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The base transceiver station (BTS) BTS connect the mobiles to a cellular network BTS is comprised o% radio transmitters

and receivers

The Mobile Evolution


The Base station controller (BSC) A &roup o% BTS are connected To a particular BS' which mana&es the radio resources %or them The network subsystem; the mobile switching center (MSC): Acts like a standard e(chan&e in a %i(ed network and additional y provides all the %unctionality needed to handle a mobile subscriber The main %unctions are re&istration, authentication, location updatin&, and handovers and call routin& to a roamin& subscriber The si&nalin& between %unctional entities ()e&isters) in the network subsystem uses Si&nalin& System * (SS*) #% the MS' also has a &ateway %unction %or communicatin& with other +etworks, it is called Gateway MS' (GMS') The ome location register ( !"); ,atabase used %or mana&ement o% Mobile subscribers #t stores the GSM system architecture international mobile subscriber identity (#MS#), mobile station #S,+ number (MS#S,+) and current visitor location )e&ister (-.)) address The main in%ormation stored there concerns the .ocation o% each mobile station in order to be able to route calls to the mobile Subscribers mana&ed by each /.) The /.) also maintains the services Associated with each MS 0ne /.) can serve several MS' The visitor location register (#!"): 'ontains the current location o% The MS and selected administrative in%ormation %rom the /.), necessary %or call control and provision o% the subscribed services, %or each mobile currently located in the &eo&raphical area controlled by the -.) A -.) is connected to one MS' and is normally inte&rated into the MS'1s hardware A GSM network can be divided into three The authentication center ($uC): A protected database Groups): The mobile station (MS), the base station that holds a copy o% the secret key stored in each subsystem (BSS) and the network subsystem The mobile station (MS) Mobile e!uipment M") #t also subscriber1s S#M card, which is used %or authentication and encryption over the radio channel The includes a subscriber identity module (S#M) that is Au' provides additional security a&ainst %raud #t is normally removable and comes in two Si$es "ach S#M card has a uni!ue identi%ication number normally located close to each /.) within a GSM called #MS# (#nternational mobile subscriber identity) #n network The e%ui&ment i'entity register (E("): The "#) is a addition, each MS is assi&ned a uni!ue hardware database that contains a list o% all valid mobile station identi%ication called #M"# (international mobile e!uipment within the network, where each mobile station is "!uipment identity) identi%ied by its international mobile e!uipment identity The base station subsystem (BSS) The base station subsystem (BSS) is made up o% the base station controller (#M"#) The "#) has three databases: 2hite list: %or all known, &ood #M"#s (BS') and the base transceiver station (BTS) Black list: %or bad or stolen handsets GSM 3ocket Guide 6 0% 6= 'reated 4 ,esi&ned By Muhammad Ashra% "5mail: ashra%67i8yahoo com 'ontact: 9:; <== *><:7*:

