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, 1993), pp. 6-23 Published by: The MIT Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3171212 Accessed: 21/01/2010 16:54
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mortal meaning.Ann Bergren Penelope Gender and The (Re)Marriage of Architecture Odysseus Philosophy at the AnnBergren teachesClassics LosAngeles. so before Freudor Levi-Strauss. Its agent is philosophy.2As there was architecture and philosophybefore Plato. ca.architectureis the fabricationof material of natureinto a material.'Although defined conceptually as distinct from mythology. showing a "mourning"Penelope before the loom with a handsome youth.and philosophy.of sexual differenceand of differenceas sexual. Institute California A HomericDialogue of Penelope and Odysseus. customarilyidentified as her son Telemachus. in Homer'swork"paratheoretical" gender. formsof architecture."This theoryposof Penelope and its an ideal architecturein the (re)marriage Odysseuseven as it revealsits instability. and philosophymirrorone another. Attic skyphos by the Penelope painter. gender.Couldhe rather be Odysseusas beautified by Athena with a similarly beautified and anachronistically youthful Penelope before the test of the (re)marriagebed? 21 ? 1993by AnnBergren Assemblage . of California.these by discourses"invented" three modes function activelyin archaicGreekcultureand beforeVitruvius.and philosophy. ideal continues the desireto build the Odysseanarchitectural to drivemodern constructionsof architecture.C.the knowingmind (nous) that constructsand recognizesthe semataof truth as unique iden7 1. University at the Southern andarchitectural theory of Architecture.the powerand the powerlessness.gender thought. the transformation sema..both sign and tomb.Although unknown as such to Western architectural theory (foundedas that theoryis on the philosophythat excludes itself from myth).insofaras it constructsthe social significations.creatingwhat might architectural be called an "Odyssean theory.the Odyssey In the (re)marriage initiates a dialoguewith the Western traditionsof architecture. The tree supportingOdysseus's bed is dead in the ground and Penelope weavesa shroud.3 In the Odyssey. 435 B. Odysseangendermakesdifferencea column with roots of stone.gender. Gender is a politicalinstance of such architecture.
.. iii i~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~i _- :-_~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~L . ..~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~.. iiii...__i.
and knotting. Melianterra-cotta relief of a "mourning" Penelope listening to Odysseus as an old man 8 . marriage Afterher husband. the myth casts metis as an undytheir of view.'? (tektonas and in the mythologicalarchitectTrophonius."8 Etymologically. (kerdos).they are among its foundingfigures.the "turning" (tropos)that binds opposites.the profit-gaining and the abilityto seize the opportunity(kairos). who teaches the men" making (poiesai)of elaboratewarchariotsto "builder andras)and weavingto maidens (parthenikas).Zeus.Odysseusand Penelopebecome each mind and hand. Each of these exploits the essentialform of metis.the king Cronus.6Its methods turningthe morphe scheme include the trickor trap (dolos). The mistressor masterof metis knowshow to between what is bound manipulate"the circularreciprocity metisis derivedfrom a and what is binding.11 The Greekmyth of metisdramatizesthe mutual construction of architecture.the intelligence"common workingand workof "transformative In a continuous relayof reciprocal to everytechne. but a metis.twisting.both language and material.5 production. daughterof the goddess Metis." A traditionalconnection calculationand exact knowledge.7 everyjoint. gender.Metis worksby continual shape-shifting.9 between metisand the builder'sskillsis seen in the figureof Athena. a myth of architectural Metis embracesboth mental and manualprowess.and philosophyunderthe sign of Fashionedby Greekmen and ex"father-ruled" marriage.12 2.assemblage 21 tity. To Cronus.swallowsher previous childrento preventthem from usurpinghis sovereignty. with its implicationof verbalroot meaning "to measure. But as Zeus swallowsthe goddess Metis so that she "willdevise evil and good in his interestalone.and in and the circle. each can imitate the shape of the other (or make the other imitate its shape) to win at the other'sgame."so Odysseanarchitectural theoryconfines this capacityin an ultimatelyuncertain "housearrest. point pressing must be that female (re)appropriated through power ing by the politicaland philosophicalpowerof the male. By virtueof their metis. of defeat into victory'stool." What do Penelopeand Odysseushaveto do with architecture? In the Western tradition.manifest in the reversal in weaving. she Formallyimitatpresentsnot the babyhimself. Rhea plots to protecther last-born.4Each of these modes operatesby means of metis.
