2
zz
2
zz a bi a bi a
2
abi abi b
2
i
2
a
2
b
2
sa
2
b
2
z a bi
z a bi
Re
Im
0
a+bi
b
r
a
FI GURE 4
2 COMPL EX NUMBERS
FI GURE 3
Re
Im
0
bi
a
b
z=a+bi

z
=
a
@
+
b
@
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Thus, we can write any complex number in the form
where
The angle is called the argument of and we write . Note that is not
unique; any two arguments of differ by an integer multiple of .
EXAMPLE 4 Write the following numbers in polar form.
(a) (b)
SOLUTI ON
(a) We have and , so we can take .
Therefore, the polar form is
(b) Here we have and . Since lies in the
fourth quadrant, we take and
The numbers and are shown in Figure 5.
The polar form of complex numbers gives insight into multiplication and division. Let
be two complex numbers written in polar form. Then
Therefore, using the addition formulas for cosine and sine, we have
This formula says that to multiply two complex numbers we multiply the moduli and add
the arguments. (See Figure 6.)
A similar argument using the subtraction formulas for sine and cosine shows that to
divide two complex numbers we divide the moduli and subtract the arguments.
In particular, taking and , (and therefore and ), we have the fol
lowing, which is illustrated in Figure 7.
1
z
1
r
cos i sin . then z rcos i sin , If
2
1
0 z
2
z z
1
1
z
2
0
z
1
z
2
r
1
r
2
cos
1
2
i sin
1
2
z
1
z
2
r
1
r
2
cos
1
2
i sin
1
2
1
r
1
r
2
cos
1
cos
2
sin
1
sin
2
isin
1
cos
2
cos
1
sin
2
z
1
z
2
r
1
r
2
cos
1
i sin
1
cos
2
i sin
2
z
2
r
2
cos
2
i sin
2
z
1
r
1
cos
1
i sin
1
w z
w 2
cos
i sin
6
w tan 1s3
r
s3 1 2
z s2
cos
4
i sin
4 tan 1 r
s1
2
1
2
s2
w s3
i z 1 i
2 z
argz argz z
tan
b
a
and r
sa
2
b
2
z rcos i sin
z
Re
Im
0
3i
2
1+i
2
4
_
6
FI GURE 5
z
FI GURE 6
Re
Im
z z
+
z
Re
Im
0
r
z
_
1
r
1
z
FI GURE 7
COMPL EX NUMBERS 3
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EXAMPLE 5 Find the product of the complex numbers and in polar form.
SOLUTI ON From Example 4 we have
and
So, by Equation 1,
This is illustrated in Figure 8.
Repeated use of Formula 1 shows how to compute powers of a complex number. If
then
and
In general, we obtain the following result, which is named after the French mathematician
Abraham De Moivre (16671754).
De Moivres Theorem If and is a positive integer, then
This says that to take the nth power of a complex number we take the nth power of the
modulus and multiply the argument by n.
EXAMPLE 6 Find .
SOLUTI ON Since , it follows from Example 4(a) that has the polar
form
So by De Moivres Theorem,
De Moivres Theorem can also be used to nd the th roots of complex numbers. An
th root of the complex number is a complex number such that
w
n
z
w z
n n
2
5
2
10
cos
5
2
i sin
5
2
1
32
i
1
2
1
2
i
10
s2
2
10
cos
10
4
i sin
10
4
1
2
1
2
i
s2
2
cos
4
i sin
1
2
1
2
i
1
2
1
2
i
1
2
1 i
(
1
2
1
2
i)
10
z
n
rcos i sin
n
r
n
cos n i sin n
n z rcos i sin 2
z
3
zz
2
r
3
cos 3 i sin 3
z
2
r
2
cos 2 i sin 2
z rcos i sin
2s2
cos
12
i sin
12
1 i (s3 i) 2s2
cos
i sin
s3 i 2
cos
i sin
1 i s2
cos
4
i sin
s3
i 1 i
4 COMPL EX NUMBERS
0
2
z=1+i
w=3i
zw
22
2
FI GURE 8
Re
Im
12
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Writing these two numbers in trigonometric form as
and using De Moivres Theorem, we get
The equality of these two complex numbers shows that
and
From the fact that sine and cosine have period it follows that
Thus
Since this expression gives a different value of for , 1, 2, . . . , , we have the
following.
