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Welder Performance Qualification (WPQ)

Materials The purpose of this test is to determine the welders ability to deposit a sound weld therefore the base material is not considered as critical as it is in the PQR. Hence a performance test on any material in P groups 1 to 11 approves all those groups and sub groups, also P3 and P ! "P #$P %&. Providing a compatible consumable e'ists with the same ( number used in the )ualification test. "Q* +3.1& ,ote a single sided weld is classed as a weld without bac-ing and a double sided weld or weld with sealing run is classed as a weld with bac-ing Consumables The ( number cannot be changed without re )ualification of the welder e'cept that for performance )ualification only using ./0* "//0& ( numbers up to and including approve all lesser ( numbers for double sided or welds with bac-ing only. 1ne 2onsumable from ( 1 To ( 3 approves any of these consumables, e'cept .0*. Ref. QW404.11. ,ote 404 numbers do not apply to welder approval tests. Variables (or each welding process there is a list of essential variables in Q*33+ to Q*335 and Q*36# for welding operators, these are not necessarily the same as the ones for the PQR. 7ssential variables cannot be changed. 7'planations of all these variables is given in section 89 of the code. Diameter and Thickness Ranges :iameter limits for all circular welds including groove welds, branch welds and fillet welds is given in Q* 3+.3. there are no upper limits on diameters approved and pipe covers plate ,ote for branch welds the diameter considered for the above limits is the one containing the weld preparation. Thic-ness limits, groove welds. The thic-ness limit only applies to the deposited weld metal thic-ness not the plate thic-ness and any groove weld approves all fillet weld si;es. (or t greater than 1+.3mm there is no restriction on the si;e that can be welded "Providing the test weld deposit contains at least 3 layers of weld&.

Thic-ness limits, fillet welds. 0 test on plate greater than 3<16= approves all base metal thic-nesses and fillet weld si;es ref. Q* 3+.3. ",ote the above diameter limits apply unless the fillet weld is )ualified by a groove weld& oint Con!iguration >oint geometry, a double 9 "or ?& is considered the same as a @oint with bac-ing and does not )ualify a single 9 "or ?& without bac-ing, but a single full penetration @oint without bac-ing )ualifies all @oint configurations. "##ro$al Range 7'tent of approval is very well e'plained in Q* 61.%. Ta-e particular note of welding positions which are also e'plained in Q* 61, for e'ample to )ualify a fillet weld in the normal hori;ontal$vertical position with a groove weld, the groove weld must be )ualified in at least the +A position. The welding positions defined in Q* 61.1.B Q* 61.+ should be referred to in the *P.. The position designationsC 1A ,+A ,3A , A ,3A ,6A "Aroove *elds& and 1( ,+( ,3( , ( "(illet *elds& are test positions %eriod o! Validity&Rene'al o! Quali!ications (QW )**.*+ Providing the welder uses the process for which he is )ualified and there is no reason to )uestion his ability then his )ualification lasts indefinitely. 8f the welder does not use the welding process for which he is )ualified for a period of 6 months or more then he must perform a new test in pipe or plate, any parent material, thic-ness and position, if successful all the welder approvals for that welding process are renewed in one test. Testing Re,uirements Test re)uirements for groove welds Q* 3+ consists of eitherC$

1ne face bend and one root bend e'cept for welding positions -. / 0. which re)uire 4 bends (Ref Q* 3+.1 ,ote &. 8f the plate e'ceeds 3<D= side bends may be used. .ee Q* 66 for precise details and e'ceptions. 1ote23 4end Tests can in most cases be re#laced by Radiogra#hy 56ee 4elo'7. Radiogra#hy is optional and must be supplemented by bend tests when using A/0* "/8A</0A& with dip transfer ".hort 2ircuiting 0rc& or when welding some special materials. Ref. Q*3# .

1ote23 8ltrasonic 9:amination in lieu o! Radiogra#hy is not #ermitted Test re)uirements for fillet welds in plate ref. Q* 3+.3C$ 1ne macro section "Q* 1D & and 1ne fracture test "Q*1D+&. The location where each specimen has to be ta-en is defined in Q* 63 Radiogra#hy Re! QW 1;1

0 length of at least 6= must be e'amined for plate or the entire circumference for pipe. 8f the pipe circumference is less than 6= then more samples must be welded up to a ma'imum of . Ref Q* 3#+.+.

