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Red Hat Linux

Red Hat Linux, assembled by the company Red Hat, was a

popular Linux based operating system until its discontinuation in red-hat-enterprise-linux-5
2004. Image by tuexperto_com via Flickr

Red Hat Linux 1.0 was released on November 3, 1994. It was originally called "Red Hat Commercial
Linux" It was the first Linux distribution to use the RPM Package Manager as its packaging format, and
over time has served as the starting point for several other distributions, such as Mandriva Linux and
Yellow Dog Linux.

Since 2003, Red Hat has discontinued the Red Hat Linux line in favor of Red Hat Enterprise Linux
(RHEL) for enterprise environments. Fedora, developed by the community-supported Fedora Project
and sponsored by Red Hat, is the free version best suited for the home environment. Red Hat Linux 9,
the final release, hit its official end-of-life on 2004-04-30, although updates were published for it
through 2006 by the Fedora Legacy project until that shut down in early 2007.

Release dates drawn from announcements on comp.os.linux.announce. Version names are chosen as to
be cognitively related to the prior release, yet not related in the same way as the release before that.
• 1.0 (Mother's Day), November 3, 1994 (Linux 1.2.8)
• 1.1 (Mother's Day+0.1), August 1, 1995 (Linux 1.2.11)
• 2.0, September 20, 1995 (Linux 1.2.13-2)
• 2.1, November 23, 1995 (Linux 1.2.13)
• 3.0.3 (Picasso), May 1, 1996 - first release supporting DEC Alpha
• 4.0 (Colgate), October 3, 1996 (Linux 2.0.18) - first release supporting SPARC
• 4.1 (Vanderbilt), February 3, 1997 (Linux 2.0.27)
• 4.2 (Biltmore), May 19, 1997 (Linux 2.0.30-2)
• 5.0 (Hurricane), December 1, 1997 (Linux 2.0.32-2)
• 5.1 (Manhattan), May 22, 1998 (Linux 2.0.34-0.6)
• 5.2 (Apollo), November 2, 1998 (Linux 2.0.36-0.7)
• 6.0 (Hedwig), April 26, 1999 (Linux 2.2.5-15)
• 6.1 (Cartman), October 4, 1999 (Linux 2.2.12-20)
• 6.2 (Zoot), April 3, 2000 (Linux 2.2.14-5.0)
• 7 (Guinness), September 25, 2000 (this release is labeled "7" not "7.0") (Linux 2.2.16-22)
• 7.1 (Seawolf), April 16, 2001 (Linux 2.4.2-2)
• 7.2 (Enigma), October 22, 2001 (Linux 2.4.7-10, Linux 2.4.9-21smp)
• 7.3 (Valhalla), May 6, 2002 (Linux 2.4.18-3)
• 8.0 (Psyche), September 30, 2002 (Linux 2.4.18-14)
• 9 (Shrike), March 31, 2003 (Linux 2.4.20-8) (this release is labeled "9" not "9.0")
The Fedora and Red Hat Projects were merged on September 22, 2003.
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389 Directory Server- Red Hat

The 389 Directory Server (previously Fedora Directory Server) is an LDAP
(Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) server developed by Red Hat, as part Debian
of Red Hat's community-supported Fedora Project. 389 Directory Server is OpenLogo
identical to the Red Hat Directory Server, just rebranded. The name 389 is
derived from the port number for LDAP.

While 389 Directory Server is freely distributable under the terms of the GPL,
Red Hat is also offering a commercial version, Red Hat Directory Server, on a
subscription basis. A paid subscription will include added features like Image via Wikipedia
certified stable builds, customer service, and technical support.

389 Directory Server is being built on top of Fedora, but supports many operating systems including
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 and later, Debian, Solaris 8 and later, and HP-UX 11i.
More at -

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Aurora SPARC Linux

Aurora SPARC Linux is an operating system, based on Fedora
Core, for SPARC-based computers. Aurora was originally created after Sun UltraSPARC II
Red Hat dropped support for the SPARC architecture after Red Hat Microprocessor
Linux 6.2.

The name derives from the internal Sun codename for the
SPARCStation 5 chassis.

Since Aurora is derived from Fedora, and most of its developers are
located in the US, it only maintains packages legally distributable in Image via Wikipedia
the United States.

• Aurora contains special utilities that are specific to the SPARC hardware line, such as audioctl,
lssbus, silo.
• While SPARC has supported 64-bit processing since the ULTRA series, the SPARC
distribution uses a 32-bit kernel.
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BLAG Linux

BLAG Linux and GNU is a Linux distribution made

by the Brixton Linux Action Group. Fedora Linux, wallpaper by INALGNU
Image by inalgnu via Flickr
BLAG is a single-CD distro with applications desktop
users "expect" from a desktop including multimedia, graphics, desktop internet applications and more.
BLAG also includes a collection of server packages. BLAG is based on Fedora plus updates, adds apps
from Dag, Dries, Freshrpms, NewRPMS, and includes custom packages.

The first public release of BLAG was 22 October 2002. The latest stable release, BLAG90001, is based
on Fedora 9, and was released 21 July 2008.
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Berry Linux

Berry Linux is a Live CD Linux distribution that has English and

Japanese support. Berry Linux is based on and is compatible with aLiveCD
Fedora 11 packages. The distribution is primarily focused on use as
a Live CD, but it can also be installed to a live USB drive. Berry
Linux can be used to try out and showcase Linux, for educational
purposes, or as a rescue system, without the need to make changes
Image by trekkyandy via Flickr
to a hard disk. The current version is 0.97 2009.5.14 (May 14,
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C2Net- Internet Cryptography Company

C2Net was an Internet cryptography company founded by Sameer

Parekh, which was sold to Red Hat in 2000. It was best known for its Quantum cryptography
Stronghold secure webserver software.

C2Net started out as Community ConneXion, an Internet Privacy

Provider (sort of like an Internet Service Provider) providing customers
with anonymous Internet services, from dialup access to email accounts.
Community ConneXion implemented the first double-blind anonymous
mail forwarding service (aka nym server), as well as was the company
Image via Wikipedia
that commercialized the Anonymizer before selling it to Lance Cottrell's
Anonymizer, Inc..

After seeing a demand for an Apache-based SSL-capable web server, Sameer Parekh developed the first
version of Stronghold by plugging together Apache with SSLeay, Apache-SSL, and a commercially-
licensed RSAref. The product was wildly successful but the company was unwilling to compromise
security to get an export license for its products. Thus C2Net purchased UKWeb, an Apache-
consultancy in Leeds, which independently reengineered the Stronghold product (without RSAref) for
the international market. This made C2Net the first American company to be capable of providing
strong encryption solutions to a worldwide market.

