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JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

CHAPTER 6: WAVE

  • 6.1 Understanding Waves

    • 1. Motion of Waves

A wave front is a line or plane on which the vibration of every points on it are in phase

same

and are at the………….(same/different) position from the source of the water.

circular

....

  • 2. When we use a fingertip to touch the surface of water repeatedly, ……

(circular/plane)

wavefronts are produced.

  • 3. Types of waves There are 2 t ypes of waves :-

    • (a) Transverse ………………. wave Longitud inal

    • (b) wave

……………….

  • 4. Transverse wave (i). Transverse wave is a wave in which the vibration of particles in the medium is

perpendicular

at ………………

..

(parallel/perpendicular) to the direction of propagation of the wave.

JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave CHAPTER 6: WAVE 6.1 Understanding

A

A

 

B

B

JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave CHAPTER 6: WAVE 6.1 Understanding

crest

A = … ……………….(crest / compression)

trough

B = …………………

..

(rarefaction /trough)

(ii). Example of transverse wave:

Water wave

i. …………………………………… ..

Light wave

ii…………………………………… ...

Electromagnetic wave

iii…………………………………… ..

  • 5. Longitudinal waves

(i) A longitudinal is a wave in which the vibration of particles in the medium is

parallel

……………………….(parallel / proportional) to the direction of propagation

of wave. P P Q Q
of wave.
P
P
Q
Q

sound wave

(ii) Example of longitudinal wave:………………………… ..

compression

P = …………………

rarefaction

Q = …………………

(crest

/ compression)

(rarefaction

/ trough)

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JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

Amplitude, Period and Frequency of a Wave

A B C
A
B
C
A C B
A
C
B
JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave Amplitude, Period and Frequency of

Figure 6.20

the position of the object where is no resultant force acts on the objec t.

  • 1. Equilibrium position is …………………………………………………………….

  • 2. One complete oscillation of the pendulum occurs when the pendulum bob moves from

A-B-C-B-A

………… ............

the time taken to complete an oscillation

  • 3. The period, T of a vibrating s ystem is …………………………………………… ...

the number of complete oscillations

  • 4. Frequenc y, f is ……………………………………………………

Hertz (Hz)

The S.I. unit is …………… ..

 

1

n

f

=

or

f

=

 

T

t

freeze waves patterns on the screen

  • 5. Stroboscope is use to …………………………………… .. Stroboscope

frequency = number of slits x rotation frequency of stroboscope

or

f = np

  • 6. Wave speed

If the wavelength of the wave is λ , the waves move forward a distance of f x λ

per second. Therefore, the speed of waves, v

v = f λ

Question 3

Question 3

In an experiment , Lim observes that a simple

In an experiment , Lim observes that a simple

pendulum completes 30 ascillations in 48.0

pendulum completes 30 ascillations in 48.0

Question 2

Question 2

A child on a swing makes 20 complete swings in

A child on a swing makes 20 complete swings in

seconds. What is

seconds. What is

2

the 30 30 period of oscillation?

the period of oscillation?

seconds. What is the frequency of the

seconds. What is the frequency of the

The frequenc y of oscillation?

The frequenc y of oscillation?

oscillation?

oscillation?

Frequency, f

Frequency, f

The number of complete oscillations per

second.

The S.I. unit is Hertz (Hz)

 

The number of complete oscillations per

f

=

1

or

f

= n

second.

T

t

The S.I. unit is Hertz (Hz)

JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

0 0 Exercise 6.1
0
0
Exercise 6.1
JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave 0 0 Exercise 6.1 1.

1.

Figure 6.10

A

  • (a) The wavelength of the wave in the diagram above is given by letter ……….

D

  • (b) The amplitude of the wave in the diagram above is given b y letter …………

2.

Indicate the interval which represents one full wavelength.

JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave 0 0 Exercise 6.1 1.

Figure 6.11

Answer: ……………………

AE,

CG, BF,

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JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

Exercise 6.11

  • 1. In an experiment , Lim observes that a simple pendulum completes 30 oscillations in

15.0 seconds. What is

  • (a) the frequency of oscillation?

  • (b) the period of oscillation?

Answer:

  • (a) f = 30/15 = 2 Hz

  • (b) T = 1/f

=

1/2

= 0.5 s

  • 2. Displacement/cm

JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave Exercise 6.11 1. In an

5

0

2

4

6

-5

JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave Exercise 6.11 1. In an

Time/s

Calculate the frequenc y of the given wave above.

