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Focus on: Vitamins

Nutrients: Energy Yiel ding or Not?


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Yes No
Macronutrients
Carbohydrates 4 kcal/gram
Fats 9 kcal/gram
Protein 4 kcal/gram
Micronutrients
Vitamins
Minerals
Miscellaneous
Water
Alcohol 7 kcal/gram
Micronutrients
o needed ln smaller amounLs ln Lhe body
o Smaller amounLs =
Mllllgrams (mg) or
Mlcrograms (mcg or g)
o non-energy yleldlng & lncludes:
vlLamlns
Mlnerals
vlLamlns are classled by solublllLy
Fat Soluble Vitamins
Vitamins A, D, E, K
Water Soluble Vitamins
Vitamin C
The B vitamins: thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, biotin,
pantothenic acid, B
6
, folic acid, B
12
Vitamin Cl assification
Vitamins Over view
Crganlc compounds essenual ln dleL
romoLe growLh & malnLenance
Allow oLher nuLrlenLs Lo do Lhelr [obs
8 vlLamlns orlglnally LhoughL Lo be one
chemlcal subsLance - are acLually many
dlerenL subsLances
Vitamins as Coenzymes
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Free Radical s & Oxidation
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Can be harmful:
o Causes loss of cell
membrane lnLegrlLy & cell
collapse
o uamage Lo LuL - plaque
& aLherosclerosls
o unA alLerauon resulLs ln
alLered proLeln synLhesls
Free Radical s
Can be helpful:
o lmmune sysLem uses Lo
desLroy dlsease causlng
mlcroorganlsms
o W8C produce Lo desLroy
bacLerla, vlruses & fungl
o Pelps body desLroy dead
cells (may prevenL ca?)
LnvlronmenLal facLors LhaL
^ free radlcal formauon:
o Lxcesslve sunllghL
o Alr & waLer polluuon
o 8adlauon
o AsbesLos
o Czone
o 1oxlc chemlcals
Free Radical s
Pave been llnked Lo
o Cancer
o ALherosclerosls
o ArLhrlus & dlabeLes
o Lmphysema
o kldney dlsease
o Alzhelmer's & arklnson's
o CaLaracLs
o vlLamln A & Lhe caroLenolds
o vlLamln C
o vlLamln L
o Selenlum
o hyLochemlcals
Nutrients with Antioxidant Rol e
Free Radical s & Antioxidants
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Bi oavai l abi l i ty
o vlLamlns have Lo be absorbed ln body ln order Lo work
o 40-90 of vlLamlns are absorbed ln small lnLesune
o laL soluble vlLamlns requlre faL ln Lhe dleL for
absorpuon
o WaLer soluble vlLamlns may requlre LransporL
molecules or speclc molecules ln Lhe Cl LracL
o Some vlLamlns are absorbed ln lnacuve provlLamln or
vlLamln precursor forms LhaL musL be converLed ln
body Lo acuve form
Vi tami n Vi gnette: Vi tami n C
o Also called ascorblc acld
o Pas anuoxldanL properues
o Pelps body make collagen for wound heallng
o lncreases absorpuon of lron ln planL foods
o romoLes healLhy lmmune sysLem
Vi tami n Vi gnette: Vi tami n C
o WhaL ls Lhe name of Lhe vlLamln C declency
dlsease?
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Vi tami n Vi gnette: Vi tami n C
o uleLary Sources: clLrus frulLs, oLher frulLs &
vegeLables, some forued foods
o LsumaLed needs: adulL males 90 mg/day, adulL
females 73 mg/day, smokers add 33 mg/day
o upper safe llmlL: adulLs 2,000 mg/day
o Lxcess lnLake can cause Cl dlsLress
Vi tami n Vi gnette: Vi tami n C
12'3&$
lrulLs/veg vlL C lnLake may proLecL agalnsL lunch,
breasL, colon cancer
use of supplemenLs doesn'L appear Lo be proLecuve
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Plgh frulL/veg vlL C lnLake has lower rlsk of Cvu
8elaLed Lo oxldauve damage lnvolved w/ Cvu
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+&.&'&$289'
vlL C & oLher anuoxldanLs don'L aecL rlsk of AMu
vlL C + oLher nuLrlenLs may prevenL advancemenL
19779' 39*+
vlL C supplemenLs don'L reduce rlsk of gemng a cold
vlL C supplemenLs may reduce severlLy/lengLh of cold
Tips for Preser ving Vitamins
Store food away from heat & light & eat soon after purchasing
Cut fruits & vegetables as close to cook or serve time as possible
Dont soak vegetables before you cook them
Cook in as little water as possible
Microwave, pressure-cook, roast, grill, stir-fry vs. baking or boiling
Use water from cooking vegetables to make soups & sauces
Dont rinse rice before cooking washes away water-soluble vitamins
For More Infor mation
o Medllnelus, vlLamlns:
hup://www.nlm.nlh.gov/medllneplus/vlLamlns.hLml
o Parvard School of ubllc PealLh, vlLamlns:
hup://www.harvardschoolofpubllchealLh.org/nuLrluonsource/
quesuons/vlLamln-quesuons/lndex.hLml
o lAC Puman vlLamln and Mlneral 8equlremenLs:
hup://www.fao.org/docrep/004/?2809L/
y2809e00.P1M#ConLenLs
o World PealLh Crganlzauon, vlLamln A ueclency:
hup://www.who.lnL/nuLrluon/Loplcs/vad/en/lndex.hLml