Eventually C2Net hired the SSLeay developers Eric Young and Tim Hudson in Brisbane, Australia
to develop more encryption products. C2Net's relationship with RSA Data Security, Inc. was rocky
because C2Net was using the leaked version of their trade-secret encryption algorithim RC4, rather
than a version licensed from them directly. It was in fact this leaked version of RC4 that made it
possible to develop a full-strength version of Stronghold outside the United States. Eventually C2Net
and RSA Data Security, Inc. resolved their differences, and C2Net purchased a patent license for RSA
and a license to use the trade-secret RC4 within the United States. During merger negotiations between
RSA and C2Net, RSA hired C2Net's Australian team and set up their own overseas development effort
in Australia in order to produce the BSAFE-SSL product for worldwide sales. Other companies began to
emulate this development strategy and the United States government finally realized that the export
controls were no longer effective and effectively eliminated them.

After losing the Australian office, C2Net focused primarily on selling and supporting Stronghold and
hired a new CEO, Bill Rowzee. He brought the company back to profitability, and as the RSA patent was
due to expire in 2000, they shifted the company's strategy to focus primarily on support. Finally, they
sold the company to Red Hat in 2000.

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CentOS: Community ENTerprise Operating System.

CentOS is a community-supported, free and open source operating system

based on Red Hat Enterprise Linux. It exists to provide a free enterprise class CentOS
computing platform and strives to maintain 100% binary compatibility with
its upstream distribution. CentOS stands for Community ENTerprise
Operating System.

Structure Image via Wikipedia

Red Hat Enterprise Linux is available only through a paid subscription
service that provides access to software updates and varying levels of technical support. The product is
largely composed of software packages distributed under open source licenses, and the source code for
those packages is made public by Red Hat.

CentOS developers use Red Hat's source code to create a final product very similar to Red Hat
Enterprise Linux. Red Hat's branding and logos are changed because Red Hat does not allow them to be

CentOS is available free of charge. Technical support is primarily provided by the community via
official mailing lists, web forums, and chat rooms. The project is not affiliated with Red Hat and thus
receives no financial or logistical support from the company; instead, the CentOS Project relies on
donations from users and organizational sponsors.

CentOS supports the x86 architectures:
• x86 (32-bit)
• x86-64 (AMD's AMD64 and Intel's EM64T, 64-bit)
The following architectures were supported by CentOS up to version 4:
• IA-64 (Intel Itanium architecture, 64-bit) (beta support since CentOS 3)
• PowerPC/32 (Apple Macintosh and PowerMac running the G3 or G4 PowerPC processor)
(beta support since CentOS 3)
• IBM Mainframe (eServer zSeries and S/390) (not CentOS 5)
The following two architectures were supported or partially supported in CentOS but are not supported
• Alpha (CentOS 4 only)
• SPARC (beta support since CentOS 3)
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Commercial products based on Red Hat Enterprise Linux

• Asianux
a. Asianux 1.0 is based on Red Hat Red Hat 7 Linux Antique OS
Enterprise Linux 3. Image by cebuparadiseisland_com via Flickr
b. Asianux 2.0 is based on Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 4.
• Avaya
a. Avaya's Communication Manager VoIP-PBX software is based on Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 4.
• Check Point SecurePlatform
◦ Check Point SecurePlatform NG is based on Red Hat Linux 7.2
◦ Check Point SecurePlatform NGX is based on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3.0
◦ Check Point SecurePlatform 2.6 has kernel based on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.0
and user space based on RHEL 3
◦ Check Point SecurePlatform R70 is based on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.0
• Cisco
◦ Content Switching Module
◦ Global Site Selector
• Crossbeam Systems
◦ COS - operating system for C-series of appliances
◦ XOS - operating system for X-series of appliances
• Egenera cBlade - Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1
◦ Egenera BladeFrame OS 3.2 runs kernel 2.4.9−e.39
◦ Egenera BladeFrame OS 4.0 runs kernel 2.4.9−e.43
• F5 Networks BIG-IP runs Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 with kernel 2.4.
• Oracle Enterprise Linux
• Thales Computers is embedding Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 and 5 with its boards
products, small and HPC turn-key computers
• VMware ESX Server is VMware's enterprise-class virtualization platform. It contains two
parts: the VMkernel, a proprietary hypervisor, and a Service Console, which supports various
management interfaces. The Service Console is also known as the Console Operating System
(COS). The Service Console is based on following Red Hat products:
◦ ESX Server 2.x Service Console is based on Red Hat Linux 7.2
◦ ESX Server 3.0 Service Console is based on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3.0 Update 6.
◦ ESX Server 3.5 Service Console is based on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3.0 Update 8.
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Cygnus Solutions

Cygnus Solutions, originally Cygnus

Support, was founded in 1989 by John Michael Tiemann interviewed in Revolution
Gilmore, Michael Tiemann and David OS
Henkel-Wallace to provide commercial
support for free software. Its tagline was:
Making free software affordable.

For years, employees of Cygnus Solutions Image via Wikipedia

were the maintainers of several key GNU
software products, including the GNU Debugger and GNU Binutils (which included the GNU
Assembler and Linker). It was also a major contributor to the GCC project and drove the change in the
project's management from having a single gatekeeper to having an independent committee. Cygnus
developed BFD, and used it to help port GNU to many architectures, in a number of cases working
under non-disclosure to produce tools used for initial bringup of software for a new chip design.

Cygnus was also the original developer of Cygwin, a POSIX layer and the GNU toolkit port to the
Microsoft Windows operating system family, and of eCos, an embedded real-time operating system.

On November 15, 1999, Cygnus Solutions announced its merger with Red Hat, and ceased to exist as a
separate company in early 2000. As of 2007, a number of Cygnus employees continue to work for Red
Hat, including Tiemann, who serves as Red Hat's Vice President of Open Source Affairs, and formerly
served as CTO.

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Dogtail: Python Based GUI Testing Tool

Dogtail is an open source GUI testing tool and automation

framework written in Python. It uses accessibility technologies CPython
to communicate with desktop applications. Dogtail scripts are
written in Python. It makes use of the accessibility-related Image via Wikipedia
metadata to create an in-memory model of the application's
GUI elements.

