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ORBEE Learning Materials
NORTHUMBRIA UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF THE BUILT AND NATURAL ENVIRONMENT
Construction Tec nolog! Learning "ac#age "a$er % & Roo's Learning Outco(es
On completion of this paper you should be able to:
• • • • • •
Identify the main parts of a roof structure Appreciate the historical development of domestic roof design Identify the main parts of a roof covering Appreciate the historical development of domestic roof coverings Describe the various options for modern domestic roofs Sketch details of the current common details for domestic roofs
Task Directions Task 1 Task 2 Task 3 Read the supporting notes Read the supporting references where sign posted "arry out the self assessment tasks Time 1 hour ! hours # hours
In this paper$ we will discuss the ma%or factors that have led to the changes in domestic roof construction over the last 1#& years$ how roofs have been affected by these changes$ how technological advancements have made prefabricated roofs cheaper and 'uicker to construct and cover$ why legislation has been brought in to make construction safer and how shortages of materials and fuels have forced contractors to use less natural materials in construction and make roofs more efficient insulators(
A roof structure has basic functional re'uirements that have to be fulfilled$ these can be broken down as follows:
)he type of roof used can alter the appearance of a building( )here are many types of coverings with different colours and te1tures which may add to the appeal of the finished building( )he slope of the roof also has a ma%or impact on the aesthetics( Study Task A Read "onstruction )echnology 1: 2ouse "onstruction$ Riley$ 3 and "otgrave$ A( +nd 4d *+&&5. which is a squashing force or pushing force. deals with fire spread and protection issues( !( Aesthetics .1( Climate Barrier )he main basic re'uirement is to keep the weather out and the warmth in$ enabling it to maintain a comfortable environment for its inhabitants to live in and carry out the social activities that the building was designed for( Approved Document " *+&&!. In the design of roofs it has to be ensured that the timber sections withstand both of these without deformation.# as a general background to roof construction and answer the following 'uestions *Note that the 6 values 'uotes in the section on insulation are out of date.: Text Feedback 7hat are the two main forces that a roof structure will be sub%ected to8 Compression. deals with insulation for new domestic properties( )herefore$ the roof will normally be the part of the building which re'uires the most insulation( +( Strength & Stability A roof has to have the ability to carry the self weight of the roof covering and structure and be able to resist forces from winds and the applied load of snow( )he structure should be built as light as current technologies allow to keep imposed loads on the supporting walls to a minimum and finding the most economic means of carrying the roof structure and its load over spans of varying degrees( 0( Fire Protection )he roof must also prevent the spread of fire to and from ad%acent or ad%oined properties$ eg for terraced or semi detached( Approved Document . of the -uilding Regulations$ "lause ".*+&&!.& +. 3 .. analyses the need to prevent moisture from passing into the building from the roof( A roof should provide ade'uate insulation as it is the main area of a building where heat loss may occur( Approved Document /1A *+&&. p(+. and tension which is a pulling or stretching force.
Text Feedback 7hat are the two main forces that a roof structure will be sub%ected to8 The lower the pitch or slope results in a higher probability of moisture ingress through the roof covering. normally forming a triangular shape of bric wor . and the roof slopes bac to meet the other main parts of the sloping roof. at the point where the gutter is normally fi#ed. This is because the wind has more opportunity to drive the rain beneath the individual sections and the moisture also ta es longer to run off the slope. Text Feedback 41plain the difference between a hip and a gable end( ! gable end is where the end wall of the house is continued up to the underside of the slope of the roof. particularly if it is slate or plain tiles. ! hip end is where the bric wor stops at the hori"ontal edge of the roof. The Mono Pitch Roof )he mono pitch roof was commonly used to form e1tensions in 9ictorian times and is still used in a similar fashion today( It comprises a series of rafters fi1ed to plates at the top of a wall$ which provide a good fi1ing$ and the rafter feet are nailed to the wall plate$ which distributes the load evenly across the supporting wall( $ .