Roots of a Complex Number Let and let be a positive inte
ger. Then has the distinct th roots
where , 1, 2, . . . , .
Notice that each of the th roots of has modulus . Thus, all the th roots
of lie on the circle of radius in the complex plane. Also, since the argument of each
successive th root exceeds the argument of the previous root by , we see that the
th roots of are equally spaced on this circle.
EXAMPLE 7 Find the six sixth roots of and graph these roots in the complex
plane.
SOLUTION In trigonometric form, . Applying Equation 3 with ,
we get
We get the six sixth roots of by taking in this formula:
w
2
8
16
cos
5
6
i sin
5
6
s2
s3
2
1
2
i
w
1
8
16
cos
2
i sin
s2 i
w
0
8
16
cos
6
i sin
s2
s3
2
1
2
i
k 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 8
w
k
8
16
cos
2k
6
i sin
2k
6
n 6 z 8cos i sin
z 8
z
n 2 n n
r
1n
z
n
w
k
r
1n
z n
n 1 k 0
w
k
r
1n
cos
2k
n
i sin
2k
n
n n z
n z rcos i sin 3
n 1 k 0 w
w r
1n
cos
2k
n
i sin
2k
n
2k
n
or n 2k
2
sin n sin and cos n cos
s r
1n
or s
n
r
s
n
cos n i sin n rcos i sin
z rcos i sin and w scos i sin
COMPL EX NUMBERS 5
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6 COMPL EX NUMBERS
All these points lie on the circle of radius as shown in Figure 9.
COMPLEX EXPONENTIALS
We also need to give a meaning to the expression when is a complex num
ber. The theory of innite series as developed in Chapter 8 can be extended to the case
where the terms are complex numbers. Using the Taylor series for
we dene
and it turns out that this complex exponential function has the same properties as the real
exponential function. In particular, it is true that
If we put , where is a real number, in Equation 4, and use the facts that
. . .
we get
Here we have used the Taylor series for and (Equations 8.7.17 and 8.7.16).
The result is a famous formula called Eulers formula:
Combining Eulers formula with Equation 5, we get
e
xiy
e
x
e
iy
e
x
cos y i sin y 7
e
iy
cos y i sin y 6
sin y cos y
cos y i sin y
1
y
2
2!
y
4
4!
y
6
6!
y
y
3
3!
y
5
5!
1 iy
y
2
2!
i
y
3
3!
y
4
4!
i
y
5
5!
e
iy
1 iy
iy
2
2!
iy
3
3!
iy
4
4!
iy
5
5!
i
5
i, i
4
1, i
3
i
2
i i, i
2
1,
y z iy
e
z1z2
e
z1
e
z2
5
e
z
n0
z
n
n!
1 z
z
2
2!
z
3
3!
4
e
x
z x iy e
z
s2
w
5
8
16
cos
11
6
i sin
11
6
s2
s3
2
1
2
i
w
4
8
16
cos
3
2
i sin
3
2
s2 i
w
3
8
16
cos
7
6
i sin
7
6
s2
s3
2
1
2
i
FI GURE 9
The six sixth roots of z=_8
0
w
w
w
w w
w
_2 2
_2i
2i
Re
Im
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2 (8.7.12) as our guide,
COMPL EX NUMBERS 7
EXAMPLE 8 Evaluate: (a) (b)
SOLUTI ON
(a) From Eulers equation (6) we have
(b) Using Equation 7 we get
Finally, we note that Eulers equation provides us with an easier method of proving
De Moivres Theorem:
rcos i sin
n
re
i
n
r
n
e
in
r
n
cos n i sin n
e
1i 2
e
1
cos
2
i sin
1
e
0 i1
i
e
e
i
cos i sin 1 i0 1
e
1i 2
e
i
We could write the result of Example 8(a)
as
This equation relates the ve most famous
numbers in all of mathematics: and . 0, 1, e, i,
e
i
1 0
EXERCISES
114 Evaluate the expression and write your answer in the
form .
1. 2.
3. 4.
5. 6.
7. 8.
9. 10.
11. 12.
13. 14.
1517 Find the complex conjugate and the modulus of the
number.