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Fedora Legacy Project

The Fedora Legacy project was a community-supported open source

project to provide security and critical bug fix errata package updates for Image representing
versions of Red Hat Linux and Fedora Core no longer officially supported Fedora as depicted
by Red Hat. When it shut down, it was providing updates for Red Hat in Crunc...
Image via CrunchBase
Linux 7.3 and 9, and Fedora Core 3 and 4. Support for Fedora Core 1 and 2
were discontinued when Fedora Core 6 Test 2 was released. Fedora Legacy announced that they would
stop providing updates for Red Hat 7.3 and 9 by the end of 2006, and only focus on Fedora Core 3 and
4. Then, on December 31, 2006, the Fedora Legacy project was shut down.
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Fedora Project

The Fedora Project is a project sponsored by Red Hat to co-

ordinate the development of the Fedora operating system. Linux distribution
Founded on September 2003 as a result of a merger between
the Red Hat Linux (RHL) and old Fedora Linux projects. The
project consists of Red Hat employees, but in theory operates
Image via Wikipedia
When Red Hat Linux split Red Hat Linux to Red Hat Enterprise
Linux (RHEL) and the Fedora project, it left the existing small business and home users with some
uncertainty about what to do. Red Hat Professional Workstation was created at this same time with the
intention of filling the niche that RHL had once filled but it was created without a certain future. This
option quickly fell to the wayside for non-enterprise RHL users in favor of the Fedora Project. Recently
the Fedora community has been thriving, and the Fedora distribution has a reputation as being a fully-
open distribution that focuses on innovation and close work with upstream Linux communities.

Subprojects & Special interest groups

The Fedora Project consists of a number of smaller subprojects. As of December 2008, these
subprojects include:
• Fedora Engineering Steering Committee provides the day to day technical operations of the
Fedora Project.
• Fedora Documentation provides manuals, tutorials and reference materials to accompany
Fedora Project releases.
• Fedora Translation works to translate software, documentation and websites associated with
the Fedora Project.
• Fedora Marketing strives to increase the size of the Fedora Project user and developer
• Fedora Ambassadors represent the Fedora Project at various events.
• Fedora Artwork is responsible for creating a pleasing and consistent visual experience in
Fedora distributions.
• Fedora Infrastructure maintains those computer services upon with the Fedora Project
depends including mailing lists, the website and wiki, CVS repositories and the Extras build
• Fedora Distribution manages distributing Fedora on physical media.
• Fedora Websites aims to develop and maintain the Fedora Project formal websites and to
coordinate with community websites.
• Fedora Internationalization focuses on making Fedora work well for many international
• Fedora News is where news for the Fedora Project are collected, discussed, and disseminated.
In addition to the well-established projects, a number of special interest groups (SIGs) exist with the
Fedora Project. The groups have not yet met the criteria necessary for "project" status. As of February
2007, the list of Fedora SIGs included:
• Fedora Usability aims to increase the intuitiveness and accessibility of the Fedora Package.
• Fedora Education targets the education sector including teachers and students.
• Fedora Printing wishes to improve the printing experience on Fedora.
• Fedora Rendering is exploring ways to create a more pleasant user experience using
technologies such as OpenGL and Cairo.
• Fedora Bug Triage aims to manage workflow around bug reports.
• Stateless Linux is an "OS-wide initiative to ensure that Fedora computers can be set up as
replaceable appliances, with no important local state".
• Fedora Engineering has a number of SIGs aimed at packaging various type of applications
including games, VoIP, Scientific and Technical tools, Music and Media Production software
and applications written in languages such as mono, Perl, PHP, and Python.
• Fedora Astronomy aims to increase support for astronomers and astrophysicists in Fedora.
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Global File System (GFS)- Shared disk file system

In computing, the Global File System (GFS) is

a shared disk file system for Linux computer Servers designed for Linux

GFS and GFS2 differ from distributed file

systems (such as AFS, Coda, or InterMezzo)
because it allows all nodes to have direct
concurrent access to the same shared block
storage. In addition, GFS and GFS2 can also
be used as a local filesystem.

GFS has no disconnected operating-mode,

and no client or server roles. All nodes in a
Image via Wikipedia
GFS cluster function as peers. Using GFS in a
cluster requires hardware to allow access to
the shared storage, and a lock manager to control access to the storage. The lock manager is a separate
module and thus GFS and GFS2 can use the Distributed Lock Manager (DLM) for cluster
configurations and the "nolock" lock manager for local filesystems. Older versions of GFS also support
GULM, a server based lock manager which implements redundancy via failover.

GFS and GFS2 are free software, distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License.

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JBoss Application Server (or JBoss AS)

JBoss Application Server (or JBoss AS) is a free software/open-source Java

EE-based application server. Because it is Java-based, the JBoss application Duke, the Java
server operates cross-platform: usable on any operating system that Java Mascot, in the
supports. JBoss AS was developed by JBoss, now a division of Red Hat. waving pose.
JBoss AS 4.0, a Java EE 1.4 application server, features an embedded Apache
Tomcat 5.5 servlet container. It supports any Java Virtual Machine between
versions 1.4 and 1.5 . JBoss can run on numerous operating systems
including many POSIX platforms (like Linux, FreeBSD and Mac OS X),
Microsoft Windows and others, as long as a suitable JVM is present.
Image via Wikipedia
JBoss AS 4.2 also functions as a Java EE 1.4 application server, but deploys
Enterprise JavaBeans 3.0 by default. It requires the Java Development Kit version 5. Tomcat 6 comes
bundled with it.

JBoss AS 5.1, the current version as of 2009, operates as a Java EE 5 application server. It is a minor
update of the major release Jboss AS 5.0, which had been in development for 3+ years and is built on
top of a new JBoss microcontainer. Jboss AS 5.1 contains a preview of some elements from the not yet
released Java EE 6 specification.

Product features
• Clustering
• Failover (including sessions)
• Load balancing
• Distributed caching (using JBoss Cache, a standalone product)
• Distributed deployment (farming)
• Deployment API
• Management API
• Aspect-Oriented Programming (AOP) support
• JSP/Servlet 2.1/2.5 (Tomcat)
• JavaServer Faces 1.2 (Mojarra)
• Enterprise Java Beans versions 3 and 2.1
• JNDI (Java Naming and Directory Interface)
• Hibernate-integration (for persistence programming; JPA)
• JTA (Java Transaction API)
• Support for Java EE-Web Services like JAX-WS
• SAAJ (SOAP with Attachments API for Java)
• JMS (Java Message Service) integration
• JavaMail
• RMI-IIOP (JacORB, alias Java and CORBA)
• JAAS (Java Authentication and Authorization Service)
• JCA (Java Connector Architecture)-integration
• JACC (Java Authorization Contract for Containers)-integration
• Java Management Extensions
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JBoss Company

JBoss Company is a division of Red Hat. It

specializes in open-source middleware JBossScrShoot

The company profits from a service-based

business model. JBoss pioneered the
Professional Open Source business model
where the core developers of projects make a
living and offer their services. The project, as
an Open Source project, is developed and
supported by a network of programmers.