oists were fitted to form level ceilings$ and could be raised to give more height( )hey were commonly supported by struts$ which stopped the rafters from sagging( 9ictorians often built the timber %oists into the wall creating a risk of timber rot and cold bridging( )his could potentially compromise the stability of the wall( )his is no longer considered good practice in any form of modern roof construction and %oist hangers are now commonly used which give the same support$ while not affecting the wall( The Couple Roof Often referred to as the simplest form of pitched roof$ the couple roof comprises two lengths of timber *rafters. .:igure 1 *3arshall and 7orthing$ +&&&. leaning against each other$ tied where they meet at the top( )he rafters sit on a wall plate a length of timber usually 1&& 1 <#mm bedded on mortar on top of the wall( )he wall plate provides a fi1ing point for the feet of the rafters$ and is an efficient means of spreading the load e1erted by the roof structure down through the walls without creating pressure points where each rafter meets the wall( As the mortar does not bond the wall plate to the wall$ steel straps are used to ensure that the roof structure remains secure( % .
The Closed Couple Roof -y adding ceiling %oists$ a length of timber running hori=ontally in between the rafter feet$ typically <#mm 1 #&mm to the "ouple Roof form$ the structure became much more secure( )he %oist acted as a tie preventing the outward deflection of the wall and increased the potential roof span to appro1imately #m( .)he "ouple roof has a very limited span appro1imately 0(#m( 2istorically the problem with this type of structure was that the weight of the roof created natural deflection in the supporting walls by pushing them outwards at the top( 7alls could be reinforced but this would re'uire e1tra brickwork$ adding unnecessary e1pense( In order to support their load$ rafters needed to be thick to prevent twisting under pressure$ making them difficult to handle on site and e1pensive( :igure + *3arshall and 7orthing$ +&&&.oists are secured to the rafter feet rather than the wall plate to negate any potential deflection( A secure connection between the rafter and ceiling %oist is therefore & .
( )he use of hangers and binders reduced the need for large ceiling %oists( 7atch a ?ower?oint presentation showing the se'uence of formation for a couple and closed couple roof( Instructions: Double click on the image to open ?ower?oint slides$ press 4@)4R to run the slide show( ' . Often built into the gable wall for e1tra support$ binders were nailed to the centres of each ceiling %oist parallel to the ridge board( ?roblems associated with this method were damp penetration$ timber rot and also the risk of compromising the supporting wall( -inders were often supported by hangers *lengths of wood attached to the ridge board.critical( Ridge boards provide restraint for the top of the rafters$ preventing lateral movement( )he timber used for ceiling %oists was commonly thinner than the rafters$ so they re'uired support( )his was commonly provided by internal load bearing walls$ although in their absence >hangers> and >binders> were used( :igure 0 *3arshall and 7orthing$ +&&&.
Couple Roof ridge wall plate Collar Roofs -y raising the height of the ceiling %oists the "ollar roof allowed any upper rooms to be constructed partly in the roof space$ leading to some economies by slightly reducing the height of the e1ternal walls and therefore the amount of brickwork needed( )he problem with this method was that lifting the ceiling %oist reduced its restraining force$ therefore increasing the instability of the supporting walls and decreasing the span to appro1imately !m( ( .
and no longer needed to be as thick and heavy$ allowing a potential span of 5 metres( ?urlins were often built into gable walls for e1tra supportB however in solid walls this e1posed the end of the ?urlin to potential rot attack from the dampness in the brickwork( ) .:igure ! *3arshall and 7orthing$ +&&&. In order to maintain the re'uired stability$ the ma1imum height the ceiling %oist could be lifted to be 1A0 of the height of the roof( Purlin Roofs In order to increase potential roof spans without compromising wall stability$ increasing rafter si=es or attracting e1tra costs$ purlins were introduced( -y installing a ?urlin into the roof structure$ rafters were given e1tra support$ *see photograph 1 below.
:igure # *3arshall and 7orthing$ +&&&. 1* .?hotograph 1: ?urlin supporting rafters at their mid point *6niversity of the 7est of 4ngland$ +&&#.