15. 16.
17.
18. Prove the following properties of complex numbers.
(a) (b)
(c) , where is a positive integer
[Hint: Write , .]
1924 Find all solutions of the equation.
19. 20.
21. 22.
23. 24.
z
2
1
2
z
1
4
0 z
2
z 2 0
2x
2
2x 1 0 x
2
2x 5 0
x
4
1 4x
2
9 0
w c di z a bi
n z
n
z
n
zw z w z w z w
4i
1 2s2 i 12 5i
s3s12 s25
i
100
i
3
3
4 3i
1
1 i
3 2i
1 4i
1 4i
3 2i
2i (
1
2
i) 12 7i
1 2i 8 3i 2 5i 4 i
(4
1
2
i) (9
5
2
i) 5 6i 3 2i
a bi
2528 Write the number in polar form with argument between
and .
25. 26.
27. 28.
2932 Find polar forms for , , and by rst putting
and into polar form.
29. ,
30. ,
31. ,
32. ,
3336 Find the indicated power using De Moivres Theorem.
33. 34.
35. 36.
3740 Find the indicated roots. Sketch the roots in the complex
plane.
37. The eighth roots of 1 38. The fth roots of 32
39. The cube roots of 40. The cube roots of
4146 Write the number in the form .
41. 42.
43. 44.
45. 46.
47. Use De Moivres Theorem with to express and
in terms of and . sin cos sin 3
cos 3 n 3
e
i
e
2i
e
i
e
i 3
e
2 i
e
i 2
a bi
1 i i
1 i
8
(2s3 2i )
5
(1 s3i )
5
1 i
20
w 3 3i z 4(s3 i )
w 1 i z 2s3 2i
w 8i z 4s3 4i
w 1 s3i z s3 i
w
z 1z zw zw
8i 3 4i
1 s3i 3 3i
2
0
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50. (a) If is a complexvalued function of a real variable, its
indenite integral is an antiderivative of .
Evaluate
(b) By considering the real and imaginary parts of the integral
in part (a), evaluate the real integrals
and
(c) Compare with the method used in Example 4 in Section 6.1.
y
e
x
sin x dx
y
e
x
cos x dx
y
e
1i x
dx
u x ux dx
u
8 COMPL EX NUMBERS
48. Use Eulers formula to prove the following formulas for
and :
49. If is a complexvalued function of a real
variable and the real and imaginary parts and are
differentiable functions of , then the derivative of is dened
to be . Use this together with Equation 7
to prove that if , then when
is a complex number.
r a bi Fx re
rx
Fx e
rx
ux f x itx
u x
tx f x x
ux f x itx
sin x
e
ix
e
ix
2i
cos x
e
ix
e
ix
2
sin x
cos x
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COMPL EX NUMBERS 9
ANSWERS
1. 3.
5. 7.
9. 11. 13. 15.
17. 19.
21. 23.
25.
27.
29. ,
1
2
cos 6 i sin 6
4cos 2 i sin 2, cos 6 i sin 6
5{cos[tan
1
(
4
3
)] i sin[tan
1
(
4
3
)]}
3s2 cos3 4 i sin3 4
1
2
(s72)i 1 2i
3
2
i 4i, 4
12 5i; 13 5i i
1
2
1
2
i
11
13
10
13
i 12 7i
13 18i 8 4i
31. ,
,
33. 35.
37. 39.
41. 43. 45.
47. , sin 3 3 cos
2
sin sin
3
cos 3 cos
3
3 cos sin
2
e
2 1
2
(s32)i i
0
Im
Re
_i
0
Im
Re
i
1
(s32)
1
2
i, i 1, i, (1s2)1 i
512s3 512i 1024
1
4
cos 6 i sin 6 (2s2)cos13 12 i sin13 12
4s2 cos7 12 i sin7 12
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10 COMPL EX NUMBERS
SOLUTIONS
1. (5 6i) + (3 + 2i) = (5 + 3) + (6 + 2)i = 8 + (4)i = 8 4i
3. (2 + 5i)(4 i) = 2(4) + 2(i) + (5i)(4) + (5i)(i) = 8 2i + 20i 5i
2
= 8 + 18i 5(1) = 8 + 18i + 5 = 13 + 18i
5. 12 + 7i = 12 7i
7.