Marc Fleury started the JBoss project in 1999
in order to advance his middleware research
interests. JBoss Group, LLC was incorporated
Image via Wikipedia
in 2001 in Atlanta, Georgia. JBoss became a
corporation under the name JBoss, Inc. in
2004. It was a C corporation headquartered in Atlanta, GA which owned the copyright and trademarks
associated with JBoss.

In early 2006, Oracle Corporation, a major distributor of database software, had been looking to buy
JBoss Inc. for an estimated $400 million. The acquisition would have enabled Oracle to compete with
rivals BEA Systems and IBM in the middleware market (Oracle eventually acquired BEA in April of
2008). On April 10, 2006, however, Red Hat announced that they were buying JBoss for $420 million.
Red Hat and JBoss have since completed the acquisition.

JBoss Inc. provides a set of Java EE projects, including JBoss AS, Hibernate, Tomcat, JBoss ESB, jBPM,
JBoss Rules (formerly Drools), JBoss Cache, JGroups, JBoss Portal, JBoss Seam, JBoss RichFaces,
JBoss Transactions, and JBoss Messaging - all marketed under the JBoss Enterprise Middleware Suite
(JEMS) brand.

Its product list, known as the JBoss Enterprise Middleware Suite (JEMS) includes:
• JBoss application server - the JBoss application server
• JBoss Messaging - a message queuing system
• JBoss Web Server - a web server based on Apache Tomcat, supports Java (JSP, servlet), .Net
(ASP.NET), CGI, and php dynamic content technology.
• JBoss Plugin for Eclipse IDE
• JBoss Portal
• JBoss Developer Studio A non-free bundle of JBoss plugins and Eclipse
• JBoss Tools Free and open source JBoss plugins for Eclipse
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Jim Whitehurst

Jim Whitehurst is the Chief Executive Officer at Red

Hat. Prior to that, he was a Chief Operating Officer of Delta Air Lines
Delta Air Lines. Whitehurst was tapped by former Delta Lockheed Tristar on
CEO Gerald Grinstein to lead the airline out of final into...
bankruptcy. Before his appointment as COO of Delta,
Whitehurst served as Senior Vice President and Chief
Network and Planning Officer for the company.

Prior to joining Delta in 2002, he served as Vice President

and Director of The Boston Consulting Group and held
various management roles at its Chicago, Hong Kong,
Shanghai and Atlanta offices. Image by Jose P Isern Comas via Flickr

A native of Columbus, Georgia, Whitehurst graduated from Rice University in Houston, Texas, with a
bachelor's degree in Computer Science and Economics. He also attended Erlangen Nuremberg
University in Erlangen, Germany, holds a general course degree from the London School of Economics
and an MBA from Harvard Business School.

Whitehurst is married and has two children.

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LinuxTLE- Ubuntu Based Thai Linux Distribution

LinuxTLE (pronounced Linux talay) is a Thai Linux

distribution based on Ubuntu and developed by the Thailand Screenshot of kubuntu 8.
National Electronics and Computer Technology Center

TLE stands for Thai Language Extension, as it was originally a

Thai extension for Red Hat Linux. The pronunciation "talay" is
a homophone of the Thai word ทะเล (the sea).
Image via Wikipedia
LinuxTLE 9.0 is based on Ubuntu 7.10.

This is version of LinuxTLE

1. MaTEL 6.0 based on Mandrake Linux 6.0 launch June 1999
2. MaTEL 6.1 based on Mandrake Linux 6.0 launch September 1999
3. LinuxTLE 3.0 (First use LinuxTLE name) Code name:ตะรุเตา (Tarutao) based on Red Hat
Linux 6.2 launch 14 July 2000
4. LinuxTLE 4.0 Code name: (Similan) based on Redmond Linux launch 13 October 2001
5. LinuxTLE 4.1a Code name: (PhiPhi) based on Red Hat Linux 7.2 launch 14 March 2002
6. LinuxTLE 4.1r2 Code name: (PhiPhi) based on Red Hat Linux 7.3 launch March 2003
7. LinuxTLE 5.0 Code name: (Andaman) based on Red Hat Linux 8 launch March 2003
8. LinuxTLE 5.5 Code name: (Samila based on Fedora CORE 1 launch January 2004
9. LinuxTLE 7.0 Code name: (Waghor) based on LinuxTLE 5.5 launch December 2004
10. LinuxTLE 8.0 Code name: (Patong) based on Ubuntu 6.10 launch 27 February 2007
11. LinuxTLE 9.0 Code name: (Hua-Hin) based on Ubuntu 7.10 launch 8 February 2008 (New
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List of Red Hat Enterprise Linux Derivatives

(Ordered by popularity on DistroWatch)

• CentOS CAos Linux
• Scientific Linux
• StartCom Enterprise Linux
• GENtOS Linux (Not listed at DistroWatch)
• Fermi Linux, a.k.a. Fermi Scientific Linux, derived from
Scientific Linux Image via Wikipedia
• CAOS Linux (multiple lineage)
The following requests registration, with personal information and Agreements, but does not require
payment to download or update. Payment is required for Support.
• Oracle Enterprise Linux
The following derivatives have ceased production:
• Pie Box Enterprise Linux, no more operative as of 2009-08-01
• Lineox (free downloads still available)
• TaoLinux - 4.0 i386 Final Release Available on 2005-04-20; 3.0 Update 4 available on
2005-01-10, Ceased production on 2006-06-14. The web site includes instructions for
updating to CentOS for continued updates
• X/OS Linux - Ceased production in 2008. The web site includes instructions for updating to
CentOS for continued updates.
• White Box Enterprise Linux No formal announcement but no longer actively developed
The following appliance-oriented derivatives are also based on Red Hat Enterprise Linux
• Cisco Unified Communications Manager
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Major Acquisitions by Red Hat

Red Hat is an American computer software company based in Raleigh,

North Carolina. The company was founded in 1995, when ACC Image
Corporation—a company founded by Bob Young in 1993—and Red Hat representing
Image via CrunchBase
Linux—an operating system created by Marc Ewing—merged to form Red Red Hat as
Hat Software, and Young was appointed chief executive officer. Red Hat depicted in
Crun...gain in Wall Street
had its initial public offering on August 11, 1999; it was the eighth-biggest first-day
history. The company has acquired sixteen companies and made four divestments. Red Hat has not
released the financial details for most of these mergers and acquisitions.

