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MATERIALS WC6 A351 - CF8M A351 - CF8M A351 - CF8M A182 - F316 A276 - 316 A47 / A536 PTFE / Grafoil + 316 Sheet A351 - CF8 A351 - CF8M PTFE / Graphite A276 - 304

Bonnet Disc Stem Disc Nut Hand Wheel Gasket Gland Flange Gland Gland Packing Eye Bolt Pin

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Stem Nut Washer Wheel Nut Eye Bolt Eye Bolt Nut Bonnet Bolt Bonnet Bolt Nut Name Plate

A439 - D2 / A276 - 410 A240 - 304 AISI 304 A193 - B8 A194 - 8 A193 - B8 A194 - 8 A666 - 304

Other materials are available upon request.


PART NO. 1 2 Body Cover



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Disc Disc Nut Disc Washer Swing Arm Gasket Cover Bolt Cover Bolt Nut Plug Hinge Pin Eye Bolt Name Plate

A351 - CF8M A194 - 8M A276 - 316 A351 - CF8M PTFE / Grafoil + 316 Sheet A193 - B8 A194 - 8 A276 - 316 A276 - 316 A36 + Zn Plate A666 - 304

Other materials are available upon request. Butterfly Valves Purpose: Butterfly valves are used for controlling flow and can act as a shutuoff ~va1ve, if the sealing arrangement is designed accordingly. Operation: Refer to Figure

The disc or wafer rotates about a vertical axis and can be turned through 90. The disc seals against the opening to cut off flow and can be positioned at a point between fully closed and fully open as required.

Some butterfly valves have a direct acting lever, others are operated through gearboxes when finer control is

required. In most cases, a clockwise movement will close the valve. Relief Valves Purpose: Relief valves are used to protect systems from over-pressure or to control processes by allowing flow to commence when a certain pressure has been reached. Operation: Refer to Figure

A spring holds the valve disc in place against the seat. The valve, therefore, will not open until the force exerted on the valve disc by the fluid pressure exceeds the force exerted by the spring. When this occurs, flow can take place through the outlet port until the fluid pressure is reduced to below the valve operating pressure. The spring force will then release the valve. Relief valves operate automatically and are usually pre-set to a specified relief setting by the manufacturers or adjusted when in use, if required. Re-calibration is then required. Check Valves Purpose: Check valves allow flow in one direction only. One common application is in the discharge line of a centrifugal pump to prevent reverse suction.

Refer to Figure Operation: The two designs operate on the same principle: flow through the valve holds the plug or disc in an open position. If flow ceases or falls to below the backpressure ahead of the valve, then gravity or the back pressure will tend to return the plug to its seat. Check valves are automatic in action. Twin-Seal Valves Purpose: Twin-seal valves may be used when an extra tight shut-off is required. They are basically plug valves, but have an additional action which forces sealing segments against the inlet and outlet ports providing a positive seal. Refer to Figure

Operation: The opening action consists of two stages: 1. Unsealing the sealing segments. 2. Rotating the plug. The first stage breaks the seal and retracts the segments from the ports; the second stage allows proper flow to begin. Usually 1 to 2 1/2 turns are required to withdraw the segments and a further 1/4 turn to rotate the plug.(Up to 2 turns to open the valve.) Semi-Needle Valves Purpose: Semi-needle valves are used to control instruments and can stand high pressures of up to 2,000 psi. Operation: Refer to Figure

When used with an instrument, the valve should only be opened enough to permit flow and allow the instrument to register correctly. One or two turns should be sufficient The valve works by pushing a needle or small rod into a slightly tapered seat When the needle is fully home, then flow is shut off. The rate of flow can be adjusted as required by raising the needle. Ball-Check Gauge Glass Valves Purpose: These valves are used to prevent loss of liquid and consequent damage or injury, in case of breakage of gauge glasses. Operation: Refer to Figure

When a reading is required, both valves should be opened slowly 1 to 1 1/2 turns to allow the fluid to find its level. The tip of the valve stem prevents the ball from seating at this point As soon as flow stops and the level stabilises, the valves must be opened fully so that the ball can be pushed into the outer seat by the escaping fluid if the glass should break. To close or reset the valve, the handle should be turned clockwise until the valve top is firmly against the inner seat, and then re-opened slowly after the gauge glass has been replaced, if necessary. 4.1.4 Operating Points When using valves, the following points should be observed: Direction of Flow: Direction of flow is usually marked with an arrow in the case of check valves and globe valves. Direction of Opening/Closing: Hand wheels and levers - clockwise to close, anti-clockwise to open. Levers - usually lever in line with pipe - open, lever at 90 to pipe - closed.

Open and close valves slowly. Valves should always be opened and closed slowly, except in emergencies. Too rapid closing can cause pressure waves to build up and travel back through the system, possibly causing severe damage, burst or injuries. This phenomenon is known as water hammer in domestic water systems and a loud knocking noise can be heard in the pipe. Gate and Ball/Plug Valves: Gate and ball valves must only be used in the fully open or closed positions. Intermediate setting can cause turbulence, which can wear away the valve very quickly and cause internal leakage. Gauge Glass Valves: Gauge or sight glass valves must be fully opened as soon as the fluid has reached its level or there will be no protection if the glass breaks. Interlock/Keys: Some valves are not fitted with hand wheels or levers and can only be operated by special keys or spanners. This is because the setting of the valve is critical and must not be altered except by an authorised person. Similarly, some valves are sealed with wire; locks or other means and must not be tampered with or altered as serious damage could result. Do not Open/Close too far or use unnecessary force. If gate and globe valves are jammed too far open, they may seize or be damaged. This is called backseating and puts unnecessary strain on the disc, which may break off. It is best to re-close gate and globe valves by 1/2 to 1 full turn after they are fully opened. Similarly, over-tightening the valve when closing it may damage the disc and seat leading to seizure or leakage. If valves prove stubborn to open, mechanical assistance such as a valve wrench or spanner can be used. The minimum amount of force should be used and before applying the persuader, check that the valve is not already open. Do not use persuaders on twin seal valves or on very small valves, which may break off. The functions of valves are not only those mentioned at Para. 4.1.1 (control, shut off/permit & isolate). There main 5 functions of valves are: 1. "ON/OFF": Stopping or starting flow. 2. "Regulating": Varying the flow rate of flow 3."Checking": Permitting flow in one direction. 4."Switching": Switching flow along different routes. 5. "Discharging": Discharging fluid from a system. We hold expertise in manufacturing of a wide range of Valves that are used to perform important functions like preventing backflow, controlling speed of cylinder, keeping pressure under control and others. Our process expertise includes delivering valves on the basis of functions performed. The range that can be offered by us include Angle Valves, Ball Valves, Butterfly Valves, Check Valves, Control Valves, Gate Valves, Globe Valves, Manifold Valves, Needle Valves, Pressure Relief Valve, Y-Strainer and others.


Y-Strainer valves offered by us are special devices, used for mechanically removing solids from flowing liquids/ gases by using perforated/ wire mesh straining element or equipment. These strainers find extensive usage in pipelines to protect equipment like pumps, meters, control valves, steam traps & regulators. Usage:

Generally used where amount of material to be removed is small Where frequent straining is not needed For handling steam as these can handle high pressures


Can be installed in both horizontal as well as vertical position

Material Finish:

Pressure Relief Valve Pressulief valves offered by us are devices mounted on hot water heater/ boilers. These are designed to release any high steam pressure in tank and thus prevent possible tank explosions. Their precision designs makes them used for systems that contain gases

& liquids of pneumatic,



including a variety cryogenic applications.

