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Slovak Society of Chemical Engineering Institute of Chemical and Environmental Engineering Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava

PROCEEDINGS
33
rd

International Conference of Slovak Society of Chemical Engineering

Hotel Hutnk Tatransk Matliare, Slovakia May 22 26, 2006

Editors: J. Marko and V. tefuca

ISBN 80-227-2409-2

33rd International Conference of SSCHE May 2226, 2006, Tatransk e Matliare, Slovakia

Po-We-5, 063p.pdf

CONTROL OF A REACTOR-COLUMN RECYCLE PROCESS


Alojz Mszros, Peter Burian, Monika Bakoov, Lucia Pastorekova Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Department of Information Engineering and Process Control Radlinskho 9, 81237 Bratislava, Slovak Republic Tel: +421 2 52 49 52 69, Fax: +421 2 52 49 64 69 e-mail: alojz.meszaros@stuba.sk, peter.burian@stuba.sk, monika.bakosova@stuba.sk, lucia.pastorekova@stuba.sk Keywords: recycle system, recycle compensator, reactor-column system, adaptive control 1 INTRODUCTION

Systems including material recycle are common in chemical industry. The system of a chemical reactor and a separation plant is a typical example for a recycle process, where reactor effluent is first separated, than recycled back to the reactor. The overall dynamics of such units with material recycle can be very different from the dynamics of the units by themselves. Recycle can dramatically change the overall gain and the time constant of the units and as a result it causes instable behaviour, even the individual units are stable by themselves. The knowledge of such phenomena is important for the controller design, because their effects can endanger the plant safety. Recycle leads to a positive feedback effects. For example, increasing concentration of a chemical substance will increase the amount of this substance in the recycle stream and as a consequence it will reinforce the initial increase. Such phenomenon usually associated with recycle is called self-reinforcing mechanism. This positive feedback mostly increases plant time constant, because recycle leads to "accumulation" of the substance in some parts of the plant [Morud, 1996]. The effects of recycle streams on the dynamics of the global process have been studied, besides the essential works mentioned above, in several other papers. By changing the gain of the recycle process independently from the other process parameters, the open loop response can become slow, oscillating and even unstable [Luyben, 1993a,b,c]. Morud and Skogestad (1994, 1996) analyse the effects of different elements on the dynamics and illustrate that even for very simple and individual processes the global effect may be quite complicated to predict. To eliminate the effect of the recycle on the output response at the stage of control design, [Taiwo, 1986] introduces the recycle compensator. Model mismatch problems between the recycle loop and its compensating model can be overcome by extending the control design to adaptive or robust field. The aim of this paper is to give a view on dynamic behaviour of process with recycle in open and closed-loop feedback system. Simulation experiments have been carried out using the MATLAB Simulink packages on a simple non-linear model of chemical reactor and rectification column. To tune the overall process gain, an MIT rule based open-loop adaptive strategy is adopted and applied in the sense of a model reference adaptive system (MRAS) [Asrtm, 1989].

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THE RECYCLE EFFECT

Let us consider a simple liner system consisting of a forward path and a recycle unit as depicted in Fig. 1, where GM and GR stand for plant forward unit and recycle unit, respectively, u, d and y are the input, load disturbance and output, respectively [Mszros, 2004].

Fig. 1 - Simple open-loop process with recycle

Fig. 2 - Recycle system with closed loop control

Let the first object of our study be the recycle system in Fig. 1, assuming d=0. This can be described by the open loop transfer function (s being the derivation operator)
G S ( s) = GM y ( s) = u(s) 1 G M G R

(1)

Introduction of a feedback controller can significantly improve the recycle system performance and enlarge the stability region for recycle parameters design. A simple closed-loop control system for plant with recycle is depicted in Fig. 2, where GC stands for controller transfer function, while u, d, e and w designate the manipulated variable, disturbance, control error and set-point, respectively. The plant output (controlled) variable, y, is related to set-point according to the transfer function
GW = GC G S G M GC = 1 + GC G S 1 G M G R + G M GC

(2)

COMPENSATION OF RECYCLE

Negative effects of the recycle can be neutralized by adopting a recycle compensator [Taiwo, 1986], which acts according to the scheme in Fig. 3 where GS stands for the process with internal recycle, eq.(1), and GK for the compensator. Then, the transfer function of the compensated plant is
G ( s) = GS y(s) = u ( s) 1 + GS G K

(3)

If the compensator given by (3) is physically realizable and there are no modeling errors, the effect of recycle can be completely eliminated and the controller, GC, in Fig. 4 can be designed for the process without recycle. However, the exact theoretical performance of the system incorporating a recycle compensator can only be realized in practice when the model of the process in the recycle path is accurately known. Even for this situation, the desired performance of the control system is not guaranteed by conventional methods if the operating point changes by way of, for instance, the recycle flow rate changing.