Red Hat's first major acquisition was Delix Computer GmbH-Linux Div, the Linux operating system
division of Delix Computer, a German computer company, on July 30, 1999. Red Hat acquired Cygnus
Solutions, a company that provided commercial support for free software, on January 11, 2000.
Michael Tiemann, co-founder of Cygnus, served as the chief technical officer of Red Hat after the
acquisition. On June 5, 2006, Red Hat acquired open source middleware provider JBoss for $420
million and integrated it as its own division of Red Hat.

On December 14, 1998, Red Hat made its first divestment, in which parts of the company are sold to
another company, when Intel acquired an undisclosed minority stake. The next year, on March 9, 1999,
Compaq, IBM, and Novell each acquired undisclosed minority stakes in Red Hat. The company's
largest acquisition was Cygnus Solutions in January 2000 for $674 million. Red Hat made the most
acquisitions in 2000 with five: Cygnus Solutions, Bluecurve, Wirespeed Communications, Hell's
Kitchen Systems, and C2Net.

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Marc Ewing

Marc Ewing is the creator and originator of the Red Hat brand of
software, most notably the Red Hat range of Linux operating Red Hat Kickstart
system distributions. He was involved in the 86open project in the install

Ewing graduated from Carnegie Mellon University in 1992. While

at CMU, he was known to wear a red hat as he walked between Image by worldofnic via Flickr
classes. Ewing and co-founder Bob Young named their initial
software after the hat, and the name Red Hat stuck.
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Matthew J. Szulik - Chairman of Red Hat

Matthew J. Szulik - chairman of Red Hat, leader of some other

technology companies, such as Interleaf and MapInfo for more than 20 Image
years. Szulik had also held the titles of chief executive officer and president
Red Hatviaas
of Red Hat, but resigned from these positions on 2007-12-20.
depicted in
Szulik is passionate about improving the educational opportunities for students worldwide through
open source, and he is a spokesperson to industry, government, and education leaders on open source

Szulik is the Chairman of the Science and Technology Board for State of North Carolina's Economic
Development Board. He is past Chairman and an Executive Director of the North Carolina Electronics
and Information Technologies Association.

Szulik was recently recognized by CIO Magazine with its 20/20 Vision Award.

Szulik is a graduate of Saint Anselm College in New Hampshire.

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MetaMatrix is an U.S.-based technology company that

created the first true Enterprise Information Integration (EII) Matrix: Stay off the freeway
software product to deliver data services for service-oriented
architectures. Founded in 1998 as Quadrian and later renamed,
MetaMatrix has development offices in St. Louis and Boston,
and business offices in NY, Baltimore, Washington, DC, Boston,
and London. Image by kirk lau via Flickr

In June 2007, MetaMatrix was acquired by Red Hat for the purpose of enabling data integration within
SOA environments served by Red Hat’s JBoss middleware products.
Google Insights for Search

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Michael Tiemann

Michael Tiemann is Vice President of Open Source Affairs at Red Hat

Inc, as well as President of the Open Source Initiative. He previously GNU Compiler
was the Chief Technical Officer of Red Hat. He serves on a number of Collection
boards, including the Embedded Linux Consortium, the XMPP
Technical Advisory Board, the GNOME Foundation Advisory Board, the
Sahana Board and the Board of Directors of ActiveState Tool Corp.

He co-founded Cygnus Solutions in 1989. His programming

contributions to free software include authorship of the GNU C++
compiler and work on the GNU C compiler and the GNU Debugger.
Image via Wikipedia
Tiemann is featured in the 2001 documentary Revolution OS.

He earned a bachelor's degree from the Moore School of Engineering in 1986 at the University of

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Mugshot: Red Hat's social Networking Platform

Mugshot was a social networking website created by Red Hat.

Unlike most other social networking websites (which are concerned FrostWire 4.18
with advertising), it offered a desktop client and web widgets. Splash screen

Mugshot was meant to facilitate real-world interactions with

friends, and make one's normal computer use more social. It
provided the functionality of a social network aggregator. Image by Gubatron via Flickr
The software that ran the Mugshot site is free software, and most of the client code is distributed under
the terms of the GNU General Public License (GPL). Various parts of the server code are distributed
under the GPL, the Open Software License 3.0, the Apache License, and the MIT License, all of which
are free software licences.
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MythDora: OS for MythTV on Home Theatre PCs

MythDora is a specialized operating system based on

the current Fedora release and MythTV 0.21. Like The MythTV menu (default blue
KnoppMyth, MythDora is designed to simplify the theme) Taken fro...
installation of MythTV on a home theatre PC.
MythDora has since version 10.21 had Live CD

In addition to MythTV and its plugins, Mythdora

includes extra Linux packages that are necessary for
MythTV to run, and drivers for hardware commonly
encountered in machines intended to run MythTV. Image via Wikipedia
Also included in Mythdora are several video game
emulators, and extra tools and scripts. These aid with the initial configuration of the system and allow
the user to perform such tasks as rebooting the machine and backing up program data, directly through
the MythTV interface.
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Planet CCRMA: Collection of Red Hat Packages ( RPMs )

Planet CCRMA (pronounced karma) is a collection of Red Hat

packages ( RPMs ) to help set up and optimize a Red Hat-based Image
workstation for audio work. representing
Red Hatviaas
Overview depicted in
The entire environment, called Planet CCRMA, was developed and tested atCrun...
Stanford University and
made available to the public free-of-charge from a central repository — Planet CCRMA at Home The
Planet CCRMA repositories are maintained at CCRMA by Fernando Lopez-Lezcano.

Installing the packages, transforms a Linux workstation or server into a low-latency system for sound
and video production and distribution. The ALSA soundcard drivers and other applications are
provided without installation hassles and the low-latency is achieved by having applied the real-time
preemption patch to the Linux kernel.
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PostgreSQL - Object-Relational Database Management System (ORDBMS)

PostgreSQL is an object-relational database management system

(ORDBMS). It is released under a BSD-style license and is thus free PostgreSQL
and open source software. As with many other open source
programs, PostgreSQL is not controlled by any single company, but
has a global community of developers and companies to develop it.

Features & Functions

Functions allow blocks of code to be executed by the server.
Although these blocks can be written in SQL, the lack of basic
programming operations which existed prior to version 8.4, such
as branching and looping, has driven the adoption of other Image via Wikipedia
languages inside of functions. Some of the languages can even
execute inside of triggers. Functions in PostgreSQL can be written in the following languages:
• A built-in language called PL/pgSQL resembles Oracle's procedural language PL/SQL.
• Scripting languages are supported through PL/Lua, PL/LOLCODE, PL/Perl, plPHP, PL/
Python, PL/Ruby, PL/sh, PL/Tcl and PL/Scheme.
• Compiled languages C, C++, or Java (via PL/Java).
• The statistical language R through PL/R.
PostgreSQL supports row-returning functions, where the output of the function is a set of values which
can be treated much like a table within queries. Custom aggregates and window functions can also be

Functions can be defined to execute with the privileges of either the caller or the user who defined the
function. Functions are sometimes referred to as stored procedures, although there is a slight technical
distinction between the two.