15 In earlyGreekculture. How good were the wits in blameless Penelope.17Next they compete in body making. The marriage of Zeus and Metis is an "architectural contest"with her emIn the myth. the best "Pandora" you can get. her dolosof weaving."Becausethey are grammatically ambiguous.domestic "in-corporation" of the godmetis in his marriage and ultimate "swallowing" dess Metis herself.16 never in doubt. In their struggleover entranceinto her body.Zeus "seducesher wits by a trickof wilywords"and swallowsher. anda hatefulsongforever willexistamong bestowa harsh word men. that she did not the programof Odyssean"fatherwrite.Bergren child.19 Their collaboration constructsan ideal of in and architecture.Zeus ground."Zeus can then growup to Cronus "swallows avengehimself by forcinghis fatherto vomit the stone.gender.and her trickto test for their secretsemata.14 of matches it with an internal. Metis becomes pregnantand a prophecyrevealsthat she will beara child who will usurphis father'srule."Now a politicalmonument.andwillforever uponfemalewomen. Penelope is blamelessbecause her wits are good. The proof of his victoryis the goddessAthena.Odysseusof many devices.matching their respectivecapacities for materialand verbaltransformation. mistressof metis as swallowedby Zeus.. which he then "fasteneddown into the earth .whetherthese pronounsreferto Odysseusor 9 .and the immortalswill fashion for those upon the earth a song full of gracefor Penelope who possesses mind. But a system of social rePenelope'sdesign servesa "program.18 schematiclevel.that Odysseus'smetisof the bed can function as architectof his identity and hers.is the same ananke that will compel the women in the Odyssey). rule"attempts continuallyto reconstructits model of the female genderthroughthe philosophicforce of the Odyssey itself..the Odyssey and extells a myth of architectural originsthat prefigures architects who build ceeds Vitruvius's shelters by aboriginal At a imitating the weavingand daubingof swallows'nests. in allydependent.politicalfixation." quirementsand the powerto enforcethem. In Praiseof the Mind of Penelope Odyssey24. who presidesover the of Penelope and Odysseus. arenot equal. when she murderedher wedded husband. the ultimate winneris bodiment as the prize. she gives him a ing his desirefor another"swallowed" clothes.it would appear.13 stone wrappedin swaddling(that is.Thereforehis/her [hoi] famein forher/his[hes]excellence[aretei] epic [kleos] will never perish.a quality attributedto no other female in Homericepic: "therefore his/her (hoi) fame in epic (kleos)for her/his (hes) excellence (arete)will neverperish.To bind the goddesswithin himself and therebyreversethe powerof the pregnancy. immobilized (like the petrifiedpost of Odysseus'sbed) in the To maintainthis external. It eulogizes the mind of the blamelesswife.evenif thereis one who does good. The text capturesthe virtueof her mind's devices in its own ambiguous expressionof Penelope'sexcellence. daughterof Icarius.How well she rememberedOdysseus. The Odysseydividesthe ambiguity(it posits as) essential to the female into an almost complete dichotomyof praiseand blame.metis is not only a concept but also the goddesswhom Zeus takes as his firstwife. to be a sign [sema] and marvel [thauma]to mortals.false speech. "so that the goddess will devise evil and good in his interest alone"and he can give birth to the child himself from his own head. not as the daughterof Tyndareus [Clytemnestra]devised [mesato]evil works. her arete.191-202 0 blessed child of Laertes. (re)marriage. the stone signifiesZeus's regime as the containment ot metis. Itself an architecture.her kerdos of secret. the weavingof Penelope and the (re)marriagebed of Odysseusare emblems of the two basic elements of building:verticalspace enclosureand columns supporting a horizontalload. Penelope is the "partner charge"of the (re)union.It is by virtueof her metis. "swallowing") the trick." Zeus "mixes"with her in sexual intercourse (his instrument. philosophy and as immovable The while mutupartnersin this collaboration. (re)marriage In the (re)marriage of Penelope and Odysseus. although Metis "turnedinto many formsto avoidbeing joined with him.her wedded husband. surelyyou possessed a wife with great excellence [megaleiaretei].
