. / I am sorry for being so late. / The judge was accused of not tracing clear goals for the jury. / He prides himself on always being well-dressed. / I told him not to bother putting things back. / We had to put up with his being rude throughout the trip. / I asked for legal advice before deciding on taking legal action. / After annoying the shop-assistant, he left the store without buying a thing. / Despite her having to struggle with the rough sea, the swimmer was able to cross the channel in record time. Activity 10 1. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. participle (attribute) 2. He smiled to hear her talking in that way. Accusative + participle 3. Gambling is his favourite pastime. gerund (subject) 4. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. - gerund 5. What I dont understand is you suddenly
358

Key To Chapter Nine Practice

turning against me. Accusative ING (predicative) 6. The only reason for selling was the owners getting a new car. gerund (attribute, preceded by preposition), possessive ING (predicative) 7. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. 8. I can excuse his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. - possessive ING (direct object) 9. He admitted to driving the lorry recklessly. gerund (prepositional object) 10. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. accusative ING (prepositional object) 11. The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. accusative ING (prepositional object) 12. The ceremony ended with his having to receive a trophy. possessive ING (prepositional object)12. He was spotted talking to her. Nominative + participle 13. I was afraid that my answer might lead to him being charged for the offence. accusative ING (prepositional object) 14. Shes looking forward to having lots of children. gerund (prepositional object) 15. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her. gerund (half or full, attribute) Activity 11 Chewing cow/ chewing gum- participle vs. gerund shooting gallery / shooting star gerund vs. participle boiling water is a job I hate / I need some boiling water gerund (functions as subject) vs. participle crying game / crying woman gerund vs. participle swimming duck / swimming trunks participle vs. gerund pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions participle vs. gerund (has a direct object) eating habits/ eating people gerund vs. participle paying guests / paying guests to leave is wrong participle vs. gerund (has a direct object)

359

Nadina VIAN

Activity 12 Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have for shopping. verbal noun (has adjective); also verbal noun through symmetry rules / Shopping can be a nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake. gerund or verbal noun; gerund (because of the adverbial that follows it; so probably the first ing form is also a gerund through symmetry rules) / His coming there puzzled her. full gerund (has adverbial)/ His sudden coming puzzled her. verbal noun (combined with adjective)/ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company.- verbal noun (has determiner, adjective, of phrase) / Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. gerund (has direct object and adverbial)/ Their looting and ruthless murdering was never forgotten.- verbal nouns (due to combination with adjective)/ All newspapers commented on Johns robbing the bank. gerund (full, has direct object)/ Johns robbing of the bank was widely commented on. verbal noun (has of phrase) / The unexpected robbing of the bank didnt pass unnoticed. verbal noun (has determiner, adjective, of phrase) Activity 13 a) I remembered my husband say that I must look out for myself. And I realized how silly I was in not knowing that I was being watched. Tell me, Lady Corven, why did you defend this action? Because I knew that, however appearances were against us, we had done nothing to be ashamed of. Dinny saw the Judge look towards Clare, take down her answer, hold up his pen and speak. On that night in the car you were on a main road. What was to prevent you from stopping another car and asking them to give you a lead into Henley? I dont think we thought of it, my Lord; I did ask Mr. Croom to try to follow one, but they went by too quickly.
360

Key To Chapter Nine Practice

In any case, what was there to prevent you from walking into Henley and leaving the car in the wood? I suppose nothing really, only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley; and I thought it would be more awkward than just staying in the car. And I always had wanted to try sleeping in a car. And do you still want to? No, my Lord, its overrated. b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have to call and thank him. So do look out for me about six oclock tomorrow. I spend all my time hunting a job, and am beginning to realise what it means to poor devils to be turned down day after day. c) I think youre splendid to want to be independent. Its quite impossible for me not to be in love with you and to long to be with you all day and all night too. But Im going to be as good as I can because the very last thing I want is to cause you uneasiness of any sort. d) Having looked up Sir Lawrences number in Mount Street, he addressed the note, licked the envelope with passion, and went out to post it himself. Then, suddenly, he did not feel inclined to return to the Coffee House. e) I thought youd never forgive me for asking at such a moment. Always delighted for you to ask anything at any moment. I must go back now, but Ill hope to see you again very soon. f) The word national is winning this election, said Clare. Where I went canvassing in the town they were all Liberals. I just used the word and they fell. Hearing that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning, the sisters started about eleven oclock. There was so much coming and going round the doors that they did not like to enter. I do hate asking for things, said Clare. Especially when they go on ignoring you like that.
361