PostgreSQL includes built-in support for B+-tree, hash, GiST and GiN indexes. In addition, user-
defined index methods can be created, although this is quite an involved process. Indexes in
PostgreSQL also support the following features:
• PostgreSQL is capable of scanning indexes backwards when needed; a separate index is never
needed to support ORDER BY field DESC.
• Expression indexes can be created with an index of the result of an expression or function,
instead of simply the value of a column.
• Partial indexes, which only index part of a table, can be created by adding a WHERE clause to
the end of the CREATE INDEX statement. This allows a smaller index to be created.
• The planner is capable of using multiple indexes together to satisfy complex queries, using
temporary in-memory bitmap index operations.
Triggers are events triggered by the action of SQL DML statements. For example, an INSERT statement
might activate a trigger that checked if the values of the statement were valid. Most triggers are only
activated by either INSERT or UPDATE statements.

Triggers are fully supported and can be attached to tables but not to views. Views can have rules,
though. Multiple triggers are fired in alphabetical order. In addition to calling functions written in the
native PL/PgSQL, triggers can also invoke functions written in other languages like PL/Perl.

PostgreSQL manages concurrency through a system known as Multi-Version Concurrency Control
(MVCC), which gives each user a "snapshot" of the database, allowing changes to be made without
being visible to other users until a transaction is committed. This largely eliminates the need for read
locks, and ensures the database maintains the ACID principles in an efficient manner.

Rules allow the "query tree" of an incoming query to be rewritten. One common usage is to implement
updatable views.

Data types
A wide variety of native data types are supported, including:
• Variable length arrays (including text and composite types) up to 1GB in total storage size.
• Arbitrary precision numerics
• Geometric primitives
• IPv4 and IPv6 addresses
• CIDR blocks and MAC addresses
• XML supporting Xpath queries (as of 8.3)
• UUID (as of 8.3)
In addition, users can create their own data types which can usually be made fully indexable via
PostgreSQL's GiST infrastructure. Examples of these are the geographic information system (GIS) data
types from the PostGIS project for PostgreSQL.

User-defined objects
New types of almost all objects inside the database can be created, including:
• Casts
• Conversions
• Data types
• Domains
• Functions, including aggregate functions
• Indexes
• Operators (existing ones can be overloaded)
• Procedural languages
Tables can be set to inherit their characteristics from a "parent" table. Data in child tables will appear
to exist in the parent tables, unless data is selected from the parent table using the ONLY keyword, i.e.
select * from ONLY PARENT_TABLE. Adding a column in the parent table will cause that column to
appear in the child table.

Inheritance can be used to implement table partitioning, using either triggers or rules to direct inserts
to the parent table into the proper child tables.

This feature is not fully supported yet—in particular, table constraints are not currently inheritable. As
of the 8.4 release, all check constraints and not-null constraints on a parent table are automatically
inherited by its children. Other types of constraints (unique, primary key, and foreign key constraints)
are not inherited.

Inheritance provides a way to map the features of generalization hierarchies depicted in Entity
Relationship Diagrams (ERD) directly into the PostgreSQL database.

Other features
• Referential integrity constraints including foreign key constraints, column constraints, and
row checks
• Views. Although native support for updateable views has not been implemented, the same
functionality can be achieved using the rules system.
• Inner, outer (full, left and right), and cross joins
• Sub-selects
◦ Correlated sub-queries
• Transactions
• Supports most of the major features of SQL:2008 standard unsupported supported <-- lead
to documentation for the next release of PostgreSQL, follow this link to find manuals for
already released versions of PostgreSQL
• Encrypted connections via SSL
• Binary and textual large-object storage
• Online backup
• Domains
• Tablespaces
• Savepoints
• Point-in-time recovery
• Two-phase commit
• TOAST (The Oversized-Attribute Storage Technique) is used to transparently store
large table attributes (such as big MIME attachments or XML messages) in a separate area,
with automatic compression.
• Regular expressions
• Common table expressions
• Geographic objects via PostGIS. GPL.
• Shortest-Path-Algorithms with pgRouting using PostGIS. GPL.
• Full text search via Tsearch2 and OpenFTS. (As of version 8.3, Tsearch2 is included in core
• Some synchronous multi-master derivatives or extensions exist, including
◦ pgcluster (BSD license)
◦ Postgres-R (in early stages of development)
• Several asynchronous master/slave replication packages, including
◦ Londiste (BSD license)
◦ Slony-I (BSD license)
◦ Mammoth Replicator. (BSD license, formerly proprietary)
◦ Bucardo
• There are proxy (middleware) tools that enable replication, failover or load management and
balancing for PostgreSQL:
◦ PGPool-II.
◦ Sequoia available for a number of different server besides PostgreSQL.
As of 2008 PostgreSQL has received the following awards:
• 1999 LinuxWorld Editor's Choice Award for Best Database
• 2000 Linux Journal Editors' Choice Awards for Best Database
• 2002 Linux New Media Editors Choice Award for Best Database
• 2003 Linux Journal Editors' Choice Awards for Best Database
• 2004 Linux New Media Award For Best Database
• 2004 Linux Journal Editors' Choice Awards for Best Database
• 2004 ArsTechnica Best Server Application Award
• 2005 Linux Journal Editors' Choice Awards for Best Database
• 2006 Linux Journal Editors' Choice Awards for Best Database
• 2008 Product of the Year, Database Tool
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Qumranet, Inc is an enterprise software company offering a

desktop virtualization platform based on hosted desktops in Windows XP Running On Linux
Kernel-based Virtual Machines (KVM) on servers, linked Image by paradoxperfect via Flickr
with their proprietary SPICE protocol. The company is also
the creator, maintainer and global sponsor of the KVM open source hypervisor.

Key executives
• Benny Schnaider, Co-Founder, Chief Executive Officer and Director
• Rami Tamir, Co-Founder, President and Director
• Moshe Bar Ph.D. Co-Founder and Chief Technology Officer
• Giora Yaron Ph.D, Co-Founder and Chairman of the Board
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RPM Package Manager

RPM Package Manager is a package management system. The

name RPM refers to two things: a software package file format, RPM Package Manager
and software packaged in this format. RPM was intended
primarily for Linux distributions; the file format RPM is the
baseline package format of the Linux Standard Base.

Originally developed by Red Hat for Red Hat Linux, RPM is Image via Wikipedia
now used by many Linux distributions. It has also been ported
to some other operating systems, such as Novell NetWare (as of version 6.5 SP3) and IBM's AIX as of
version 4.