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Fig. 3 - Recycle plant with compensator

Fig. 4 - Feedback control of the recycle plant with compensator

ADAPTIVE GAIN SCHEDULING FOR PLANTS WITH RECYCLE

It becomes obvious from the above analysis that a compensator alone, although its benefit is undoubted, can hardly cope with the recycle plant control problem. Model mismatch problems between the recycle loop and its compensating model can be overcome by extending the control design to adaptive field. To tune the overall process gain, an MIT rule based open-loop adaptive strategy is applied in the sense of model reference adaptive system [Asrtm, 1989]. The adaptive system structure is depicted in Fig. 5.

Fig. 5 - Block diagram of adaptive gain tuning Let KC be the only parameter of controller GC to be adjusted (single tuning knob), then the adaptive law, which requires the following cost function to be fulfilled
J (K C ) = 1 2 (t ) = min 2

(4)

assuming an adjustable adaptive gain, , is as follows


dK C J = (t ) = dt K C K C

(5)

Let G ( s ) = KG1 ( s ) stand for plant with recycle with accurately compensated dynamics and poorly compensated (unknown and changing) steady-state gain, K. We wish to maintain the overall plant gain at the desired value of Kref . It requires the reference model to be set as
G ref ( s ) = K ref G1 ( s )

(6)

Lets assume, for adaptive compensated recycle plant simulation analysis, the system configuration with first order lag units, compensator and overall transfer function.

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Considering proportional open-loop control in the sense of structure in Fig. 5 with adjustable proportional gain KC, then, the adaptive tuning law is as follows
dK C K = ' y ref = . y ref = ' dt K C K0

(7)

CASE OF STUDY NONLINEAR MODEL OF CHEMICAL REACTOR AND RECTIFICATION COLUMN

The investigated system consists of a chemical reactor and a distillation column as depicted in Fig. 6 [Luyben, 1993a,b,c]. Dynamic behaviour of such a plant, as a system with mass and heat transfer, depends on various, complex technological factors and can be identified only imposing several simplifying assumptions. The basic process is an irreversible, first-order reaction A B. It occurs in a single stirred-tank reactor. Fresh feed with flow rate, F0, and composition, x0, and a recycle stream from the top of the distillation column are fed to the reactor. Some of the reactant A is consumed. The reactor effluent is a mixture of A and B, and it is fed into a distillation column, which takes product B out the bottom and component A out the top. The distillate is recycled back to the reactor. The reactor effluent with flow rate nF and composition xF is fed into a distillation column. The column has 14 trays with feed introduced onto tray 1, which takes product B out the bottom and component A out the top. The feed is saturated liquid. Equimolal overflow and constant relative volality are assumed.
flow rate of the fresh feed, composition of the fresh feed, temperature of the fresh feed, flow rate of the coolant, input temperature of the coolant, output temperature of the coolant, flow rate of the reactor effluent, composition of the reactor effluent, temperature of the reactor effluent, flow rate of the distillate, composition of the distillate, flow rate of the bottoms stream, composition of the bottom stream

F0 x0 T0 FC TC0 TC F x T FD xD Fw xw

Fig. 6 - Reactor/distillation column process

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5.1

Model of the reactor An irreversible, first-order reaction occurs in the single stirred-tank reactor
k1 A B,

where k1 stands for reaction rate


k1 = k 0 e
E RT

(8)

The model of the process can be derived from the material and energy balance laws. Material balance:
F0 x 0 + A V V + FD x D = Fx + d [Vx] dt

(9)

Energy balance: Reactor effluent:


F0 c p T0 + FD c p TD = Fc p T + Ak [T Tc ] + V V r H + dVc p T dt

(10)

Coolant:
Fc c pc Tc 0 + Ak [T Tc ] = Fc c pc Tc + dVc c pc Tc dt

(11)

5.2

Model of the distillation column

The model of the column is derived from the material balance law. Condenser:
nv y1 = Dx D + d [H 0 x D ] dt d [H 1 x1 ] dt

(12)

1st tray:
n F x F + nV y 2 = nV y1 + n F x1 +

(13) (14)

y1 = f ( x1 )

ith tray:
n F xi 1 + nV y i +1 = nV y i + n F xi + y i = f ( xi )

d [H i xi ] dt

(15) (16)

Reboiler:
n F x n = nV y n +1 + n F x n +1 +

d [H n +1 x n +1 ] dt

(17)

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y n +1 = f (x n +1 )

(18)

A simulation schema in MATLAB SIMULINK environment was created in order to show the dynamics of the system with recycle (Fig. 7).