Answer : T = 4s

f =

1

T

Hz

= 0.25 Hz

Displacement/cm

JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave Exercise 6.11 1. In an
 

5

 

0

2

4

6

 

-5

 
JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave Exercise 6.11 1. In an

Distance/cm

  • 3. Based in the displacement-distance graph of a wave, find

    • (a) the amplitude

    • (b) the wavelength of the wave

Answer:

(a)

amplitude

= 5 cm

  • (b) Wavelength = 4 cm

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JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

  • 4. A transverse wave is found to have a displacement of 4 cm from a trough to a crest, a frequency of 12 Hz, and a distance of 5 cm from a crest to the nearest trough. Determine the amplitude, period, wavelength and speed of such a wave. Answer:

Amplitude: 4/2 = 2 cm

Wavelength: 5 x2 = 10 cm

Speed: v= f x λ = 120 cm s -1

  • 5. A girl moves a long slinky spring at a frequenc y of 3 Hz to produce a transverse wave with a wavelength of 0.5 m. What is the wave speed of the waves along the slink y spring? Answer:

v = f x λ

= 3 x 0.5

= 1.5 m s -1 6.0 cm •
= 1.5 m s -1
6.0 cm
  • 6. The figure shows a wavefront pattern in a ripple tank produced by a vibrating dipper at frequency of 5 Hz. What is the wave speed? Answer:

f

= 5 Hz

λ

= 6.0/4

= 1.5 cm

V = f λ

 

= 7.5 cm s -1

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JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

4.5 cm •
4.5 cm
  • 7. The figure shows a wavefront pattern in a ripple tank produced by a vibrating dipper at frequency of 5 Hz. What is the wave speed?

Answer:

f

= 5 Hz

λ

= 4.5/3

= 1.5 cm

V = f λ

= 7.5 cm s -1

JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave 4.5 cm • 7. The

20 cm (5λ)

  • 8. A mechanical stroboscope has 12 slits and rotates at a frequency 5 Hz. The stroboscope is used to observe water waves. The observer notes there are 6 successive bright bands at a distance 20 cm. Calculate the speed of the water waves. Answer:

f = n p

λ

= 20/5

 

=

4 cm

= 12 x 5

V = f λ

= 60 Hz

=

60 x 4

= 240 cm s -1

JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave 4.5 cm • 7. The
  • 9. The figure shows a loudspeaker produces a sound with a frequenc y 300 Hz. Calculate

    • (a) the wavelength.

    • (b) the speed of sound

Answer:

(a)

0.6 m

(b)

V = f λ

= 300 x 0.6

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JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

= 180 m s -1

  • 10. A given wave travels at a speed of 2 x 10 5 ms -1 . If the frequency of the wave is 1000 Hz,

Calculate the wavelength

Answer:

λ= v/f 2 x 10 5 = = 200 m 1000
λ= v/f
2
x
10 5
=
= 200 m
1000
  • 11. (a) Base on the figure determine,

(i)

the amplitude

(ii)

the wave length

  • (b) What is the frequency of the sound if the speed of sound is 330 ms -1 .

Answer:

  • (a) (i) 2 cm

(ii) 50 cm

  • (b) f = v / λ

=

330 / 0.5

=

660 Hz

Damping

JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave = 180 m s 10.

Figure 6.12

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JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

process whereby oscillations die down due to a loss of energy to

friction forces.

  • 1. Damping is a ………………………………………………………………………… ..

decreases

  • 2. When a system is damped , the amplitude of the of oscillation ……………. (decreases/increases) slowl y until the s ystem stops oscillating.

  • 3. Damping is usually caused by :-

    • (i) external frictional forces such as air resistance

(ii) internal forces , where energy is lost from the system in form of heat.

Resonans

the phenomenon when the oscilating system is driven at its natural frequency by

A resonance is ……………………………………………………

a periodic force.

…………………………………………………………………………… ..

Experiment to s how a phenomenon of resonance

           
E A B D
E

E

 

A

A
A
 

B

 

D

JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave process whereby oscillations die down

C

Figure 6.12: Barton’s pendulum

Pendulum B and D are the same length. When pendulum B oscilates, all the pendulum start

to oscilate. But pendulum B and D have the same length, so there have same natural

maximum

frequency. So pendulum D will oscilates with ……………(maximum/minimum) amplitude.

  • 6.2 ANALYSING REFRLECTION OF WAVES

    • 1. Reflection of a wave occurs when a wave strikes an obstacle such as barrier, plane reflector, mirror and wall.

    • 2. The reflection of waves obeys the law of reflection :

(i) The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection.

(ii)The incident wave, the reflected wave and the normal line in the same plane.

………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………… ..

