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st 1

Person Voice

0 1st Person: Story is told from the main character

(Holden Caulfield) or another characters (Nick Carraway) point of view. 0 I or We 0 Stream of consciousness, past, present 0 Reliable or unreliable (True for all) 0 And as I sat there, brooding on the old unknown world, I thought of Gatsbys wonder when he first picked out the green light at the end of Daisys dock (189). The Great Gatsby


Forrest Gump

nd 2
0 2nd Person

Person Voice

0 Least Common
0 You 0 You walk down the stairs and see a large hallway 0 Choose Your Own Adventure Books

rd 3
0 0 0 0

Person Voice

3rd Person Omniscient vs. Limited He/She/Them/They He remembered that the elevator had gone down and past them without stopping, and something had been inside. But he made no attempt to try to see in through the small diamond-shaped window, because what was in there did not sound human. A moment later there were running footsteps on the stairs. Wendy Torrance at first shrank back against him and then began to stumble down the main corridor to the stairs as fast as she could (431). The Shining

The Brothers Bloom


Freytags Triangle
Gustav Freytags five parts of a story-sometimes called the Dramatic Arc. Based on Aristotles De Poetica

Five Parts of a Story

0 Exposition: Setting, Characters introduced along with facts to


help reader understand the plot. Complications(Rising Action): When complications begin for the characters. Propels the plot forward and gains audience interest. Climax: The turning point which marks a change in the story. The change in can be for better or worse for the character or characters involved. Falling Action: In most instances, the action following the climax begins to wind the story down. Sometimes there is a final moment of suspense or the outcome is revealed. Conclusion: The end. The protagonist is now better or worse off than at the outset of the story and/or has learned a valuable lesson.

Four Main Conflict Types (Using the film Titanic)

0 Man vs. Nature-Characters vs. Iceburg/Ocean

0 Man vs. Man-Leo Dicaprio vs. Billy Zane

0 Man vs. Society-Dicaprio and Winslets romance 0 Man vs. Self- Winslet/Dicaprio

Allegory 1. Description of a subject under the guise of some other subject of aptly suggestive resemblance. 2. An instance of such description; a figurative sentence, discourse, or narrative, in which properties and circumstances attributed to the apparent subject really refer to the subject they are meant to suggest; an extended or continued metaphor. Alliteration 2. The commencement of certain accented syllables in a verse with the same consonant or consonantal group, or with different vowel sounds, which constituted the structure of versification in OE. and the Teutonic languages generally. Thus from the beginning of Langland's Piers Ploughman, text C.:
In a somere seyson whan softe was e sonne, Y shop me into shrobbis as y a shepherde were; In abit as an ermite vnholy of werkes, Ich wente forth in e worlde wonders to hure, And sawe meny cellis and selcouthe ynges. -The Oxford English Dictionary

Allusion An indirect reference to a person, event statement, or theme found in literature, the other arts, history, myths, religion, or popular culture. An authors use of this device tends to presuppose that readers in general will possess the knowledge to recognize the allusion Anaphora The repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive sentences or lines of poetry. Apposition The repetition of elements serving an identical grammatical function in one sentence. The effect of this repetition is to arrest the flow of the sentence, but in doing so to add extra semantic nuance to repeated elements. See, for example, Caedmons Hymn, where the phrases heaven kingdoms guardian, the Measurers might, his mind-plans, and the work of the Glory-Father each serve an identical syntactic function as the direct objects of praise Ballad 1. a. A light, simple song of any kind; (now) spec. a sentimental or romantic composition, typically consisting of two or more verses sung to the same melody with only light musical accompaniment. c. A narrative poem in short stanzas, esp. one that tells a popular story. Caesura A mid-line pause in a line of poetry.

Couplet 1. A pair of successive lines of verse, esp. when riming together and of the same length. Elegy 1. A song of lamentation, esp. a funeral song or lament for the dead. Epigram 2. A short poem ending in a witty or ingenious turn of thought, to which the rest of the composition is intended to lead up. Epithet 1. An adjective indicating some quality or attribute which the speaker or writer regards as characteristic of the person or thing described. Irony A contradiction or incongruity between appearance or expectation and reality. A discrepancy may exist between what someone says and what he or she actually means, between what someone expects to happen and what really does happen, or between what appears to be true and what actually is true. Furthermore, the term irony may be applied to events, situations, and even structural elements of a work, not just to statements. Kenning An embellished figurative phrase used in place of a simpler or more common expression, often involving two words linked with a hyphen, as in whale-road for ocean or lifehouse for body. Lays Long narrative poems that were typically sung by medieval minstrels and French trouveres.

Limerick A form of nonsense-verse. Litotes An ironic understatement. For example, after the monster Grendel has slaughtered the Danes in the great hall Heorot, it stands deserted. The poet observes, It was easy then to meet with a man / shifting himself to a safer distance. Metonymy From the Greek for change of name, a figure of speech in which one thing is represented by another that is commonly, and often physically, associated with it. Referring to someones handwriting as his or her hand, or calling a monarch the crown involves use of a metonymic figure. Ode 1. a. In early use (esp. with reference to ancient literature): a poem intended to be sung or one written in a form originally used for sung performance (e.g. the Odes of Pindar, of Horace, etc.). Cf. Choral Odes n. at CHORAL adj.1 Special uses. b. Later: a lyric poem, typically one in the form of an address to a particular subject, written in varied or irregular metre. Also in extended use. Paradox A juxtaposition of two dissimilar, seemingly contradictory statements. Poetry and religious writings are often full of paradoxes. Think of Matthew 20:16 So the last will be first, and the first last.

Personification A trope that bestows human characteristics upon anything nonhuman, from an abstract idea to a physical force to an inanimate object to a living organism. Prose The standard written form, consisting of full sentences (without a specific meter or rhyme scheme) that then constitute paragraphs. Prosopoeia A trope highly similar to personification, but in which the personified object takes on human speech. Synechdoche A figure of speech in which a part of something is used to represent the whole. To refer to a boat as a sail, to a car as wheels, and to a violin, cello, or bass as strings is to use synechdoche. Sonnet A piece of verse (properly expressive of one main idea) consisting of fourteen decasyllabic lines, with rimes arranged according to one or other of certain definite schemes Ubi sunt? From the Latin for where are, a common literary motif that laments the passage of time by asking what has happened to beloved people, things, or ideas of the past. Verse Poetry.

The Epic
A. adj. 1. Pertaining to that species of poetical composition represented typically by the Iliad and Odyssey, which celebrates in the form of a continuous narrative the achievements of one or more heroic personages of history or tradition. -The Oxford English Dictionary Famous Epics: The Iliad, The Odyssey, and Beowulf Types of Epics: Primary (original), Literary (secondary), and epyllion (little epic)