Originally standing for "Red Hat Package Manager", RPM now stands for "RPM Package Manager",
which is a recursive acronym.

Package managers have many advantages over relying on manual installation such as:
• They present a uniform, clean way for users to install and remove programs with a single
• There are many popular interfaces, both command-line and graphical.
• Non-interactive installation makes it easy to automate.
RPM also has a few advantages over some other package managers:
• It is the Linux (LSB) standard format.
• It is popular: the typical rpm repository (the place where the packages are made available
publicly) contains thousands of free applications.
• RPM packages can be cryptographically verified with GPG and MD5
• Original source archive(s) (e.g. .tar.gz, .tar.bz2) are included in SRPMs, making verification
easier (for security-critical packages like OpenSSH it is possible to check with md5sum that
the sources were not modified).
• PatchRPMs and DeltaRPMs, the RPM equivalent of a patch file, can incrementally update
RPM-installed software without needing the original package.
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Red Flag Linux

Red Flag Linux is a Chinese Linux distribution. Red Flag's

logo is Tux carrying a prominent red flag. X.

The current executive president of Red Flag Software is Jia


Red Flag Linux 6.0 was published on September 29, 2007. Image via Wikipedia
Version 6.0 is based on the Linux distribution Asianux 3.0,
which was released on September 22, 2007. It includes Linux, KDE 3.5.7 and X.Org 7.2.

Red Flag Linux Desktop 6.0 is intended to be a comprehensive desktop operating system and has some
major improvements concerning installation, hardware, and multimedia support, as well as desktop

Red Flag Software Co., Ltd. (Red Flag Software) is focused on the development and marketing of Linux-
based operating systems and application software on multiple platforms for the constantly growing
base of Chinese technology users. Their goal is "Creating Incentives for Networking Life." The company
will continue to develop a modern management pattern called the "Red Flag Way." This is client driven
customization based on their business model involving free software.

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Red Hat Network

Red Hat Network (abbreviated to RHN) is a system operated by Red

Hat that makes updates, patches, and bug fixes of packages included within Image
Red Hat Linux and Red Hat Enterprise Linux available to subscribers. Also representing
Image viaas
Red Hat CrunchBase
RHN offers several other features including provisioning and monitoring
of systems. depicted in
Users of these operating systems can then invoke the up2date or yum program to download and install
updates from RHN. The updates portion of RHN is akin to other types of automatic system
maintenance tools such as Microsoft Update for Microsoft Windows operating systems. The system
requires a subscription to allow access to updates. In Fedora, updates are provided by Red Hat's free
yum and Advanced Packaging Tool repositories.

On June 18, 2008 Red Hat CEO Jim Whitehurst announced the plans for RHN to be open-sourced.
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Red Hat Certification Program

The Red Hat Certification Program is Red

Hat's professional certification program for GAR certificate original lowres
Red Hat and general Linux related skills Image by Uncle Jerry in Golden Valley, AZ via Flickr
such as system administration on Red Hat
Enterprise Linux.

The tests are hands-on and involve troubleshooting, installation, and system administration. There are
no multiple-choice questions, and everything is done on a live system. Often there is more than one way
to configure a service or troubleshoot a problem, and the exam focuses on the end results, not the
process that was taken to achieve that result.

The most common and well-known Red Hat certification is the Red Hat Certified Engineer.

• Red Hat Certified Technician
The entry-level Red Hat Certified Technician (RHCT) certification focuses on Linux in a
networked environment. The test is performance-based on competency on live systems and
an ability to configure network and security services under servers running Red Hat.
• Red Hat Certified Engineer
The Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE) program expands the RHCT with a focus on services
and security.
• Red Hat Certified Security Specialist
The Red Hat Certified Security Specialist (RHCSS). This certification includes two
endorsement exams from the RHCA plus a Security-Enhanced Linux exam. It has been
offered since 2005-10-13.
• Red Hat Certified Datacenter Specialist
The Red Hat Certified Datacenter Specialist (RHCDS) has three of the five RHCA
endorsements and specializes in system deployment, virtualization, and clustering and
includes a class on the Red Hat Directory Server.
• Red Hat Certified Architect
The Red Hat Certified Architect (RHCA) requires an additional five endorsements to the
RHCE that adds an enterprise-level focus. From clustering to deploying systems, these five
exams ensure the student can deploy systems at the Enterprise level. Red Hat offers a four-
day class for each course that can include the exam on the fifth day.
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Red Hat Cluster Suite

The Red Hat Cluster Suite includes software to create a high availability
and load balancing cluster, it currently does not contain functionality for Image
distributed computing (see below). representing
Red Hatviaas
High Availability Cluster depicted in
A Red Hat cluster suite when configured for high availability attempts to ensure service availability by
monitoring other nodes of the cluster. All nodes of the cluster must agree on their configuration and
shared services state before the cluster is considered Quorate and services are able to be started.

The primary form of communicating node status is via a network device (commonly Ethernet),
although in the case of possible network failure, quorum can be decided through secondary methods
such as shared storage or multicast.

Software services, filesystems and network status can be monitored and controlled by the cluster suite,
services and resources can be failed over to other network nodes in case of failure.

The Cluster suite forcibly terminates a cluster node's access to services or resources to ensure the node
and data is in a known state. The node is terminated by removing power or access to the shared storage.

Service locking and control is guaranteed through fencing and STONITH, more recent versions of Red
Hat use a distributed lock manager (DLM), to allow fine grained locking and no single point of failure.
Earlier versions of the cluster suite relied on GULM (Grand Unified Lock Manager) which could be
clustered, but still presented a point of failure) if the nodes acting as gulm servers were to fail. GULM as
a locking manager is available but deprecated in Red Hat Cluster Suite 5.

Technical Details
• Support for up to 128 nodes ( 16 on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 and 4)
• NFS (Unix) /CIFS (Windows)/GFS (Multiple Operating systems) File system failover support
• Service failover support
• Fully shared storage subsystem
• Comprehensive Data Integrity
• SCSI and Fibre Channel support
Load balancing Cluster
Red Hat adapted the Piranha load balancing software to allow for transparent load balancing and
failover between servers. The application being balanced does not require special configuration to be
balanced, instead a Red Hat Enterprise Linux server with the load balancer configured, intercepts and
routes traffic based on metrics/rules set on the load balancer.