Grey list: %or handsets?#M"#s that are uncertain )&eration an' Maintenance Center ()MC) The 0M' is a mana&ement system that oversees the GSM %unctional Blocks The 0M' assists the network operator in maintainin& satis%actory operation o% the GSM network /ardware redundancy and intelli&ent "rror detection mechanisms help prevents network down5 time The 0M' is responsible %or controllin& and maintainin& the MS', BS' and BTS #t can be in char&e o% an entire public land mobile network (3.M+) or @ust some parts o% the 3.M+ (nter*aces an' &rotocols The #nternational Telecommunication Cnion (#TC), which mana&es international allocation o% radio spectrum (amon& many other %unctions), has allocated the %ollowin& bands: GSM/00: Cplink: B:=5:6> M/$ (D mobile station to base station) ,ownlink: :<>5:E= M/$ (D base station to mobile station) GSM1200 (previously: ,'S56B==): Cplink: 6*6=56*B> M/$ ,ownlink: 6B=>56BB= M/$ GSM protocols are basically divided into three layers: GSM1/00 (previously: 3'S56:==): .ayer 6: +hysical layer Cplink: 6B>=56:6= M/$ "nables physical transmission (T,MA, A,MA, etc ) ,ownlink: 6:<=56::= M/$ Assessment o% channel !uality "(cept on the air inter%ace (GSM )ec =7 =7), 3'M <= or The air inter%ace %or GSM is known as the .m inter%ace #S,+ links are used (GSM )ec =B >7 on Abis inter%ace Since radio spectrum is a limited resource shared by all users, a method was devised to divide the bandwidth and =B =7 onA to A inter%aces) amon& as many users as possible The method chosen by .ayer ;: ,ata link layer GSM is a combination o% time5 and %re!uency5division Multiple(in& o% one or more layer ; connections multiple access (T,MA?A,MA) The A,MA part 0n control?si&nalin& channels "rror detection (based on involves the division by %re!uency o% the (ma(imum) ;> /,.') Alow control Transmission !uality assurance M/$ allocated bandwidth into 6;7 carrier %re!uencies )outin& spaced ;== k/$ apart 0ne or more carrier %re!uencies are .ayer <: -etwork layer assi&ned to each base station "ach o% these carrier 'onnection mana&ement (air inter%ace) Mana&ement o% %re!uencies is then divided in time, usin& a T,MA scheme location data Subscriber identi%ication Mana&ement o% The %undamental unit o% time in this T,MA scheme is added services (SMS, call %orwardin&, con%erence called a burst period and it lasts appro( = >** ms "i&ht 'alls, etc ) burst periods are &rouped into a T,MA %rame (appro( The air inter*ace .m 7 E6> ms), which %orms the basic unit %or the de%inition o% lo&ical channels 0ne physical channel is one burst period per T,MA %rame !ogical channels on the air inter*ace

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downlink are separated in time by < burst periods, so that the mobile station does not have to transmit and receive simultaneously, thereby simpli%yin& the electronic circuitry This method permits comple( antenna duple( %ilters to be avoided and thus helps to cut power consumption #n addition to these %ull5rate T'/s (T'/?A, ;; B kbit?s), hal%5rate T'/s (T'/?/, 66 7 kbit?s) are also de%ined /al%5rate T'/s double the capacity o% a system e%%ectively by makin& it possible to transmit two calls in a sin&le channel #% a T'/?A is used %or data communications, the usable data rate drops to : E kbit?s (in T'/?/: ma( 7 B kbit?s) due to the enhanced security al&orithms "i&hth5rate T'/s are also speci%ied, and are used %or si&nalin& #n the GSM )ecommendations, they are called stand5alone dedicated control channels (S,''/) Signaling channels on the air inter*ace The si&nalin& channels on the air inter%ace are used %or call establishment, pa&in&, call maintenance, synchroni$ation, etc There are < &roups o% si&nalin& channels: The broa'cast channels (BC ): 'arry only downlink in%ormation and are responsible mainly %or synchroni$ation and Several lo&ical channels are mapped onto the physical channels The or&ani$ation o% lo&ical channels depends on %re!uency correction This is the only channel type enablin& point5to5multipoint communicationsin which short messa&es are the application and the direction o% in%ormation %low simultaneously transmitted to several mobiles (uplink?downlink or bidirectional) A lo&ical The B'/s include the %ollowin& channels: channel can be either a tra%%ic channel (T'/), which carries i The broa'cast control channel (BCC ): General user data, or a si&nalin& channel (see %ollowin& chapters) in%ormation, cellspeci%icF e & local area code (.A'), network operator, access parameters, list o% nei&hborin& cells, etc The MS receives si&nals via the B''/ %rom many BTSs within the same network and?or di%%erent networks ii The *re%uency correction channel (3CC ): ,ownlink onlyF correction 0% MS %re!uenciesF transmission o% %re!uency standard to MSF it is also used %or synchroni$ation o% an ac!uisition by providin& The boundaries between timeslots and the position o% the %irst timeslot 0% a T,MA %rame iii The synchroni4ation channel (SC ): ,ownlink onlyF %rame synchroni$ation (T,MA %rame number) and identi%ication o% base station The valid reception o% one S'/ burst will provide the MS with all the in%ormation needed to synchroni$e with a BTS The common control channels (CCC ): A &roup o% uplink and downlink channels between the MS card and the BTS These channelsare used to convey in%ormation %rom Traffic channels on the air interface A tra%%ic the network to MSs and provide access to the network The channel (T'/) is used to carry speech and data tra%%ic Tra%%ic '''/s include the %ollowin& 'hannels are de%ined usin& a ;E5%rame multi%rame, or &roup o% channels: ;E T,MA %rames The len&th o% a ;E5%rame multi%rame is 6;= i The &aging channel (+C ): ,ownlink onlyF the MS is ms, which is how the len&th o% a burst period is de%ined (6;= ms in%ormed by the BTS %or incomin& calls via the 3'/ divided by ;E %rames divided by B burst periods per %rame) 0ut ii The access grant channel ($GC ): ,ownlink onlyF o% the ;E %rames, ;7 are used %or tra%%ic, 6 is used %or the slow BTS allocates a T'/ or S,''/ to the MS, thus associated control channel (SA''/) and 6 is currently unused allowin& the MS access to the network T'/s %or the uplink and iii The ran'om access channel ("$C ): Cplink onlyF allows the MS to re!uest an S,''/ in response to a

