EMBEDDED SYSTEMS INTRODUCTION

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By:Sagar Patel

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OUT LINE

• Embedded Systems. • Real time Systems. • Operating Systems.

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Embedded System

• An embedded system is combination of computer hardware and software which is dedicated to particular application or product. Embedded system is embedded as a subsystem in a larger system which may or may not be a computer system.

“Embedded Systems are the electronics systems that contain a microprocessor or a Mu,but we do not think as computers-the computer is hidden or embedded in the systems.”
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Some Interesting Examples of Embedded systems:

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Product: Sonicare Elite toothbrush. Microprocessor:8-bit

Has a Programmable Speed Control ,Timer &charge gauge.

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Product: vendo vue 40vending machine Microprocessor: Two 16-bir Hitachi H8/300H Processors A robot hand dispenses items

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Product: NASA's Twin Mars Rovers.
Microprocessor: Radiation Hardened 20Mhz Power Pc. Commercial Real-Time OS Software and OS was developed during Flight To mars and Downloaded using a Radio link.
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Product:Rsdiant systems Point-ofsale(POS)Terminal Microprocessor: Intel X86 Celeron Os:windows XP Embedded

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Product: Dresser Wayne Ovation iX Gas Pump.
Microprocessor: Marvel Xscale (ARM) Os: Windows CE
Display video ads & is networked to gas station's back office computer systemes.also has remote maintenance features.
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Product: Bernina Artista 200 Sewing Machine

Microprocessor: Marvel Strong (ARM) Os:windows CE Can Download New images from the internet and sew them.

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It’s Different
• Single –functioned
-Executes a Signal Program ,Repeatedly

• Tightly-Constrained
-Low Cost,Memory,etc.. -small Size(bytes)

• Low Power

-Battery Power Devices -Increases systems cost in wall powered devices

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It’s Different
• Dedicated Systems -Predefined functionality -Programmability rarely used • Reactive -Continually reacts to change in the system’s Environment.

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What is a Real-Time Systems?
• A System is called real-time:
-whenever we need to quantitatively express in order to describe its behavior. - After temperature exceeds 500 degrees coolant shower must start within 100m sec. • characteristics: -Every real-time task is associated with some time constraints, Deadline. -Logical correctness of results and time at which they are produced.
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Types Of Real-Time Systems
• A tasks have deadlines associated with them. • A classification based on consequence of a failure: -Hard real-time systems. -Soft real-time systems. -Firm real-time systems.

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Hard Real-Time systems
• If a deadline is not met:
-The systems is said to have failed.

• Many hard real-time system are safety-critical
-Failure can cause severe damage(loss of life) -No fail-safe state. - Safety though increased reliability

• Examples: -Atomic Reactor Control -Aircraft control -Medical Equipments

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By:Sagar Patel

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Firm real-time systems
• It define is missed occasionally
-systems dose not fail -result produced by task after deadline are rejected. - “Late answer are wrong answer.” Examples: -video played on computer.

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Soft Real-time systems
• The usefulness of a result degrades after its deadline, thereby degrading the system's quality of service.

• Soft real-time systems are typically used where there is some issue of concurrent access and the need to keep a number of connected systems up to date with changing situations.
Examples: - software that maintains and updates the flight plans for commercial airliners.

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Introduction to Embedded System I/O Architectures

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Other Classification of ES
• Small Scale Embedded Systems. – Use single 8 bit or 16 bit microcontroller – Little hardware and software complexity – Embedded software IDE is specific to processor – Software has to fit in given memory – Power consumption is limited

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Medium scale embedded system
– Single or few 16 bit, 32 bit microprocessor

– DSP or ARM is used
– Both hardware and software complexities – C,C++, Visual C++, Java is popular for prog.

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Large scale embedded system
– Enormous hardware and software complexities – Several processors/controllers are used – FPGA, DSP, DSC, IP core on VLSI chip, ASIC is used – Hardware software or operating systems codesign is required – Some critical functions are implemented in the hardware (instead of software) to achieve speed – Development tools available are costly – Needs team work for development
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Operating Systems For Embedded
• Many of the components of the embedded systems are integrated on to a single chip. This concept is known as System on Chip (SOC) design. Examples : 8051 projects, PIC uc based projects.

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List of OS for Embedded Systems
• • • Symbian OS iOS (a subset of Mac OS X) Embedded Linux – Maemo based on Debian deployed on Nokia's Nokia 770, N800 and N810 Internet Tablets. – MeeGo merger of M – oblin and Maemo – webOS from Palm, Inc., later Hewlett-Packard via acquisition, and most recently at LG Electronics through acquisition from Hewlett-Packard[4] – OpenZaurus – Ångström distribution – Familiar Linux – Android Inferno (distributed OS originally from Bell Labs) PenPoint OS PEN/GEOS on HP OmniGo 100 and 120 PVOS Palm OS from Palm, Inc; now spun off as PalmSource Windows CE, from Microsoft – Pocket PC from Microsoft, a variant of Windows CE. – Windows Mobile from Microsoft, a variant of Windows CE. – Windows Phone from Microsoft, DIP DOS on Atari Portfolio MS-DOS on Poqet PC, HP 95LX, HP 100LX, HP 200LX, HP 1000CX, HP OmniGo 700LX Newton OS on Apple Newton Messagepad Magic Cap NetBSD Plan 9 from Bell Labs

• • • • • •

• • • • • •

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Why an OS at all?
• Same reasons why we need one for a traditional computer. • Not all services are needed for any device. Large variety of requirements and environments:
•Critical applications with high functionality (medical application, space shuttle,..) •Critical applications with small functionality (ABS, pace marker…) •Not very critical applications with varying functionality (PDA,Phone,Smart Card microwave often, …)

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Why is a desktop OS not suited?
• Monolithic kernel is too feature reach. • Monolithic kernel is not modular, fault-tolerant, configurable, modifiable, … . • Takes too much space. • Not power optimized. • Not designed for mission-critical applications.

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• Windows XP Embedded.

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Windows 7 Embedded

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QNX 4 RIOS
• The QNX 4 RTOS is developed by QNX Software Systems Ltd. for the applications in consumer electronics, telecommunications, automotive systems, medical instrumentation which need high reliability, superior performance, sophisticated functionality, and massive scalability.

• PlatformsIntel 8088, x86, MIPS, PowerPC, SH4,ARM, StrongARM, Xscale
• A number of design innovations were developed for QNX 4 RTOS to deliver the full performance of the hardware.
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QNX 4 RIOS

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Embedded Linux
• Linux has become popular on embedded devices—especially consumer gadgets, telecom routers and switches, Internet appliances and automotive applications.

• It is easy to slim down the operating environment by removing utility programs, tools, and other system services that are not needed in an embedded environment. • It is more encouraging that the Linux code is widely available portable to any processor. • Linux doesn't require the user to pay license fees or royalties— particularly important to developers of consumer electronics, who have narrow margins.

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Embedded Linux

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Windows CE
• Windows CE is first introduced in the Handheld PC (H/PC) set of products in November 1996. • Microsoft Windows CE (now officially known as Windows Embedded Compact and previously also known as Windows Embedded CE • Several advantages for Windows CE includes a subset of the Win32, low overhead device driver model and built-in power management. • The application of Windows CE includes consumer electronics like handheld PC, Auto PC, video game player and digital camera, and industrial products like barcode reader and programmable logic controllers.

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Windows CE

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Programming language in embedded
• • • • • Assembly. Embedded C. Embedded Bascom Java Embedded Pascal

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