Nadina VIAN

Then you shall simply have to go on asking and after getting it you can go on to become whatever you wish. Activity 14 k) He remembered entering the village (PRO ing gerund, following the verb remember, functions as direct object) and then the ground, the very earth opening up (half gerund, direct object). First the crack snaking (half gerund, direct object) its jagged way along the concrete, then the noise and the cracking stone, (participle, attribute, stone which is cracking) and then the incredible sound of the ground opening up (participle, attribute), the enormous split in the earth. The two sides were moving apart, their edges crashing inwards (absolute participle, adverbial of time, while their edges were crashing inwards), down, down into God knows where. The sight of the two children, the man and his bike disappearing (half gerund, direct object for the main verb remember, elliptical here. Has a complex subject) in the hole. The collapsing shops (participle, attribute, shops which are collapsing) he remembered seeing (PRO-ing, gerund, direct object) the shops on one side collapsing (half gerund, direct object) and then the ragged mouth reaching (half gerund, direct object) towards him. l) The people above heard the cry for help coming (participle, attribute, which was coming) from the huge hole that had wrecked the burning village (participle, attribute, village which is burning). He looked up towards the daylight, hoping (participle, adverbial of reason) he would see somebody up there, someone looking for survivors (participle, attribute). Then he saw movement at his feet. At first, he thought it was dust caused by the disturbance, but then he saw it billowing up (Acc + present participle, after verb of perception, direct object) from below. It was like a mist, slowly rising (participle, attribute) in a swirling motion, slightly
362

Key To Chapter Nine Practice

yellowish although he couldnt be sure in the gloom. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split, moving up (participle, adverbial of manner) towards his chest, covering (participle, adverbial of manner) the girls head. She started coughing (PRO-ing gerund, direct object). m) The importance attached to the meeting of two young people (verbal noun, has modifier and of phrase) depends on the importance which others attach to their not meeting (gerund, cannot take modifier/adjective but works well with adverb: to their not meeting there, early, etc.). (John Galsworthy Over the River) n) Spying on other people (PRO-ing gerund, PRO is interpreted as a generic pronoun, i.e. one, you, subject of being) being (participle, adverbial of reason), according to the books he read, the chief occupation of the people of these islands, it had never occurred to him to look down on a profession conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. (John Galsworthy Over the River) o) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard (verbal noun, has of phrase), the open innocence they were displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion. (John Galsworthy Over the River) p) Mr. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other (half gerund, prepositional object, preceded by preposition): Gee! Hes on us! with an interest which never prevented his knowing (full gerund, direct object) that his two young people were listening too. (John Galsworthy Over the River) q) Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. Im sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating enough, my dear. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in (participle, adverbial of time) doesnt really count. (John Galsworthy Over the River)

363

Nadina VIAN

r) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath (participle, adverbial of manner), for Dornford was busy on an important case. She finished what jobs there were, looking idly out over the Temple lawn bath (participle, adverbial of manner), whence fine-weather mist was vanishing, and sunlight, brightening (participle, attribute) to winter brilliance, slanted on to her cheek. (John Galsworthy Over the River) s) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes (participle, attribute) stopped dead, examining (participle, adverbial of manner) her dark eye-lashes resting (participle, attribute) on her cream-coloured cheeks, and the little twitchings (verbal nount) of her just touched-up lips. Having a French governess (participle, adverbial of reason), they were well-bred little boys without prospect of sticking (PRO-ing gerund, preceded by preposition, attribute) pins into her or uttering (PRO-ing gerund, preceded by preposition, attribute) a sudden whoop. (John Galsworthy Over the River) t) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence, and then went riding (participle, adverbial of purpose) with her in the rain. Dinnys morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the furniture (verbal nouns) while the family were up in town. (John Galsworthy Over the River) Activity 15: Translate into English, making use of the information supplied in this section: 1. So, reluctant or not, we were all gathered in that room, mother, the two Mamonas, Vaucher and I, waiting for all that was to happen to really happen, and not only in my imagination or theirs. And, as if a signal announcing a beginning had been given, a door was opened and as a servant entered, and everything got suddenly animated. Standing up, Young Mamona left the room without a word, yet leaving a few drops of blood behind, which beckoned to
364