the Odyssey blames Clytemnestrafor using her metis (mesato)to "dys-locate" the place of her husband. 480-70 B. As foil for its praiseof Penelope.immovableplace and space.his unmoving. But the suitorsare not the cause or worthyof 10 . Nara. The Metis of the Web andtheAmbiguity Place" Praise. Woven beams support the projecting roof. With this censureof Clytemnestra.For it claims that the blame of Clytemnestra "willforeverbestow a harshwordupon female women. Clytemnestrauses the axe. of a "Woman's Odyssey2.whatsortof thinghaveyousaidto shameus!Youwouldliketo fastenblame. For it is preciselythe areteof Penelope'smind .the Odysseyconfesses the vulnerability of its architectural ideal to an independent female practicewhose tropomorphic metis is foreverreconstructedby the driveto contain it. unrestrainedin High-speaking might. Tondo scene of red figure cup by the Brygospainter. ToshodaijiTemple. 4.759.C.assemblage 21 3.85-88 Telemachus. Blame. an architecturally ambiguous object.to win kleosfor circularity herselfby designing (re)marriage to the one in whom she locates all her areteand her "greater and more beautiful epic fame. that is. the text itself "dys-locates" the division. Penelope cannot be certainlydecided. on Penelope herself.an exemplarymetis in its tricky of active and passivestances.the shape of her husbandas "her-self. To murder her husband. even if there is one who does good". ca. needed to build as well as to destroy the house."20 It is Penelope'smetisto make her excellence and praiseultimatelytake the shape of her husband's. Tarquinia.But in its driveto divide female metis into exclusivepraiseand blame.even." She uses the mobilitybuilt into her genderto locate herselfin and as his stableoikos.
a ally. she can be abducted from her husband's house by his rival.however.the opposition of interdependentforcesproducesstability. The Kerdosof Secret. A (forcetowardmarriage (forceagainstmarriageas change of place) occupy the same place at the same time. false speech:secretspeech.is co-occupiedby opposite but interdependent forces. otherthings.his household has been overrunwith suitorsfor Penelope'shand.or in word. thatshehascheated the heart in the breasts of the Achaeans. To allshe eachman.and no wordhas come whetherhe is dead or alive. knows beyondallothers profit-gaining schemes[kerdea]. [noos] designs Here is one of the kerdea that Penelope knowsbeyond all others.24 With their capacityto move bodies and minds.She is an "unmovedmover. It reflectsand requiresthe elements. But for now.her husband'sfather. Penelope "gainsthe profit"of praisein the medium of kleos. In the terms of philosophical as change of place) and not-A logic.but deflecting the suitors'petitions. if her husbanddies. While she collects suitors. This speech is not simplysemiotic. the suitorAntinous defends himself to the son of Penelope and Odysseus. Here. Casting the situation in the terms of praise and blame.by choosing one of the suitorsor refusingto do so.A woman is moved from the oikosof her fatherand the status of an "Artemis" to the oikos of her husbandand the sexuallife of an "Aphrodite. scale.shepromises forthmessages Buthermind [angelias]. false exterior. Even Antinous'scensure. as in the case of Helen.by the "circular of reciprocity" and blame functions as here indirect But praise praise. andquickly will be the fourth. Penelope would bring to a standstillthe change of place that founds society." From there she can be moved back to the father'shouse." The mechanismof her unmoved movement is secret. an exclusionbelied by writing.21 if never were to what would then? She be forced move. to be exchangedagainby her father. who yourblame[aitioi].but does not move. The chargeintroducesthe ambiguityof her situation.22 For the worldof the Odysseysharesthe system of fatherin which men must exchange rule chartedby Levi-Strauss women in orderto communicate with one anotherin networksof legitimate kinshipand symbolicthought.signs