1 + 4i
3 + 2i
=
1 + 4i
3 + 2i
3 2i
3 2i
=
3 2i + 12i 8(1)
3
2
+ 2
2
=
11 + 10i
13
=
11
13
+
10
13
i
9.
1
1 + i
=
1
1 + i
1 i
1 i
=
1 i
1 (1)
=
1 i
2
=
1
2
1
2
i
11. i
3
= i
2
i = (1)i = i
13.
25 =
25 i = 5i
15. 12 5i = 12 + 15i and 12 15i =
_
12
2
+ (5)
2
=
144 + 25 =
169 = 13
17. 4i = 0 4i = 0 + 4i = 4i and 4i =
_
0
2
+ (4)
2
=
16 = 4
19. 4x
2
+ 9 = 0 4x
2
= 9 x
2
=
9
4
x =
_
9
4
=
_
9
4
i =
3
2
i.
21. By the quadratic formula, x
2
+ 2x + 5 = 0
x =
2
_
2
2
4(1)(5)
2(1)
=
2
16
2
=
2 4i
2
= 1 2i.
23. By the quadratic formula, z
2
+ z + 2 = 0 z =
1
_
1
2
4(1)(2)
2(1)
=
1
7
2
=
1
2
7
2
i.
25. For z = 3 + 3i, r =
_
(3)
2
+ 3
2
= 3
2 and tan =
3
3
= 1 =
3
4
(since z lies in the second
quadrant). Therefore, 3 + 3i = 3
2
_
cos
3
4
+ i sin
3
4
_
.
27. For z = 3 + 4i, r =
3
2
+ 4
2
= 5 and tan =
4
3
= tan
1
_
4
3
_
(since z lies in the rst quadrant).
Therefore, 3 + 4i = 5
cos
_
tan
1 4
3
_
+ i sin
_
tan
1 4
3
__
.
29. For z =
3 + i, r =
_
_
3
_
2
+ 1
2
= 2 and tan =
1
3
=
6
z = 2
_
cos
6
+ i sin
6
_
.
For w = 1 +
3 i, r = 2 and tan =
3 =
3
w = 2
_
cos
3
+ i sin
3
_
. Therefore,
zw = 2 2
cos
_
6
+
3
_
+ i sin
_
6
+
3
__
= 4
_
cos
2
+ i sin
2
_
,
z/w =
2
2
cos
_
6
3
_
+ i sin
_
6
3
__
= cos
_
6
_
+ i sin
_
6
_
, and 1 = 1 + 0i = 1(cos 0 + i sin0)
1/z =
1
2
cos
_
0
6
_
+ i sin
_
0
6
__
=
1
2
cos
_
6
_
+ i sin
_
6
__
. For 1/z, we could also use the formula that
precedes Example 5 to obtain 1/z =
1
2
_
cos
6
i sin
6
_
.
31. For z = 2
3 2i, r =
_
_
2
3
_
2
+ (2)
2
= 4 and tan =
2
2
3
=
1
3
=
6
z = 4
cos
_
6
_
+ i sin
_
6
__
. For w = 1 + i, r =
2,
tan =
1
1
= 1 =
3
4
w =
2
_
cos
3
4
+ i sin
3
4
_
. Therefore,
zw = 4
cos
_
6
+
3
4
_
+ i sin
_
6
+
3
4
__
= 4
2
_
cos
7
12
+ i sin
7
12
_
,
z/w =
4
cos
_
6
3
4
_
+ i sin
_
6
3
4
__
=
4
cos
_
11
12
_
+ i sin
_
11
12
__
= 2
2
_
cos
13
12
+ i sin
13
12
_
, and
1/z =
1
4
cos
_
6
_
i sin
_
6
__
=
1
4
_
cos
6
+ i sin
6
_
.