Needle Valves

Manifold Valves

Manifold valves offered by us are widely used in industrial fittings to reduce cost of installation as well as in protecting potential leakage. These also help to simplify piping, improving appearance & reducing space requirements. Our process expertise also allows these valves to be customized according to preferred connection type like:

Sockets Threaded Flare O-ring face

Applications: Level

Gate Valves Gate valves offered by us are also known as Slide or Knife Valves. Named after wedge-shaped internal plastic barrier, these linear motion valves feature flat closure element that slides into flow stream to provide shut off. Further, these are designed to minimize pressure drop across valve in fully opened position and stop flow of fluid completely. Features:

Effectively regulate flow rates from zero to full flow Work well with solids-laden water Work well in applications involving slurries as 'gates' can cut through slurry

Control Valves

Control valves offered by us are an important industrial fitting device that is used to modify as well as control fluid flow rates in a process system. These power-operated devices are used to modify pressure rate in a process system. Our process expertise allows us to deliver these in different diameters, working pressures and operating temperatures. Finish: These can be made available in different material finishes including:

Copper Brass Bronze Cast iron

Check Valves Check valve offered by us are mechanical devices used as industrial/plumbing fitting. These are precision designed to allow fluid/ gas to flow through it in uni-direction. The offered check valves also prevent back flow and keep potentially contaminated water from siphoning back. Types of Check Valves

Single Disc Swing Valves:

Can be mounted both vertically & horizontally Designed with closure element attached to top of the cap Closure element can be pushed aside by flow, but swings back into close position upon flow reversal Double Disc or Wafer Check Valves: Consist of two half-circle disks hinged together that fold together upon positive flow These retract to full-circle to close against reverse flow



These valves can operate in either vertical/ horizontal


Silent valves:

Valves with

Globe Valves Globe valves offered by us feature rounded bodies/spherical shapes and are widely used in fitting industry for regulating fluid flow in both on/off positions. These linear motion valves comprise of moving parts including disk, valve stem and hand wheel, allowing fluids to pass spaces between edge of disk and seat when in open position. Types: These valves are available in three main body types like:

Angle Design Y-design Multi-piece Design

Send Your Enquiry

Butterfly Valves

We offer clients Butterfly valves that work as throttling valves and are used to effectively control flow through circular disc by turning valve's main axis at ninety degree towards the direction of flow in the pipe. These valves use inflatable seat to seal with air pressure, thus requiring less torque & smaller actuator, resulting in lower overall valve costs. Features:

Provide precise, repeatable control for industrial process Feature complex automatic sequencing for process control Help in controlling flow of gas/ liquid by means of a disk Permits flow in a single direction Offer rotary system movement of less than 90 degree Manufactured in materials like stainless steel, plastic, ceramic and PVC

P&ID Layout The layout of the P&ID should resemble, as far as practicable, that of the process flow diagram. The process relationship of equipment should correspond exactly. Often it is useful to draw equipment in proportion vertically, but to reduce horizontal dimensions to save space and allow room for flow lines between equipment. Crowding information is a common drafting fault - it is desirable to space generously, as more often than not, revisions add information. On an elevational P&ID, a base line indicating grade or first-floor level can be shown. Critical elevations are noted.For revision purposes, a P&ID is best made on a drawing sheet having a grid system - this is a sheet having letters along one border and numbers along the adjacent border. Thus, references such as "A6", "B5", etc., can be given to an area where a change has been made. Flow Lines On P&IDs All flow lines and interconnections should be shown on P&IDs. Every line should show direction of flow and be labeled to show the area of project, conveyed fluid, line size, piping materialor specification code number (company code)and number of the line. Interconnecting P&ID This drawing shows process and service lines between buildings and units, etc. and serves to link the P&IDs for the individual processes, units or buildings. Like any P&ID, the drawing is not to scale. It resembles the layout of the site plan, which enables line sizes and branching points from headers to be established and assists in planning pipe ways. P&ID shows all of piping including the physical sequence of branches, reducers, valves, equipment, instrumentation and control interlocks. The P&ID are used to operate the process system. A P&ID should include:

Instrumentation and designations Mechanical equipment with names and numbers All valves and their identifications Process piping, sizes and identification Miscellaneous - vents, drains, special fittings, sampling lines, reducers, increasers and swagers Permanent start-up and flush lines Flow directions Interconnections references Control inputs and outputs, interlocks Interfaces for class changes Seismic category Quality level Annunciation inputs Computer control system input Vendor and contractor interfaces Identification of components and subsystems delivered by others Intended physical sequence of the equipment This figure depict a very small and simplified P&ID:

P&ID should not include:

Instrument root valves control relays manual switches equipment rating or capacity primary instrument tubing and valves pressure temperature and flow data elbow, tees and similar standard fittings extensive explanatory notes

Fig. 1 shows the basic types of lines, fitting symbols, and valve symbols used in flow diagrams. Instrumentation Drawing Symbols. Figure 1

Figs. 2 and 3 show the symbols used to denote common process equipment. Again, these are not exhaustive lists, but they contain the majority of symbol types for equipment. Separators and towers, in particular, can have a wide range of internal devices, and this results in many variations of equipment symbols. Similarly, there are different, and yet common, ways of indicating the same types of heat exchangers.

Figure 2 Figure 3

Fig. 4 shows some of the typical symbols used for pumps, compressors, and the devices which are used to drive them. Often, the diagram will show the type of driver associated with a pump or compressor, particularly if the driver is itself part of the overall plant process, such as a steam turbine. If a pump or compressor is shown without a driver, then the conventional understanding is that it is driven by a motor. Figure 4

Here are some general guidelines: - check valve on pump discharge line - block valves on the discharge and suction side of pumps - drain valve on pump suction - bypass around flow control valves - double block and bleed where necessary - line numbering including line size and mat'l of construction - show set pressure, in- and outlet diameters on PRVs - legend sheets - lines continueing to the next drawing should be at the same height, show drawing nr. - main process lines should be thicker than utility lines - Install flowmeters upstream of a flow control valve. - If your drawing shows elevation, the flowmeter should ideally be installed on the vertical portion of the pipe where flow is going upward.

- Install temperature gauge at the outlet of a heat exchanger. From Google, there are a hundreds of very interesting sites such as

_________ This flange is circumferentially welded into the system at its neck which means that the integrity of the butt welded area can be easily examined by radiography. The bores of both pipe and flange match, which reduces turbulence and erosion inside the pipeline. The weld neck is therefore favoured in critical applications ____ This flange is slipped over the pipe and then fillet welded. Slip-on flanges are easy to use in fabricated applications. ____ This flange is used to blank off pipelines, valves and pumps, it can also be used as an inspection cover. It

is sometimes referred to as a blanking flange. _________ This flange is counter bored to accept the pipe before being fillet welded. The bore of the pipe and flange are both the same therefore giving good flow characteristics. This flange is referred to as either threaded or screwed. It is used to connect other threaded components in low pressure, non-critical applications. No welding is required. _______ These flanges are always used with either a stub end or taft which is butt welded to the pipe with the flange loose behind it. This means the stub end or taft always makes the face. The lap joint is favoured in low pressure applications because it is easily assembled and aligned. To reduce cost these flanges can be supplied without a hub and/or in treated, coated carbon steel. ____________ This is a method of ensuring leak proof flange connection at high pressures. A metal ring is compressed into a hexagonal groove on the face of the flange to make the seal. This jointing method can be employed on Weld Neck, Slip-on and Blind


Can you describe the difference between an RF flange and an RTJ flange? What type of gasket do the different flanges require? What does SPWD mean when referring to a gasket? Answer: RF means "Raised Face." SPWD means "Spiral Wound." (Referring to a gasket for RF flanges) RTJ means "Ring Type Joint."

RAISED FACE (RF) FLANGE RF flanges seal with a flat gasket, formerly made of asbestos but now made of more environmentally friendly material, designed for installation between the raised faces of two mating flanges (both with raised faces). The raised faces have a prescribed texture to increase their gripping and retaining force on this flat gasket. Some users of raised face flanges specify the use of spiral wound gaskets, see an explanation of Spiral Wound Gaskets below.


SPWD identifies a flat gasket used between two RF flanges (without ring grooves). SPWD gaskets contain a "spiral wound" metallic filler for reinforcement.