divide and enclose."This is her "gain.Telemachus:Penelope has superior schemes" (kerdea). locus of blame and origin. false messagesand the treacherous(un)weavingof a shroudfor Laertes.Penelope's messages (angeliai)would not be conventionalwrit11 . She knowshow to effect the emotions of others without moving herself. Penelope maintainsher position unmoved. Meanwhile.breakingup the many into several"one"s. she can knowledgeof "profit-gaining make the other personlook blameworthy.FalseSpeech 2. as in buildings. Penelope's secretmessagesillustratethe mistakein opposingspeech to of the matter."in which "giveshope" and "promises" divide "all"at line beginning into "eachman"at line end. by returningto her father. By imitating the desiresof her suitorsin the twin strategiesof secret. Penelope'splace as an aition.the "scandal Likewalls. she promiseseach man."25 manipulationof scale and space is itself reproducedspatially in the "written" orderof line 91. a location built marriage on the necessityof dislocation. Their talkingbody. Penelope to.but one that would arrestthe Odysseansocial system.89-92 Odyssey Forit is nowthe thirdyear. Architecturally. If they followedregularHomericpractice.This "profit-gaining scheme"of unmoved movement is an architectureof signs.sending giveshope. "to all she gives hope.23 Men must move women from one oikosto anotherin orderto weave their social structure. In receiving.Bergren but yourmother.Or.Such is the paradoxical architectureof and of the female placement in it. It has been twenty yearssince Odysseusleft for the warin Troy.a message to each man individufalse speech.she turnsher adversariesinto co-constructors of her ambiguousplace.for her interiormind designs other things.For she does not change her position either in action.she analyzes operationof two architectural a compound problem (the many suitors)into its constituent module (the individualsuitor) and designs a solution at this level and space she constructs a division between out- side and inside. when actuallyshe is the "cause"(aition) and thus deservesthe blame.
weavingis a markof genderand race.Once "written" the mind. the messagecan be repeated.As a victorstripshis victim'sarmor. if he lieswithouta sheetto windhim. Weaving enters the human worldwith the woman and her metis.Intangibletracesare no guaranteeagainstiterability.materiallydisbiguous and architecturally tinct yet molded to the body.it is ugly and shameful. proud dolos persuasive and how doesit makeher Whyis Penelope's worthwaitingfor? In displayingdevotion to Odysseus'saged father.27 telling the many what was meant for just on one.a shroud whenever the commondoomof destructive himdown. for vain."If the body is that spoilingeven him who "acquired of an old man like Laertes.For in the Greek worldonly women weave shrouds.lest of the Achaean deathbrings 12 .Penelope'sdolos-speech persuadesthe suitorsby promisingto deploy this definitive markof the female genderon behalf of the male overagainst his mortality.93-103 Odyssey Andthisis another trick[dolos] shedevised in hermind. forthe heroLaertes.But that Antinous can now recount Penelope'skerdos shows either that the someone (or else) eventuallyrevealedthe message messenger to all the suitors.false speech. such intangiblemessages would seem best.demuch.he who much.ammore ambitious.Penelope showseach suitorhow she would act as his wife.31 The aetiologicalmyth of the female explainswhy weavingis her native art. It is Athena who teaches weavingto Pandora. burialand tombstone keep the corpsefrombecoming a forgotten"feastfor dogs and birds.mysuitors. Giving shapeby screening. false signs to one another.Sheset up a great loomin the hallsandwasweaving a webbothdelicate andsymmetrical. Men depend on women for this covering.Subdivisionby architectural semiosis entails its own instability. andthe acquired heartin us waspersuaded. In the Homericworld." the messageswould leave no materialtraceof themselves.enforced by the blame of other women.the shroudis the materialsurfaceof death itself.28 This serviceto the father.assemblage 21 ings.26 For secret. worksonly so long as the suitorsdo not Penelope'skerdos speakthe secret.29 Funeral rites coverthe loss. 