Dr.

Robert Hickson

11 December 2013 Pope Saint Damasus I (d. 384)

Fruits of the 1920 Battle of Warsaw and the 1944 Normandy Invasion (Insights of General !F!"! Fuller and G!#! "hesterton$
%&igra&h' !ne ot"er memor# $o% m# &pri'()a# 1*2+ ,isit to Po'and- I .i'' add "ere. I made t"e ac/uaintance o% a #oun0 $Po'is"- 1ount ."ose "u0e and cost'# pa'ace o% a countr# "ouse..."ad been burned and .recked and 'e%t in ruins b# t"e retreat o% t"e Red &rm# a%ter t"e 2att'e o% 3arsa. $in t"e summer o% 1*20-....2ut $in response to t"is- t"e #oun0 man $t"e 1ount-4 ."o .as ,er# #oun0 in a'' "is 0estures4 s"ru00ed "is s"ou'ders and 'au0"ed4 at the same time loo(ing very sad. 5!"4 I don5t b'ame t"em %or t"at45 "e said. 5 I have )een a soldier myself* and in the same +am&aign $in t"e Po'is"(2o's"e,ik 3ar a%ter 3or'd 3ar I-6 and I (now the tem&tations . I kno. ."at a %e''o. %ee's4 droppin0 .it" %ati0ue and %ree7in0 .it" co'd4 ."en "e asks "imse'% ."at some ot"er %e''o.5s armc"airs and curtains can matter4 i% "e can on'# "a,e %ue' %or t"e ni0"t. !n t"e one side or t"e ot"er4 .e .ere a'' so'diers6 and it is a "ard and "orrib'e 'i%e. I don5t resent at a'' ."at t"e# did "ere $.it" m# "ouse-. ,here is only one thing that I really resent! I will show you .5 &nd "e 'ed us out into a 'on0 a,enue 'ined .it" pop'ars6 and at the end of it was a statue of the Blessed -irgin. with the head and hands shot off . But the hands had )een lifted6 and it is a stran0e t"in0 t"at the very mutilation $o% )ar#- seemed to give more meaning to the attitude of inter+ession. as(ing mer+y for the mer+iless ra+e of men.8 (9.:. 1"esterton4 The Autobiography of G.K. Chesterton (;e. <ork= S"eed > 3ard4 1*3?)4 pp. 32*(330@m# emp"asis added.) AAA $Bar'ier- I .as dri,in0 .it" a /olish lady $some time in )a# o% 1*2+4 durin0 m# ,isit t"ere-4 ."o .as very witty and well0a+1uainted with the whole +hara+ter of %uro&e* and also of %ngland...6 and $t"en-..."er tone c"an0ed $sudden'#-4 i% an#t"in0 to a sort o% coo'ness4 as we sto&&ed outside an ar+hway 'eadin0 to a side(street4 and s"e said4 53e can5t dri,e cars in "ere.5...&s .e .a'ked under t"e arc"4 s"e said in t"e same co'our'ess tone6 5<ou take #our "at o%% "ere.5 &nd t"en I sa. the o&en street. It .as filled with a vast +rowd* all fa+ing me. and all on their (nees on the ground .....I %aced round4 and sa. in t"e centre o% t"e $e'e,ated- arc" 0reat .indo.s standin0 open4 unsealing a +ham)er %u'' o% 0o'd and co'ours6 t"ere .as a picture be"ind6 but &arts of the whole &i+ture were moving...6 and t"en I rea'ised t"at %rom t"ose s"i%tin0 0roups there shone and sounded the an+ient magnifi+en+e of the 2ass .8 (9.:. 1"esterton4 The Autobiography of G.K. Chesterton (1*3?)4 p. 32*@m# emp"asis added.) 1

AAA C"e imp'ications o% t"is s'ips"od s'o0an $i.e.4 unconditiona' surrender48 made pub'ic at t"e 1asab'anca 1on%erence in Danuar# o% 1*43- .ere e,en more %ata' to t"e %uture o% t"e .estern .or'd t"an 3oodro. 3i'son5s $nationa'- 5se'%( determination5 $in 3or'd 3ar I-....Eirst'#4 ."at unconditiona' surrender imp'ied .as t"at .ar .as no longer to be considered as an instrument o% creati,e po'ic#@t"e estab'is"ment o% a pro%itab'e and stab'e peace@but t"at it .as to be an instrument o% pure destruction. From "asa)lan+a a vulture was unleashed to )atten on the entrails of %uro&e .8 (D.E.1. Eu''er4 A Military History of the Western World4 Fo'ume III4 1*G+4 p. G08@m# emp"asis added.) AAA 3"i'e recent'# readin0 some o% 9.:. 1"esterton5s .ritten re%'ections in 1*2+ 1 s"ort'# a%ter "is return %rom "is in,ited &pri'()a# ,isit to Po'and4 and t"en a'so some o% "is more abidin0 insi0"ts about t"e p'i0"t and c"aracter o% Po'and a'most a decade 'ater4 in "is post"umous'# pub'is"ed autobio0rap"# in 1*3?4 I t"ou0"t to brin0 to t"e %urt"er appreciation o% a modern audience4 b# .a# o% soberin0 counterpoint4 ."at )aHor 9enera' D.E.1. Eu''er a'so "as .ritten about t"e decisi,e 2att'e o% 3arsa.4 1*20@and t"en a'so about some o% t"e %ruits o% t"e 1*44 ;ormand# In,asion and t"e ,en0e%u' 1*4G conc'usion o% 3or'd 3ar II4 ."ic" %urt"er imp'emented ."at "ad been pub'ic'# stated in Danuar# o% 1*434 at t"e time o% t"e decisi,e 2att'e o% Sta'in0rad (."ic" conc'uded on 2 Eebruar# 1*43)= name'# t"e %ate%u' Dec'aration o% Inconditiona' Surrender8 at 1asab'anca4 in ;ort" &%rica (b# 3. 1"urc"i'' and E.D. Roose,e't). &s .e approac" t"e #ear o% 2014 and t"e "undredt" anni,ersar# o% t"e inception o% 3or'd 3ar I4 .e ma# a'so 'earn some t"in0s about t"e meanin0 o% t"e 1*20 2att'e o% 3arsa. and about "o. t"in0s .ere to be a /uarter o% a centur# 'ater ."en t"e same 2o's"e,iks ."o .ere ear'ier de%eated b# t"e Po'es no. occupied muc" o% Bastern and 1entra' Burope4 and not on'# Po'and4 ."o "ad a0ain been betra#ed b# "er a''ies4 and t"is time a'so mi'itari'# o,er."e'med and de%eated b# "er open enem#.

1 9.:. 1"esterton4 The Illustrated London News !"#$%!"#& (Fo'ume JJJIF o% G.K. Chesterton' Colle(ted Wor)s) (San Erancisco= I0natius Press4 1**1)@see t"e artic'es= & 1rucia' Hour %or Po'and8 (Dune 2G4 1*2+)6 C"e Po'is" Idea'8 (Du'# 24 1*2+)6 and C"e )#stica' 1ities o% Po'and8 (Du'# *4 1*2+)4 pa0es 32*(3334 333(33+4 33+(3414 respecti,e'#. C"e Po'is" Idea'48 an especia''# bri''iant and 0enerous("earted piece4 .as 'ater re(pub'is"ed under anot"er tit'e4 C.o 3ords %rom Po'and48 and put into 9.:. 1"esterton5s ant"o'o0#4 Generally *pea)ing (;e. <ork= Dodd4 )ead > 1ompan#4 1*2* @%irst pub'is"ed in Kondon in 1*28)4 pp. 4*(GG.

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In order to capture our attention and e,en per"aps to stun us ."o'esome'# at t"e outset@and de'iberate'# so be%ore .e s"a'' be considerin0 t"e momentous e,ents and imp'ications o% 1*20@'et us consider no. ."at 9enera' Eu''er trenc"ant'# sa#s about t"e true %ruits o% t"e 1*44 2att'e o% ;ormand#. 3it" "is .e''(kno.n 'ucidit# and mora' %orce4 "e .i'' prepare us .it" some %undamenta' %acts and t"en conc'ude "is c"apter .it" one especia''# acute and memorab'e para0rap". C"at is to sa#4 "is o.n .e''(considered summar# ,ie.4 as o% 1*G+4 is compact'# stated in on'# one para0rap"4 comin0 %rom one o% "is masterpieces4 A Military History of the Western World 4 Fo'ume III.2 Eirst4 "is preparator# %acts= C"e doom ."ic"4 since t"e $Dune 1*44- a''ied 'andin0s in ;ormand#4 "ad t"reatened Hit'er 'ike t"e open Ha.s o% some monster4 c'osed .it" a snap. !n &pri' 2* $1*4G- 9enera' Heinric" ,on Fietin0"o%%4 in command o% t"e 9erman %orces in Ita'#4 .it" near'# one mi''ion men4 surrendered unconditiona''# to $2ritis"- Eie'd()ars"a' &'eLander. &t 3=30 P.). on t"e %o''o.in0 da# Hit'er s"ot "imse'%4 and on 2ay 2* the 3ussians esta)lished themselves in Berlin . C.o da#s 'ater4 &dmira' Eriedebur0 and ot"er representati,es o% t"e 9erman Hi0" 1ommand4 at $2ritis" Eie'd()ars"a'- )ont0omer#5s tactica' "ead/uarters on $in- t"e KMnebur0er Heide $in ;ort"ern 9erman#-4 ."ere in 1*3G Hit'er "ad "e'd "is %irst manoeu,res4 si0ned an armistice pro,idin0 %or t"e surrender o% t"e 9erman %orces in nort"(.est 9erman#4 Denmark4 and Ho''and. C"ree da#s 'ater $+ )a#- t"e instrument o% t"e 3e"rmac"t5s unconditiona' surrender .as si0ned b# Dod' and Eriedebur0 at Bisen"o.er5s "ead/uarters in R"eims6 at midni0"t )a# 8(* $1*4G- hostilities +eased 4si+5* and on 2ay 9 the 3ussians mar+hed into /rague. (G8+(G8*) &%ter presentin0 t"ese %undamenta' %acts a'on0 .it" some mature'# discip'ined iron#4 9enera' Eu''er .i'' no. come out e,en more %ort"ri0"t'# .it" some o% t"e imp'ications %or Burope o% t"at purported cessation o% "osti'ities= Eor t"e Inited States and 9reat 2ritain4 the fruits of the )attle of Normandy were a&&les of 6odom* whi+h turned to ashes as soon as they were &lu+(ed . Hit'er and "is 'e0ions .ere destro#ed4 and in their stead stood 6talin and his 7siati+ hordes. 2ecause Fictor#@,ictor# at a'' costs8 $3inston 1"urc"i''5s repeated .ords4 especia''# a%ter 22 Dune 1*41- "ad been t"e .estern a''ies5 aim4 and because o% t"eir insistence t"at 5it .as to be t"e de%eat4 ruin4 and s'au0"ter
2 D.E.1. Eu''er4 A Military History of the Western World4 Fo'ume III o% t"ree ,o'umes (;e. <ork= Da 1apo Press Paperback4 1**2@an unabrid0ed ,ersion o% t"e ori0ina' 1*G+ edition b# Rut0ers Ini,ersit# Press)4 p. G8*. Eu''er dedicated "is t"ree ,o'umes to Erancis ;ei'son4 t"e aut"or on How +iplo,ats Ma)e War (1*1G). !n pa0es G8+(G8*4 "e prepares us %or "is %ina' summar# para0rap"4 a'on0 .it" presentin0 us4 on pa0e G884 .it" an "istorica' map o% Burope comparin0 t"e Bastern Erontier o% 1"ar'ema0ne5s Bmpire .it" t"e ne. 1*4G 3estern Erontier o% t"e Russian Bmpire. Hence%ort"4 a'' emp"asis in t"e cited teLts %rom 9enera' Eu''er5s book .i'' "a,e been added b# t"e current .riter4 un'ess ot"er.ise indicated. C"e pa0e re%erences to t"e cited teLts .i'' be p'aced in parent"eses in t"e main bod# o% t"is essa#.