GSM Channels on $ir (nter*ace

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pa&e or due to a callF the MS chooses a random time to +rotocols on the air inter*ace send on this channel This creates a possibility o% !ayer 1 (GSM "ec6 07607): The physical properties o% the Cm collisions with transmissions %rom other MSs The 3'/ inter%ace have already been described and AG'/ are transmitted in one channel called the !ayer 8 (GSM "ec6 07609:0;): /ere, the !$+5,m protocol is pa&in& and access &rant channel (3AG'/) They are used n(similar to #S,+ .A35,) .A35,m has the %ollowin& separated by time %unctions: The 'e'icate' control channels (,CC ): )esponsible %or 'onnectionless trans%er on point5to5point and point5to5 e & roamin&, handovers, encryption, etc multipoint si&nalin& channels, The ,''/s include the %ollowin& channels: Setup and take5down o% layer ; connections on point5to5 i The stan'5alone 'e'icate' control channel point (S,CC ): Communications channel between MS si&nalin& channels, and the BTSF si&nalin& durin& call setup be%ore a 'onnection5oriented trans%er with retention o% the tra%%ic channel (T'/) is allocatedF transmission ii The slow associate' control channel (S$CC ): se!uence, error detection and error correction Transmits continuous measurement reports (e & %ield stren&ths) in parallel to operation o% a T'/ or !ayer < (GSM "ec6 0760=:02): 'ontains the %ollowin& sublayers which control si&nalin& channel %unctions (B'/, '''/ and S,''/F needed, e & %or handover decisionsF always allocated to a T'/ or S,''/F needed %or ,''/): "a'io resource management (""): The role o% the )) Gnon5ur&entH procedures,e & %or radio measurement data, power control (downlink only), mana&ement layer is to establish and release stable connection timin& advance, etc F always used in parallel to a between mobile stations (MS) and an MS' %or the duration o% a call, and to maintain it despite user movements The %ollowin& T'/ or S,''/ iii The *ast associate' control channel (3$CC ): Similar to %unctions are per%ormed by the MS': the S,''/, but used in parallel to operation o% the T'/F i% 'ell selection, the data rate o% the AA''/ is insu%%icient, Gborrowin& modeH /andover, is used: Additional bandwidth is borrowed %rom the T'/F Allocation and take5down o% point5to5point channels, this happens %or messa&es associated with call establishment Monitorin& and %orwardin& o% radio connections, authentication o% the subscriber, handover decisions, etc #ntroduction o% encryption, Almost all o% the si&nalin& channels use the Gnormal burst 'han&e in transmission mode %ormat e(cept %or the )A'/ ()andom Access Burst), A''/ Mobility management (MM) handles the control %unctions (Are!uency 'orrection Burst) and S'/ (Synchroni$ation re!uired %or mobility, e & : Burst) channels Authentication, Burst *ormats Assi&nment o% TMS#, A timeslot is a >*E ms time interval, i e 6>E ;> bits duration, Mana&ement o% subscriber location and its 3hysical contents are known as a burst Aive di%%erent Connection management (CM) is used to set up, maintain types o% bursts e(ist in the system They are distin&uished by and take down calls connectionsF it is comprised o% three di%%erent T,MA %rame divisions sub&roups: The normal burst (-B): Csed to carry in%ormation on tra%%ic 'all control (''): Mana&es call connections, and control channels, e(cept %or )A'/ #t contains 66E Supplementary service support (SS): /andles special encrypted bits services, The *re%uency correction burst (3B): Csed %or %re!uency Short messa&e service support (SMS): Trans%ers brie% te(ts synchroni$ation o% the mobile The contents o% this burst are +either the BTS nor the BS' interpret 'M and MM used to calculate an unmodulated, sinusoidal oscillation, onto messa&es They are simply e(chan&ed with the MS' or the which the synthesi$er o% the mobiles is clocked MS usin& the direct trans%er application part (,TA3) The synchroni4ation burst (SB): Csed %or time synchroni$ation protocol on the A inter%ace )) messa&es are o% the mobile #t contains a lon& trainin& se!uence and carries the mapped to or %rom the base station system application part in%ormation o% a T,MA %rame number (BSSA3) in the BS')"A %or e(chan&e with the MS' The access burst ($B): Csed %or random access and characteri$ed by a lon&er &uard period (;>E ms) to allow %or The $bis inter*ace burst transmission %rom a mobile that does not know the correct GSM $bis (nter*ace> +CM timeslot layout timin& advance at the %irst access to a network (or a%ter handover) The 'ummy burst (,B): Transmitted as a %iller in unused timeslots o% the carrierF does not carry any in%ormation but has the same %ormat as a normal burst (+B)