'Young hasdied. womenin the community blameme. This is the metis of the kerdos.while their women tradein the agora. on the desireof each for unique identity as the only "chosenone"and on the forceof this desireto displaceand deferhis even conceivingthe possibilityof anothertreatedlike himself. defersthe suitors'sexualand social driveby tappingtheir fearof an ignominiousdeath. untilI complete this be wasted lest myspinning andin mantle. or that the suitorstold one another."erasing individualdistinction. Her architecture"makesa profit"as long as it is supportedby the client's philosophicaldesire.This collective silence depends on moving each individualsuitorto adopt an image of himself that matches the structureof the kerdos.although Odysseus pressing formymarriage.so death as Plutus ("richman")leaves only a barecorpse.a gift of honor in compensationfor death."30 Insidethis outermostshield of the dead is another. Providedas a geras.They would seem to escape writing'svice of indiscriminate repetition. includingthe goddesses (likeAthena and Metis) The Dolos of the Shroud 2. Andthenshe saidto us: sinceshining men.oralcommunicationsdeliveredby someone else.the firstwoman and model of all females.And as "wingedwords. Each suitormust construe himself as a module dividedbetween inside knowledge(what he knowsfrom Penelope'smessageto him) and outside speech (whathe saysto the others).wait. An "angelic" would allow surrogate Penelope the virtueof writing.the capacityto speakalthough absent.each as the aition of the other. Penelope'smetis of "unmoved movement"playson the prideof each man.death is a "commondoom. but rather. She would not let either him or his fatherdie without a shroudwoven by the woman of his oikos.'So she spoke. Herodotus'sHistoriespresentsthe men of Egyptas "virtual females"who "reverse the customs and laws of men" by weavingin the oikos. Whydo onlywomenweaveshrouds? In Greekthought.
I am of course Women invented weavingto conceal their genitals.32 Weaving and metis. and politicalphilosophyas figurative web. lackingthe inhibitionsof Hesiodic theology.weaving. "Femininity" The effectof penis-envy hasa share." patternof aetiology weavingrepeats the male's creative as female. and with poetry. has as its purpose. like genitals a shame that "feminine (aid6s). inferiority. For capacity originally casting its of their lack and Freud's text envy. From the Greek for all perspective."graceful beauty"that causes "painful ."This amounts to claimingthat women use their inventivenessto covertheir (lackof) genitals understoodas their (lackof) inventiveness. Pandorais a work of plasticart. a dolosagainstwhich men have no mechane. Her modesty is a She like Penelope'sweb.wherebythey invent "the step that remainedto be taken . In the logic of aetiologicalmyth.prophecy.thatof plaiting and haveinvented If thatis so. "wilywords. For as Zeus appropriates nal Metis."36 But Plato. jar.and in himselfa "weaving.35 fixe.so one is said to originating." againstthe goddess Metis. Its silence is understandable For. it is a Freudian text that locates the reasonthis traditionsees weavingas .we should be tempted weaving. such "weavea metis."the "character and that tool of metiswieldedby Zeus thief.and internal."33 originsrepresent chronologicalcontradictionsand reciprocal constructions. In weaving. wrapping corpse. It seemsthat 13 . against assumption attributesto women an originary metis. considered to be a feminine characteristic but is farmorea matter of parexcellence convention thanmightbe supposed..the artisanal god.Pandoramakeswhat she is.indeed.Aphroditeand Hermes constitute Pandoraas a treacherousdivisionbetween external. the ceramiclikenessof a modest maiden. Thestepthatremained to