Key To Chapter Nine Practice

the eye with their hot foreboding red colour. Behind the servant and tripping over the departing Young Mamona came other two servants, each carrying a wooden box. 2. Entering our house on a Thursday, in the year 1812, Vaucher began by beating Young Mamona under my careless mothers eyes and my own, and ended his life in the year 1821, killed by Young Mamona, his disloyal apprentice. But all this is far away and yet unimaginable. Not so unimaginable though, as not to picture him hitting me shortly after, as he came out of his puddle and drew near Young Mamona in order to hit him. And then, closing my eyes, pressing my eye-lids over the look lurking behind them, a sort of fear and indifference overwhelmed me, together with the thought that some day someone would kill Vaucher, too. And though I knew that person wouldnt be me, I knew who it would be. And, who knows, sitting in his puddle, Vaucher might have known that too, for anyway, he looked like someone who did, yet who hoped that everything would turn out different in the end. 3. So when Old Mamona came in, a soaked burlap sack on his shoulders, and smelling so hard of rain, he found us sitting each in his place, mother looking absent-minded yet knowledgeable, her back towards us, to me, who was sitting with eyes half-closed, to Vaucher, sitting in the puddle of water dripping from his clothes, and to Young Mamona, his head almost touching the ceiling and a hand raised, as mother had ordered him, but looking as if he was greeting us or taking leave of someone. He cast us a swift glance, without taking his sack off his shoulders, not deigning to show us this small courtesy at least, let alone greet us or say something, he went to mother and, bending a little, kissed her forehead. 4. He was talking about gathering up all our strength, about sparing no effort, about concentrating all our resources, about the safeguarding of all our achievements ; it was raining heavily outside and from time to time they kept
365

Nadina VIAN

rubbing their eyes and their unshaven faces in order to stay awake, the wind made the walls of the barrack rattle in an almost exciting manner and, although I was there for the first time and had never seen those people before, everything seemed familiar, already seen and heard, futile, as if things had happened before and to no avail and I was sick and tired of seeing and listening to it, of taking notes and rewriting them. And suddenly, while the sentences kept flowing in that familiar way and the rain kept falling and the wind kept blowing, I thought : what if in the meantime the Danube had cut the island off and pushed it down the river, barrack, stove, wood pile, long board table, ink-stained red table cloth with cigarette burns and all those men around the table who were listening while rubbing their unshaven faces, and that guy who was talking sedately and me who was putting down the same old words what if everything had started a long time ago without our even realizing it, without even suspecting it This was followed by people making suggestions. 5. Reach that place they did one sunny morning, one of those crisp chilly autumn mornings whose chill does not preclude the afternoon heat but prepares you for it and makes you feel it better. They got off the truck slowly, each pausing before jumping down, staggering under the strong light and then letting themselves slide down as if they were slipping into a deep water whose bottom they didnt expect to feel under their feet. After the last man had descended and without any of them uttering one word, the truck left and they tried to look around and understand. But, as an afterthought, the truck stopped further by and somebody tossed a few shovels and rakes out of it they could see only the wooden handles twisting in the air as they fell and a voice whose harshness had been dimmed by the distance and by the droning of the engine told them that they were not allowed to explore or to come close to the villages in that area. When they were finally alone they counted themselves once more : there were nine of them. And all around them was the great field
366

Key To Chapter Nine Practice

of Baragan. The villages they were not supposed to come close to couldnt be seen. They could only distinguish a clump of trees no more than a few hundred. The first thing they did was to gather the implements from the place where they had been carelessly thrown away. The next thing was to go to the well.

367

Nadina VIAN

368

References

Bauer, Laurie, 1983. English Word-Formation, CUP. Benveniste, Emile, 1966. Les relations de temps dans le verbe francais. Problemes de linguistique generale, 1., Gallimard. Bybee, Joan and Osten Dahl, 1989. The Creation of Tense and Aspect Systems in the Languages of the World. Studies in Linguistics 13-1. 51-103. Bybee, Joan, Revere Perkins and William Pagliuca, 1994. The Evolution of Grammar. Chicago.University of Chicago Press. Caenepeel, Mimo and Marc Moens, 1994. Temporal Structure and Discourse Structure. In Co Vet and Carl Vetters, eds. , Tense and Aspect in Discourse, Mouton de Gruyter. Comrie, Bernard, 1976. Aspect. Cambridge University Press. Cornilescu, Al., 2003. Complementation in English. Editura Universitii din Bucureti. Cornilescu, A. , Iclezan Dimitriu, I., 1996, Accuracy and Fluency, Institutul European Cornilescu, A. , 1982. English Syntax, vol.II, Bucuresti, TUB Cornilescu, A. , 1976. The Transformational Syntax of English, TUB Curme, G., 1964. English Grammar, Burnes and Noble.