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The Abis interface lies within the base station subsystem (BSS) and represents the dividing line between the BSC function and the BTS. The BSC and BTS can be connected using leased lines, radio lin s or metropolitan area networ s (!A"s). Basically, two channel types e#ist between the BSC and BTS$ Traffic channels (TCH): Can be configured in %, &' and '( bit)s formats and transport user data, Signaling channels$ Can be configured in &', *+, ,' and '( bit)s formats and are used for signaling purposes between the BTS and BSC. -ach transceiver (T./) in a BSC generally re0uires a signaling channel on the Abis interface. The positioning of the user data frames (T 1 Traffic) and signaling data frames (S 1 Signaling) varies from manufacturer to manufacturer and from system to system. The only re0uirement is that the 2AS)"2AS frame must be in timeslot 3. A signaling channel can run at either &' bit)s (sub4 channel signaling) or '( bit)s. The T"$. *rame The T)AC (Transcoder )ate Adapter Cnit) %rame is the transport unit %or a 6E kbit?s tra%%ic channel (T'/) on the Abis inter%ace #t uses 6< E kbit?s %or user data and ; 7 kbit?s %or inband si&nalin&, timin& and synchroni$ation #t is here that the positions at which the si&nalin& and data bits occur are determined

The bit names shown in Ai& are interpreted as %ollows: (yellow or blue back&round): Synchroni$ation bits ' bits: 'ontrol?si&nalin& bits T bits: Time ali&nment (TA) bits , bits: Cser data bits (payload) The T)AC %rame speci%ications are as %ollows: Total bits per %rame: <;= Synchroni$ation bits: ;> 'ontrol bits: '6 to 6> '6* to ;6 (%rame dependent and %or %uture applications There are %our variants %or the ', , and T bits, dependin& on the %rame type: 6 Speech %rame ,ata bits: ,6 to ;E= 'ontrol bits: '6E to ;6 TA bits: T6 to 7 ; 04M %rame ,ata bits: ,6 to ;E7 Spare bits: S6 to E < ,ata %rame ,ata bits: ,6 to ;>; Airst bit o% odd octets (> to <:) is G6H 7 #dle speech %rame .ike the speech %rame, but all data bits are set to G6H The protocol used on the Abis inter%ace is .A3,, which is adapted %rom #S,+ .A3, provides the %ollowin& %rame types that can be divided into three &roups: the unnumbered %rames (SABM, ,#S', CA, ,M, C#), the in%ormation trans%er %rame (#) the supervisory %rames ()), )+), )"I, A)M)) #n addition to the radio si&nalin& procedures the Abis inter%ace also provides a means o% transport %or operation and maintenance procedures %or BTSs, as well as a transport mechanism %or .ayer ; mana&ement procedures inherited directly %rom #S,+ standards Protocols on the Abis interface