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o% Hit'er4 to the e8+lusion of all other &ur&oses* loyalties and aims 5 $3. 1"urc"i''5s o.n .ords4 o%t(repeated and maniaca''# so-4 6talin* the su&reme realist* whose 4military5 strategy 4and grand strategy5 had throughout (e&t in ste& with his &oli+y4 "ad been a)le to im&ose his messiani+ +ult upon Bstonia4 Kat,ia4 Kit"uania4 part o% Ein'and4 Po'and4 eastern and centra' 9erman#4 a t"ird o% &ustria4 17ec"os'o,akia4 <u0os'a,ia4 Hun0ar#4 Rumania4 and 2u'0aria. Fienna4 Pra0ue4 and 2er'in4 the verte)rae of %uro&e4 .ere "is4 eLcept %or &t"ens4 so .as e,er# capita' cit# in eastern Burope. ,he western frontier of 3ussia "ad been ad,anced %rom t"e Pripet )ars"es to t"e C"urin0er.a'd4 a distance o% +G0 mi'es4 and as in the days of "harlemagne* the 6lavs stood on the %l)e and the B9hmerwald. 7 thousand years of %uro&ean history had )een rolled )a+( . 6u+h were the fruits of the )attle of Normandy* fru+tified )y ine&t strategy and a &oli+y of &ure destru+tion . (G8*) 9enera' Eu''er 'ater %ormu'ated4 on t"e ,er# 'ast pa0e o% "is 'ast ,o'ume in 1*G+ (Fo'ume III)4 t"e %o''o.in0 c"a''en0e4 in t"e %orm o% interro0ation= ,he su&reme 1uestion set )y the 6e+ond World War is = 3"ic" $banner- .i'' be "au'ed do.n $ t"e Stars and Stripes8 or t"e Hammer and Sick'e8@i.e.4 no. t"at4 as o% 1*G+4 t"e Inion Dack4 t"e banner o% t"e -a. /ritanni(a4 "as no. been %ur'ed8 (?3?)-N Is t"e %uture to see a -a. A,eri(ana or a -a. Tartari(aN (?3?) In "is brie% and cautious ans.er to "is o.n /uestion4 9enera' Eu''er makes a rep'#4 and t"en adds a conc'udin0 /uestion ."ic" reminds us o% t.o o% t"is 2ritis" 0enera'5s o.n &merican contemporaries4 3"ittaker 1"ambers and Dames 2urn"am= 3e "a7ard to su00est t"at t"e ans.er .i'' be %ound4 not in t"e contendin0 military stren0t"s o% t"e Inited States and t"e So,iet Inion4 but in t"eir antagonisti+ po'itica'4 socia'4 economic and +ultural s#stems. 3"ic" o% t"e t.o is the more fitted to so',e t"e crucia' prob'em set to mankind b# t"e Industria' Re,o'ution@the status of man4 "is 0o,ernment and way of life in a %u''# mec"ani7ed $and no. t"e e'ectronic or e,en a more %u''# te+hnetroni+8 (O. 2r7e7inski)- .or'dN 2ecause o% t"e decisi,e4 indeed turnin0(point batt'e o% Sta'in0rad ('ate 1*42(2 Eebruar# 1*43)4 9enera' Eu''er .i'' a'so %ittin0'# "e'p our understandin0 o% t"e conse/uent mora' p'i0"t o% t"e 9erman mi'itar# (and ci,i'ian) resistance to Hit'er@especia''# a%ter t"e "ars" aim o% unconditiona' surrender8 .as pub'ic'# announced at t"e Danuar# 1*43 1asab'anca 1on%erence4 and t"e 9erman resistance soon 'earned o% it and "ad to dea' .it" t"is ne. %act4 0i,en t"eir 'i,in0 memories o% t"e Creat# o% Fersai''es 4

(to0et"er .it" t"e Creat# o% Crianon)4 ."ic" .as4 a'on0 .it" t"e one(#ear4 post(3ar b'ockade4 and unmistakab'# merci'ess and ,en0e%u' 1art"a0inian Peace8= Sta'in0rad .as a se+ond /oltava $."ere Peter t"e 9reat o% Russia surprised and de%eated t"e po.er%u' S.edes- in ."ic" Hit'er .as as muc" o% t"e arc"itect o% "is o.n ruin as .as 1"ar'es JII $t"e S.edis" :in0- in 1+0*. Into t"e minds o% a "undred mi''ion )usco,ites flashed the myth of 6oviet invin+i)ility* and it forged them into the ,ur(s of the North . I% t"e# cou'd o,ercome t"e 'e0ions o% Hit'er4 ."at "ad t"e# to %ear %rom t"e nations "e "ad tramp'ed in t"e dustN C"e 9erman ,ictories "ad t"ro.n Burope into c"aos and so "ad b'a7ed a trai' %or t"e C"ird Rome $ i.e.4 )osco.-. ,his de+isive vi+tory $at Sta'in0rad-4 ."ic" came on t"e "ee's o% B' &'amein4 and at t"e moment ."en in $strate0ic- Cunisia t"e Eascist cause "ad reac"ed its nadir4 ins&ired &ro&aganda0into8i+ated &eo&les of the west . Sta'in0rad eLa'ted Sta'in into t"e c"ampion o% a'' %or ."ic" t"e# $t"e .est- so ardent'# #earned. Cra0ica''# t"e# .ere to be disi''usioned. (G38) ;o. 9enera' Eu''er .i'' 'ead us to a consideration o% ."# t"e .ar .as not ended soon a%ter 2 Eebruar# 1*434 but .as to 0o on4 and so destructi,e'#4 %or more t"at t.o more #ears= In spite o% t"e ,astness o% t"e 9erman de%eat4 Sta'in0rad .as on'# t"e si0na' o% Hit'er5s ruin@it .as not its cause. C"is4 as described in 1"apter 11 $ C"e 2att'es %or )osco.8-4 .as because in "is b'ind arro0ance he had failed to differentiate bet.een potentia' %riends amon0 t"e subHu0ated peop'es o% t"e I.S.S.R. and "is acti,e enemies. &'so4 9reat 2ritain and t"e Inited States +ommitted the same )lunder when they did not distinguish bet.een t"e ;a7i and anti(;a7i %actions in 9erman#4 and did not esta)lish a se+ond front $pre%erab'# an inner %ront8- t"e# .ere seekin0 within instead of outside t"e %rontiers o% t"e C"ird Reic". :ad they done so4 ."i'e sti'' supportin0 $sicRussia4 t"e 9erman d0b1(le at Sta'in0rad .ou'd "a,e o&ened to t"em the road whi+h almost +ertainly would have led to the end of the war in the s&ring or summer of 194;. (G38) ;o. ."at about t"e 9erman mi'itar# resistance to Hit'er at t"e be0innin0 o% 1*434 especia''# %rom some o% t"e senior o%%icersN 9enera' Eu''er4 in "is combined researc" and mora' ana'#sis4 .i'' s"ed %urt"er 'i0"t upon t"is important matter4 I be'ie,e= 2ecause o% t"e point'ess sacri%ice o% t"e $9erman- SiLt" &rm# $at Sta'in0rad-4 ne,er at an# time durin0 t"e .ar .as re,o't a0ainst Hit'er nearer to success t"an in Danuar#4 1*43. 9enera's 2eck and Oeit7'er and most o% t"e %ie'd( mars"a's .ere in,o',ed4 )ut without some assuran+e of British and 7meri+an su&&ort t"e# "ad not"in0 to o%%er t"e 'ar0e midd'e 0roup o% o%%icers ."o .a,ered. &%ter t"e .ar one o% t"e conspirators said to )r. Erancis Russe''= G