  • 3. When the reflection of a wave happened , the wavelength ,λ, the frequenc y, f and the

do not change

speed, v …………………….but the direction of propagation of the wave changes.

8

JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

Exercise 6.2

Complete the diagram below.

JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave Exercise 6.2 Complete the diagram

Reflection of water waves

1. Show the pattern of the reflection of the water waves

(a)

(b)

 
(a) (b)
 
(a) (b)
(a) (b)

(b)

2. Show the dark and bright pattern on the screen below.

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JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

Water waves Ripple tank Screen B D B D B D B
Water waves
Ripple tank
Screen
B
D
B
D
B
D
B

B = Bright

D = Dark

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JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

Reflection of Light Wave

  • 1. When rays of light strike an y surface the ra ys are reflected , unless the surface is

black, when the y are absorbed.

  • 2. A plane mirror is a flat smooth surface which reflects regularly most of the light

falling on it.

JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave Reflection of Light Wave 1.

Figure 6.20

  • 1. The characteristics of reflection of light waves:

    • (i) The size of the image = the size of the object

…………………………………………………………………

(ii) The distance of the image = the distance of the object

  • 2. The bright and dark bands of the wave pattern formed on the screen because the

convex lens

surface of water acts as lenses. The crest of water waves similar with …………….

concave lens

(concave lens /convex lens) and the trough of water waves similar with ……

(concave lens /convex lens).

Exercise 6.21

The diagram shows a single ray of light being directed at a plane mirror. What are the

angles of incidence and reflection? (a) o 35 Answer: i =r = 90 – 55 =
angles of incidence and reflection?
(a)
o
35
Answer:
i =r =
90 – 55 = 35 o

(b)

  • i = r = 70 o

2.

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JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave Reflection of Light Wave 1.

JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

R eflection of sound w aves

  • 1. The sound waves is reflected by walls and ceilings of buildings, unborn bab y or sea bed.

JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave R eflection of sound w

Figure 6.21

  • 2. The sound wave from the stopwatch experience a reflection after striking the smooth

wall.

equal to

The angle of incidence, i is ………….(equal to /more than/less than) the angle of

reflection, r.

Exercise 6.22

JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave R eflection of sound w
  • 1. The diagram shows a student shouting in front of a school building. Calculate the time taken by the student to hear the echo of his voice. [The speed of sound in air is 340 m s -1 ]

Answer:

2.

2s =

v x t

,

t =

2(50)

340

= 0.29 s

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JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

If an echo is heard one second after the holler and reflects off can yon walls which are a

distance of 170 meters awa y, then what is the speed of the wave?

Answer:

2s = v x t

6.3

= 2 (170)

1

= 340 m s -1

ANALYSING REFRACTION OF WAVES

change of direction of the propagation of waves

1. The refraction of water waves occur when there is a ………………………………………

traveling from a medium to another medium due

to a change of speed.

JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave If an echo is heard

Figure 6.30

frequency

  • 1. speed, wavelength and direction.

After refraction, the wave has the same …………………………. but a different

………………………….

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JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

Refraction of Water Waves

Deep shallow
Deep
shallow

Figure 6.31

towards

1. When the water wave travel from a deep area, the direction of the waves is refracted ………

(towards/away from) the normal.

  • 2. The angle of incidence, i of the water is ………. (greater / smaller) than the angle of

greater

refraction, r

  • 3. wavelength ,λ, the speed and the direction of propagation

When the refraction of a wave happened , the frequency, f does not change but the

of

the wave change.

……………… ................................................................................

JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave Refraction of Water Waves Deep

Exercise 6.3

On each of the following diagram, draw the refracted wave b y the perspex.

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)

Refraction of w ater wave of the sea w ater

14
14
JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave Refraction of Water Waves Deep

JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

Figure 6.32

  • 1. Wh y are the speed and wavelength of waves in the middle of the sea almost uniform?

The depth of water in the middle of the sea is almost uniform.

………………………………………………………………………………………

  • 2. What do you think would happen to the wave speed if the depth of water is increased?

The speed increase

………………………… ..

iniincreaseincreasedecre

.

  • 3. Wh y do the distances between the wavefronts decrease as the waves approach the beach?

On approaching the beach, the depth of water decreases. The speed of waves decrese and the

wavelength is decreased.

……………………………………………………………………………………………

  • 4. Wh y is the water in the bay stationar y compared to the water at the cape?