Fig. 7 - Simulation schema of the system of chemical reactor and distillation column 6 SIMULATION EXPERIMENTS

Simulation experiments were carried out for various values of dead time to describe the effect of time-delay on dynamics of the process. Transient process behaviour, as responses to stepwise changes in input coolant flow rate (change of + 3 cubic m per hour) is shown in (Fig. 8). The case of a large value of dead time results in a staircase-like or oscillating behaviour.
0.045 xw 0.04 0.035 0.03 0.025 0.02 0.015 0.01 0 3 min 3h 5h 10 h 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 as (h) 50

Fig. 8 - Influence of recycle loop time-delay onto process dynamics

Fig. 9 - Comparison of the response of the system with and without recycle

In order to demonstrate the effect of recycle on process dynamics, simulation experiments in form of transient responses were carried out and compared, see Fig. 9. It is transparent that the recycle modifies the time constant as well as the static gain of the overall system. 6.1 Process identification and compensator design

Process identification was carried out in order to obtain the linear model of the system with and without recycle. The transfer functions of the process with recycle, GS, and without recycle, GM, are as follows:

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GS = GM

0,00865

1,69s 2 + 1,32s + 1 0,003833 = 1,48s 2 + 2.2s + 1

(19) (20)

The transfer function of the recycle was obtained by comparing the systems (19) and (20)
GR = 3.8s + 3.06 s 2 + 0.9s + 1

(21)

The recycle compensator is to neutralize the negative effect of the recycle. Its effect can be shown on the linearized transfer function models. The modeling mismatch problem in recycle path can lead to 4 different cases, as follow: a) Ideal case: - the transfer function of the compensator is the same as the transfer function of the recycle: G K G R , this yields G = G M . Simulation was carried out for step change in the flow rate of coolant (Fig. 10).

Fig. 10 - Compensation of the recycle effect (case a)

Fig. 11 - Compensation of the recycle effect (case b)

b) G K G R : The time constant of the compensator is the same as the time constant of recycle, only the gain is changed - K R K K , R = K c) G K G R : The gain of the compensator is the same as the gain of recycle, only the time constant is changed - K K = K R , K R . The transient response reaches the same steady-state value, but it keeps oscillatory behaviour (Fig. 11). d) G K G R : - K K K R , K R , The response of system with recycle compensator is oscillating and fails to reach the same steady-state value additional correction of the recycle path transfer function is recommended. (Fig. 12).

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Fig. 12 Compensation of the recycle effect (case d) 6.2 Adaptive control of the reactor/column system

To demonstrate the behaviour of adaptive system with and without compensator, simulation experiments were carried out, with results depicted in Fig. 13. It is transparent that in presence of the compensator the proposed adaptive system exhibits more stable performance.

Fig. 13 Adaptive gain scheduling a comparison with and without compensator 7 CONCLUSION

The objective of this paper was to investigate stability and dynamic behaviour of the system with recycle, to design a compensator of recycle unit and qualify his effect on dynamics of the process, to design an adaptive gain scheduling for system with recycle without and with compensator, and verify the results on a non-linear system of reactor and distillation column. New strategy of compensation of the effects of recycle was designed as a combination of direct compensator and adaptive gain scheduling. Investigation of the process of chemical reactor, distillation column and recycle was carried out. After the creating of mathematical model of the system and choosing of control variables, design of compensator was carried out. Simulation experiments result, that compensator can compensate the effects recycle in a high degree, but cannot control the system with recycle by itself. For all that control was extended to adaptive fields. From the presented simulation experiments it can be concluded

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that by introduction of the correct compensator, the negative effect of recycle onto the overall system behaviour can be satisfactorily eliminated. Acknowledgements: The authors highly acknowledge the financial support of the Scientific Grant Agency of the Slovak Republic under grants No. 1/1046/04 and 1/3081/06. References ASTRM, K. J.; WITTENMARK B.: Adaptive Control. Addison-Wesley1989, LUYBEN, W.L.: Dynamics and control of recycle systems 1, 1993a, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res, 32, 466-475. LUYBEN, W.L.: Dynamics and control of recycle systems 2, 1993b, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res, 32, 476-486. LUYBEN, W.L.: Dynamics and control of recycle systems 3, 1993c, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res, 32, 1142-1153. MSZROS, A.; MIZSEY, P.; HORVTH, M.; FONYO, Z.: Dynamic analysis and control of recycle processes, 31th International Conference of SSCHE, 2004 MORUD, J.; SKOGESTAD S.: Effects of recycle on dynamics and control of chemical processing plants.1994, Computers Chem. Engng, 18, Suppl., S529-S534. TAIWO, O.; KREBS, V.: Robust control system design for plants with recycle, 1996, Chem. Eng. J., 61, 1-6. TAIWO, O.: The design of robust control systems for plants with recycle, Int. J. C., vol. 43, 1986, pp. 671-678.

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