!ur conspirac# .as a 0reat tra0ed#. We might have ended the war a year and a half earlier if your government had given us some en+ouragement....3e "ad our intermediaries in S.eden6 .e .anted to kno. ."at the 7nglo07meri+an +onditions .ou'd be4 what terms they would give a ne. $9erman- 0o,ernment if .e succeeded in doin0 a.a# .it" Hit'er. C"e# took our memorandum4 it .as 0i,en to Bden $t"e 2ritis" minister and Eorei0n Secretar#4 &nt"on# Bden-@but there was never a re&ly.8 (G38(G3*) )ore speci%ica''# no.4 .e s"ou'd %urt"er consider "o. t"e 1asab'anca 1on%erence a%%ected t"e 9erman Resistance ."ic"4 e,en durin0 t"eir o.n nation5s .ar4 .anted4 %or t"e 0reater common 0ood48 to rep'ace &do'% Hit'er= !n Danuar# 22 $1*43- the two main re)el fa+tions@t"ose ."o .anted %orcib'# to remove Hit'er4 ."ic" cou'd on'# mean assassination4 and t"ose ."o .anted to su)<e+t "im to t"e 9enera' Sta%%@met in t"e "ouse o% 1ount Peter ,on 3artenbur0 in 2er'in(Kic"ter%e'de to s1uare their differen+es. C"en4 on t"e %o''o.in0 da# $23 Danuar#-4 be%ore t"e# "ad arri,ed at a decision4 Roose,e't5s and 1"urc"i''5s proc'amation o% unconditiona' surrender came %rom 1asab'anca6 a %ormu'a ."ic"48 9Pr'it7 dec'ares gave the death )low to any ho&e t"at ma# "a,e been entertained eit"er b# t"e 5s"ado. 0o,ernment5 or b# oppositiona' e'ements in t"e 9enera' Sta%%4 t"at t"eir enemies .ou'd ne0otiate .it" a 5respectab'e5 0o,ernment.8 (G3*) Ha,in0 Hust /uoted t"e 1*G3 book4 entit'ed The Ger,an General *taff4 "e adds anot"er insi0"t%u' /uote %rom t"e book4 The *truggle for 2urope4 b# 1"ester 3i'mot4 ."o .rote= 3"en t"e &''ies proc'aimed t"eir demand %or Inconditiona' Surrender8 e,en $9erman- commanders 'ike ,on :'u0e and $e,en- ,on $sic- 2anstein4 ."o %oresa. ."ere Hit'er5s po'ic# .as 'eadin0 $and ."o .as "imse'% as an o%%icer especia''# be'o,ed b# a'' "is men-4 refused to a+t against him. Since it seemed t"at t"e &''ies .ere determined to destro# t"e 9erman mi'itar# caste.... (G3*) 3"at 0ra,e conse/uences came out o% t"is true tra0ed#4 immediate'# and 0radua''# and cumu'ati,e'#Q Ho. man# 'i,es cou'd "a,e been spared and "o. man# countries cou'd "a,e been spared o% t"e "ea,# #oke o% 1ommunist oppression4 i% 9erman# .ou'd "a,e (and cou'd "a,e) made a Hust peace .it" t"e 3est t"en@per"aps .it" t"e mora''# %orce%u' (as distinct %rom in,ertebrate) inter,ention o% t"e Papac#.

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&ccordin0 to B''iot Roose,e't (in "is o.n 1*4? book As He *aw It)4 t"e I.S. President5s son4 ."o .as present .it" "is %at"er at a sma'' pri,ate meetin0 in 1asab'anca on 23 Danuar# 1*43 .it" 1"urc"i'' and Harr# Hopkins4 "is %at"er "ad said about t"eir p"rase unconditiona' surrender48 as %o''o.s= =f +ourse it>s <ust the thing for the 3ussians! ,hey +ouldn>t want anything )etter! ?n+onditional surrender@ ?n+le oe might have made it u& himself.8 (G0?(G0+) In response to t"is 'ike'# re'iab'e report4 9enera' Eu''er5s researc" s"o.s ot"er.ise= &s to Inc'e Doe4 though he never had any other intention t"an t"e unconditiona' surrender o% 9erman#4 he was not su+h a sim&leton to inform his enemy of it. & true discip'e o% Kenin4 on Eebruar# 234 1*434 "e pub'ic'# said= It .ou'd be ridicu'ous to identi%# Hit'er5s c'i/ue .it" t"e 9erman peop'e and t"e 9erman state.8 &nd t"at it was a stu&id lie and senseless slander 8 to proc'aim as t"e %orei0n press did4 t"at t"e aim o% t"e Red &rm# .as to eLterminate t"e 9erman peop'e and destro# t"e 9erman state.8 (G0+) Co add to t"e mora' %orce%u'ness o% "is o.n commentar#4 9enera' Eu''er s"o.s "o. 9oebbe's made some o% "is o.n rea'istic comments4 'ike Sta'in4 about t"e imp'ications o% t"at Danuar# 1*43 Proc'amation o% Inconditiona' Surrender and ear'ier ana'o0ous ps#c"o'o0ica' t"emes or s'o0ans= 9oebbe's@a past(master in propa0anda@must "a,e been o,erHo#ed. !n )arc" 2+4 1*424 "e "ad entered in "is diar#= I% I .ere on t"e enem# side4 I s"ou'd %rom t"e ,er# %irst da# "a,e adopted t"e s'o0an o% %i0"tin0 a0ainst ;a7ism4 )ut not a0ainst t"e 9erman peop'e. C"at is how 4Neville5 "ham)erlain )egan on t"e %irst da#s o% t"e .ar4 but4 t"ank 9od4 t"e Bn0'is" didn5t pursue t"is 'ine.8 &nd4 on &pri' 124 1*43 $9oebbe's .rote-= 2ut4 a%ter a''4 t"e Bn0'is" are ma(ing the same mista(e* no dou)t at 4Winston5 "hur+hill>s instigation. C"e# re%rain %rom sa#in0 an#t"in0 tangi)le about t"eir war aims. I can on'# t"ank 9od6 %or i% t"e# .ere to put up a peace pro0ramme $t"e peace aims8- on t"e 'ine o% $3oodro.- 3i'son5s Eourteen Points t"e# .ou'd undoubted'# create 0reat di%%icu'ties %or us.8 (G0+) ;onet"e'ess 9enera' Eu''er 'ea,es t"e 'ast comment on t"e nature and e%%ects o% 1asab'anca5s Dec'aration to a senior and .e''(p'aced Bn0'is" o%%icia'4 Kord Hanke#4 %irst sa#in0 about "im and "is 'on0 eLperience t"at= Since 1*0? Kord Hanke# .as successi,e'# 1'erk o% t"e Pri,# 1ounci'4 Secretar# o% t"e 1abinet and 1ommittee o% Imperia' De%ense4 and member o% t"e 3ar 1abinet.8 (G0*) Indeed4 sa#s Eu''er4 and %ittin0'# no. /uotin0 Kord Hanke# at 'en0t"=

+

=f all the <udgments ."ic" "a,e been passed on this monstrous and momentous slogan $ unconditiona' surrender8-4 t"e most po.er%u' is t"e one made b# a statesman the )est 1ualified to ma(e it. In "is book -oliti(s Trials and 2rrors $pub'is"ed in 1*G0-4 Kord Hanke# .rites= It embittered t"e .ar $and its a%termat"4 o% course-4 rendered ine,itab'e a %i0"t to t"e %inis"4 ban0ed t"e door on an# possibi'it# o% eit"er side o%%erin0 terms or openin0 up ne0otiations4 0a,e t"e 9ermans and Dapanese t"e coura0e o% despair4 stren0t"ened Hit'er5s position as 9erman#5s 5on'# "ope54 aided 9oebbe's5 propa0anda4 and made ine,itab'e t"e ;ormand# 'andin0 and t"e subse/uent terrib'# eL"austin0 and destructi,e ad,ance t"rou0" ;ort" Erance4 2e'0ium4 KuLembur04 Ho''and and 9erman#. ,he lengthening of the war ena)led 6talin to o++u&y the whole of eastern %uro&e4 to rin0 do.n t"e iron curtain and so to rea'i7e at one s.oop a 'ar0e insta''ment o% his avowed aims a0ainst so(ca''ed +a&italism $and %urt"er to manipu'ate and pro%it %rom t"e .ar o% ri,a' capita'ismsQ-4 in ."ic" "e in+ludes so+ial demo+ra+y. 2# disposin0 o% a'' t"e more competent administrators in 9erman# and Dapan t"is po'ic# made treat#( makin0 impossib'e a%ter t"e .ar and retarded reco,er# and reconstruction4 not on'# in 9erman# and Dapan4 but e,er#."ere e'se. It ma# a'so pro,e to "a,e poisoned our %uture re'ations .it" eL(enem# countries $in suc" an em)ittered aftermath o% t"e .ar-. ;ot on'# t"e enem# countries4 but near'# a'' countries .ere b'ed ."ite b# t"is po'ic# $o% unconditiona' surrender8-4 ."ic" "as 'e%t us a''4 eLcept t"e Inited States o% &merica4 impo,eris"ed and in dire straits. In%ortunate'# a'so4 these &oli+ies* so +ontrary to the s&irit of the 6ermon on the 2ount4 did not"in0 to stren0t"en the moral &osition of the 7llies $."ic" re0rettab'#4 .it" t"e permission o% Pope Pius JII4 inc'uded t"e I.S.S.R.-. (G0*) In "is 'ater brie% summar# o% t"e momentous #ear o% 1*434 9enera' Eu''er4 'est .e missed "is point4 a0ain trenc"ant'# sa#s= C"e #ear 1*43 .as one o% decisi,e po'itica' c"an0es t"at s"aped t"e outcome o% t"e .ar and radica''# in%'uenced t"e course o% "istor#. It opened .it" t"e proc'amation o% unconditiona' surrender at 1asab'anca and b# its em&hasis on a .ar o% anni"i'ation )ereft t"e western a''ies5 cause of a sane aim4 a decision ."ic" Sta'in .as not s'o. to capita'i7e. Sta'in sou0"t $%or eLamp'e- to eLp'oit t"e 3est5s ent"usiasm o,er t"e So,iet ,ictor# at Sta'in0rad4 and resorted to Kenin5s maLim= one step back to 0ain t.o steps %or.ard.8 !n )a# 22 $1*43"e announ+ed t"e disso'ution o% t"e 1omintern $t"e 1ommunist C"ird Internationa'84 ."ic" Kenin "ad %ounded in )arc"4 1*1*- and so deluded the British and 7meri+an &eo&les and governments into a )elief t"at t"e :rem'in "ad abandoned %or e,er its po'ic# o% inter%erence in t"e interna' a%%airs o% ot"er countries....(G43) I% .e no. re%'ecti,e'# return a /uarter o% a centur# to ."at t"e Po'es "ad to %ace in 1*20 a0ainst t"e 2o's"e,iks o% t"e time4 .e ma# come to appreciate ."at Burope .as spared %rom4 and ."at t"e Po'is" ,ictor# o,er t"e 2o's"e,iks4 b'ocked %or a'most t.ent# #ears= unti' t"e So,iet Inion in,aded 8