( )hese Internal load bearing walls allowed$ smaller ceiling %oists to be used and were positioned to cover the shortest distance across a room as possible( 2angers and binders were also used to stop the ceiling %oists sagging( 2angers could be fitted to every %oist negating the need for a binder$ but this was an unnecessarily costly option( ?urlin roofs were constructed on site$ and included many sections of timber$ which needed to be assembled to form the final structure( )his was obviously very labour intensive and skilled craftsmen were needed in order to install the roofs( )he benefit of this form of roof was that by using struts$ much of the roof space could be utilised for storage and ultimately allowed the space to be used for accommodation if needed via a loft conversion( 2ere is a short clip showing the main component parts of a ?urlin roof structure$ as viewed from inside the roofspace( mms+.-.-uilt./urlin0oof.unn.wmv Large Section Trusses A problem with ?urlin roofs is that the purlins themselves need support at intervals along their length( Although this could be achieved by an internal load bearing wall$ this was e1pensive and also disrupted the clear open space within the building( A method of providing this support was developed using large sections of timber creating a truss( "ommonly used up until the late 1C+&>s trusses *large sections of timber bolted or strapped together to form frames.ac.rutland..media.u .nvironment.)o ensure as small and economic purlins as possible they were sometimes supported by struts$ bedded on wall plates on load bearing internal walls *either parallel or at right angles to the ridge board. enabled wider spans to be achieved than previous methods( It was common to have two trusses in a typical dwelling however more could be used$ depending on the load( 11 .*)(%.
:rames comprised a beam$ which spanned e1ternal wall to e1ternal wall$ upon which the rest of the truss was based( )russes supported the ?urlins$ spanning truss to truss( )he ridge board sat on top of the truss$ to which the intermediate rafters were attached( )he intermediate rafters were attached to the wall plate and supported at their centres by the ?urlins( )he most common form of truss was the king post$ named after the vertical member in the centre$ see figure C below( 12 .:igure . *3arshall and 7orthing$ +&&&.
:igure < *6niversity of the 7est of 4ngland$ +&&#. was formed in 1C0! with the task of addressing the problem of materials shortages( )hey identified roofs as a source of wastefulness$ and sought more efficient construction techni'ues in the form of trussed rafters( )he )DA produced various designs first published in the 1C#&>s$ which gradually lowered the pitch$ while increasing the span( )russed rafters were much more economical to construct$ and easier to handle on site( )echnology developed further$ and )RADA ceased publishing their designs as they were gradually overtaken( In modern house construction the most common form of trussed rafter is known as the fink or >w> truss )his basically consists of a rafter incorporating tension and compression members in the shape of a 7 hence the name( )his trussed rafter is capable of spans up to 1+ metres and can be designed to accommodate many different pitch angles which are an important factor in modern house designs( )he 13 . Other forms were available$ and were adaptable to the type of building re'uired( )he Dueen ?ost )russ allowed the roof space to be utilised leaving clear space for access( Although adaptable to a point$ trusses relied heavily on large resources of timber which were to become increasingly rare$ and costly( Trussed Rafters )he )imber Development Association *now known as )RADA.