33. For z = 1 + i, r =
2 and tan =
1
1
= 1 =
4
z =
2
_
cos
4
+ i sin
4
_
. So by
De Moivres Theorem,
(1 + i)
20
=
_
2
_
cos
4
+ i sin
4
_
_
20
=
_
2
1/2
_
20_
cos
20
4
+ i sin
20
4
_
= 2
10
(cos 5 + i sin5) = 2
10
[1 + i(0)] = 2
10
= 1024
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COMPL EX NUMBERS 11
35. For z = 2
3 + 2i, r =
_
_
2
3
_
2
+ 2
2
=
16 = 4 and tan =
2
2
3
=
1
3
=
6
z = 4
_
cos
6
+ i sin
6
_
. So by De Moivres Theorem,
_
2
3 + 2i
_
5
=
4
_
cos
6
+ i sin
6
__
5
= 4
5
_
cos
5
6
+ i sin
5
6
_
= 1024
_
3
2
+
1
2
i
_
= 512
3 + 512i
37. 1 = 1 + 0i = 1 (cos 0 + i sin0). Using Equation 3 with r = 1, n = 8, and = 0, we have
w
k
= 1
1/8
_
cos
_
0 + 2k
8
_
+ i sin
_
0 + 2k
8
__
= cos
k
4
+ i sin
k
4
, where k = 0, 1, 2, . . . , 7.
w0 = 1(cos 0 + i sin0) = 1, w1 = 1
_
cos
4
+ i sin
4
_
=
1
2
+
1
2
i,
w
2
= 1
_
cos
2
+ i sin
2
_
= i, w
3
= 1
_
cos
3
4
+ i sin
3
4
_
=
1
2
+
1
2
i,
w4 = 1(cos + i sin) = 1, w5 = 1
_
cos
5
4
+ i sin
5
4
_
=
1
2
1
2
i,
w
6
= 1
_
cos
3
2
+ i sin
3
2
_
= i, w
7
= 1
_
cos
7
4
+ i sin
7
4
_
=
1
2
1
2
i
39. i = 0 + i = 1
_
cos
2
+ i sin
2
_
. Using Equation 3 with r = 1, n = 3, and =
2
, we have
w
k
= 1
1/3
_
cos
_
2
+ 2k
3
_
+ i sin
_
2
+ 2k
3
__
, where k = 0, 1, 2.
w
0
=
_
cos
6
+ i sin
6
_
=
3
2
+
1
2
i
w1 =
_
cos
5
6
+ i sin
5
6
_
=
3
2
+
1
2
i
w2 =
_
cos
9
6
+ i sin
9
6
_
= i
41. Using Eulers formula (6) with y =
2
, we have e
i/2
= cos
2
+ i sin
2
= 0 + 1i = i.
43. Using Eulers formula (6) with y =
3
, we have e
i/3
= cos
3
+ i sin
3
=
1
2
+
3
2
i.
45. Using Equation 7 with x = 2 and y = , we have e
2+i
= e
2
e
i
= e
2
(cos + i sin) = e
2
(1 + 0) = e
2
.
47. Take r = 1 and n = 3 in De Moivres Theorem to get
[1(cos + i sin)]
3
= 1
3
(cos 3 + i sin3)
(cos + i sin)
3
= cos 3 + i sin3
cos
3
+ 3
_
cos
2
_
(i sin) + 3(cos )(i sin)
2
+ (i sin)
3
= cos 3 + i sin3
cos
3
+
_
3 cos
2
sin
_
i 3 cos sin
2
_
sin
3
_
i = cos 3 + i sin3
_
cos
3
3 sin
2
cos
_
+
_
3 sin cos
2
sin
3
_
i = cos 3 + i sin3
Equating real and imaginary parts gives cos 3 = cos
3
3 sin
2
cos and sin3 = 3 sin cos
2
sin
3
49. F(x) = e
rx
= e
(a+bi)x
= e
ax+bxi
= e
ax
(cos bx + i sinbx) = e
ax
cos bx + i(e
ax
sinbx)
F
0
(x) = (e
ax
cos bx)
0
+ i(e
ax
sinbx)
0
= (ae
ax
cos bx be
ax
sinbx) + i(ae
ax
sinbx + be
ax
cos bx)
= a[e
ax
(cos bx + i sinbx)] + b [e
ax
(sinbx + i cos bx)]
= ae
rx
+ b
e
ax
_
i
2
sinbx + i cos bx
__
= ae
rx
+ bi [e
ax
(cos bx + i sinbx)] = ae
rx
+ bie
rx
= (a + bi)e
rx
= re
rx
T
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