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!ayer 1 (GSM "ec6 02697): ; =7B Mbit?s (#TC5T: "6) or 6 >77 The %ollowin& protocols are employed: Mbit?s !ayer 1 (GSM "ec6 02607): ; =7B Mbit?s (#TC5T: "6) or 6 >77 (A+S#: T6) 3'M %acility with E7?<;?6E kbit?s si&nalin& channels Mbit?s (A+S#: T6) 3'M link and 6E kbit?s tra%%ic channels (7 per timeslot) !ayer 8 (GSM "ec6 0260;): /ere, SS*5based protocols are used !ayer 8 (GSM "ec6 0269;): /ere, the .A35, protocol is used %or layer ;F the messa&e trans%er part (MT3) protocol as the transport mechanism %or data messa&in& between the BTS (responsible %or transmission security between the B'S and and BS' 2ithin GSM the SA3# re%ers to the link identi%ier MS') and the si&nalin& transmitted in the .A3, protocol that was inherited %rom #S,+ connection control part (SCC+) protocol (allows &lobal !ayer < (GSM "ec6 02692:07602): BTS mana&ement (BTSM) addressin& o% network elements and thus o%%ers a service works mainly in this layer BTSM distin&uishes three lo&ical correspondin& to the e(chan&e layer) MT3 and S''3 also si&nalin& connections with the SA3# (Service Access 3oint per%orm layer < %unctions S''3 is used to transport ,TA3 and #denti%ier) SA3# = is used by all messa&es comin& %rom or &oin& base station mana&ement application part (BSSMA3) messa&es to the radio inter%ace SA3# E; provides 04M messa&e transport on the A inter%ace, ensurin& both conectionless between the BTS and BS' SA3# E< is used %or dynamic and connection5oriented messa&e %lows The connections mana&ement o% T"#s as well as %or layer ; mana&ement can be related to a speci%ic MS or radio channel %unctions The addition o% another %ield to the An S''3 connection can be initiated by a mobile station (MS) .A3, link layer address is %or the T"#s The T"#s that provide or an MS' An S''3 connection can involve the %ollowin& addressin& o% the T)Js (transmitters and receivers) %or the BTS protocols: are as %ollows: 3rom the MS: )adio si&nalin& link ()S.): Tra%%ic mana&ementF used %or MM: 'M service re!uest si&nalin& between the BS' and BTS (non5transparent )): 3a&in& response messa&es, e & ))) and transmission o% si&nalin& MM: .ocation updatin& re!uest in%ormation on the air inter%ace in the %orm o% transparent MM: 'M re5establishment re!uest messa&es ('M and MM messa&es) 3rom the MSC: #nitiation o% an Ge(ternal handoverH 0peratin& 4 maintenance link (0M.): +etwork (BSSMA3: handover re!uest) The MS' always mana&es an mana&ementF used to monitor the operatin& status o% the S''3 connection T)Js or BTSF 0M. messa&es have priority over other layer !ayer < (GSM "ec6 02602): 'ontains the base station system ; messa&es application part (BSS$+) protocol This layer has multiple parts .ayer ; mana&ement link (.;M.): .ayer ; mana&ementF on the MS' end: controls the T"# mana&ement and addressin& procedures The base station mana&ement application part (BSSMA3) (allocation, de5allocation o% BTS internal transceiver KT)JL protocol addresses) #s the counterpart to the )) protocol on the air inter%ace The $ inter*ace The direct trans%er application part (,TA3) protocol The A inter%ace lies between the BS' and MS' #% the BS' transmits '' and MM messa&es and is transmitted contains the transcoder e!uipment (T'"), a tra%%ic channel transparently throu&h the BTS and BS' (T'/) occupies a complete E7 kbit?s timeslot in the ; Mbit?s or MSC5base' inter*aces 6 >77 Mbit?s 3'M link (layer 6, GSM )ec =B =7) 0ut o% <; available timeslots on the 3'M link, a ma(imum o% <= tra%%ic channels can be operated simultaneously, since at least ; timeslots are needed %or control and si&nalin& purposes (TS= %or AAS?+AAS and another TS %or si&nalin&, usually TS6E) on 3'M %acilities 0ne si&nalin& channel supports many E7 kbit?s 3'M %acilities between one BS' and the MS' +ormally two active E7 kbit?s timeslots are used %or this purpose #% the MS' is e!uipped with a T'", the T'/s are converted %rom E7 kbit?s to 6E kbit?s in the transcoder e!uipment #% the B'S does not contain a T'", then the T'/s are 6E kbit?s on the All of the interfaces around the !SC use SS54based A inter%ace Between the BS' and MS', the T'/s are protocols. The B, C, 6, 2 and 7 interfaces are GrecordedH %rom E7 kbit?s to 6E kbit?s in the transcoder e!uipment referred to as !A8 interfaces. These connect either (T'") the !SC to registers or registers to other registers. Protocols on the A interface The The si&nalin& protocol (layer ;9<) between the BS' and MS' is interface supports the !A8 protocol and calls setup based on the SS* standard, but is transmitted alon& with the user protocols (9S:8)T:8). This interface connects one data within the 3'M %acility +ormally timeslot 6E (TS6E) o% the !SC to another !SC within the same networ or to E7 kbit?s %rame is used