Red Hat Enterprise Linux- Overview

Red Hat Enterprise Linux is a Linux distribution produced by Red Hat

and targeted toward the commercial market, including mainframes. Red Image
Hat commits to supporting each version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux for 7 representing
Red Hat as
depicted in
years after its release. All of Red Hat's official support, all of Red Hat's
training and the Red Hat Certification Program center is on the Red Hat Image via CrunchBase
Enterprise Linux platform. Red Hat Enterprise Linux is often abbreviated
to RHEL, although Red Hat is now attempting to discourage this.

New versions of Red Hat Enterprise Linux are released every 18 to 24 months. When Red Hat releases a
new version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, customers may upgrade to the new version at no additional
charge as long as they are in possession of a current subscription (i.e. the subscription term has not yet

Red Hat's first Enterprise offering (Red Hat Linux 6.2E) essentially consisted of a version of Red Hat
Linux 6.2 with different support levels, and without separate engineering.

The first version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux to bear the name originally came onto the market as "Red
Hat Linux Advanced Server". In 2003 Red Hat rebranded Red Hat Linux Advanced Server to "Red Hat
Enterprise Linux AS", and added two more variants, Red Hat Enterprise Linux ES and Red Hat
Enterprise Linux WS.

Verbatim copying and redistribution of the entire Red Hat Enterprise Linux distribution is not
permitted due to trademark restrictions. However, there are several redistributions of Red Hat
Enterprise Linux minus trademarked features (such as logos and the name).

Relationship to free or community distributions

Originally, Red Hat based Red Hat Enterprise Linux on Red Hat Linux, but using a much more
conservative release cycle. Later versions leveraged technologies from Fedora which is a community
distribution and project that Red Hat sponsors. Roughly every third version of Red Hat Linux (RHL) or
Fedora forms the basis for a version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, thus:
• Red Hat Linux 6.2 Red Hat Linux 6.2E
• Red Hat Linux 7.2 → Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1
• Red Hat Linux 9 → Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3
• Fedora Core 3 → Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4
• Fedora Core 6 → Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5
• Fedora 11 → Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 (planned for release in the first quarter of 2010)
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Robert "Bob" Young

Robert "Bob" Young is an entrepreneur who made a fortune from Red

Hat software. He was born in Ancaster, Ontario, Canada. He received a Image
Bachelor of the Arts from Victoria College at the University of Toronto. representing Lulu
as depicted in
He created the ACC Corporation which merged with Red Hat in 1995. From CrunchBase
the merger to 1999 Bob Young was Red Hat's CEO. After leaving Red Hat
he started Lulu, a self-publishing web-site that claims to be the world's
fastest-growing provider of print-on-demand books. He is Lulu's CEO. Image via CrunchBase

Young also co-founded Linux Journal in 1994, and in 2003, he purchased the Hamilton Tiger-Cats, a
Canadian Football League franchise.

In 2006 Young established the Lulu Blooker Prize, a book prize for books that began as blogs. He
launched the prize partly as a means of promoting Lulu.
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Scientific Linux

Scientific Linux is a free operating system (a Linux distribution), co-

developed by Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and the European Scientific
Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), and which aims to be 100% Linux logo
compatible with and based on Red Hat Enterprise Linux.

This product is derived from the free & open source software made available Image via Wikipedia
by Red Hat, Inc., but is not produced, maintained or supported by Red Hat.
Specifically, this product is built from the source code for Red Hat Enterprise Linux versions, under the
terms and conditions of Red Hat Enterprise Linux's EULA and the GNU General Public License.
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Virtual Machine Manager

Virtual Machine Manager is an application to manage virtual

machines. Fedora Core 6 Desktop
This screenshot was
Features take...
Virtual Machine Manager allows users to:
• Create, edit, start and stop VMs.
• View and control of each VMs console
• See performance & utilization statistics for each VM Image via Wikipedia
• View all running VMs and hosts and their live performance
& resource utilization statistics.
• Use KVM, Xen or QEMU virtual machines, running either locally or remotely.
Distributions including Virtual Machine Manager
Virtual Machine Manager is included as 'virt-manager' package in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5, Fedora
since version 6, Mandriva Linux since release 2008.0 , Ubuntu 8.04 and above and Debian Lenny. The
package is also present in the Gentoo tree.
Anaconda is the installer for Red Hat Linux and Fedora. It is written in Python and C, with a graphical
frontend using PyGTK and a text frontend using python-newt. A kickstart file can be used to
automatically configure the installation, allowing users to run it with minimal supervision.

Anaconda installer is used by RHEL, Fedora and a number of other projects, Anaconda offers a text-
mode and GUI mode, so users can install on a wide range of systems.

Anacondas are lizard-eating snakes (similar to pythons), and the Caldera installation program was
called "Lizard", hence the name.
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Yellow Dog Linux (YDL)- OS for Power Architecture computers.

Yellow Dog Linux, also YDL, is a free and open source operating
system for Power Architecture computers. Developed by Fixstars This image is a
(formerly known as Terra Soft), Yellow Dog Linux was first released in candidate for speedy
1999 for the Apple Macintosh. The most recent version, version 6.2, was deletion....
released on 29 June 2009.

Yellow Dog Linux is sold by Fixstars and also markets Sony PlayStation 3
consoles, IBM workstations, and servers with Yellow Dog Linux pre- Image via Wikipedia
installed. As is the case with most other Linux distribution vendors, a
portion of the revenue from the sale of these boxed distributions goes
toward development of the Linux operating system and applications, the results of which are made
available as source code under various free and open source licenses.

Yellow Dog Linux is also the pre-installed operating system in Sony's Cell-based high performance
computing node, Zego.
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Yellowdog Updater, Modified (YUM)

The Yellowdog Updater, Modified (YUM) is an open-source

command-line package-management utility for RPM- Slackware 12.
compatible Linux operating systems and has been released
under the GNU General Public License. It was developed by
Seth Vidal and a group of volunteer programmers. Though yum
has a command-line interface, several other tools provide
graphical user interfaces to yum functionality.
Image via Wikipedia

As of 2009 Seth Vidal works for Red Hat, and a number of other
Red Hat programmers are involved in the development of yum.

As a full rewrite of its predecessor tool, Yellowdog Updater (YUP), yum evolved primarily in order to
update and manage Red Hat Linux systems used at the Duke University department of Physics. Since
then, it has been adopted by Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Fedora, CentOS, and many other RPM-based
Linux distributions, including Yellow Dog Linux itself, where it has replaced the original YUP utility.

System administrators can automate software updates using yum-updatesd, the yum-updateonboot
package, the yum-cron package, or PackageKit.

Yum's XML repository, built with input from many other developers, quickly became the standard for
RPM-based repositories. Besides the distributions that use Yum directly, SUSE Linux 10.1 adds support
for Yum repositories in YaST, and the openSUSE Build Service repositories are exclusively Yum-based.

Yum Website-

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