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Lecture 2 Beethoven and the Bridge from Classicism to Romanticism He is the first true self employed composer, entrepreneur

and musician Beethovens extension and expansion of classical forms His new piano style develops via 32 Piano Sonatas The symphony grows in size and content He expands the ideas of Haydn & Mozart in his Chamber Music He influence on the ensuing composers was legendary He was seized on by the romantics as being the true artist of the romantic era being idolised and almost worshipped like an icon His life style was unorthodox and an many ways quite bizarre He overcame the affliction of deafness to write great music whilst having no hearing He was a political man and had very strong opinions on many aspects of life His egalitarian temperament caused him to make enemies as well as friends He was a product of his time with the dramatic changes that appeared in society as the dawn of romanticism began His achievements in his work as a composer are remarkable as he had such drive, force and determination to succeed in all aspects of his art. Major Landmarks in Beethovens Compositional Canon The dramatic series of titled piano sonatas, Pathetique, Moonlight, Appassionata The Eroica Symphony No 3 an hour in length! The Fate Symphony No 5 built on a four note figure The five movement Pastoral Symphony No 6 being programmatic. The Choral Symphony No 9 with the finale including Schillers Ode To Joy The deeply intense late chamber music including string quartets where he bared his soul His single opera Fidelio which deals with human suffering set in a prison

His outstanding contribution to the concerto repertoire including 5 piano concertos and a lengthy violin concerto of which the opening movement in his longest piece of sonata form

Ludwig van Beethoven [1770-1827] Beethoven The Man A free spirit who believed in the equality of mankind The brotherhood of man French Revolution He swept away the age of Patronage and survived as a free-lance composer and musician. He built on the forms established by Haydn and Mozart - developed, expanded and revolutionised them. His style began by evolution and ended in revolution! He was initially a 'Classicist' but formed the main link into the 'Romantic' period and was subsequently admired by the later 19th century composers. His music is divided into THREE periods: First Period[ - to 1800] First Six String Quartets[Op.18] First Eleven Piano Sonatas First Two Symphonies First Two Piano Concertos Second Period[1800-15] Symphonies 3 - 8 "Fidelio" - his only opera Five String Quartets[Op.59, 78 & 95] Violin Concerto Piano Concertos 3, 4 & 5 Piano Sonatas 12 - 27

Third Period[1815-1827] Piano Sonatas 28-32 Last Five String Quartets Symphony 9[Choral] Missa Solemnis[Solemn mass in D]
BEETHOVEN: UNUSUAL FEATURES OF HIS SYMPHONIES. The dramatic content and tension is far more developed than earlier composers. The struggle between themes or motifs is far more developed. Rather than obvious melodic themes, Beethoven uses short rhythmic motifs or figures as the basis for a work. Their subsequent development must have made them an easier vehicle for Beethoven to work with. Motifs and themes are not always limited to one movement. E.g. Note the similarities between the first and third movements of the Fifth Symphony. In the Fifth Symphony, the dark mood of the scherzo returns in the finale - an unusual departure from tradition. The use of the programmatic plan - as in the Sixth Symphony - is a considerable step forward in symphonic writing. This idea was eventually followed by Berlioz and other early romantic composers Beethoven speeded up the Minuet and called it a SCHERZO - meaning a joke - although some of his scherzos are far from amusing. Many of his themes are marching themes reflecting the spirit of his temperament and his close affinity with the French Revolution. Human emotions are found in much of his music and particularly in his symphonic writing. E.g. Joy, sorrow, anger, elation, struggle, revolution etc Expansion of the orchestra. Beethoven was the first composer to use TROMBONES in a symphony - Symphony No. 5 and also in the same symphony the finale includes PICCOLO and CONTRA BASSOON. FIVE movements are included in the PASTORAL SYMPHONY No. 6. A LINK joins third and fourth movements of the FIFTH SYMPHONY. The NINTH SYMPHONY is a major step forward in symphonic writing and a landmark in musical history as it was the first time voices had been heard in a symphony. Beethoven uses a CHORUS and FOUR SOLOISTS in the finale setting Schiller's ODE TO JOY. In the introduction to the FIRST SYMPHONY, Beethoven avoids the tonic key of C

major and it is not until the Allegro that the tonic key of the first subject is established! The EROICA SYMPHONY No.3 is an unusually long work lasting around an hour. Originally it was destined to be dedicated to Napoleon but, when he declared himself Emperor of France, Beethoven tore his name from the title page and subsequently dedicated it to a great war hero instead!