Po'and on 1+ September 1*3*4 'ess t"an t"ree .eek a%ter t"e 9erman attack. In one .a#4 t"e Po'is" ,ictor# at t"e 2att'e o% 3arsa.4 1*204 .as a pre,enti,e .ar. Eor4 it pre,ented t"e 2o's"e,ik arm# under )ikai' Cuk"ac"e,ski %rom mo,in0 on to 9erman#. Some sc"o'ars are no. con,inced t"at t"e 9erman attack into t"e So,iet Inion4 ."ic" be0an some t.ent# #ears 'ater4 on 22 Dune 1*414 .as a'so a pre,enti,e attack ."ic" a'so pre(empted ."at t"e So,iet 'e0ions4 in o%%ensi,e %ormations4 .ere about to 'aunc" more broad'# a0ainst a .ar(.ear# and eL"austed Burope4 intendin0 to reac" e,en %urt"er t"an ."ere t"e# %ina''# did4 in 1*4G. 2ut4 because t"is obHecti,e matter dea's .it" 9erman#4 it is sti'' ideo'o0ica''# and o%ten unHust'# acrimonious and eLp'osi,e. Sometimes4 t"e topic seems to be so tabu t"at #ou cannot e,en sa# t"at t"e topic is tabuQ So muc" %or discip'ine and obHecti,e "istorica' researc" ."ic" seeks to 0rasp t"e trut" o% t"e past in proper proportion4 and not to read "istor# back.ards4 as it .ere. ;o. to return to Po'and in 1*204 'ess t"an t.o #ears a%ter t"e &rmistice o% ;o,ember 1*18 and its o.n eL"austin0 and embittered a%termat"4 .it" t"e disso'ution o% se,era' 'on0(standin0 empires. In 1*?14 in one o% "is 'ast books@a book ."ic" man# t"ink is "is best@)aHor(9enera' D.E.1. Eu''er reca''s to us t"e settin0 on t"e eastern %rontier o% Po'and in 1*206 and "is mature .ords in 1*?1 are .ort" our deep consideration be%ore .e return to "is 'on0er and ear'ier 1*G?(1*G+ Military History of the Western World. In 9enera' Eu''er5s 'ater book4 The Condu(t of War !3&"%!"$!' A *tudy of the I,pa(t of the 4ren(h Industrial and 5ussian 5e6olutions on War and Its Condu(t 43 "e sa#s= C"e ci,i' .ar $in Russia- reac"ed its c'imaL in t"e autumn o% 1*1* and t"e .inter o% 1*206 one b# one t"e 3"ite Russian 0enera's .ere de%eated4 in part b# 2o's"e,ik propa0anda4 in part b# t"e Red &rm#4 but in t"e main because t"eir aim $i.e.4 t"e aim o% t"e 3"ite Russian 0enera's and admira's- .as to restore t"e o'd re0ime4 and t"is 'ost to t"em t"e support o% t"e peasants4 ."o %eared t"at t"eir recent'# 0ained 'ands .ou'd be restored to t"eir %ormer o.ners. &s t"e ci,i' .ar petered out4 t"e $mu'ti(nationa'4 %orei0ninter,entionist %orces $a tota' o% near'# 3004000 men b# t"e end o% 1*18- .ere .it"dra.n4 but Russia5s troub'es .ere not ended. !n 2Gt" &pri' 1*204 t"e Po'es4 under )ars"a' Dosep" Pi'sudski $18?+(1*3G-4 ad,anced on :ie, $in t"e Ikraine-6 .ere driven )a+( to Warsaw where )etween 1A th and 2Bth 7ugust 419205* the 4young and fier+e5 Bolshevi( general 2i(ail ,u(ha+hevs(i 41C92019;D5 was 4sur&rised and5 routed 4 and +entral %uro&e saved from a 6oviet invasion. (1*G(1*?)
3 D.E.1. Eu''er4 The Condu(t of War !3&"%!"$! (Kondon= B#re > Spottis.oode4 1*?1)@it .as soon reprinted in 1*?24 and a'so o%ten t"erea%ter4 inc'udin0 in t"e Inited States4 b# Da 1apo Press. C"is book is tru'# a c'assic4 and one ma# not encoura0e its c'ose readin0 and sa,orin0 o%ten enou0"4 I be'ie,e.

*

9enera' Eu''er4 a%ter %irst re%errin0 to Cuk"ac"e,ski5s o.n estimate o% t"is decisi,e batt'e and "is admitted de%eat4 0oes on to summari7e ."at Po'and4 b# its uneLpected mi'itar# ,ictor#4 speci%ica''# did and protected6 and "e a'so "onors t"e 2ritis" ambassador4 Kord D5&bernon and "is o.n 1*31 book= Kord $Bd0ar Fincent- D5&bernon $18G+(1*41-4 2ritis" ambassador to 9erman# bet.een 1*20(1*2?4 entit'ed "is "istor# o% t"e campai0n The 2ighteenth +e(isi6e /attle in the World $1*31-4 ."ic" in no way e8aggerates its im&ortan+e4 %or "ad Po'and succumbed $in t"e 'on0er Po'is"(2o's"e,ik 3ar-4 t"ere .as not"in0 to pre,ent Cuk"ac"e,ski5s horde %rom penetratin0 into 9erman#. Kenin5s comment s"o.s t"at this .as "is u'timate aim4 "e sa#s= 2# attackin0 Po'and4 .e are attackin0 t"e &''ies6 b# destro#in0 t"e Po'is" &rm#4 .e are destro#in0 t"e Fersai''es Peace upon ."ic" rests t"e ."o'e s#stem o% present internationa' re'ations. Had Po'and become so,ieti7ed...t"e Fersai''es Peace $ a hundred times more humiliating and ra&a+ious than our Brest /ea+e $i.e.4 t"e 2rest(Kito,sk Creat# o% ; 2ar+h 191C .it" t"e ne. 2o's"e,ik 0o,ernment and 9erman#-8- .ou'd "a,e been terminated4 and t"e s#stem bui't on t"e ,ictor# o,er 9erman# .ou'd "a,e been destro#ed 'ike.ise.8 (1*?) &%ter t"ese .ords b# D5&bernon and b# Kenin4 ."o a'.a#s considered 9erman# to be the strategi+al +entre of gravity of %uro&e48 (33G)4 9enera' Eu''er speaks in summar# o% t"e a%termat" o% t"e 2att'e o% 3arsa.4 1*20= !n 12 !ctober 1*20 $a%ter t"e desperate4 e,en panicked4 retreat o% t"e 2o's"e,iks .it" t"eir main Kines o% 1ommunication "a,in0 been surprisin0'# cut b# Pi'sudski and "is troops-4 an armisti+e .as a0reed bet.een Po'and and Russia4 and on 18t" )arc" $1*21-4 t"e %o''o.in0 #ear4 &ea+e .as si0ned at Ri0a $in Kat,ia-4 and the ho&ed for &roletarian world revolution was &ut into +old storage. (1*?) In "is Military History of the Western World (Fo'ume III)4 9enera' Eu''er "ad a'so said= Erom t"e ear'iest da#s o% t"e re,o'ution t"ere .as one assumption upon ."ic" a'' o% t"e 2o's"e,ik 'eaders .ere a0reed6 the revolution +ould not survive unless it )e+ame world0wide. It c"a''en0ed t"e eListin0 order o% societ#4 socia''#4 po'itica''#4 and economica''#. It not on'# o%%ered t"e .or'd a ne. .a# o% 'i%e4 but its ad"erents "e'd t"at it cou'd not be estab'is"ed permanent'# until t"e o'd .a# .as destro#ed. &s ear'# as &pri' 144 1*1+4 Kenin "ad proc'aimed
4 In "is Fo'ume III o% "is Military History of the Western World4 9enera' Eu''er eLpresses t"is important strate0ic matter more %u''#= Germany was the hu) o% t"e .or'd re,o'ution %or Kenin and Crotsk# because she was the strategi+al +entre of gravity of %uro&e. !nce s"e .as .on4 t"e rest o% Burope .ou'd become untenab'e $or at 'east Ein'andi7ed8and cou'd be con/uered. &nd ."en %uro&e .as redu+ed to a &osition of a 6oviet satra&y4 t"e )editerranean .ou'd a'so become untenab'e4 and t"e )idd'e Bast cou'd be 2o's"e,i7ed and &%rica sub,erted. Eina''#4 ."en t"e ."o'e o% t"e !'d 3or'd .as so,ieti7ed4 the &sy+hologi+al +on1uest o% t"e ;e. 3or'd cou'd be undertaken and t"e So,iet Repub'ic o% t"e 3or'd estab'is"ed. (33G(33?)