< and saw a vast improvement over previous methods of fi1ing increasing the strength of the rafter but also reducing the timber usage( As mentioned previously the trussed rafter has many advantages over traditional construction methods( :irstly the ?urlin which was generally a large and heavy piece of timber was no longer re'uired reducing the overall weight of the structure and also no ridge board is needed( ?erhaps the most significant advantage is the factory assembly of the trussed rafter which saves valuable time$ speeding up the whole construction process which is important in today>s industry( A timber wall plate is still used for a fi1ing point for the raftersB this is placed on top of the internal leaf of the cavity wall on a mortar bed( )he rafters are lifted into position by crane and fi1ed to the wall plate using nails or truss clips( )he trusses are fi1ed at .formation of the members gives the structure great strength and rigidity and economises the use of timber over the previously discussed traditional structures( )he si=e of the timber rafter and members are usually 1&&mm 1 !&mm in section but this can vary depending on design specifications( )he timbers are butt %ointed and fi1ed using punched metal connector plates also known as >gang nails>( )hese were introduced around 1C.&&mm centres across the span of the building( If a gable wall is being built$ it is then common practice to add a gable ladder forming the overhang to the roof at the verge( Another important part of trussed rafter formation is the addition of diagonal bracing from eaves to ridge on the underside of the rafters( )he purpose of the bracing is to bind the whole structure into one unit rather than a series of individual trusses$ providing protection from possible collapse due to wind forces( :or further protection from wind forces$ especially wind uplift$ straps are also used to hold the structure down( )he straps are made from galvanised steel and placed at + metre centres spanning across two to three rafters and fi1ed to the inner leaf of the wall( )his is a 'uite simple but very effective procedure which is now re'uired as part of the building regulations( It should be noted that pre 1C<&>s$ trussed rafter structures did not incorporate this method of strapping so wind collapse is 'uite a common problem on some trussed rafter roofs( Overall the trussed rafter is an ideal solution for today>s construction industry( It is relatively cheap to produce and easy to install and re'uires minimal skilled labour( )he only real disadvantage of the trussed rafter is that it re'uires careful design considerations where a change of direction occurs in the roof but this is almost 1$ .
# +<< and answer the following 'uestions: Text Feedback 7hat is the correct term for a rafter that e1tends full length from the eaves to the ridge8 The correct term is a common rafter1 those rafters which have to be cut shorter to 2oin a hip rafter or valley are called 2ac rafters..*)(%. Text 7hat is the main advantage of a traditional ?urlin and rafter roof structure8 1% .nvironment. p(+.irrelevant when the many advantages are considered( Overall it is difficult to see how the current trussed rafter roof could be improved and how roof structure design will progress in the future with any significant advantages over current methods( Study Task B 7atch a short clip *6niversity of 7est of 4ngland$ +&&#.u .wmv Text Feedback 7hat is the normal spacing of roof trusses8 &**mm Text Feedback 7hat is the normal spacing of the straps used to hold down the wall plate8 2m spacing Text Feedback 2ow many nails should be used to fi1 each binder to each truss8 2 nails Study Task C Read "onstruction )echnology 1: 2ouse "onstruction$ Riley$ 3 and "otgrave$ A( +nd 4d *+&&5.ac.Truss.-uilt.-. showing the installation of modern trussed rafters and answer the following 'uestions: mms+.rutland.unn.media.
It also provides an opportunity to fi# the rafter feet to something. Text Feedback Draw a simple proportionate sketch of a :ink trussed rafter$ annotating the main component parts( Text Feedback 7hat is the normal si=e of a wall plate and what are its main functions8 The wall plate is normally 1**#'%mm and it helps distribute the point load from the rafter feet along the length of the wall. either at the time of construction or as a loft conversion at a later date. either by nailing direct into the wall plate or by the use of proprietary truss clips. Co*erings Felt an! battens )he process of laying the coverings onto the roof structure has remained unchanged for hundreds of years( A series of timbers called battens need to be laid parallel to the ridge across the roof$ they support the covering and in modern roofs keep the under felt in place( )heir main function is to provide a fi1ing point between the covering and the structure( )hey are commonly 05mm or #&mm wide and +#mm high and should be formed from preservative treated softwood( )he likelihood is that they will come into contact with windblown moisture which enters through small gaps in the covering( 1& .Feedback The main advantage is that the roof space can be utilised as occupiable space.