RING TYPE JOINT (RTJ) FLANGE RTJ flanges have grooves cut into their faces which accept steel Ring Gaskets. RTJ flanges seal when tightened bolts compress the gasket between the flanges into the grooves, deforming (or "Coining") the gasket to make Intimate Contact inside the grooves, creating a metal to metal seal. An RTJ flange may have a raised face with a ring groove machined into it. This raised face does not serve as any part of the sealing means. For RTJ flanges that seal with BX ring gaskets, the raised faces of the connected and tightened flanges may contact each other. In this case the compressed gasket will not bear additional load

beyond the bolt tension, vibration and movement cannot further crush the gasket and lessen the connecting


To see a more complete explanation for why flanges that seal with BX gaskets have raised faces, Click Here: Q & A 42, When and Why Have Raised Faces on API Flanges? Spiral Wound Gaskets Manufactured in Accordance with ASME B16.20 Spiral wound gasketsmade with an alternating combination of formed metal wire and soft filler materials form a very effective seal when compressed between two flanges. A v-shaped crown centered in the metal strip acts as a spring, giving gaskets greater resiliency under varying conditions. Filler and wire material can be changed to accommodate different chemical compatibility requirements. If the load available to compress a gasket is limited, gasket construction and dimensions can be altered to provide an effective seal. A spiral wound gasket may include a centering ring, an inner ring or both. The outer centering ring centers the gasket within the flange and acts as a compression limiter, while the inner ring provides additional radial strength. The inner ring also reduces flange erosion and protects the sealing element.

Resiliency and strength make spiral wound gaskets an ideal choice under a variety of conditions and applications. Widely used throughout refineries and chemical processing plants, spiral wound gaskets are also effective for power generation, aerospace, and a variety of valve and specialty applications. The spiral wound gasket industry is currently adapting to a change in the specification covering spiral wound gaskets. Previously API 601, the new specification is ASME B16.20. These specifications are very similar, and Garlock follows manufacturing procedures in accordance with the guidelines set forth in the ASME B16.20 specifications.

Gasket Identification Markings Required by ASME B16.20

A spiral wound gaskets is categorized as semi-metallic gasket that is typically used for high pressure
applications. The sealing element is formed by winding two materials (one for sealing, one for resilience) into thin v-shaped spirals. One material used in the sealing element is usually a metal and the other, referred to as a filler, which is a soft nonmetallic material, typically Teflon, aramid fiber or graphite. Both are chosen for compatibility with the sealing media and their ability to withstand the operating conditions. Different configurations exist to handle different flange designs and operating conditions. These gaskets have good recovery and good tolerance for flange-surface finish irregularities. The sealing action is the result of a combination of the flow of the metal and soft filler plies when the gasket is compressed. They are particularily suited for assemblies subject to extremes in joint relaxation, temperature or pressure cycling, shock, or vibration.[1]

MALLEABLITY:Definition: It can be defined as the property of a metal to be deformed by compression without cracking or rupturing. The load may be applied slowly or suddenly and will determine whether the material will be suitable for forging or rolling into thin sheet.

Definition: The property of metal which permits it to be reduced in cross sectional area without fracture. In a tensile test, ductile metals show considerable elongation eventually failing by necking, with consequent rapid increase in local stresses.

BRITTLENESS:That characteristic of a material that is manifested by sudden or abrupt failure without appreciable prior ductile orplastic deformation. A brittle fracture occurs on a cleavage plane which has a crystalline appearance at failure because each crystal tends to fracture on a single plane. On the other hand, a shear fracture has a fibrousappearance because of the sliding of the fracture surfaces over each other. Brittle failures are caused by high tensile stresses, high carbon content, rapid rate of loading, and the presence of notches. Materials such as glass, cast iron, and concrete are examples of brittle materials.

1. WHAT IS HARDNESS? The Metals Handbook defines hardness as "Resistance of metal to plastic deformation, usually by indentation. However, the term may also refer to stiffness or temper, or to resistance to scratching, abrasion, or cutting. It is the property of a metal, which gives it the ability to resist being permanently, deformed (bent, broken, or have its shape changed), when a load is applied. The greater the hardness of the metal, the greater resistance it has to deformation.

Definition: The ability of a metal to rapidly distribute within itself both the stress and strain caused by a suddenly applied load, or more simply expressed, the ability of a material to withstand shock loading. It is the exact opposite of "brittleness" which carries the implication of sudden failure. A brittle material has little resistance to failure once the elastic limit has been reached.

Stress When a material is subjected to an external force, it will either totally comply with that force and be pushed away, like a liquid or powder, or it will set up internal forces to oppose those applied from outside. Solid materials generally act rather like a spring when stretched or compressed, the internal forces come into play, as is easily seen when the spring is released.

A material subjected to external forces that tend to stretch it is said to be in tension, whereas forces which squeeze the material put it incompression. An important aspect is not so much the size of the force, as how much force is applied per unit of crosssectional area. The term stress, symbol (Greek letter sigma), is used for the force per unit area, and has the units of pascals (Pa) with 1Pa being one newton per square metre. Because the reference area is so large, it is normally necessary to use high multiples such as the megapascal (MPa = 106 Pa) and gigapascal (GPa = 109 Pa). However, when we bear in mind that, in electronics, the area over which forces are applied is generally very much smaller, it is useful to keep in mind that one MPa is equivalent to a force of 1 newton applied on a square millimetre of area. [back to top]

Strain A material in tension or compression changes in length, and the change in length compared to the original length is referred to as the strain, symbol1 (Greek letter epsilon). Since strain is a ratio of two lengths it has no units and is frequently expressed as a percentage: a strain of 0.005 corresponds to a % change of the original length.

In some texts you may find (Greek letter eta) used. Hookes Law As you know from a spring, if you gradually stretch it, the force needed increases, but the material springs back to its original shape when the force is released. Materials which react in the same way as a spring are said to be elastic. Typically if we measure the extension of different forces and plot the graph of this, we will find that the extension is proportional to the force applied. Materials that obey Hookes Law exhibit a linear relationship between the strain and the applied stress (Figure 1). Figure 1: Stress-strain graph for an elastic solid

Many metals follow Hookes Law until a certain level of stress has been applied, after which the material will distort more severely. The point at which straight line behaviour ceases is called the limit of proportionality: beyond this the material will not spring back to its original shape, and is said to exhibit some plastic behaviour (Figure 2). The stress at which the material starts to exhibit permanent deformation is called the elastic limit or yield point. Figure 2: Stress-strain graph for a typical metal

As Figure 2 shows, if the stress is increased beyond the yield point the sample will eventually break. The term (ultimate) tensile strength is used for the maximum value of tensile stress that a material can withstand without breaking, and is calculated at the maximum tensile force divided by the original crosssectional area. Note that there may be substantial differences between the stress at the yield point and on breaking for example, one source quotes the ultimate tensile strength for AISI3 04 stainless steel as 505 MPa, and the yield tensile strength as 215 MPa. For most engineering purposes, metals are regarded as having failed once they have yielded, and are normally loaded at well below the yield point. With some materials, including mild steel, the stress/strain graph shows a noticeable dip beyond the elastic limit, where the strain (the effect of the load) increases without any need to increase the load. The material is said to have yielded, and the point at which this occurs is the yield point. Materials such as aluminium alloys on the other hand dont show a noticeable yield point, and it is usual to specify a proof test. As shown in Figure 3, the 0.2% proof strength is obtained by drawing a line parallel to the straight line part of the graph, but starting at a strain of 0.2%. Figure 3: Stress-strain graph for an aluminium alloy

Self Assessment Question You are designing a part with a retention clip which has to spring into place after being pressed into

position. By making reference to their stress-strain curves, explain why you would expect steel to be a better choice than aluminium for this application. go to solution