10

t"at 3or'd Imperia'ism cannot 'i,e side b# side .it" a ,ictorious So,iet Re,o'ution.8 (334) $Kenin "imse'% .as to die 'ess t"an se,en #ears 'ater4 on 21 Danuar# 1*244 t"ree #ears a%ter t"e conc'usion o% t"e Po'is"(2o's"e,ik 3ar.3e ma# 0'impse "o. some o% t"e 3estern Buropean countries e%%ecti,e'# p'a#ed into Kenin5s "ands8 a%ter t"e "ars" cessation o% 3or'd 3ar I and its &rmistice o% ;o,ember 1*18= In order to ma(e this 4revolutionary5 su)versive war world0wide 4 in )arc"4 1*1* $i.e.4 'ess t"an a #ear be%ore t"e decisi,e 1*20 2att'e o% 3arsa.-4 Kenin %ounded t"e C"ird Internationa'4 or "omintern. an instrument to unite all +ommunist &arties outside 3ussia in the struggle for world revolution* and its first tas( was to esta)lish a +ommunist rEgime in Germany. !n t"e insisten+e o% PoincarR4 1'emenceau4 Eoc" $N-4 and :'ot7 in Erance4 and ot"ers in 9reat 2ritain4 Germany was still under )lo+(ade $and star,in04 .it" man# innocent c"i'dren merci'ess'# d#in0 durin0 t"is crue' #ear-4 and out of des&eration many Germans had turned to Bolshevism. 6o +om&letely did the /aris &ea+ema(ers &lay into Fenin>s hands t"at4 in "is o.n .ords4 "is p'an .as Co unite t"e pro'etariat o% industria' 9erman#4 &ustria and 17ec"os'o,akia .it" t"e pro'etariat o% Russia4 and t"ereb# +reate a mighty a0rarian and industria' +om)ination %rom F'adi,ostok to t"e R"ine4 %rom t"e Einnis" 9u'% to t"e b'ue .aters o% t"e Danube4 capab'e o% %eedin0 itse'% and con%rontin0 t"e reactionar# capita'ism o% 2ritain .it" a $2o's"e,i7ed( So,ieti7ed- revolutionary giant4 ."ic" .it" one "and .ou'd disturb t"e tran/ui'it# o% t"e Bast $&siaN- and .it" t"e ot"er )eat )a+( the &irate +a&italism of 7nglo06a8on +ountries. If t"ere is an#t"in0 t"at cou'd compe' the %nglish whale to dan+e4 it .ou'd be the union of revolutionary 3ussia with a revolutionary "entral %uro&e $"ence 9erman# as .e'' as Po'and-.8 (334(33G) 2e%ore 9enera' Eu''er .i'' ,i,id'# introduce us to t"e Cartar('ike )ikai' Cuk"ac"e,ski4 "e .ants to recapitu'ate Kenin5s strate0ic 0oa' and conse/uent re,o'utionar# met"ods o% conductin0 .ar= 2ecause .or'd re,o'ution .as Fenin>s strategi+al goal4 "is ta+ti+s a'so "ad to be re,o'utionar#. ,heir aim was not to persuade t"e enem# to c"an0e "is mind b# %orce o% arms4 )ut )y for+e of ideasGin other words to rot him internally and )ring him to destroy himself . 2e%ore t"e Creat# o% 2rest(Kito,sk $3 )arc" 1*18- "e "ad said4 Fet us give way in s&a+e* )ut gain time 48 because "e sa. t"at once re,o'ution .as kind'ed in t"e .est it .ou'd 0i,e back to Russia the s&a+e she had )artered4 and without a %i0"t. (33G) 3e a0ain4 in t"is 'i0"t4 s"ou'd consider t"e resu'ts to be seen in Burope in 1*4G4 some t.ent# #ears a%ter Kenin5s deat"4 and a%ter t"e Second 3or'd 3ar seemin0'# ended in Burope. 3e ma# .e'' contemp'ate t"e So,ieti7ed(Cartari7ed "ordes as t"e# .ere t"en strate0ica''# in p'ace in Burope4 ."i'e 11

t"e Inited States4 in some dire straits4 soon "ad to return %u''# to &sia and to t"e .ar a0ainst t"e tenacious and ,a'orous Dapanese. 9enera' Eu''er .i'' no. "e'p us consider ."at t"e Po'es temporari'# sa,ed us %rom4 ."at "e ca''s t"e &siatic side o% 2o's"e,ism8 (33*) and ."at one mi0"t eLpect %rom a ne. 9en0"is :"an5s mi'itari7ed Horde (?28) and its -a. Tartari(a8 (?3?)= C"e ci,i' .ar in Russia t"re. up a remarkab'e 0enera'@)ikai' Cuk"ac"e,ski $18*2(1*3+-. &n ab'e so'dier4 his outloo( on ci,i'i7ation so +losely refle+ted the 7siati+ side of Bolshevism t"at to understand t"e %uture trend o% t"e Russian Re,o'ution it is .ort"."i'e to eLamine it. 2orn in 18*2 o% a nob'e %ami'# ."ic" traced its descent back to t"e 1ounts o% E'anders4 a't"ou0" "is mot"er .as Ita'ian4 in +hara+ter he was ,artar . Erom "er "e in"erited "is Katin 'ooks4 b'ack "air4 and the 1ui+( wit whi+h ena)led him to &ro)e the 3ussian within him and the ,artar within the 3ussian . In 1*14 "e .as 0a7etted a sub('ieutenant in t"e Imperia' 9uard4 and in t"e %o''o.in0 #ear .as taken prisoner b# t"e 9ermans $and incarcerated in In0o'stadt48 in Ko.er 2a,aria-. (33*) 2asin0 "is o.n assessment o% a c'ose 1*28 stud# b# Pierre Eer,ac/ue4 a %e''o. prisoner .it" "im in 9erman#4 entit'ed Le (hef de l7ar,0e rouge Mi)ail Tu)a(he6s)i4 9enera' Eu''er 'eads us into a deeper depiction o% t"is Cartari7ed Russian= 2# instinct "e .as a romantic barbarian ."o a)horred western +iviliHation. He "ad the soul of Genghis #han* of =gdai and of Batu . &utocratic4 superstitious4 romantic and rut"'ess4 "e 'o,ed t"e open p'ains and t"e t"ud o% a t"ousand "oo%s4 and he loathed and feared the unromanti+ orderliness of +iviliHation. :e hated "hristianity and "hristian +ulture because t"e# "ad ob'iterated pa0anism and barbarism and "ad depri,ed "is %e''o. countr#men o% t"e ecstas# o% t"e 0od o% .ar and t"e 0'amour o% t"e carni,a' o% deat".8 &'so "e 'oat"ed t"e De.s because t"e# "e'ped inocu'ate t"e Russian .it" t"e pest o% ci,i'i7ation8 and t"e mora'e o% capita'ism.8 He said= C"e De. is a do04 son o% a do04 ."o so.s %'eas in e,er# 'and.8....He said to Eer,ac/ue4 a %e''o. prisoner= & demon or a 0od animates our race. 3e s"a'' make ourse',es drunk4 )e+ause we +annot yet ma(e the world drun(! ,hat will +ome .8.... Do not 'au0"48 rep'ied Cuk"ac"e,ski4 I "a,e to'd #ou t"at the 6lavs are in want of a new religion! ,hey are )eing given 2ar8ism6 )ut as&e+ts of that theology are too modern and too +iviliHed. It is possib'e to miti0ate t"at disa0reeab'e state b# returnin0 to our S'a, 0ods $Dasc"bo04 Stribo04 3o'os4 and a'so Pierum4 t"e 0od o% .ar and 'i0"tnin08-4 ."o .ere depri,ed o% t"eir prero0ati,e and stren0t"6 ne,ert"e'ess t"e# can soon re0ain t"em....Eor 'on0 I "a,e "esitated to c"oose m# particu'ar 0od6 but4 a%ter re%'ection4 I "a,e accepted 12