The depth of water varies across the area of the bay

The energy of the water wave spreads to a wider area as compared to the region near the cape

……………………………………………………………………………………………

The amplitude of the water wave near the bay is low and hence the water at the bay is

comparatively still

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JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

Refraction of Light Waves

normal air glass block
normal
air
glass block

Figure 6.33

  • 1. When a ray propagates from one medium to an optically denser medium, the ra y refracts

towards

…………………(towards / away from) the normal.

decreases

  • 2. The speed of light …………….(decreases/increases) as it propagates in the glass block, causing it to alter the direction of propagation.

Refraction of Sound Waves

JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave Refraction of Light Waves normal

Figure 6.34 (a)

JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave Refraction of Light Waves normal

Figure 6.34 (b)

1.

cold

Sound waves travel faster in warm air than in ……

..

(cold/hot) air.

  • 2. On a hot day, the hot surface of the Earth causes the layer of air near the surface to be

warmer

………… (warmer/cooler)

refracted

  • 3. This causes sound waves to be …………. (reflected/refracted) away from the Earth.

slower

  • 4. On a cool night, the sound waves travel ………….(slower/faster)in the cooler la yer of air near the surface of the Earth than in the upper, warmer air. The waves are refracted towards the Earth.

night

Hence, sound can be heard over a longer distance on a cold ……….(night/day) compared

with a hot da y.

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JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

  • 6.4 ANALYSING DIFFRACTION OF WAVES

the spreading out of waves when

  • 1. Diffraction of waves is …… ..........................................................................

they move through a gap or around an obstacle.

  • 2. The effect of diffraction is obvious only if

small

  • (a) the size of the aperture or obstacle is …………

large

..

small / large enough.

  • (b) the wavelength is ……………… small /large enough.

speed

  • 3. Frequenc y, wavelength and …………………of waves do not change

direction of propagation and the pattern

  • 4. The …………………………………………. of the waves are change

Exercise 6.4

Complete the diagrams below by drawing the wavefronts to show the diffraction of water waves.

(a) Narrow gap ≤ λ

(b) Wider gap > λ

(c)Wider obstacle

 
(a) Narrow gap ≤ λ (b) Wider gap > λ (c)Wider obstacle
(a) Narrow gap ≤ λ (b) Wider gap > λ (c)Wider obstacle
(a) Narrow gap ≤ λ (b) Wider gap > λ (c)Wider obstacle

From the diagram above,

narrower

(d) Narrow obstacle

  • 1. The ………….(narrower/wider) the gap, the more the waves spread out.

little

  • 2. When the gap is much wider than the wavelength of the waves, there is ………….

(little/more) diffraction.
(little/more) diffraction.
JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave 6.4 ANALYSING DIFFRACTION OF WAVES

17

JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

Diffraction of light waves

JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave Diffraction of light waves Figure

Figure 6.40 Difraction of light through a single slit

Bright at the centre

JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave Diffraction of light waves Figure
JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave Diffraction of light waves Figure
JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave Diffraction of light waves Figure

Figure 6.41 (a)

Figure 6.1(b)

Narrow slit

Wide slit

  • 1. The diffraction of light waves occur when the light waves pass through a small slit or small pin hole.

  • 2. The wider middle bright fringe shows that the light waves diffracted after pass

through a narrow slit.

less

  • 3. If the slit becomes wider, diffraction pattern becomes …………

..

(less/more) distint.

Diffraction of sound w aves

JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave Diffraction of light waves Figure

Figure 6.42

  • 1. A listener is requested to stand on the other side of the corner of the wall so that the radio is be yond his vision.

  • 2. The listener is able to hear the sound of the radio although it is behind the wall.

  • 3. It is because the sound of the radio spreads around the corner of the wall due to diffraction of sound.

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JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

6.5 ANALYSING INTERFERENCE WAVE

  • 1. Interference is the superposition of two waves from two coherent sources meet

  • 2. Two waves are in coherent if they are of the same ………………….and ………………,

frequency

amplitude

  • 3. There are two t ypes of interference :

(a) Constructive interference

(b) Desctructive interference

Principle of superposition

When two waves overlap, the resultant displacement is

  • 1. The principle of superposition states that………………………………………………………

equal to the sum of the displacements of the individual wave

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

the crests or troughs of both waves coincide to produce

  • 2. Constructive interference occurs when…………………………………………………

a wave with maximum amplitude.

the crests of one wave coincide with the trough of

  • 3. Destructive interference occurs when………………………………………………………

the other waves to produce a wave with zero amplitude

  • 4. (a)

Constructive Interference

 

+

 

=

   

Before superposition

During superposition

 

Figure 6.50 (a)

 

+

 

=

   

Before superposition

Figure 6.50 (b)

During superposition

19

JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

When the vertical displacemet of two waves are in the same direction as in Figure 6.50

constructive

(a) and (b), …………………………(constructive/destructive) interference occurs.