Youngs modulus As you will appreciate from the shapes of Figure 2 and Figure 3, the slope of the stress/strain graph varies with stress, so we generally take only the slope of the initial straight-line portion. The stress/strain ratio is referred to as the modulus of elasticity or Youngs Modulus. The units are those of stress, since strain has no units. Engineering materials frequently have a modulus of the order of 10 9Pa, which is usually expressed as GPa. Some approximate figures for typical electronic materials are given in Table 1. Table 1: Tensile strength and Youngs modulus for selected materials material tensile strength MPa modulus of elasticity GPa 200 120 340 70 30

304 stainless steel 500 copper 96% alumina aluminium Sn63 solder 270 200 90 35

epoxy resin silicone rubber Quote

40 10

3 0.003

Stress is what happens to you from outside; strain is what you feel. Engineers should never say that they feel stressed, even if they have reached their yield point! Compression The compressive strength is the maximum compressive stress that a material can withstand without being crushed. Both strengths have the same unit as stress, and are typically millions of Pa. For most engineering materials, Youngs Modulus is the same in compression as in tension. Hardness Hardness is another measure of the ability of a material to be deformed. There are many different tests for this, but all measure the resistance of a material to indentation, applying a known force to a tool of defined radius which is very much harder than the material being tested. Empirical hardness numbers are calculated from measurements of the dimensions of the indentation. Figure 4: The Rockwell R hardness test

The principle of one of the simpler tests, the Rockwell R2 test, can be seen in Figure 9. A specimen at least inch (6.4 mm) thick is indented by a inch (12.7 mm) diameter steel ball. A small load is applied, the apparatus is zeroed, and then a larger load is applied and removed. After a short time with the preload still applied, the remaining indentation is read from the scale. 2 As with many standard tests, the units used are American! We have kept kgf to help you gauge the magnitude of the force involved: 1 kilogramforce = 9.81N. For metal measurements, there are alternative Rockwell tests, with different test heads and different loads. You will also find Brinell hardness numbers (BHN), derived from a test which uses a 10mm tungsten carbide ball. Brinell testing is sometimes preferred as it covers a wider hardness range than the Rockwell tests.

There is unfortunately little correlation between different hardness tests, but there is reasonable correlation between the hardness results and the tensile strength, at least for given families of alloys. Note that the correlation is to tensile strength rather than yield strength, because plastic deformation takes place during the hardness measurement. [back to top]

Shear strength Subjected to forces which cause it to twist, or one face to slide relative to an opposite face, a material is said to be in shear (Figure 5). Compared to tensile and compressive stress and strain, the shear forces act over an area which is in line with the forces. Figure 5: Shear stress applied to an object

The force per unit area is referred to as the shear stress, denoted by the symbol (Greek letter tau), where

Its unit is the pascal (Pa), where force is measured in newtons (N) and area in square metres. When shear stress is applied, there will be an angular change in dimension, just as there is a change in length when materials are under tension or compression. Shear strain, denoted by the symbol (Greek letter gamma), is defined by

where the angular deformation, symbol (Greek letter phi) is expressed in radians. The last approximate equality results from the fact that the tangent of a small angle is almost the same as the angle expressed in radians. This is the reason why some texts give the radian as the unit of strain. Both shear strain and angular deformation are ratios, so have no units. However, it is not unusual for shear strain to be quoted in %, as with tensile strain. Shear stresses are most evident where lap joints are fastened together and forces applied to pull them apart, but are also seen when rods are twisted, or laminated boards bent.

The shear strength of a material is the maximum stress that it can withstand in shear before failure occurs. For example, punching, cropping and guillotining all apply shear stresses of more than the maximum shear stress for that material. As with Hookes Law for tensile stress, most metals have a shear stress which is proportional to the shear strain. And in a similar way to Youngs modulus, the gradient of the graph is refer red to as the shear modulus or modulus of rigidity. Again the SI unit3 for shear modulus is the pascal (Pa). 3 You are very likely to find Youngs modulus and shear modulus quoted in psi (pounds force per square inch) or kpsi (thousands of psi). To convert to MPa, multiply the figure in kpsi by 6.89. Watch the units! You should also expect there to be very wide variations in the figures quoted, as these depend critically on alloy composition and work hardening (for metals), on purity (for ceramics) and on formulation (for polymers). Table 2: Shear strength and shear modulus for selected materials material 96% alumina shear strength MPa modulus of rigidity GPa 330 73 44 26 6

304 stainless steel 186 copper aluminium Sn63 solder epoxy resin Self Assessment Question 42 30 28 10 40

Hybrid microcircuits are typically made on a substrate of 96% alumina. How would you expect their mechanical characteristics, such as strength and hardness, to differ from equivalent circuits made on an FR-4 laminate? go to solution Stiffness The stiffness of a material is an important aspect of PCB design, being the ability of the material to resist bending. When a board is bent, one surface stretches and the inside of the radius is compressed. The more a material bends, the more the outer surface stretches and the internal surface contracts. A stiff material is one that gives a relatively small change in length when subject to tension or compression, in other words, a small value of strain/stress. However, on the basis that stiff = good, a natural feeling that this should be a larger figure means that we actually quote the ratio of stress/strain. So a stiff material has a high value of Youngs modulus. From Table 1 you will be aware of the very wide range of properties in electronic materials. Note that the metals in this

list are much stiffer than polymers, but well below the stiffness of a typical ceramic. However, this stiffness is accompanied by extreme brittleness. One of the features of a metal is that it is unlikely to shatter, as would a piece of glass or ceramic, but it will show permanent deformation when forces are applied ask any car body shop! Elongation The stress-strain graph of a brittle material (Figure 6) shows that very little plastic deformation occurs before the point at which the stress is sufficient to induce failure. A brittle test piece after fracture will be almost the same length as it started. However, a ductile material, such as copper will stretch a great deal before it finally breaks. Try stretching a piece of copper wire, and you will know that it stretches by 10-20% before the weakest point in the wire necks and the wire breaks. The percentage elongation of a material is used as a measure of its ductility. Figure 6: Brittle and ductile materials compared

Self Assessment Question Explain why it is important for an FR-4 laminate that glass-reinforced epoxy has a Youngs Modulus less than that of solder and that copper is a ductile material. go to solution [back to top]

An explanation of yield and deformation The block slip model (Figure 7) is used to explain the elastic and plastic behaviour of metals. A metal is viewed as blocks of atoms which can move relative to each other. When stress is applied, these blocks become displaced until, when the yield stress is reached, large blocks of atoms slip past each other. The plane along which movement occurs is called the slip plane. Figure 7: The block slip model, showing behaviour of metals under stress

Slip lines do not cross from one grain to another, but are confined by the grain boundaries (Figure 8). The bigger the grains, the more slippage and the greater the plastic deformation which occurs. Materials with a fine grain structure are therefore less ductile and more brittle each slip process is confined and not allowed to spread. Figure 8: Grain boundaries modifying behaviour during deformation

The effect of temperature Figure 9 shows how the strength and hardness of a metal varies with temperature: note that the temperature is measured on the Kelvin scale, whose origin is absolute zero ( 273C). Provided that the curves are scaled correctly, and referenced to the melting temperature of the material (Tm), this is actually a generic relationship: the pattern follows a similar pattern for most metals, reducing to zero at the melting point, and reducing markedly as that temperature is approached. Figure 9: Strength/hardness of a metal related to its melting temperature

Metallurgists refer to the idea of a homologous temperature, where the actual temperature of a material is expressed as a fraction of its melting temperature expressed in Kelvin. Solder ( 183C = 456K) at 0.85Tm or 115C (= 388K), would thus be expected to have comparable properties to copper ( 1085C = 1358K) at 0.85Tm or 881C (= 1154K). In electronics applications, where circuits typically operate over a 55C+125C range, eutectic tin-lead (Sn63) solder is working at 0.480.87Tm. From this we can deduce that solder will have limited mechanical strength (as a bulk material) and be within the creep range. This is borne out by the comparatively low values for tensile strength, shear strength and modulus of elasticity which are given in Table 1 and Table 2. Copper, on the other hand, has a much higher melting point, so foils are working at only 0.160.29T m, and their properties are little affected by temperature. Exercise This is something to think about! What is the creep range mentioned in the diagram? And does failure ever happen at lower stress conditions? For answers to those questions you will have to wait until you study the unit on Stress and its effect on materials. Or you might like to glance ahead at that section now. go to Stress unit