Pierum $as o% 1*1G-4 because on+e )arLism is t"rust upon Russia4 t"e most de,astatin0 .ars .i'' be 'et 'oose....3e s"a'' enter c"aos and .e s"a'' not 'ea,e it $c"aos- unti' ci,i'i7ation is reduced to tota' ruin.8 (33*(340) C"is depiction reminds one o% "a,in0 read &'eLander So'7"enits#n5s Lenin in 8uri(h94 t"ereb# a'so 0ettin0 inside t"e mind o% a destructi,e re,o'utionar#4 as one once did4 too4 in t"e no,e's o% Dostoie,ski. 9enera' Eu''er continues .it" "is mani%o'd'# re,ea'in0 commentar# on Cuk"ac"e,ski4 t"is stran0e ,o'canic man4 ."ose sou' .as in re,o't .it" ci,i'i7ation8 (340) and ."o .as destined to cross s.ords .it" Pi'sudski4 ."o .as as ,io'ent'# anti(Russian as "e .as anti(Buropean $especia''# anti( 9erman-.8 (340) 1oncernin0 Cuk"ac"e,ski4 Eu''er sa#s= In "is e#es4 destruction Husti%ied e,er#t"in0 because it un'ocked t"e door ."ic" 'ed to t"e road back to Se'Huk $t"e 11(13 t" centur# Curkis" D#nast# in 1entra' &sia-4 Cartar4 and Hun. Serious'#48 "e said4 it .ou'd be 0ood %or "umanit# .ere a'' books burnt4 so t"at .e cou'd bat"e in t"e %res" sprin0 o% i0norance. I e,en t"ink it is t"e so'e means o% pre,entin0 "uman(kind becomin0 steri'e.8 3"at "e #earned %or .as a return to I,an t"e Cerrib'e $1G30(1G84-6 t"en )osco. .i'' become t"e centre o% t"e .or'd o% barbarians.8 Had ;ic"o'as II $18?8(1+ Du'# 1*1+- but $more autocratica''#- %o''o.ed in t"e %ootsteps o% Peter t"e 9reat and 1at"erine II4 "o. doci'e t"e Russians .ou'd "a,e been4 for they love a des&ot.8 I% Kenin is a)le to disen+um)er Russia %rom t"e o'd scrap iron o% preHudices and de0westerniHe her4 I .i'' %o''o. "im. But he must raHe all to the ground4 and de'iberate'# "ur' us back into barbarism.8 (340) 3"at a 0ra,e 2inar# 3eapon8 Po'and and t"e 3est .ou'd "a,e "ad to %ace in t"is manic combination o% Kenin and Cuk"ac"e,ski. 2ut Cuk"ac"e,ski did not 'on0 sur,i,e Kenin5s deat"@ t"irteen #ears 'ater t"e barbarian 0enera' .ou'd a'so die4 at %ort#(%i,e #ears o% a0e. Eor4 it is so t"at4 In 19;D 6talin shot him4 and in 0ood'# compan#6 %or .it" Iboro,itc"4 Primoko,4 Putna and ot"ers he returned to his godG7nnihilation.8 (340) In part4 as is %ittin04 Cuk"ac"e,ski "ad to cross s.ords8 .it" anot"er man o% 0enius and stron0 c"aracter4 Dosep" Pi'sudski4 ."o4 .it" "is surprise maneu,er a0ainst "im across t"e Fistu'a Ri,er4 sa,ed Burope %rom 2o's"e,ism in 1*20. &bout Pi'sudski "imse'% (."o died in 1*3G4 t.o #ears be%ore Cuk"ac"e,ski)4 &mbassador Kord D5&bernon4 ."o "ad eLceptiona' kno.'ed0e o% "im48 (340) sa#s t"e %o''o.in04 as /uoted b# Eu''er=
G &'eLander So'7"enits#n4 Lenin in 8uri(h (;e. <ork= Earrar4 Straus and 9irouL4 1*+?)

13

&n ardent patriot and a man of immense +ourage and for+e of +hara+ter . & pronounced sceptic about ort"odoL met"ods4 ."et"er app'ied to mi'itar# a%%airs or po'itics6 he loves danger4 "is pu'se on'# beatin0 at a norma' rate ."en "e is in imminent persona' peri'....;eLt to dan0er4 "e is said to 'o,e intri0ue@a re,o'utionar# b# temperament and circumstances4 his ingrained &ro+livity is to the se+ret and indire+t.8 It .as t"ese c"aracteristics@coura0e4 unort"odoL#4 and secrec#@coup'ed .it" success4 ."ic" made Pi'sudski a 'e0endar# %i0ure. (340(341) 9enera' Eu''er5s entire 32(pa0e treatment (331(3?3) o% t"e back0round to4 and t"e batt'e o% 3arsa. s"ou'd be c'ose'# studied and re(read@bot" "is 1"ronic'e * (C"e Russian Re,o'ution) and its se/ue' 1"apter * (C"e 2att'e o% 3arsa.4 1*20). He t"en makes some conc'udin0 remarks= B,entua''#4 on &u0ust 2G $1*20-4 t"e remnants o% t"e So,iet &rm# o% t"e 3est reac"ed t"e 'ine 9rodno@east of Brest0Fitovs(@3'oda.a where the 4/olish5 &ursuit ended....In spite o% t"is 0reat ,ictor# $in t"e 2att'e o% 3arsa.the +am&aign was not ended4 and t.o separate operations %o''o.ed4 one in t"e sout" and t"e ot"er in t"e nort"....C"e second $to t"e nort"- .as 'ed b# Pi'sudski ."o4 after a 4i.e!* another@5 masterful manoeuvre4 attacked Cuk"ac"e,ski on 20 September4 destro#ed t"e So,iet C"ird &rm# in t"e batt'e o% ;iemen....C"is ,ictor# .as %o''o.ed b# t"e batt'e o% t"e S"ara (S7c7ara)4 in ."ic" t"e remnants o% t"e So,iet &rmies .ere driven )a+( to 2ins( $300 mi'es distant %rom 3arsa.4 and t"e p'ace o% Cuk"ac"e,ski5s o.n main( campai0n Head/uarters-. In t"ese t.o batt'es $a'one- Pi'sudski took G04000 prisoners and 1?0 0uns. !n !ctober 10 $1*20- an armistice .as a0reed4 and on 2ar+h 1C* 1921* )y the ,reaty of 3iga $t"e capita' o% Kat,ia- the eastern frontier of /oland was fi8ed as it stood until 19;9. (3?0) C"at is to sa#4 a%ter a'' o% t"is %i0"tin04 t"e eastern %rontier stood on'# %or s'i0"t'# more t"an ei0"teen #ears4 unti' 1+ September 1*3* and t"e return So,iet in,asion4 ."ic" a'so tar0eted 3arsa.. ;onet"e'ess4 t"is Peace Creat# o% Ri0a en"anced Po'is" mora'e and con%idence4 and at 'east pro,ided a temporar# stabi'it# o% boundaries6 and4 more broad'# in mi'itar# "istor#4 sa#s Eu''er= C"is marked t"e end o% a remarkab'e campai0n4 fought )etween im&rovised armies of limited siHe in a vast theatre of war . It .as a +am&aign of mo)ility and sur&rise* totally different from most of those fought during the World War 419140191C5. It .as a contest bet.een armies led mostly )y young generals4 and in whi+h +avalry 4Nota Bene* es&e+ially the /olish +avalry@5 &layed an im&ortant &art and %ie'd trenc"es no part at a''4 and a)ove all it was a war in whi+h men were more im&ortant than ,at0riel4 and generals more im&ortant than their staffs. (3?0) 14

&s .e dra. %ittin0'# to our conc'usion4 .e must care%u''# consider t"e "onest and re,e'ator# .itness o% t.o important persons4 a'on0 .it" t"e .ise commentar# o% 9enera' Eu''er "imse'%4 %rom ."om .e sti'' "a,e so muc" to 'earn4 and ."o no. sa#s= ,he influen+e of this de+isive vi+tory $in t"e 2att'e o% 3arsa.4 1*20- .as %u''# appreciated b# Cuk"ac"e,ski4 who lost it4 and b# Kord D5&bernon4 who wat+hed it. Iet* strange to say* its im&ortan+e was little gras&ed )y western %uro&e* and sin+e has remained little noti+ed. (3?0(3?1) Eirst4 .e consider t"e candid and "onest Cartari7ed 2arbarian 9enera'4 Cuk"ac"e,ski4 ."o4 soon a%ter "is de%eat48 .rote4 as %o''o.s4 ."en "e .as not /uite t"irt# #ears o% a0e= In a'' Buropean countries 1apita'ism .as sta00erin06 t"e .orkers .ere 'i%tin0 t"eir "ead and rus"in0 to arms. C"ere is not t"e s'i0"test doubt t"at4 had we )een vi+torious on the -istula 4 t"e re,o'ution .ou'd "a,e set 'i0"t to t"e entire continent o% Burope....BLported re,o'ution is possib'e... and had it not )een for our strategi+al mista(es and our defeat on the field of )attle 4 per"aps t"e Po'is" .ar .ou'd "a,e been t"e 'ink ."ic" .ou'd "a,e united t"e re,o'ution o% !ctober $1*1+- to t"e re,o'ution o% 3estern Burope.....C"ere cannot be t"e s'i0"test doubt t"at had we su++eeded in disruptin0 t"e Po'is" &rm# o% bour0eois and 'ords4 t"e re,o'ution o% t"e Po'is" c'ass .orkers .ou'd "a,e been a fait a((o,pli4 and the +onflagration would not have halted on the /olish frontiers. Kike an o,er."e'min0 torrent it .ou'd "a,e s.ept into 3estern Burope. ,he 3ed 7rmy will never forget this $%ai'ed- e8&eriment in e8&orted revolution4 and if ever t"e bour0eoisie o% Burope invites us to ne. stru00'es4 t"e Red &rm# will succeed in destro#in0 it and $in- %omentin0 re,o'ution in Burope.8 (3?1) Kater4 and one #ear be%ore "e pub'is"ed "is o.n book? on t"e 2att'e o% 3arsa.4 in an artic'e pub'is"ed in t"e Ga:eta -ols)a o% &u0ust 1+4 1*304 Kord D5&bernon set do.n "is Hud0ment as %o''o.s8 (3?1)= C"e "istor# o% contemporar# ci,i'i7ation kno.s no e,ent o% 0reater importance t"an t"e 2att'e o% 3arsa.4 1*204 and none o% ."ic" t"e si0ni%icance is 'ess appreciated. C"e dan0er menacin0 Burope at t"at moment .as &arried4 and t"e ."o'e episode forgotten. Had t"e batt'e been a 2o's"e,ik ,ictor#4 it .ou'd "a,e been a turnin0 point in Buropean "istor#4 %or t"ere is no doubt at a'' t"at t"e ."o'e o% 1entra' Burope .ou'd at t"at moment "a,e been opened to t"e in%'uence o% 1ommunist propa0anda and a So,iet in,asion4
? Kord Bd0ar Fincent D5&bernon4 The 2ighteenth +e(isi6e /attle of the World' Warsaw !"#; (Kondon= Hodder and Stou0"ton4 1*31)4 1+8 pa0es. D5&bernon5s ori0ina' 1*31 teLt .as 'ater reprinted in t"e Inited States4 in 1*++4 b# t"e H#perion Press o% 3estport4 1onnecticut.