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another networ ;s !SC. They are designated as 2ollows B inter*ace: between MS' and -.) (use MA3?T'A3 protocols) C inter*ace: between MS' and /.) (MA3?T'A3) , inter*ace: between /.) and -.) (MA3?T'A3) E inter*ace: between two MS's (MA3?T'A3 9 #SC3?TC3) 3 inter*ace: between MS' and "#) (MA3?T'A3) G inter*ace: between -.)s (MA3?T'A3) Ai(ed network inter%aces: via TC3 protocol: between MS' and analo&?di&ital networks via #SC3 protocol: between MS' and analo&?di&ital The following e#ample describes a call from a fi#ed networksF provides more %eatures than TC3 networ subscriber to a mobile subscriber in a 7S! via #+A3 protocol: between MS' and #+ The S''3 protocol provides connectionless messa&e transport to networ $ The incoming call is passed from the fi#ed networ to the gateway and %rom the GSM network databases %or T'A3 and MA3 messa&in& /ere, two connection types are also distin&uished: !SC (7!SC) (&). Then, based on the 9!S9 numbers of the called party, its <=. is determined (+). The Circuit5relate' call control: )elated to #SC3 and TC3 <=. chec s for the e#istence of the called number. -on circuit5relate' call control: The mobile application part (MA3) protocol is used here, allowin& implementation Then the relevant >=. is re0uested to provide a mobile o% %unctions such as location updatin&?roamin&, SMS delivery, handover, authentication and incomin& call routin& station roaming number (!S.") (*). This is transmitted bac to the in%ormation The MA3 protocol uses the transaction capability application part (T'A3) protocol to trans%er real5 7!SC ((). Then the connection is switched through to the responsible !SC (,). "ow the >=. is 0ueried time in%ormation (between MS's, /.)s and -.)s) for the location range and reach ability status of MSC protocols the mobile subscriber ('). 9f the !S is mar ed M$+ (Mobile $&&lication +art): (GSM "ec6 0/608) Csed to reachable, a radio call is enabled (5) and e#ecuted in all radio control !ueries to the di%%erent databases in the mobile radio ?ones assigned to the >=. (%). @hen the mobile network (/.), -.) and "#)) MA3 responsibilities include subscriber telephone responds to the page re0uest access and location mana&ement (e & where is the called subscriber currentlyM), MS'5MS' handover, security %unctions, from the current radio cell (A), all necessary security procedures 04M, SMS and supplementary services TC$+ (Transaction Ca&abilities $&&lication +art): 3rovides are e#ecuted (&3). 9f this is successful, the >=. universal calls and %unctions %or handlin& re!uests to distributed indicates to the !SC (&&) that the call can be completed (&+). application processes (S.+ ((S,- .ser +art): 'ontrols interworkin& (e & call Test an' measurement &roblems in GSM setup?takedown) between 3.M+s and other networks, and 7S! technology is very comple#. "aturally, such a provides the same basic %unctionalities as TC3 technology is a challenge to install, commission, (-$+ ((ntelligent -etwork $&&lication +art): #mplements manage and optimi?e. The following section will intelli&ent supplementary services (e & %ree call, time5dependent consider some sample networ problems routin& %unctions in a central service center) T.+ (Tele&hone .ser +art): #mplements interworkin& between 3.M+s and other networks TC3 is normally used to provide international connections and is slowly bein& replaced by #SC3