Notch-Toughness Notch toughness is the ability that a material possesses to absorb energy in the presence of a flaw. As mentioned previously, in the presence of a flaw, such as a notch or crack, a material will likely exhibit a lower level of toughness. When a flaw is present in a material, loading induces a triaxial tension stress state adjacent to the flaw. The material develops plastic strains as the yield stress is exceeded in the region near the crack tip. However, the amount of plastic deformation is restricted by the surrounding material, which remains elastic. When a material is prevented from deforming plastically, it fails in a brittle manner. Notch-toughness is measured with a variety of specimens such as the Charpy V-notch impact specimen or the dynamic tear test specimen. As with regular impact testing the tests are often repeated numerous times with

specimens tested at a different temperature. With these specimens and by varying the loading speed and the temperature, it is possible to generate curves such as those shown in the graph. Typically only static and impact testing is conducted but it should be recognized that many components in service see intermediate loading rates in the range of the dashed red line.

Impact Toughness The impact toughness (AKA Impact strength) of a material can be determined with a Charpy or Izod test. These tests are named after their inventors and were developed in the early 1900s before fracture mechanics theory was available. Impact properties are not directly used in fracture mechanics calculations, but the economical impact tests continue to be used as a quality control method to assess notch sensitivity and for comparing the relative toughness of engineering materials. The two tests use different specimens and methods of holding the specimens, but both tests make use of a pendulum-testing machine. For both tests, the specimen is broken by a single overload event due to the impact of the pendulum. A stop pointer is used to record how far the pendulum swings back up after fracturing the specimen. The impact toughness of a metal is determined by measuring the energy absorbed in the fracture of the specimen. This is simply obtained by noting the height at which the pendulum is released and the height to which the pendulum swings after it has struck the specimen . The height of the pendulum times the weight of the pendulum produces the potential energy and the difference in potential energy of the pendulum at the start and the end of the test is equal to the absorbed energy. Since toughness is greatly affected by temperature, a Charpy or Izod test is often repeated numerous times with each specimen tested at a different temperature. This produces a graph of impact toughness for the material as a function of temperature. An impact toughness versus temperature graph for a steel is shown in the image. It can be seen that at low temperatures the material is more brittle and impact toughness

is low. At high temperatures the material is more ductile and impact toughness is higher. The transition temperature is the boundary between brittle and ductile behavior and this temperature is often an extremely important consideration in the selection of a material.

Figure 7-63.Guided-bend test specimens.test piece by using a hydraulic press or similar machine.When the proper precautions are taken, a blacksmithsforging press or hammer can be used to complete thebending operation. If a crack more than 1/16 inch devel-ops during the test, stop the bending because the weldhas failed; otherwise, bend the specimen flat. Aftercompleting the test, measure the distance between thescribed lines and call that measurement (y). The percent-age of elongation is then determined by the formula:Requirements for a satisfactory test area minimumelongation of 15 percent and no cracks greater than 1/16inch on the face of the weld.Guided-Bend TestYou use the GUIDED-BEND TEST to determinethe quality of weld metal at the face and root of a weldedjoint. This test is made in a specially designed jig. Anexample of one type of jig is shown in figure 7-62.The test specimen is placed across the supports ofthe die. A plunger, operated from above by hydraulicpressure, forces the specimen into the die. To fulfill therequirements of this test, you must bend the specimen180 degreesthe capacity of the jig. No cracks shouldappear on the surface greater than 1/8 inch. The face-bend tests are made in this jig with the face of the weldin tension (outside), as shown in figure 7-63. The root-bend tests are made with the root of the weld

in tension(outside), as shown in figure 7-63.Figure 7-64 shows a machine used for making theguided-bend test. It is used in many welding schools and

PHYSICAL TESTING 13-12. GENERAL a. The tests described in this section have been developed to check the skill of the welding operator as well as the quality of the weld metal and the strength of the welded joint for each type of metal used in ordnance materiel. b. Some of these tests, such as tensile and bending tests, are destructive, in that the test Specimens are loaded until they fail, so the desired information can be gained. Other testing methods, such as the X-ray and hydrostatic tests, are not destructive. 13-13. ACID ETCH TEST a. This test is used to determine the soundness of a weld. The acid attacks or reacts with the edges of cracks in the base or weld metal and discloses weld defects, if present. It also accentuates the boundary between the base and weld metal and, in this manner, shows the size of the weld which may otherwise be indistinct. This test is usually performed on a cross section of the joint. b. Solutions of hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, ammonium per sulfate, or iodine and potassium iodide are commonly used for etching carbon and low alloy steels. 13-14. GUIDED BEND TEST The quality of the weld metal at the face and root of the welded joint, as well as the degree of penetration and fusion to the base metal, are determined by means of guided bend tests. These tests are made in a jig (fig. 131). These test specimens are machined from welded plates, the thickness of which must be within the capacity of the bending jig. The test specimen is placed across the supports of the die which is the lower portion of the jig. The plunger, operated from above by a hydraulic jack or other device, causes the specimen to be forced into and to assure the shape of the die. To fulfill the requirements of this test, the specimens must bend 180 degrees and, to be accepted as passable, no cracks greater than 1/8 in. (3.2 mm) in any dimension should appear on the surface. The face bend tests are made in the jig with the face of the weld in tension (i.e., on the outside of the bend) (A, fig. 13-2). The root bend tests are made with the root of the weld in tension (i. e., on outside of the bend) (B, fig. 13-2). Guided bend test specimens are also shown the in figure 13-3.

13-15. FREE BEND TEST a. The free bend test has been devised to measure the ductility of the weld metal deposited in a weld joint. A test specimen is machined from the welded plate with the weld located as shown at A, figure 13-4. Each corner lengthwise of the specimen shall be rounded in a radius not exceeding one-tenth of the thickness of the specimen. Tool marks, if any, shall be lengthwise of the specimen. Two scribed lines are placed on the face 1/16 in. (1.6 mm) in from the edge of the weld. The distance between these lines is measured in inches and recorded as the initial distance X (B, fig. 13-4). The ends of the test specimen are then bent through angles of about 30 degrees, these bends being approximately one-third of the length in from each end. The weld is thus located centrally to ensure that all of the bending occurs in the weld. The specimen bent initially is then placed in a machine capable of exerting a large compressive force (C, fig. 13-4) and bent until a crack greater than 1/16 in. (1.6 mm) in any dimension appears on the face of the weld. If no cracks appear, bending is continued until the specimens 1/4 in. (6.4 mm) thick or under can be tested in vise. Heavier plate is usually tested in a press or bending jig. Whether a vise or other type of compression device is used when making the free bend test, it is advisable to machine the upper and lower contact plates of the bending equipment to present surfaces parallel to the ends of the specimen (E, fig. 13-4). This will prevent the specimen from slipping and snapping out of the testing machine as it is bent.