1G

."ic" it cou'd .it" di%%icu't# "a,e resisted S.C"e e,ents o% 1*20 a'so deser,e attention %or anot"er reason= ,ictor# .as attained4 abo,e a''4 t"anks to t"e strate0ica' 0enius o% one man $Dosep" Pi'sudski- and t"anks to t"e carr#in0 t"rou0" o% a manoeuvre so dangerous as to necessitate not only genius* )ut heroism....It s"ou'd be t"e task o% po'itica' .riters to eLp'ain to Buropean opinion t"at /oland saved %uro&e in 19204 and t"at it is necessar# to keep Po'and po.er%u' and in "armonious re'ations .it" 3estern Buropean ci,i'i7ation4 for /oland is the )arrier to the everlasting &eril of an 7siati+ invasion $to inc'ude the 7siati+ side of Bolshevism8 (33*)-.+ 8 (3?1) &ddin0 a brie% supportin0 comment to Kord D5&bernon5s acute Hud0ment4 9enera' Eu''er adds= Eurt"er4 b# shielding 1entra' Burope %rom the full )last of 2ar8ist +ontagion4 t"e batt'e o% 3arsa. set )a+( the Bolshevi( +lo+(. It de&rived Russia o% t"e p'under s"e bad'# needed to stem "er desperate economic crisis and dammed the outward flow of dis+ontent and almost dro.ned t"e 2o's"e,ik eLperiment. In 1*204 'i%e in t"e I.S.S.R. "ad reac"ed )edro+( $i.e.4 proLimate destitution-....!n !ctober 1+4 1*214 Kenin open'# admitted "is %ai'ure....!n Danuar# 214 1*244 Kenin died at 9ork#4 near )osco.4 and &ower &assed to 6talin (Dosep" D7"u0as",i'i4 18+*(1*G3)4 ."o4 )e+ause of his un)ridled )rutality4 "ad been made secretar#(0enera' o% t"e $1ommunistPart# b# Kenin. 3"at remained o% )arLism .as grafted )y him to the 3ussian 7siati+0ByHantine tradition4 tota'itarian State 1apita'ism .as rapid'# de,e'oped $a'on0 .it" t"e ,arious and specious ;.B.P.s8@ ;e. Bconomic Po'icies8- and e,er#one $a'most- reduced to a pro'etarian 'e,e'. C"e Po'itica' 2ureau became di+tator* with the se+ret &oli+e as its instrument of rule 4 and t"e ever0growing bureaucrac# emer0ed as the new middle +lass....&s Cuk"ac"e,ski "ad %oreseen4 )arLism $eLcept4 per"aps4 %or its %oundationa' Historica' and Dia'ectica' )ateria'ism48 indeed t"e Do0ma o% 5DI&)&C58.as %ound to be a theology too modern and too +iviliHed %or t"e Russians and a return .as made to t"eir o'd S'a, 0ods. C"e I.S.S.R. reverted to t"e "istoric $cu'tic4 'ar0e'# messianic- Russia o% the ,hird 3ome8 $purportin0 to rep'ace4 but on a basis o% immanentist(secu'ar po.er4 bot" sacred Rome and sacred 1onstantinop'e-.... (3?2(3?3) C"ese compact insi0"ts4 %u'' o% man# trut"s in Hust proportion4 .i'' "e'p us no. to reca'' ."at .e "a,e a'read#4 .it" t"e "e'p o% 9enera' Eu''er4 come to see about t"e resu'ts o% 3or'd 3ar II in 1*4G and t"e ad,ance o% bruta'4 part'# &siatic 2o's"e,ism into t"e "eart o% Burope= t"e %ruits o% t"e batt'e o% ;ormand#8 (G8*)@t"e app'es o% Sodom4 ."ic" turned to as"es as soon as t"e# .ere p'ucked.8 (G8*)

+ Eor a t"ou0"t%u' and .e''(di%%erentiated consideration o% t"e &siatic ()on0o' et a'.) in%'uence and stamp on Russian cu'ture and crue't#4 see Dames H. 2i''in0ton5s The I(on and the A.e' An Interpreti6e History of 5ussian Culture (;e. <ork= Random House(Finta0e 2ooks4 1*+0@%irst pub'is"ed in 1*??).

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9enera' Eu''er5s conc'udin0 insi0"ts .i'' 'ike'# a'so inc'ine a trut"(seekin0 student o% "istor# to read Kord D5&bernon5s 1*31 book4 The 2ighteenth +e(isi6e /attle of the World' Warsaw !"#; . &'t"ou0" 'ess t"an t.o #ears 'ater4 in Danuar# o% 1*334 bot" Erank'in De'ano Roose,e't %irst %ate%u''# became t"e I.S. President and immediately re+ogniHed the 6oviet ?nion6 and &do'% Hit'er4 s'i0"t'# 'ater4 %irst came to po.er in 9erman# )y a&&ointment (not yet )y ele+tion$4 it is doubt%u' t"at eit"er man read Kord D5&bernon5s important and cautionar# book. 2ut4 I am not sure4 and it no. seems t"at I "a,e no .a# o% kno.in0 t"at %act4 nor its possib'e in%'uence on t"em4 i% t"e# actua''# read it4 or .ere in%ormed about it. )oreo,er4 somet"in0 t"at t"e Bn0'is"4 strate0ic(minded mi'itar# "istorian4 2.H. Kidde'' Hart @a %riend o% 9enera' Eu''er@'ater .rote in 1*G4 (and a0ain in 1*?+) teases us and e,en 0i,es us a "int o% t"e possib'e pro,ocation and ana'o0ous source %or D5&bernon5s o.n trenc"ant tit'e about t"e 18 t" Decisi,e 2att'e o% t"e 3or'd. Eor4 in "is 1*G4 Pre%ace to "is c'assic book4 *trategy4 2.H. Kidde'' Hart .rote= )# ori0ina' stud# o% t"e strate0# o% t"e indirect approac"8 .as pub'is"ed in 1*2*@under t"e tit'e The +e(isi6e /attles of History . C"e present book $mere'# entit'ed *trategy- embodies t"e resu'ts o% t.ent#(%i,e #ears %urt"er researc" and re%'ection4 to0et"er .it" an ana'#sis o% t"e 'essons o% 3or'd 3ar II @in strate0# and 0rand strate0#.8

Ho.e,er4 ."at Kidde'' Hart does not sa# in t"is "istorica' and bib'io0rap"ica' commentar# is t"at4 neit"er in "is ori0ina' book nor in its eLpansions and re,isions does "e at a'' mention t"e 2att'e o% 3arsa.4 1*204 muc" 'ess ca'' it a decisi,e batt'e o% "istor#. C"is %act s"ou'd make us %urt"er t"ank%u' %or 9enera' Eu''er5s o.n supp'ementar# strate0ic re%'ections. &not"er strate0ic(minded mi'itar# "istorian4 admired b# Kidde'' Hart and Eu''er4 is C"eodore Ropp4 ."o .rote t"e %o''o.in0 in "is War in the Modern World (1*G*4 re,. 1*?2) about t"e mora' and spiritua' ,acuum in Burope after 3or'd 3ar I4 especia''# in 3estern Burope. It comes Hust be%ore "is o.n 1"apter *4 entit'ed C"e Kon0 &rmistice (1*1*(1*3*)8=

8 2.H. Kidde'' Hart4 *trategy (;e. <ork= ;e. &merican Kibrar#@& )eridian 2ook4 1**1)@t"e Second Re,ised Bdition .as pre,ious'# pub'is"ed in ;e. <ork4 b# Prae0er4 in 1*?+4 itse'% a second re,ision o% t"e a'read# re,ised 1*2* book4 %irst pub'is"ed in 1*G4.

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& more t"ou0"t%u' comment "ad been made t"irteen #ears be%ore $in +isen(hant,ent (Kondon4 1*22)4 pp. 1*G(1*+- b# the great <ournalist4 1.B. )onta0ue4 ."o at forty0seven "ad d#ed "is 0re# "air to en'ist as a &rivate. He sa. these attitudes of mingled horror and disgust $%rom t"e protracted trenc" .ar%are and %uti'e combat o% 1*14(1*18- mi0"t make it %ar more di%%icu't to preser,e t"e peace $sic- ."ic" "ad been won with su+h suffering. "iviliHation itself $"e .rote-...wears a strange new air of &re+ariousness. B,en be%ore t"e .ar a series o% me'anc"o'# pub'ic misad,entures "ad 0one some .a# to awa(e the dis1uieting notion that +iviliHation* the whole ordered* fruitful <oint a+tion of a nation4 a continent4 or t"e ."o'e .or'd4 was only a )luff. 3"en t"e .or'd is at peace and %ares .e''4 t"e part# o% order and decenc#4 Hustice and merc# and se'%(contro'4 is rea''# )luffing a mu+h larger &arty of egoism and greed t"at .ou'd )ully and gra) it $so(ca''ed ci,i'i7ation- if it dared $'ike Cuk"ac"e,ski-....C"e bad men are not "e'd do.n b# %orce6 t"e# are on'# b'u%%ed b# t"e presence o% it $ci,i'i7ation-. ,hey have got the ti& now....C"e p'ain man4 so %ar as I kno. "im4 is neither a0"ast nor 0'ee%u' at t"is re,e'ation. Eor t"e most part he loo(s somewhat listlessly on....7 sense of moral horror does not +ome easily when #ou "a,e supped %u'' o% "orrors on most o% t"e da#s o% t"ree or %our #ears.... 6ome new god* or devil4 o% course4 ma# enter at an# time into this disfurnished soul. 9enius in some 'eader mi0"t either possess it .it" an anarc"ic passion $as in Cuk"ac"e,ski- to smas"... a'' t"e o'd institutions or %ire it .it" a ne. cra,in0 to 'i%t itse'% c'ear o% t"e .rack $and ruin-.... For either a Fenin or a 6t! Fran+is there is a wide field to till 4as in the /ara)le of the 6ower5* +leared* )ut of &retty stiff +lay.8* (2+3(2+4) 3e ma# no. better ima0ine ."at mi0"t "a,e "appened "ad t"e 2o's"e,ik "ordes de%eated t"e Po'es in 1*20 and mo,ed into t"is ,er# mora' and spiritua' ,acuum in Post(3or'd 3ar I 1entra' and 3estern Burope. 3"at mi0"t "a,e "appened i% Sta'in5s "ordes4 in seemin0 o%%ensi,e %ormations4 "ad carried out t"eir strate0ic p'an operationa''# in 1*414 instead o% a%ter Sta'in0rad in Eebruar# o% 1*434 or in 1*4GN 3e mi0"t at 'east be more .i''in0 no. to read t"e ,arious books o% Fiktor Su,oro, (t"e pen name o% F'adimir Re7un4 b. 1*4+)4 not on'# "is I(ebrea)er' Who *tarted the *e(ond World War< (1**0) and The Chief Culprit' *talin7s Grand +esign to *tart World War II (2008) !;6 but a'so t"e 9erman sc"o'ar4 Doac"im Ho%%mann5s o.n conscientious book4 *talin7s War of 2.ter,ination !"=!%!"=9' -lanning 5eali:ation and +o(u,entation (1***4 in 9erman6 20014 in t"e %irst Bn0'is" edition). 11
* C"eodore Ropp4 War in the Modern World (;e.4 Re,ised Bdition) (;e. <ork= 1o''ier 2ooks@)acmi''an Pub'is"in0 1ompan#4 1*?2)4 404 pa0es o% teLt@%irst pub'is"ed in 1*G* and t"en a0ain4 as a re,ised edition4 in 1*?2 b# Duke Ini,ersit# Press o% Dur"am4 ;ort" 1aro'ina. Pro%essor Ropp tau0"t %or man# #ears at Duke Ini,ersit# in t"e Histor# Department4 and .as a 0racious and eLce''ent teac"er. 10 See Fiktor Su,oro,4 The 5eal Culprit (&nnapo'is4 )ar#'and= ;a,a' Institute Press4 2008). 11 C"e re,ised and supp'emented 9erman edition .as pub'is"ed in 1***4 in )unic"4 9erman#. C"e %irst Bn0'is" edition