Call setu&

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6ue to the limited nature of resources (not to mention their high cost), networ optimi?ation is becoming a more and more critical economic factor. To get a handle on networ performance, networ utili?ation, subscriber behavior and 0uality of service (BoS), the following test methods are useful$ Traffic analysis: <ere, the contents of signaling channels in an -& or T& 8C! frame are monitored and analy?ed on the Abis and A interfaces of the 7S! networ . 9t does not matter what type traffic the various timeslots transport (speech, data or signaling) since all contribute e0ually to traffic loading. Bit error ratio test (BERT): A B-.T involves bit error measurement at the 8C! level and the 7S!4 specific level (T.A: frame T.A:$ Transcoder and .ate Adapter :nit). The 8C! bit error ratio (B-.) is of interest to 7S! operators who need to verify the 0uality of leased lines from fi#ed networ operators. At the 7S! level, by evaluating the control bits in the T.A:, a bit error probability can be determined (uplin ) during actual communications (in4service). !ore accurate B-. measurement re0uires out4of4service simulation in which the +'3 data bits in the T.A: frame are chec ed using a pseudo4random bit se0uence (8.BS). Alarm monitoring: This test type chec s all 8C! lin s for layer & alarms, including$ "o signal, Alarm indication signal (A9S), "o synchroni?ation, .emote alarm, C.C alarm. "etwor 0uality test$ 9ncludes a number of diverse measurements that wor together to provide an indication of networ 0uality and reveal potential areas for improvement. This includes$ 9sland problems (see 2ig. &&), 6etection of coverage holes, 9nterference, "etwor load regarding signaling and traffic, <andover failures, .eceive level (./=->) surveillance, Bit error ratio of a BTS (./B:A=), !ultipath interference and propagation delays, 2re0uency interference (due to fre0uency reuse), Call completion)disconnect rate, System overload.

Cptimally 0ualifying a 7S! networ re0uires e#tensive protocol analysis in the Abis and SS54based interfaces. This is due to the intersection of the 7S! and SS5 protocol worlds, as described in section %.& D!SC protocolsE.

System *eatures
This section provides a brief description of the 7S! networ features. Roaming: The roaming feature allows a user to ma e and receive calls in any 7S! networ and to use the same user4specific services worldwide. This re0uires a roaming agreement between the individual operators. @ith worldwide roaming the !S is accessible under the same phone number everywhere. Han o!er: 9n a cellular networ , the radio and fi#ed voice connections are not permanently allocated for the duration of a call. <andover, or handoff as it is called in "orth America, means switching an ongoing call to a different channel or cell. The e#ecution and measurements re0uired for handover are a basic function of the .. protocol layer. There are four different types of handovers in 7S!, which involve transferring a connection between$ Channels (timeslots) in the same cell (intra4BTS handover) Cells under the control of the same BSC (inter4 BTS handover). Cells under the control of different BSCs, but belonging to the same !SC (inter4BSC handover) Cells under the control of different !SCs (inter4 !SC handover) The first two types of handover involve only one base station controller (BSC). To save signaling bandwidth, they are managed by the BSC without involving the !SC, e#cept to notify it upon completion of the handover. The last two types of handover are handled by the !SCs involved. An important aspect of 7S! is that the original !SC, the anchor !SC, remains responsible for most call4 related functions, with the e#ception of subse0uent inter4BSC handovers under the control of the new !SC, called the relay !SC. <andovers can be initiated by either the BSC or the !SC (as a means of traffic load balancing). 6uring its idle timeslots, the mobile scans the broadcast control channel of up to &' neighboring cells, and forms a