Visual 9:amination Re! QW )0*.* / QW 1;0 Performance test coupons must show complete @oint penetration with full fusion of the weld metal and base metal. The welder performance test must follow a properly )ualified *.P... 1nce )ualified the welder must always wor- within the e'tent of approval of any properly )ualified *.P... and his *.P.Q. The welder who )ualifies the P.Q.R. is automatically approved within the limits specified in Q*3# , Q*3#3 and Q*3#3. Ref Q*3#1.+. 6#ecialist %rocesses .uch as corrosion resistant overlay or hard facing are covered in Q* 33. Procedure variables are defined with all procedure variables in Q*+3+ and in Q*3D# for welder approval. /in base thic-ness approved E si;e welded or 1=, Q* 33 /in :eposit .i;e 0pprovedC$ Point *here 2hemical analysis ta-en ,o upper limit Q* #+.16 " 6+.3a& *elding Positions Q* #3. Performance Qualification approves all deposit thic-nessF ,o min.Q*3D1
Procedure Qualification Record (PQR)

PQR4s are not re)uired if .tandard *elding Procedures are used, see below for details.

This document contains details of the welding test, it must include details of all the parameters listed as variables in tables Q*+3# to Q*+63 for each process involved and all the destructive test results. The relevant variables for each type of welding process are clearly defined in tables Q*+3# to Q*+63. The left hand column of each table defines the section and paragraph where each variable and its application to the table is e'plained in the code. Welding Variables 9ariables used in a welding procedure test are divided into 3 categories C$

9ssential Variables 0re variables that have a significant affect on the mechanical properties of a @oint. They must not be changed e'cept within the limits specified by this code. e.g. /aterial thic-ness range, /aterial Aroup etc. 1on39ssential Variables 0re variables that have no significant affect on mechanical properties. They can be changed without re )ualification of the PQR. 6u##lementary Variables 0re variables that have an affect on the impact properties of a @oint. They are classed as ,on$7ssential if impact testing is not re)uired

0ll variables listed as essential, non$essential or supplementary should be addressed on both the *P. and the PQR. 8f any of the variables do not apply to the particular application then they should be specified as not applicable. oint Con!iguration 7ither plate or pipe can be used for the test piece "plate approves pipe and vice versa ref. Q*+11&, any welding position approves all positions providing no impact tests are re)uired ref. tables Q*+3# to Q*+63 and any @oint geometry approves all geometry4s, e.g. single 9, double 9, ? prep, bac-ed or unbac-ed. 0 butt or groove weld approves branch and fillet welds but not the converse, ref. Q*+#+. ,on pressure retaining fillet welds in pipe or plate can be tested but they must be double sided if plate and at least the dimensions illustrated in Q* 6+. a, ref. Q*+#+.+c. Pressure retaining branch welds must be )ualified by groove "butt& welds.

Material .rou#ing /aterials are assigned P numbers in Q* +#G a test in one P number approves all materials listed under that P number, e'cept where impact tests are re)uired then approval is restricted to materials listed in the group number within the P number. 1ther P number groupings are permissible ref. Q* + .1 for details. Ref Q* + .1 for further details. 8t is normally permissible if the material is not listed in Q* ++ to assign it to a P number which lists materials with the same metallurgical and mechanical properties although this is not in strict conformance with the code. Typically H.13#1 131 3#0 low carbon steel could be regarded as P1 and stainless steels such as 316, 3# as PD. ,ote P3, % B 1# are divided into sub groups eg 30,3H etc., Treat each sub group li-e a separate P ,umber :issimilar materials are acceptable providing they are compatible. (or e'ample P1 to PD, but this does not cover P1 to P1 or PD to PD. ,ote . numbers are for pipewor- to H31, a P number covers an . number but not the converse Consumables The 0./7 code uses its own specifications for consumables 6<". which is almost identical to the 0*. specification. 1=T9 " change in consumable is only #ermissible #ro$iding it has the same < number and " number (i! a##licable+ as the %.Q.R.. Thickness >imits Thic-ness limits Aroove welds. .ee Q* 31 for precise details.

*hen 8mpact tests are re)uired the minimum thic-ness approved is restricted. .ee Q* #3.6 /ore than one PQR may be re)uired to )ualify dissimilar thic-ness

The thic-ness little ?t? of deposited weld metal for each process involved is approved from # to +'t e'ceptC$ /8A</0A "A/0*<(20*& dip transfer weld of deposited thic-ness less than I= approves ma'imum thic-ness of 1.1 ' t only RefC Q*+33 "Q* #3.1#&

8f any Pass in a single or multipass weld J I= then the thic-ness approval e)uals 1.1'T

:issimilar Thic-ness Q*+#+. C$ The thic-er and thinner part must be )ualified, 7'cept PD and P ! the thinner part can be )ualified if no 8mpacts and test coupon J 6mm thic-. Thic-ness limits for fillet welds as per Q* 6+. a or Q* 6+. d )ualify all fillet weld si;es on all base material thic-nesses and all diameters in one test. Testing Re,uirements (Re! QW 40) !or location o! s#ecimens+ ?nli-e 7,+DD there is no re)uirement for any non$destructive testing such as radiography or /P8<:P8, although 8 would recommend radiography for butt welds. The testing re)uirement for groove welds are as followsC$

Two Transverse tensile tests "Q*13#&. Two Root bends and Two face bends unless the plate thic-ness e'ceeds 3<D= then side bends are re)uired. 0ll bend tests should be done to Q*16# using the correct former ref. Q* 66 to an angle of 1D# degrees. Kongitudinal "all weld& bend tests are not recommended unless the base<weld materials differ mar-edly in bending properties. .ee Q* 66 for e'ceptions and precise details.