b. After bending the specimen to the point where the test bend is concluded, the distance between the scribed lines on the specimen is again measured and recorded as the distance Y. To find the percentage of elongation, subtract the initial from the final distance, divide by the initial distance, and multiply by 100 (fig. 13-4). The usual requirements for passing this test are that the minimum elongation be 15 percent and that no cracks greater than 1/16 in. (1.6 mm) in any dimension exist on the face of the weld. c. The free bend test is being largely replaced by the guided bend test where the required testing equipment is available. 13-16. BACK BEND TEST The back bend test is used to determine the quality of the weld metal and the degree of penetration into the root of the Y of the welded butt joint. The specimens used are similar to those required for the free bend test (para 13-15) except they are bent with the root of the weld on the tension side, or outside. The specimens tested are required to bend 90 degrees without breaking apart. This test is being largely replaced by the guided bend test (para 13-14). 13-17. NICK BREAK TEST a. The nick break test has been devised to determine if the weld metal of a welded butt joint has any internal defects, such as slag inclusions, gas pockets, poor fusion, and/or oxidized or burnt metal. The specimen is obtained from a welded butt joint either by machining or by cutting with an oxyacetylene torch. Each edge of the weld at the joint is slotted by means of a saw cut through the center (fig. 13-5). The piece thus prepared is bridged across two steel blocks (fig. 13-5) and stuck with a heavy hammer until the section of the weld between the slots fractures. The metal thus exposed should be completely fused and free from slag inclusions. The size of any gas pocket must not be greater than 1/16 in. (1.6 mm) across the greater dimension and the number of gas pockets or pores per square inch (64.5 sq mm) should not exceed 6.

b. Another break test method is used to determine the soundness of fillet welds. This is the fillet weld break test. A force, by means of a press, a testing machine, or blows of a hammer, is applied to the apex of the V shaped specimen until the fillet weld ruptures. The surfaces of the fracture will then be examined for soundness. 13-18. TENSILE STRENGTH TEST a. This test is used to measure the strength of a welded joint. A portion of a to locate the welded plate is locate the weld midway between the jaws of the testing machine (fig. 13-6). The width thickness of the test specimen are measured before testing, and the area in square inches is calculated by multiplying these before testing , and the area in square inches is calculated by multiplying these two figures (see formula, fig. 13-6). The tensile test specimen is then mounted in a machine that will exert enough pull on the piece to break the specimen. The testing machining may be either a stationary or a portable type. A machine of the portable type, operating on the hydraulic principle and capable of pulling as well as bending test specimens, is shown in figure 13-7. As the specimen is being tested in this machine, the load in pounds is registered on the gauge. In the stationary types, the load applied may be registered on a balancing beam. In either case, the load at the point of breaking is recorded. Test specimens broken by the tensile strength test are shown in figure 13-3.

b. The tensile strength, which is defined as stress in pounds per square inch, is calculated by dividing the breaking load of the test piece by the original cross section area of the specimen. The usual requirements for the tensile strength of welds is that the specimen shall pull not less than 90 percent of the base metal tensile strength. c. The shearing strength of transverse and longitudinal fillet welds is determined by tensile stress on the test specimens. The width of the specimen is measured in inches. The specimen is ruptured under tensile load, and the maximum load in pounds is determined. The shearing strength of the weld in pounds per linear inch is determined by dividing the maximum load by the length of fillet weld that ruptured. The shearing strength in pounds per square inch is obtained by dividing the shearing strength in pounds per linear inch by the average throat dimension of the weld in inches. The test specimens are made wider than required and machined down to size. 13-19. HYDROSTATIC TEST

This is a nondestructive test used to check the quality of welds on closed containers such as pressure vessels and tanks. The test usually consists of filling the vessel with water and applying a pressure greater than the working pressure of the vessel. Sometimes, large tanks are filled with water which is not under pressure to detect possible leakage through defective welds. Another method is to test with oil and then steam out the vessel. Back seepage of oil from behind the liner shows up visibly. 13-20. MAGNETIC PARTICLE TEST This is a test or inspection method used on welds and parts made of magnetic alloy steels. It is applicable only to ferromagnetic materials in which the deposited weld is also ferromagnetic. A strong magnetic field is set up in the piece being inspected by means of high amperage electric currents. A leakage field will be set up by any discontinuity that intercepts this field in the part. Local poles are produced by the leakage field. These poles attract and hold magnetic particles that are placed on the surface for this purpose. The particle pattern produced on the surface indicates the presence of a discontinuity or defect on or close to the surface of the part. 13-21. X-RAY TEST This is a radiographic test method used to reveal the presence and nature of internal defects in a weld, such as cracks, slag, blowholes, and zones where proper fusion is lacking. In practice, an X-ray tube is placed on one side of the welded plate and an X-ray film, with a special sensitive emulsion, on the other side. When developed, the defects in the metal show up as dark spots and bands, which can be interpreted by an operator experienced in this inspection method. Porosity and defective root penetration as disclosed by X-ray inspection are shown in figure 13-8.

NOTE Instructions for handling X-ray apparatus to avoid harm to operating personnel are found in the "American Standard Code for the Industrial Use of X-rays".

13-22. GAMMA RAY TEST This test is a radiographic inspection method similar to the X-ray method described in paragraph 13-13, except that the gamma rays emanate from a capsule of radium sulfate instead of an X-ray tube. Because of the short wave lengths of gamma rays, the penetration of sections of considerable thickness is possible, but the time required for exposure for any thickness of metal is much longer than that required for X-rays because of the slower rate at which the gamma rays are produced. X-ray testing is used for most radiographic inspections, but gamma ray equipment has the advantage of being extremely portable. 13-23. FLUORESCENT PENETRANT TEST Fluorescent penetrant inspection is a nondestructive test method by means of which cracks, pores, leaks, and other discontinuities can be located in solid materials. It is particularly useful for locating surface defects in nonmagnetic materials such as aluminum, magnesium, and austenitic steel welds and for locating leaks in all types of welds. This method makes use of a water washable, highly fluorescent material that has exceptional penetration qualities. This material is applied to the clean dry surface of the metal to be inspected by brushing, spraying, or dipping. The excess material is removed by rinsing, wiping with clean water-soaked cloths, or by sandblasting. A wet or dry type developer is then applied. Discontinuities in surfaces which have been properly cleaned, treated with the penetrant, rinsed, and treated with developer show brilliant fluorescent indications under black light. 13-24. HARDNESS TESTS a. General. Hardness may be defined as the ability of a substance to resist indentation of localized displacement. The hardness test usually applied is a nondestructive test, used primarily in the laboratory and not to any great extent in the field. Hardness tests are used as a means of controlling the properties of materials used for specific purposes after the desired hardness has been established for the particular application. A hardness test is used to determine the hardness of weld metal. By careful testing of a welded joint, the hard areas can be isolated and the extent of the effect of the welding heat on the properties of the base metal determined. b. Hardness Testing Equipment. (1) File test. The simplest method for determining comparative hardness is the file test. It is performed by running a file under manual pressure over the piece being tested. Information may be obtained as to whether the metal tested is harder or softer than the file or other materials that have been given the same treatment. (2) Hardness testing machines. (a) General. There are several types of hardness testing machines. Each of them is singular in that its functional design best lends itself to the particular field or application for which the machine is intended. However, more than one type of machine can be used on a given metal, and the hardness values obtained can be satisfactorily correlated. Two types of machines are used most commonly in laboratory tests for metal hardness: the Brinell hardness tester and the Rockwell hardness tester. (b) Brinell hardness tester. In the Brinell tests, the specimen is mounted on the anvil of the machine and a load of 6620 lb (3003 kg) is applied against a hardened steel ball which is in

contact with the surface of the specimen being tested. The steel ball is 0.4 in. (10.2 mm) in diameter. The load is allowed to remain 1/2 minute and is then released, and the depth of the depression made by the ball on the specimen is measured. The resultant Brinell hardness number is obtained by the following formula:

It should be noted that, in order to facilitate the determination of Brinell hardness, the diameter of the depression rather than the depth is actually measured. Charts of Brinell hardness numbers have been prepared for a range of impression diameters. These charts are commonly used to determine Brinell numbers. (c) Rockwell hardness tester. The principle of the Rockwell tester is essentially the same as the Brinell tester. It differs from the Brinell tester in that a lesser load is impressed on a smaller ball or cone shaped diamond. The depth of the indentation is measured and indicated on a dial attached to the machine. The hardness is expressed in arbitrary figures called "Rockwell numbers." These are prefixed with a letter notation such as "B" or "C" to indicate the size of the ball used, the impressed load, and the scale used in the test. 13-25. MAGNAFLUX TEST a. General. This is a rapid, non-destructive method of locating defects at or near the surface of steel and its magnetic alloys by means of correct magnetization and the application of ferromagnetic particles. b. Basic Principles. For all practical purposes, magnaflux inspection may be likened to the use of a magnifying glass. Instead of using a glass, however, a magnetic field and ferromagnetic powders are employed. The method of magnetic particle inspection is based upon two principles: one, that a magnetic field is produced in a piece of metal when an electric current is flowed through or around it; two, that minute poles are set up on the surface of the metal wherever this magnetic field is broken or distorted. c. When ferromagnetic particles are brought into the vicinity of a magnetized part, they are strongly attracted by these poles and are held more firmly to them than to the rest of the surface of the part, thereby forming a visible indication. 13-26. EDDY CURRENT (ELECTROMAGNETIC) TESTING. a. General. Eddy current (electromagnetic) testing is a nondestructive test method based on the principle that an electric current will flow in any conductor subjected to a changing magnetic field. It is used to check welds in magnetic and nonmagnetic materials and is particularly useful in testing bars, fillets, welded pipe, and tubes. The frequency may vary from 50 Hz to 1 MHz, depending on the type and thickness of material current methods. The former pertains to tests where the magnetic permeability of a material is the factor affecting the test results and the latter to tests where electrical conductivity is the factor involved.

b. Nondestructive testing by eddy current methods involves inducing electric currents (eddy or foucault currents) in a test piece and measuring the changes produced in those currents by discontinuities or other physical differences in the test piece. Such tests can be used not only to detect discontinuities, but also to measure variations in test piece dimensions and resistivity. Since resistivity is dependent upon such properties as chemical composition (purity and alloying), crystal orientation, heat treatment, and hardness, these properties can also be determined indirectly. Electromagnetic methods are classified as magnetoinductive and eddy current methods. The former pertains to tests where the magnetic permeability of a material is the factor affecting the test results and the latter to tests where electrical conductivity is the factor involved. c. One method of producing eddy currents in a test specimen is to make the specimen the core of an alternating current (ac) induction coil. There are two ways of measuring changes that occur in the magnitude and distribution of these currents. The first is to measure the resistive component of impedance of the exciting coil (or of a secondary test coil), and the second is to measure the inductive component of impedance of the exciting (or of a secondary) coil. Electronic equipment has been developed for measuring either the resistive or inductive impedance components singly or both simultaneously. d. Eddy currents are induced into the conducting test specimen by alternating electromagnetic induction or transformer action. Eddy currents are electrical in nature and have all the properties associated with electric currents. In generating eddy currents, the test piece, which must be a conductor, is brought into the field of a coil carrying alternating current. The coil may encircle the part, may be in the form of a probe, or in the case of tubular shapes, may be wound to fit inside a tube or pipe. An eddy current in the metal specimen also sets up its own magnetic field which opposes the original magnetic field. The impedance of the exciting coil, or of a second coil coupled to the first, in close proximity to the specimen, is affected by the presence of the induced eddy currents. This second coil is often used as a convenience and is called a sensing or pick up coil. The path of the eddy current is distorted by the presence of a discontinuity. A crack both diverts and crowds eddy currents. In this manner, the apparent impedance of the coil is changed by the presence of the defect. This change can be measured and is used to give an indication of defects or differences in physical, chemical, and metallurgical structure. Subsurface discontinuities may also be detected, but the current falls off with depth. 13-27. ACOUSTIC EMISSION TESTING

a. Acoustic emission testing (AET) methods are currently considered supplementary to other nondestructive testing methods. They have been applied, however, during proof testing, recurrent inspections, service, and fabrication. b. Acoustic emission testing consists of the detection of acoustic signals produced by plastic deformation or crack formation during loading. These signals are present in a wide frequency spectrum along with ambient noise from many other sources. Transducers, strategically placed on a structure, are activated by arriving signals. By suitable filtering methods, ambient noise in the composite signal is notably reduced. Any source of significant signals is plotted by triangulation based on the arrival times of these signals at the different transducers. 13-28. FERRITE TESTING a. Effects of Ferrite Content. Fully austenitic stainless steel weld deposits have a tendency to develop small fissures even under conditions of minimal restraint. These small fissures tend to be located transverse to the weld fusion line in weld passes and base metal that were reheated to near the melting point of the material by

subsequent weld passes. Cracks are clearly injurious defects and cannot be tolerated. On the other hand, the effect of fissures on weldment performance is less clear, since these micro-fissures are quickly blurted by the very tough austenitic matrix. Fissured weld deposits have performed satisfactorily under very severe conditions. However, a tendency to form fissures generally goes hand-in-hand with a tendency for larger cracking, so it is often desirable to avoid fissure-sensitive weld metals. b. The presence of a small fraction of the magnetic delta ferrite phase in an otherwise austenitic (nonmagnetic) weld deposit has an influence in the prevention of both centerline cracking and fissuring. The amount of delta ferrite in as-welded material is largely controlled by a balance in the weld metal composition between the ferrite-promoting elements (chromium, silicon, molybdenum, and columbium are the most common) and the austenite-promoting elements (nickel, manganese, carbon, and nitrogen are the most common). Excessive delta ferrite, however, can have adverse effects on weld metal properties. The greater the amount of delta ferrite, the lower will be the weld metal ductility and toughness. Delta ferrite is also preferentially attacked in a few corrosive environments, such as urea. In extended exposure to temperatures in the range of 900 to 1700F (482 to 927C), ferrite tends to transform in part to a brittle intermetallic compound that severely embrittles the weldment. c. Portable ferrite indicators are designed for on-site use. Ferrite content of the weld deposit may indicated in percent ferrite and may be bracketed between two values. This provides sufficient control in most applications where minimum ferrite content or a ferrite range is specified.

Figure 7-69.Rupturing fillet weld test plate.(fig. 7-69) until a break occurs in the joint. This forcemay be applied by hydraulics or hammer blows.In addition to checking the fractured weld forsoundness, now is a good time to etch the weld to checkfor cracks. Etching TestThe ETCHING TEST is used to determine thesoundness of a weld and also make visible the boundarybetween the base metal and the weld metal.To accomplish the test, you must cut a test piecefrom the welded joint so it shows a complete transversesection of the weld. You can make the cut by eithersawing or flame cutting. File the face of the cut and thenpolish it with grade 00 abrasive cloth. Now place the testpiece in the etching solution.The etching solutions generally used are hydrochlo-ric acid, ammonium persulfate, iodine and potassiumiodide, or nitric acid. Each solution highlights differentdefects and areas of the weld. The hydrochloric aciddissolves slag inclusions and enlarges gas pockets,while nitric acid is used to show the refined zone as wellas the metal zone

The purpose of preheat:1. Reduce the risk of hydrogen cracking 2. Reduce the hardness of the weld heat affected zone 3. Reduce shrinkage stresses during cooling and improve the distribution of residual stresses. If preheat is locally applied it must extend to at least 75mm from the weld location and be preferably measured on the opposite face to the one being welded. Background To Preheating When hydrogen diffusing from a solidified weld meets a hard microstructure under a tensile stress a crack is likely! Hydrogen cracking normally occurs in the heat affected zone where hard microstructure is to be found, occasionally it can occur in weld metal.

Hydrogen This is a very searching gas that can be liberated by oil, grease, rust etc. and water under the right conditions. The greatest risk comes from hydrogen generated within the arc from damp or contaminated welding consumables, mainly fluxes or electrode coatings. Contamination on the parent metal can also be a risk unless the heat from the welding arc can drive it away. Moisture from condensation on the parent metal will normally be driven off by the heat from the arc before it can get into the weld pool. Hydrogen in the atmosphere is unlikely to penetrate the arc envelope unless welding is carried out in very damp and humid conditions. A hydrogen crack can take anything from a few hours to 24 hours to occur. After 24 hours cracking is still possible but less likely, although there have been some reported cases of cracking at 72 hours. It is therefore good practice to allow at least 48 hours before carrying out any NDE. Hydrogen will eventually disperse from the parent metal, within a few days at room temperature or a few hours if held at around 200C.