  • (b) Destructive Interference

JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave When the vertical displacemet of
+ =
+
=

Before superposition

JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave When the vertical displacemet of

During superposition

Figure 6.51

If a wave with a positive displacement meets another with a negative displacement of

the same magnitude, they cancel each other and the combined amplitude becomes

zero.

……….

Inteference of Water Waves

JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave When the vertical displacemet of

Figure 6.52: Inteference of water waves

  • 1. At the points of constructive interference, the water moves up and down with a ………

large

…(large/ small)

amplitude

antinodes

  • 2. The points of constructive interferences, is known as …………

nodes

..

(

nodes/antinodes)

The points of destructive interferences is known as ………………(nodes/antinodes).

20

JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

Exercise 6.5 B C A
Exercise 6.5
B
C
A

Figure 6.53

  • 1. Figure 6.53 shows the interference pattern of water by two coherent sources of water

waves. constructive (i) At point A, two crest meet resulting in ……………………… .. interference. constructive (ii)
waves.
constructive
(i)
At point A, two crest meet resulting in ………………………
..
interference.
constructive
(ii)
At point B, two through meet resulting in …………………… interference.
..
destructive
(iii)
At point C, a crest meet a trough resulting in …………………interference.
2
..
Complete the table below.
Before superposition
During
After superposition
superposition
2a
3a

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JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

  • 3. Categorize each labeled position as being a position where either constructive or destructive interference occurs.

JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave 3. Categorize each labeled position

A , B

  • (a) Constructive interference:…………………….

C,D, E, F (b) Destructive interference:…………………… .. .
C,D, E, F
(b)
Destructive interference:…………………… ..
.
  • 4. The diagram shows a full-scale interference pattern of a ripple tank experiment 2 seconds after vibration started. The crests of the water ripples are repsented b y the dark lines.

    • (a) P is between two crest. Therefore, P represent a trough

What is represented at P at this instant?

………………………………………………………….

  • (b) What is the frequency of the vibrator?

The diagram shows crests from each source. In 2 seconds, 4 crests are produced.

4

…………………………………………………………

Thus the frequency is

2

= 2 Hz

  • 5. Two dot vibrators whoch has a separation of 5.0 cm are placed on a water surface in a ripple tank. The distance between two adjacent antinodes on a screen is 3.0 cm. If the perpendicular distance between the dot vibrators and the screen is 10.0 cm, what is the wavelength of the water waves?

Answer:

λ =

5.0 x3.0

10.0

= 1.5 cm

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JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

Inteference of Light Waves

JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave Inteference of Light Waves 1.
  • 1. Interference occur when at least two coherent light waves overlap or superpose

  • 2. The superposition of 2 ra ys produces:

constructive interference

(i) ………………………………………

destructive interference.

(ii)………………………………………

bright

  • 3. When constructive occurs there will be a ………… (bright/dark) fringe

dark

When destructive occurs there will be a …………(bright/dark) fringe

  • 4. The wavelength of monochromatic light can be found by the formula:

JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave Inteference of Light Waves 1.

is the distance between the slits

a = ………………………………………………… ..

is the distance between consecutive bright or dark fringes

x = ………………………………………………….

is the distance between the double-slit and the screen

D = ………………………………………………….

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JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

Exercise 6.51

  • 1. In a Young’s double slit experiment, a light of wavelength 633 nm passes through

two slit which are 0.5 mm apart. Vertical fringes are observed on a screen placed

4 m from the slits.

  • (i) Calculate the distance between two adjac ent bright fringes.

(ii)

What will happen to the distance between two adjacent bright fringes if

a light of shorter wavelength is used?

Answer:

  • (a) λ a

= 633 nm = 633 x 10 -9

= 0.5 mm = 0.5 x 10 -3 m

  • D = 4 m

(b)

− 9 633 10 x x 4 x = − 3 0.5 x 10 x =
9
633 10
x
x
4
x
=
− 3
0.5
x
10
x
= 5.064 mm

If λ is smaller, x will also be smaller. Therefore , the distance between two

adjacent bright fringes of light will smaller.

JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave Exercise 6.51 1. In a

14 mm

  • 2. The wavelength of light can be determined with a double-slit plate. The diagram above shows the pattern of interference fringes obtained in a Young’s double-slit experiment. The separation distance of the two slit is 0.20 mm and the distance between the screen and the double-slit plate is 4.0 m. Calculate the wavelength of the light used in the experiment. Answer: 6x = 14 mm

x = 2 mm = 2 x 10 -3 m

D = 3.0 m

a = 0.2 mm = 2 x 10 -4 m

λ =

2

x

10

4

x

2

x

10

3

4

=

1 x 10 -7 m

24

JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

Inteference of Sound Waves

JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave Inteference of Sound Waves The

The wavelength of sound wave can be found b y the formula:

JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave Inteference of Sound Waves The

distance between two loudspeakers

a = ………………………………………………… ..

distance between two consecutive loud places

x = ………………………………………………….

perpendicular distance between the speakers and

D = ………………………………………………….

the loud

Exercise 6.52

  • 1. Two loud speakers placed 2 m apart are connected to an audio signal generator that is adjusted to produce sound waves of frequency 550 Hz. The detection of loud and soft sounds as a person moves along a line is at 4.0 m from the loudspeakers. Calculate the

    • (a) wavelength

    • (b) speed

of the sound waves.

Answer:

 
  • (a) = 2 m

a

D =

4.0 m

2 x1.2

X =

= 0.6 m

 

4.0

  • (b) f = 550 Hz

 

V = f λ

= 550 x 0.6

= 330 m s -1

25

JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

  • 6.6 Analysing Sound Waves

    • 1. Sound waves are longitudinal wavces which require a medium for its propagation.

JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave 6.6 Analysing Sound Waves 1.

amplitude

  • 2. The loudness of the sound is depend to the …………………

JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave 6.6 Analysing Sound Waves 1.
JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave 6.6 Analysing Sound Waves 1.

frequency

  • 3. The pitch of the sound is depend to the …………………… ...

a phenomenon when a sound wave has been reflected off a

  • 4. Echo is ……………………………………………………………………

surface , and is heard after the original sound.

Application of Sound Waves

  • 1. Ultrasonic waves with frequencies above 20 kHz cannot be heard b y human ear.

  • 2. The ultrasonic ruler is used to measure the distance between itself and a target.

  • 3. The depth of sea water can be calculated using the formula :

Exercise 6.60

2d = v x t

  • 1. In an expedition to determine the depth of a freshwater lake using an ultrasonic ruler, a pulse of ultrasonic sound is generated and travels to the bottom of the lake and reflected b y it. The time taken b y the pulse to travel to the bottom of the lake and return to the ruler is 0.35 s. If the speed of sound in freshwater is 1482 m s-1, calculate the depth of the lake. Answer:

v = 1482 m s-1,

t = 0.35 s

2 d = v x t

d =

1482 x 0.35

= 259.35 m

2

26

JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

2.

Fill in the blank.

 

Field

Application

 

Medicine

Sound waves of high energy are directed

to the kidney stones to destroy them in the

cavity of the kidney.

Industr y

Sound waves of high energy are directed

to the metal to determine the stretch.

 
  • 6.7 Analysing Electromagnetic Waves

 

perpendicular

  • 1. The electric and magnetic field vibrate ………………

(perpendicular/parallel)

to

each other and to the direction of propagation.

  • 2. Properties of electromagnetic waves

Transverse waves

  • (i) Do not require a medium to propagate and can travel in a vacuum

(ii)

The waves travel at the speed of light, c = 3 x 10 8 ms -1

(iii)

(iv)

Undergo the same waves phenomenon : reflection, refraction, diffraction and

interference.

  • 2. Sources and applications of electromagnetic waves in daily life

Type of em wave

Source

 

Application

Radio waves

λ = 10 -1 - 10 5 m

Electrical oscillating

(a)

telecommunications

circuit

(b)

broadcasting : tv and radio

transmission

Microwave

λ = 10 -3 – 10 -1 m

Oscillating electrical

charge in a microwave

(a)

(b)

satellite transmissions

radar

transmitter

(c)

cooking

Infrared

λ = 10 -6 – 10 -3 m

Hot bodies, the sun and

(a)

(b)

night vision

thermal imaging and physiotherapy

fires

(c)

remote controls

Visible light

 

(a)

sight

λ = 10 -7 m

The sun, hot objects, light

(b)

photosynthesis in plants

bulbs, fluorescent tubes

(c)

photography

Ultraviolet

 

(a)

identification of counterfeit notes

radiation

Very hot objects, the sun,

(b)

production of vit-D

λ = 10 -9 – 10 -7 m

mercury vapor lamps

(c)

Sentrilisation to destroy germs

X-ra y

λ = 10 -11 – 10 -9 m

 

(a)

Radiotherapy

x-ray tubes

(b)

Detection of cracks in building

 

structures

   

(a)

Cancer treatment

Gamma rays

λ = 10 -14 – 10 -10

m

Radioactive subtances

(b)

(c)

Sterilisation of equipment

Pest control in agriculture

27

JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

Exercise 6.70

  • 1. The diagram below shows the pattern of spectrum electromagnetic. In the boxes

provided, write the names of the parts given .