.nvironment.u .unn.*)(%. showing the installation of a plain tile covering and answer the following 'uestions: mms+./lainTiles.-uilt.&&mm centres8 1' .wmv Text 7hat is the normal batten si=e for rafters at .#mm$ and have to be laid double lapped( )his means that there has to be two layers of tile throughout the roof and at the end laps of the tiles$ the top tile must overlap the tile two below it( Due to the double lapping and the small si=e of the tiles$ these are e1pensiveB slow to lay and very heavy( )hey are therefore not used in modern mass housing but are confined to more prestigious residential developments( )hey are normally laid at a slope of 0# !#E( Study Task 7atch a short clip *provided by 6niversity of 7est of 4ngland$ +&&#.rutland.6nder felts is an impervious barrier that is placed beneath the main waterproof covering to the roof( It should not however be considered as the main barrier and is there to prevent wind blown moisture and also dust entering the roof space( )he first felts used were bitumen based with 2essian fibres embedded in them and more recently polythene based felts have been used( 9ery recently micro porous or breathable felts have been developed which reduce the need for the roof space to be ventilated( :or slate coverings$ each individual slate has to be nailed to the battens fi1ing them in place( ?lain tiles have nibs at the top of the tile$ they fit behind the batten$ utilising the weight of the tile above to keep them in place and only every ! th or #th course needs to be nailed( )hey are also cambered to prevent capillary action( Due to the interlocking nature of single lap tiles only the verge and the ridge need to be fi1ed$ greatly reducing the time needed to lay them( Plain Tiles ?lain tiles have been used for hundreds of years with the early e1amples of these being hand made( )raditionally they were made from clay although concrete has been used since the 1C#&>s( )hey are fairly small in si=e$ commonly +.media.ac.-.#mm11.
nvironment.media.u .&F of a plain tile covering( Study Task " 7atch a short clip *6niversity of 7est of 4ngland$ +&&#.*)(%.very tile in every course will be nailed rather than every %th course.ac.-uilt. !nterlocking Tiles As the name suggests$ these tiles overlap and interlock at their sides and so can be laid single lap( )raditional e1amples were clay pantiles and roman tiles although since the 1C<&>s the ma%ority are manufactured in concrete( )here is a huge range of different styles and colours available which helps provide some aesthetic 'ualities to modern mass housing( )hey are commonly around !+&mm10&&mm and can be laid to angles as low as 1#E( Due to their large si=e and single lap$ they are relatively cheap$ very 'uick to lay and will weigh around only #& . showing the installation of an interlocking tile covering and note how the tiles are laid to interlock with those at the sides( Also not the difference in spacing of the battens$ the gauge$ compared to plain tile coverings( mms+..wmv Slates Slate has been used for hundreds of years as a roof covering but only after the industrial revolution and the construction of the railway network did they become common outside of the slate mining areas( It is an e1cellent material to use for roofs as it is impermeable and very durable and will last hundreds of years( )here are many 1( .-.rutland.Tiles.&E8 .unn.Feedback 3(mm # 2%mm Text Feedback 7hy should the tiles be laid with a slight gap at each side8 To allow for thermal movement Text Feedback 7hat is the normal minimum headlap8 &%mm Text Feedback 2ow are the tiles fi1ed when the slope is greater than .
1) .wmv Text Feedback 7hat materials should the nails be made from8 !luminium.u . This is normally provided by the tile manufacturer so that the roof coverings are correctly set out and laid on the roof.different si=es of slate available although a common large si=e is .-. showing the installation of a slate covering and answer the following 'uestions: mms+..ac.media.nvironment. the e#posure and the slope of the roof. Study Task # Read "onstruction )echnology 1:2ouse "onstruction$ Riley$ 3 and "otgrave$ A( +nd 4d *+&&5.3lates.*)(%.&&mm10&&mm( )hey can be laid on roof slopes with a pitch as low as 0&E but this varies dependant upon the si=e of the slate( Due to the double lapping and re'uirement to nail every slate$ they are an e1pensive$ slow to lay and heavy roof covering and so as for plain tiles$ resulting in their use only on prestigious new housing( Artificial slates are available as a cheaper alternative to natural slate but their longevity is only around !& years or so( )hey come in similar si=es to the larger natural slates but are considerably lighter in weight( )hey are normally fi1ed with + nails per slate$ centre nailed$ and also a further fi1ing is used to secure the bottom edge of each slate to prevent it lifting upwards in high winds or due to thermal e1pansion( Study Task F 7atch a short clip *6niversity of 7est of 4ngland$ +&&#. measured from the centre of a batten to the centre of the ne#t batten.rutland.-uilt. copper and silicon bron"e Text Feedback 7hat factors will affect the headlap of the slates8 The si"e of the slates.unn. 4ifferent styles of covering will have different gauges. p(+<5 +5# and answer the following 'uestions: Text Feedback 7hat is the gauge when associated with roof coverings8 The gauge is a dimension.