The testing re)uirement for fillet welds on plate is 3 macro sections only, for Pipe fillet welds macro sections. ,o fracture test re)uired. Welding %rocedure 6#eci!ications (W%6+ This document details the practical application of the Procedure Qualification Record "PQR&. 8t should contain enough information to give direction to the welder and should address all variables associated with the welding process defined in Q*+3# including non essential and supplementary. 0 *P. can combine welding processes from other PQR4s but all the relevant variables must be addressed including parent metal thic-ness. There is an

e'ception to this rule for root runs from PQR4s that are greater than 1.3 inches thic- "3D.1mm&, see code for details. 6tandard Welding %rocedures 6#eci!ications (6W%?s+ .tandard welding procedures listed in anne' 7 of 0./7 8! can be purchased from the 40merican *elding .ociety4 and used without )ualifying a PQR. .ection 9 of 0./7 8! gives details of essential variables and restrictions. 0 successful welder performance )ualification must be carried out to demonstrate the .*P4s before a manufacturer can use it.
ASME Definitions, Consumables, Welding Positions

0./7 P /aterial ,umbers 7'plained

0./7 has adopted their own designation for welding processes, which are very different from the 8.1 definitions adopted by 7,+ #63. Designation Descri#tion 1(* 1'yfuel Aas *elding ./0* .hielded /etal 0rc *elding "//0& .0* .ubmerged 0rc *elding A/0* Aas /etal 0rc *elding "/8A</0A& (20* (lu' 2ored *ire AT0* Aas Tungsten 0rc *elding "T8A& P0* Plasma 0rc *elding .traight polarity E 7lectrode $ve Reverse polarity E 7lectrode Lve "6M9 < 1umbers ( Aeneral :escription ,umber 1 Heavy rutile coated iron powder electrodes C$ 03.1 C 75#+ + /ost Rutile consumables such as C$ 03.1 C 76#13 3 2ellulosic electrodes such as C$ 03.1 C 76#11 Hasic coated electrodes such as C 03.1 C 75#16 and 75#1D

3 6 +! 3! ! 3! 6! 5!

High alloy austenitic stainless steel and duple' C$ 03. C 7316K$16 0ny steel solid or cored wire "with flu' or metal& 0luminium and its alloys 2opper and its alloys ,ic-el alloys Titanium Mirconium Hard (acing 1verlay

,oteC$ ! represents any number # to %

"6M9 " 1umbers These refer to the chemical analysis of the deposited weld and not the parent material. They only apply to welding procedures in steel materials. 01 Plain unalloyed carbon manganese steels. 0+ to 0 Kow alloy steels containing /oly and 2hrome /oly 0D 0ustenitic stainless steels such as type 316. "6M9 Welding %ositions .ra#hic Re#resentation ,ote the welding progression, "vertically upwards or downwards&, must always be stated and it is an essential variable for both procedures and performance )ualifications. *elding Positions (or Aroove weldsC$ Welding %osition (lat Hori;ontal 9ertical ?pwards Progression 9ertical :ownwards Progression 1verhead Pipe (i'ed Hori;ontal Pipe (i'ed N 3 degrees ?pwards Pipe (i'ed N 3 degrees :ownwards *elding Positions (or (illet weldsC$ Test %osition 1A +A 3A 3A A 3A 6A 6A @6= and 91 P0 P2 P( PA P7 P( HK# 3 >K# 3

Welding %osition (lat "*eld flat @oint at 3 degrees& Hori;ontal Hori;ontal Rotated 9ertical ?pwards Progression 9ertical :ownwards Progression 1verhead Pipe (i'ed Hori;ontal

Test %osition 1( +( +(R 3( 3( ( 3(

@6= and 91 P0 PH PH P( PA P: P(

Welding %ositions QW4)1.1 and QW401.* Hasically there are three inclinations involved.

(lat, which includes from # to 13 degrees inclination 13 $ D# degrees inclination 9ertical, D# $ %# degrees

(or each of these inclinations the weld can be rotated from the flat position to Hori;ontal to overhead.