Radiowave microwave gamma ra y x-ray visible ray infra-red ray ultraviolet ra y wavelength Gamma Ultra
Radiowave
microwave
gamma ra y
x-ray
visible ray infra-red ray
ultraviolet ra y
wavelength
Gamma
Ultra
Visible
X-ray
infrared
microwave
radiowave
ray
Violet
light
frequency
frequency
  • 2. Table 6.70 shows electromagnetic waves P, Q, R and S and their uses

Electromagnetic waves

Uses

P

Remote control

Q

Radar system

R

Photograph

S

Kill cancerous cells

Table 6.70

Identify P, Q, R and S

Answer:

P = Infra-red rays

Q = Microwaves

R = Visible light

S = Gamma rays

28

JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

Reinforcement Chapter 6

Part A : Objective Questions

JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave Reinforcement Chapter 6 Part A
  • 1. Calculate the frequenc y of the given wave above

    • A. 8 Hz.

    • B. 1/8 Hz

    • C. 4 Hz.

    • D. ¼ Hz

    • E. 12 Hz

  • 2. Which of the following is NOT a electromagnetic wave?

    • A. x-ra y.

    • B. Gamma ra y

    • C. water wave

    • D. microwave.

  • 3. Which of the following cannot travel through vacuum?

    • A. x-ra y

    • B. gamma ra y

    • C. sound wave

    • D. light wave.

  • JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave Reinforcement Chapter 6 Part A
    • 4. Based on the given diagram above calculate the wavelength.

      • A. 4 cm

      • B. 8 cm

      • C. 10 cm

      • D. 15 cm

      • E. 20 cm

    29

    JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide

    Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

    5. Wave length of given wave does NOT depend on.

    • A. velocity.

    • B. Frequenc y

    • C. Amplitude

    • D. Period.

    JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave 5. Wave length of given
    • 6. What is the phenomenon shown above?

      • A. reflection.

      • B. Refraction.

      • C. Interference.

    • 7. A given wave travels at a speed of 4 x 10 5 ms -1 . If the frequenc y of the wave is 1000 Hz,

    calculate the wavelength

    • A. 100 m

    • B. 200 m

    • C. 300 m

    • D. 400 m

    • E. 500 m

    • 8. Which of the following is a common characteristic of visible light, ultraviolet rays, infrared ra ys, gamma ra ys and X-ra ys?

      • A. Influenced by magnetic field.

      • B. Possess the same frequency.

      • C. Possess the same wavelength.

      • D. Possess the same velocity in vacuum .

  • 9. Which of the following electromagnetic waves are arranged in the order of increasing

  • wavelength.

    • A. Visible light, X-ra ys. Radio waves. Infrared waves.

    • B. X-rays. Visible light. Infrared waves .Radio waves.

    • C. Radio waves, X-ra ys. Visible light. Infrared waves.

    • 10. Which of the following waves cannot travel through vacuum?

      • A. Sound waves

      • B. X-rays

      • C. Radio waves

    30

    JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide

    Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

    Part B: Structured Questions

    JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave Part B: Structured Questions Figure

    Figure 1

    1.

    Figure 1 shows the use of sonar equipment to measure the depth of the sea.

    • (a) State the phenomenon of sound wave applied in sonar equipment.

    Reflection

    ……………….

    [1 mark]

    • (b) Sound waves with frequenc y of 6.0 x 10 5 Hz are used to determine the depth of

    the sea. [speed of sound in sea water = 1500 m s -1 ]

    • (i) What is the wavelength of the sound wave in sea water?

    (ii)

    λ =

    v

    f

    =

    1500

    6.0

    x

    10

    5

    = 2.5 x 10 -3 m

    [2 marks]

    If the time interval between the instant the sound wave is sent to the

    instant the echo is received is 1.5 s, what is the depth of the sea

    2.

    d =

    vt

    2

    =

    1500

    x1.5

    2

    =

    1125 m

    JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave Part B: Structured Questions Figure

    Figure 2

    [2 marks]

    A ping pong ball is held with a string and placed near a loudspeaker as shown

    in Figure 2

    The loudspeaker emits a low frequenc y sound and the ping-pong ball seems to

    vibrate to it.

    • (a) Explain how the sound from the loudspeaker produces vibration on the ping pong ball.

    31

    JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide

    Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

    The vibration of the loudspeaker moves the air molecules around it.