369

Day, J., 1968. An Advanced English Practice Course, Longman. Denison, Richard.1993. English Historical Syntax, Longman. Dutescu-Coliban, Taina, 2000, Aspects of English Morphology, Editura Fundatiei Romania de maine. Eschholz, P. & Alfred Rosa (eds), 1987. Outlooks and Insights, St Martins Press, New York. Fenn, Peter, 1987. A Semantic and Pragmatic of the English Perfect. Gunter Narr Verlag, Tubingen. Gramatica Academiei, 1968. Gramatica limbii romne, vol. I, Bucureti. Graur, Alexandru, 1968. Tendinele actuale ale limbii romne. Bucureti. Graver, R., 1959. Advanced Grammar Practice, Longman. Halliday, M.A.K. & R. Hassan, 1976, Cohesion in English, Longmans, London. Harris, M. , 1982. The Past Simple and the Present Perfect in Romance. In Vincent and Harris, eds. , 1982: 42-70. Hewing, Martin. 1999. Advanced Grammar in Use, CUP. Hornby,A.S., 1961. A Guide to Patterns and Usage in English, Longman, London. Hornby, A.S. et al. , 1963. The Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current English, London. Iordan, Iorgu and Valeria Guu, Alexandru Niculescu, 1967. Structura morfologic a limbii romne contemporane, Bucureti. Jespersen, Otto, 1931. A Modern English Grammar on Historical Principles, Part IV, London and Copenhagen. Jones, Leo. 1993. Progress to Proficiency, CUP.
370

Kamp, Hans and Christian Rohrer, 1983. Tense in Texts. Bauerle et al. Kamp, Hans and Uwe Reyle, 1993. From Discourse to Logic. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht. Kennedy, X.J., 1987, Literature, An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry and Drama, Scott, Foresman and Company. Klein, Wolfgang, 1992. The Present Perfect Puzzle. Language, volume 68, Number 3. Klima, E. , 1964. Negation in English, in Fodor, J. and J.Katz, eds. Kruisinga, E., 1931. A Handbook of Present-day English. Part II, Groningen Lipka, L., 1990. An Outline of English Lexicology, Max Niemeyer Verlag Tubingen. McCarthy, M. & Felicity ODell, 2002. (advanced), CUP. Miller, Jim. 2000. The Perfect in Spoken and Written English. Transactions of the Philological Society, vol. 89:2 (2000), 323-352 OConnell, Sue, 1991. Focus on Proficiency, Nelson. Parrott, M., 2000. Grammar for English Language Teachers, CUP. Poutsma, H., 1926. A Grammar of Late Modern English, Groningen. Quirk, R., Greenbaum, S., Leech, G. and Svartvik, J. 1973. A Grammar of Contemporary English, Seminar Press. Serban, D., 1982, English Syntax, vol. I, TUB. Schibsbye, K. 1970. A Modern English Grammar, London, OUP. English Vocabulary in Use

371

Schwegler, A., 1990. Analyticity and Syntheticity. A Diachronic Perspective with Special Reference to Romance Languages. Mouton de Gruyter. Berlin. New York. Smith, Carlota, 2003. Modes of Discourse. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. de Swart, Henriette, 1998. Aspect Shift and Coercion. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 16, 347-385. Stefanescu, I., 1978. Lectures in English Morphology, TUB. Vet, Co., 1992. Le passe compose: contexts demploi et interpretation. Cahiers de praxematique 19. Vet, Co., 1999. Le passe simple, le passe compose et regles dinterpretation discursive. In M. e. a. Plenat (ed.) Lemprise du sens. Structures linguistiques et interpretations. Melanges de syntaxe et de semantique offerts a Andree Borillo. Amsterdam. Rodopi. Vian, N., 2003. On the Present Perfect Puzzle and How to Solve It, Conference on British and American Studies, 2003, Editura Universitii Transilvania Braov. Visan, N., 2001. Sentence Processes, editia 1, Editura Credis. Zandvoort, R.W., 1957 and 1962. A Handbook of English Grammar, London.

372