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list of the si# best candidates for possible an incoming call, is structured into sub4channels. handover, based on the received signal strength. -ach mobile This information is passed to the BSC and !SC, at station needs to listen only to its own sub4channel. least once per second, and is used by the handover 9n the time between algorithm. successive paging sub4channels, the mobile can go The decision on when to initiate a handover is a into sleep mode, when almost no power is used. function of the following parameters$ Po(er control: Several classes of mobile stations are defined in the 7S! specifications, according to receive 0uality, their pea transmitter power. To minimi?e co4 receive level. channel Successful handovers in 7S! can ta e place at interference and to conserve power, both the propagation speeds of up to +,3 m)h. mobiles and the base transceiver stations operate M"ltipath e#"ali$ation: at the lowest power level that will maintain an At the A33 !<? range, radio waves bounce off acceptable signal 0uality. 8ower levels can be everything buildings, hills, cars, airplanes, etc. !any reflected signals, each with a different phase, stepped up or down in steps of + dBm from the pea power for the class down to a minimum can reach an antenna (also nown as multipath of &* dBm (+3 milliwatts for !S). The mobile station propagation). and BTS continually measure the signal strength or -0uali?ation is used to e#tract the desired signal from the unwanted reflections. 9t wor s by finding signal 0uality (based on the bit error ratio), and out how a nown transmitted signal is modified by pass the information to the base station controller, multipath fading, and constructing an inverse filter which ultimately decides if and when the power to e#tract the rest of the desired signal. This nown level should be changed. Short Message Ser!ice (SMS) signal is the +'4bit S!S offers message delivery (similar to two4way4 training se0uence transmitted in the middle of every time4slot burst. The actual implementation of paging) that is guaranteed to reach the !S. 9f the 7S! telephone is not turned on, the message is the e0uali?er is not specified in the 7S! held for later delivery. -ach time a message is specifications. %re#"ency hopping: The mobile station has to be delivered to an !S, the networ e#pects to receive an fre0uency4agile, meaning it can move between different fre0uencies in order to transmit ac nowledgement from this !S that the message and receive data, etc.A normal handset is able to was correctly received. @ithout a positive ac nowledgement the networ will re4send the switch fre0uencies +&5 times per second. message or store it 7S! ma es use of this fre0uency agility to for later delivery. S!S supports messages up to implement slow fre0uency hopping, where the mobile and the BTS transmit each T6!A frame on a &'3 characters in length that can be delivered by different carrier fre0uency. The fre0uency hopping any 7S! networ around the world wherever the !S is able to roam. algorithm is broadcast on the broadcast control Call )aiting (C)) C@ is a networ 4based feature channel. Since multipath fading is dependent on the carrier fre0uency, slow fre0uency hopping that must also be supported by the helps alleviate the problem. 9n addition, co4channel 7S! telephone (!S). @ith C@, 7S! users with a interference is in effect randomi?ed. The broadcast call in progress will receive an audible beep to alert them that there is an incoming call for the !S. The and common control channels are not subFect to fre0uency hopping and are always transmitted on incoming call can be accepted, sent to voice mail or reFected. the same fre0uency. 9f the incoming call is reFected, the caller will &iscontin"o"s transmission (&T'): receive a busy To reduce the !S;s power consumption and signal. Cnce the call is accepted, the original call is minimi?e interference on the air interface, user signal transmission is interrupted during pauses in put on hold to allow a connection to the new incoming call. speech. Comfort noise is artificially generated by Call Hol (CH) C< must be supported by the !S the !S to avoid disruption due to an abrupt and the networ . 9t allows the !S to par an in interruption in speech. progress callE, to ma e additional calls or to receive &iscontin"o"s reception (&R'): incoming calls. Another method used to conserve power at the Call %or(ar ing (C%) This is a networ 4based mobile station is discontinuous reception. The paging channel, used by the base station to signal feature that can be activated by the !S. C2 allows

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calls to be sent to other numbers under conditions defined by the user. These conditions can be either unconditional or dependent on certain criteria (no answer, busy, not reachable). Calling *ine +& Calling =ine 96 must be supported by the 7S! networ and the telephone. The 7S! telephone displays the originating telephone number of incoming calls. This feature re0uires the caller;s networ to deliver the calling line 96 (telephone no.) to the 7S! networ . Mobility Management (MM) The 7S! networ eeps trac of which mobile telephones are powered on and active in the networ . To provide as efficient call delivery as possible, the networ eeps trac of the last nown location of the !S in the >=. and <=.. .adio sites connected to the !SC are divided into groups called Dlocation areasE. @hen a call is designated for an !S, the networ loo s for the !S in the last nown location area. A"thentication Authentication normally ta es place when the !S is turned on with each incoming call and outgoing call. A verification that the GHiI (security code) stored in the AuC matches the GHiI stored in S9! card of the !S completes this process. The user must ey in a 89" code on the handset in order to activate the hardware before this automatic procedure can start.

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