    The sound wave produced by the loudspeaker transfers energy to the ping

    pong ball and causes it to move

    • (b) What will happen to the vibration of the ping pong ball if the loudness emits

      • (i) a louder sound?

    The ping pong ball vibrates with greater amplitude

    (ii) a sound with a higher pitch?

    The ping pong ball vibrates with higher frequency.

    • (c) If the frequenc y of the sound is 50 Hz, calculate the wavelength of the sound produced. [Assume the speed of the sound in air in 350 ms -1 ]

    • 2. (a)

    λ =

    v

    f

    =

    350

    50

    =

    7 m

    Figure 3 shows two sets of ripple tanks used to stud y diffraction of waves.

    JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave The vibration of the loudspeaker

    Figure 3.1

    JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave The vibration of the loudspeaker

    Figure 3.2

    • (i) What is meant b y the diffraction of waves. Diffraction is the spreading out of waves when they move through a gap or around an obstacle

    (ii)

    Which of the two sets will show a bigger effect of diffraction. Explain

    your answer.

    The set shown in Figure 4.1 will show a bigger effect of diffraction. This is

    because the narrower the gap, the more the waves spread out.

    (iii)

    Redraw and complete Figure 3.1 and Figure 3.2 to show the between the

    two diffraction patterns.

    (iv)

    State the characteristic to the diffracted waves in terms of waves in terms

    of wavelength, frequency, speed and amplitude compared to the incident

    waves.

    • (a) Wavelength remains unchanged

    • (b) Frequency remains unchanged

    • (c) Speed remains unchanged

    • (d) Amplitude becomes smaller compared to the incident waves

    32

    JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide

    Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

    Part C: Essay

    1. Figure 3.0 shows the arrangement of the apparatus for an experiment to study a wave

    phenomenon.

    JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave Part C: Essay 1. Figure

    Figure 3.0

    Figure 3.1 shows the bright and dark bands of the waves pattern formed on the white

    paper when plane waves passes through the narrow and wide gaps.

    JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave Part C: Essay 1. Figure
    JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave Part C: Essay 1. Figure

    Narrow gap

    Wide gap

    Figure 3.1(a)

    Figure 3.1(b)

    • (a) Name the wave phenomenon shown in figure 1.2.

    Diffraction [1 mark] (b) (i) Explain how the dark and light bands are formed on the
    Diffraction
    [1 mark]
    (b) (i)
    Explain how the dark and light bands are formed on the white paper.
    [4 marks]
    Figure / Troughs
    Figure / Crests
    act as a concave
    act as a convex
    lens
    lens
    Figure / Every crests will
    converge the light, bright
    fringes are formed
    B
    D
    B
    D
    B
    D
    B

    Figure / Every troughs will

    diverge the light, dark fringes are

    formed

    33

    JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide

    Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

    (ii)

    Observe Figure 3.2(a) and (b). Compare the waves patterns and the wavelength of

    the waves before and after they pass through the gaps.

    Relate the size of the gaps, the waves patterns and the wavelengths to deduce a

    relevant physics concept.

    [5 marks]

    • a. In figure 3.1(a), size of the wavelength is the same as size of the gap // In figure 3.1(b), size of the gap is wider than size of the wavelength

    • b. In figure 3.1(a) and figure 3.1(b), size of the wavelengths are the same before and after they pass through the gaps.

    • c. The waves emerging from the narrow gap in figure 3.1(a) is circular wavefronts

    • d. The waves emerging from the wider gap is plane wavefronts

    • e. When a wave passes through a gap, the wave spreads. The narrower the gap the greater the spreading of the wave

    • (c) Figure 1.3 shows the seashore of a fishing village. During the rain y season, waves

    are big. One year the waves eroded the seashore, caused the jetty to collapse and

    damaged the fishermen’s boats.

    JPN Pahang Teacher ’s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave (ii) Observe Figure 3.2(a) and

    Figure 3.3

    To prevent similar damage in the future, the fishermen suggest building retaining walls

    and relocating the jetty.

    Make further suggestion of wa ys to help the fishermen solve their problems.

    You should use your knowledge of reflection, refraction and diffraction of waves to

    explain these suggestions, to include the following aspects.

    • (i) the design and structure of the retaining wall,

    (ii)

    the location of the new jetty

    (iii)

    the size or energ y of the waves

     

    [10 marks]

    Answer:

    • 1. Build slanting barrier to reduce speed of wave

    • 2. Build the rough barrier to reduce reflection of the waves

    • 3. Build the new jetty at the bay because the water is calm at the bay

    • 4. Build the small opening surround the bay because diffraction happens at the opening

    • 5. Build the barrier at the bay because the wave is spread according to the shape of the bay

    34