Hydrogen cracking is only possible at room temperature, this is why it is also referred to as cold cracking

Parent Metal A hydrogen crack requires a hard microstructure which is created by a hardenable material subject to fast cooling from 800C to 500C. Cooling can be slowed down by:

applying preheat, maintaining a high interpass temperature, increasing welding power and reducing travel speed.

The heat sink caused by the parent metal thickness and the number of available paths the heat can take to escape, also influence cooling rate. (However once the heat sink reaches a certain size further increases have a negligible effect on cooling rate.). This is why when determining preheat the term combined thickness is used, for a butt weld it is twice the thickness of the parent material and for a T fillet weld three times the thickness. The hardening of a carbon manganese steel/low alloy steel is influenced primarily by carbon content and to a lesser extent other constituents such as manganese, chrome, silicone etc. The Carbon Equivalent is a formula used to express the harden-ability of a particular alloy steel in terms of an equivalent plain carbon steel. Several such formula exist, the one favoured for low alloy steel is the IIW formula: CEIIW = C + Mn/6 + (Cr + Mo + V)/5 + (Ni + Cu)/15 Current steel specification do not restrict or limit the Carbon Equivalent and as most steel specs permit a wide range of composition it is possible that one batch of steel may require pre-heat and another may not. Very low sulphur ( < 0.015%) will increase hardening and special precautions are required when determining the minimum preheat level. Additions of niobium also require special consideration. For welds subject to high restraint more preheat is advisable (suggest, Increase CE by 0.3 or go down one hydrogen scale).

An organization (or organisation see spelling differences) is a social arrangement which pursues collective goals, controls its own performance, and has a boundary separating it from its environment. The word itself is derived from the Greek word organon, itself derived from the better-known word ergon.

A company is a form of business organization. Management in all business areas and organizational activities are the acts of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives. Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling an organization (a group of one or more people or entities) or effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal. Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human resources, financial resources, technological resources, and natural resources. A management system is the framework of processes and procedures used to ensure that an organization can fulfill all tasks required to achieve its objectives. A quality management system (QMS) can be expressed as the organizational structure, procedures, processes and resources needed to implement quality management. Quality management can be considered to have three main components: quality control, quality assurance and quality improvement. Quality management is focused not only on product/service quality, but also the means to achieve it. Quality management therefore uses quality assurance and control of processes as well as products to achieve more consistent quality. Quality control is a process by which entities review the quality of all factors involved in production. This approach places an emphasis on three aspects: 1. Elements such as controls, job management, defined and well managed processes [1][2], performance and integrity criteria, and identification of records 2. Competence, such as knowledge, skills, experience, and qualifications 3. Soft elements, such as personnel integrity, confidence, organizational culture, motivation,team spirit, and quality relationships. 4. Quality assurance, or QA for short, refers to a program for the systematic monitoring and evaluation of the various aspects of a project, service, or facility to ensure that standards of quality are being met. 5. It is important to realize also that quality is determined by the program sponsor. QA cannot absolutely guarantee the production of qualityproducts, unfortunately, but makes this more likely. 6. Two key principles characterise QA: "fit for purpose" (the product should be suitable for the intended purpose) and "right first time" (mistakes should be eliminated). QA includes regulation of the quality of raw materials, assemblies, products and components; services related to production; and management, production and inspection processes. 7. It is important to realize also that quality is determined by the intended users, clients or customers, not by society in general: it is not the same as 'expensive' or 'high quality'. Even goods with low prices can be considered quality items if they meet a market need. QA is more than just testing the quality of aspects of a product, service or facility, it analyzes the quality to make sure it conforms to specific requirements and comply with established plans.

Difference between Quality Assurance, Quality Control, and Testing? Many people and organizations are confused about the difference between quality assurance (QA), quality control (QC), and testing. They are closely related, but they are different concepts.

But all these three are useful to manage risks of developing and managing software.

Quality Assurance: A set of activities designed to ensure that the development and/or maintenance process is adequate to ensure a system will meet its objectives. Quality Control: A set of activities designed to evaluate a developed work product. Testing: The process of executing a system with the intent of finding defects. (Note that the "process of executing a system" includes test planning prior to the execution of the test cases.)

QA activities ensure that the process is defined and appropriate. Methodology and standards development are examples of QA activities. A QA review would focus on the process elements of a project - e.g., are requirements being defined at the proper level of detail.

QC activities focus on finding defects in specific deliverables - e.g., are the defined requirements the right requirements Testing is one example of a QC activity, but there are others such as inspections The difference is that QA is process oriented and QC is product oriented. Testing therefore is product oriented and thus is in the QC domain. Testing for quality isn't assuring quality, it's controllingit. Quality Assurance makes sure you are doing the right things, the right way. Quality Control makes sure the results of what you've done are what you expected. Quality assurance versus quality control Quality control emphasizes testing of products to uncover defects, and reporting to management who make the decision to allow or deny the release, whereas quality assurance attempts to improve and stabilize production, and associated processes, to avoid, or at least minimize, issues that led to the defects in the first place.[citation needed]. On applying Quality Assurance in Education the gross purpose of applying quality assurance is served.

To prevent mistakes from arising, several QA methodologies are used. However, QA does not eliminate the need for QC: some product parameters are so critical that testing is still essential. QC activities are treated as one of the overall QA processes.[


Pipe expansion joints are necessary in systems that convey high temperature commodities such as steam or exhaust gases, or to absorb movement and vibration. A typical type of expansion joint for pipe systems is a bellows which can be manufactured from metal (most commonlystainless steel), plastic (such as PTFE), or an elastomer such as rubber. A bellows is made up of a series of one or more convolutions, with the shape of the convolution designed to withstand the internal pressures of the pipe, but flexible enough to accept the axial, lateral, and/or angular deflections. Expansion joints are also designed for other criteria, such as noise absorption, anti-vibration, earthquake movement, and building settlement. Pipe expansion joints are also known as compensators, as they 'compensate' for the thermal movement. An expansion joint is an assembly designed to safely absorb the heat-induced expansion and contraction of various construction materials, to absorb vibration, or to allow movement due to ground settlement or earthquakes. They are commonly found between sections of sidewalks, bridges,railway tracks, piping systems, and other structures. Throughout the year, building faces, concrete slabs, and pipelines will expand and contract due to the warming and cooling through seasonal variation, or due to other heat sources. Before expansion joint gaps were built into these structures, they would crack under the stress induced. The expansion joint can be as simple as a caulked separation between two sections of the same materials. More recently, expansion joints have been included in the design of, or added to existing, brick exterior veneer walls for similar purposes. In concrete and concrete block ("CMU") construction, the term applied is control joint, but serves a similar purpose.
Hydrostatic Test Pressure (psig) ASTM Specification A105 A216-WCB A350-LF2 A515-70 A516-70 A537-C1.1 A675-70 A672-B70 A672-C70 A696 Grade C A106-C A203-B A203-E A216-WCC A350-LC3 A352-LCC A352-LC2 Class 150 300 400 600 900 1500 2500















A352-LC3 A203-A A203-D A352-LCB A515-65 A516-65 A675-65 A672-B65 A672-C65 A106-B A350-LF1 A515-60 A516-60 A672-B60 A672-C60 A675-60 A696 Grade B A182-F1 A204-A A204-B A217-WC1 A352-LC1 A691-CM70 A182-F2 A204-C A217-WC4 A217-WC5 A691-CM75 A182-F12 A182-F11 A217-WC6 A387-11C1.2 A739-B11 A182-F304 A182-F304H A240-304 A240-304H A312-TP304 A312-TP304H A351-CF3 A351-CF8 A479-304 A479-304H











































1 psi (lb/in2) = 6,894.8 Pa (N/m2)