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In an# case4 .e "a,e seen in t"e documentation o% t"is essa# ."at some o% t"e resu'ts .ere in 1entra' and Bastern Burope in 1*4G. &nd t"is o,era'' resu't .as (and sti'' is) considered ,ictor#N It certain'# did not 'ook t"at .a# to t"e Po'es and t"e ot"ers ."o .ere e%%ecti,e'# "anded o,er to t"e So,iet #oke4 man# countries o% ."ic" .ere o% 1at"o'ic "erita0e and cu'ture4 at 'east in 'ar0e part. Eor man# #ears .e "a,e .ondered ."at t"e 1at"o'ic 1"urc"5s popes "a,e t"ou0"t and .ritten and done about t"is mani%o'd situation4 especia''# Pope Pius JII4 and t"e eLtent to ."ic" t"e# 'ater a'so re,ised t"eir ear'ier Hud0ments and strate0ic po'icies (at 'east pri,ate'#4 or secret'#4 i% not .it" contrite and correcti,e4 pub'ic action). 3it" 9.:. 1"esterton5s keen percepti,eness and deep %ait" 'et us reca'' t"e statue o% t"e 2'essed Fir0in8 "e sa. in t"e countr#side o% Po'and .it" t"e "ead and "ands s"ot o%%8 b# t"e 2o's"e,ik mi'itar#4 and "er ,er# "ands "ad been 'i%ted8 in suc" a 0esture t"at t"e ,er# muti'ation $o% )ar#5s statue- seemed to 0i,e more meanin0 to $"er- attitude o% intercession6 $t"e 2'essed )ot"er "erse'%- as(ing mer+y for the mer+iless ra+e of men.8 C"e spirit o% ad,enture and c"i,a'r# o% t"e Po'is" ca,a'r# ."ic" 1"esterton sa. and admired .ou'd "a,e .e'' understood t"e merc# o% !ur Kad# and t"at %ait"%u' "eart o% t"eir ma0nanimous and compassionate Bn0'is" ,isitor.12

"=J7 1ardina' Ratti4 ."o de'iberate'# and coura0eous'# remained in 3arsa. durin0 t"e decisi,e batt'e o% 1*20 a0ainst t"e 2o's"e,iks4 .as 'ess t"an t.o #ears 'ater e'ected as Pope4 takin0 t"e name Pius JI.8 He certain'# kne. about t"e nature and dan0ers o% 2o's"e,ism(1ommunism4 and4 to.ard
.as pub'is"ed in &'abama4 b# C"eses > Dissertations Press4 P.!. 2oL ?44 1aps"a.4 &'abama 3G+42. C"e aut"or4 Dr. Doac"im Ho%%mann .as born in 1*30 in :Pni0sber04 Bast Prussia6 and "e is a pro%essiona' "istorian4 "a,in0 .orked %or t"e 9erman mi'itar# bet.een 1*?0(1**G in its Researc" Department %or )i'itar# Histor#. 12 &nt"on# S. Eraser o% Scot'and recent'# sent to t"e .riter an eLce''ent4 brie%4 but substantia' artic'e on t"e abidin0 spirit and resource%u'ness o% t"e Po'is" ca,a'r#4 especia''# in September(!ctober o% 1*3*. It .as pub'is"ed ori0ina''# in The -olish%A,eri(an >ournal in Du'# o% 20084 and entit'ed So',in0 t"e )#t"= Po'is" 1a,a'r# 1"ar0e &0ainst 9erman Canks48 especia''# near a t"reatened ke# rai'road Hunction in t"e ,i''a0e o% :roHant# about %our mi'es nort"east o% 1"oHnice...in t"e Cuc"o'a Eorest a)out 1AB miles northwest of Warsaw.8 C"e artic'e 0race%u''# co,ers man# re'ated matters4 to inc'ude t"e 9ermans5 o.n use o% ca,a'r#4 as .e'' as o% "orse(dra.n 'o0istics .a0ons4 e,en in t"e So,iet Inion 'ater. C"e 2'ue Kink t"at m# co''ea0ue and %riend sent is= "ttp=TT....po'is"site.usTindeL.p"pT"istor#(and( peop'eTmodern("istor#T3*G(so',in0(t"e(m#t"(po'is"(ca,a'r#(c"ar0e(a0ainst(0erman(tanks."tm'

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t"e midpoint o% t"e intense'# destructi,e Spanis" 1i,i' 3ar (Eebruar# 1*3?(Eebruar# 1*3*) "e .rote +i6ini 5ede,ptoris (!n &t"eistic 1ommunism) and promu'0ated t"at %orce%u' Bnc#c'ica' on 1* )arc" 1*3+. He said t"erein t"at4 under no circumstances4 s"ou'd 1at"o'ics@or t"e 1"urc"@at a'' co''aborate .it" 1ommunism. 2ut4 in 3or'd 3ar II4 especia''# a%ter 22 Dune 1*414 t"at %irm princip'e .as seemin0'# abandoned4 under 0reat pressure %rom Roose,e't5s &merica and 1"urc"i''5s 2ritain (and ot"ers)4 and a ne. po'ic# o% compromise .as 0radua''# adopted4 under t"e preteLt o% eLpedienc#.8 Pope Pius JII .as t"en t"e pope. He not on'# ac/uiesced4 but pub'ic'# supported t"e %or0in0 o% a strate0ic a''iance .it" Sta'inist Russia. Ho.e,er4 ."at did Pope Pius JII ear'ier sa# about t"e 1+ September 1*3* So,iet in,asion o% Po'andN 3"at o% t"e concurrent and on0oin0 So,iet in,asions o% t"e 2a'tic States and Ein'andN 3"at did Pius JII sa# about 2ritain5s Dec'aration o% 3ar a0ainst "eroic 'itt'e Ein'and (and its coura0eous 'eader4 )ars"a' )anner"eim)4 on ? December 1*41 (one da# be%ore t"e Dapanese attack on Pear' Harbor)N C"at atrocious dec'aration o% .ar4 moreo,er4 .as soon %o''o.ed (and pub'ic'# supported) b# a'' t"e 2ritis" 1ommon.ea't" ;ations (&ustra'ia4 ;e. Oea'and4 Sout" &%rica4 and 1anada)4 but did t"e Pope4 e,en t"en4 "a,e an# pri,ate dip'omatic or pub'ic responseN 3"at do t"e sc"o'ars te'' us about Pius JII5s ,ie.s and actions4 in ,ie. o% t"e dec'ared "osti'ities "ere a0ainst a countr# %i0"tin0 a Hust de%ensi,e .ar a0ainst t"e 2o's"e,iks4 our ne. &''#8N 3"at did Pius JII sa#4 %rom t"e outset and 'ater4 about t"e &''ied Strate0ic 2ombin0@to inc'ude terror(mora'e bombin08 a0ainst ci,i'ians@."ic" started in 2ritain4 under 1"urc"i''4 in Dune o% 1*40 a%ter 1"urc"i'' "imse'% "ad Hust come %ina''# back to po.er6 and t"en ."at did Pius JII a #ear and a "a'% 'ater sa# and do (or not do) a%ter t"e momentous Dec'aration o% Inconditiona' Surrender8 at t"e Danuar# 1*43 1asab'anca 1on%erenceN S"ou'd not %ait"%u'4 'o#a' 1at"o'ics no. kno.@or soon 'earn@t"e ans.ers to t"ese /uestions @instead o% Hust a0ain and a0ain "earin0 a seemin0'# distractin0 repetition about t"e su%%icienc# o% Pius JII5s re'ations .it" De.s o% a'' kindsN

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C"e e,idence o% t"is essa# s"ou'd at 'east 0i,e trut"(seekin0 students an arra# o% trenc"ant4 but reasonab'e4 /uestions to pose to bot" 1"urc" Historians and sc"o'ars o% pub'ic and secret Fatican Dip'omac#4 and to strate0ic(minded )i'itar# Historians4 as .e''.

((Einis(( U 2013 Robert D. Hickson

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