7ith the requirement for ventilation at the ridge.Text Feedback -riefly e1plain the principle of ventilation of the roof space and how this can be achieved( 5entilation is required to reduce the ris of condensation occurring within the roof space. it passes through the layer of insulation and begins to cool down and so any moisture will want to condense out. -3 %2%* gives guidance on how much ventilation is required and although it varies depending on the slope of the roof. Flat Roofs )echnically a flat roof is any roof with a slope less than 1&E however in practise these are much shallower$ commonly being e1pressed as a gradient and can be anywhere from 1:!& to 1:5&( )hey have traditionally been used for small domestic e1tensions although there were periods of more common use for entire house roofs in the post second world war period and then also in the 1C. These are normally formed from a similar material as the covering itself. purely for aesthetics. Traditionally this ventilation was provided through the eaves. a continuous gap at the eaves of 2%mm together with a continuous %mm gap at the ridge will be sufficient for any situation. This depended on cross6ventilation across the roof to be efficient however e#tra ventilation through the ridge is now more common and much more effective. Text Feedback 2ow is the gap at the ridge of the roof normally completed8 This has to be covered over in some way to prevent moisture ingress and the most common is by the installation of ridge tiles.&>s( )heir longevity is generally poor$ ranging from . however slates normally using blac . years to 0# years depending on the 'uality of the covering itself and the structure( )here are 0 main styles of construction: • )he cold roof 2* . They come in different styles. traditionally these being bedded in mortar to fi# them into position. !s the moist air rises from the rooms below the ceiling. these are commonly now mechanically fi#ed and have a ventilation slot to their underside. either as gaps or grilles in the soffit boarding or through proprietary ducts at the top of the fascia board. this is often called a dry ridge.grey clay or concrete.
Text Feedback 7hy do we use a tilting fillet when laying bitumen felt8 It is very difficult to form a tight )*8 angle bend in the felt and it will also probably cause the felt to split. !n inverted roof has the insulation over both the waterproof covering and the roof dec . "onstruction )echnology 1 "onstruction( ?algrave 3acmillan( -asingstoke( 2ouse 21 .• • )he warm roof )he inverted roof )he main factor influencing the style is the position of the insulation( )raditional coverings have been bitumen felt$ this normally being called built up roofing as it was applied in either + or 0 separate layers$ or asphalt( A modern material is single ply membrane$ this essentially being a thick rubber sheet( Study Task $ Read "onstruction )echnology 1: 2ouse "onstruction$ Riley$ 3 and "otgrave$ A( +nd 4d *+&&5.3* on page 2)3. this requiring some form of ballast. )he "onstruction of 2ouses( 0rd 4dition( 4states Ha=ette /ondon( • Riley$ 3( G 2oward$ "( *+&&+. ! warm roof has the insulation above the roof dec but below the waterproof covering. p(+5# +C1 and answer the following 'uestions: Text Feedback -riefly e1plain the difference in style of construction between a cold$ warm and inverted roof( ! cold roof has the insulation placed below the main roof dec and waterproof covering.protection to the insulation. The tilting fillet therefore divides this into less severe angles. Text Feedback Draw a simple proportionate sketch of a warm flat roof$ annotating the main component parts( 9our s etch should be based on the illustration of the warm dec roof shown in figure ). Re'erences • 3arshall$ D( G 7orthing$ D( *+&&&.
• 6niversity of the 7est of 4ngland *+&&#.( "onstruction of 2ouses ?ro%ect( 9ersion #( -ristol( )he 9ideo 22 .
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