be thethreads adhere to one taken layin making whileon the bodytheystickinto another. each is the not forgetting thatat a latertime.a partitionof outside from inside. psychoanalytically.Bergren who precededher.the "mindof a bitch.but ultimately derivativeof its formulationof the female.We are [Verdecken] to the womenhavemadefewcontributions discoveries andinventions [Entdeckungen] in the history thereis. and Pandora: attractiveoutside that belies what is inside.of the castration. concealment of genital deficiency. . further. sexual power. to guessthe unconscious motiveforthe wouldseem achievement.andin an areaof maximummaleanxiety: women'sinvention Freud. whichtheymay one technique however. a coveringof her (metis)inside." par sexual inferiorAlthough overtlybased on women's "original Freud's of the Greek ity.and. If you the skinandareonlymattedtogether. For as Athena teaches her weaving. like the kerdos of secret falsehoods.an Weaving.And it is this very invention.the coveringof this place is praiseworthy. so Greekmen call their poetry. an external verisimilitude.the "female"condition he fearsfor himself. metis." Veilingthem.prophecy. the workingof a system of jointlyreinforcing each is a trickycovering. are mutually As Metis teaches weaving.34 form of But why women alone are assignedthe particular metis that is weavingthe myth of Pandoradoes not directly state.displays characteristic excellence. makingthe threads adhereto one another. webelieve. sorrows" and "limb-devouring yearning" of a mental power. in the physical of women. of civilization.the locus of their lack and envy of the male's (pro)creative capacity and the place . Nature herself to havegiventhe modelwhichthis the growth achievement imitates by causing at maturity of the pubichairthatconceals the genitals. too.""falsehoods.sincethey vanity areboundto valuetheircharms morehighly as a latecompensation fortheiroriginal sexual whichis Shame. is. molded by Hephaestus.that Greekmen emulate in modes of creativityfromwhich women in Greece arebarredand thus the origimight be thought to envy. the aition .shame takeson otherfunctions.eventhe artof the statesman withweavingas figurativespeech.Her entire skin is coveredby the "ordered adornment"(kosmos)that Athena as goddess of crafthas "fastenedtogether upon"it. thisideaas fantastic andregard reject my beliefin the influence of a lackof a penison the configuration of femininity as an idee defenceless.. are ta aidoia shameful "the parts."Pandorais an ornamental screen.
function as conspioriginal cuousspatial evenwhere solidwalls dividers. andthe together interwoven vertical fenceasthe earliest enclosure thatmaninvented."wall." derivedfrom a root with cognates in several Indo-European languagesmeaning "to mold a wallof mud. We mightrecognize the pen.. spatial Whether theseinventions gradually in thisorder oranother matters developed littleto us here. contravenes by contravening 14 . . becomenecessary theyremain onlythe innerandunseenstructure forthe trueand of the spatial idea: legitimate representatives the moreorlessartificially woven namely.. thebeginning coincides with of building thebeginning of textiles. It is the metis of the Odysseanarchitectureof gender. Whydo womenenforcethis confinement of theirweaving? A "woman's place"in the Odysseyis subjectto male force the necessity (anagke)that ultimatelycompels Penelope to finish the shroud.37 to overrulesuch reciprocal formationthat Zeus fixes his metis stone in the ground..It is treacherous(an exemplarymetis) because it both fulfillsand ."38 It connects as well to the woven constructionsthat Gottfried Semperadducesas the originof verticaldivisionbetween innerand outer space: "TheTextileArt" Semper.absolutely. women have neither securitynor prestigeunless they weavethe protectionof the father-rule. The wallis thatarchitectural elementthat andmakes visible the formally represents enclosed as such.bound fromsticksandbranches. as it were..39 In markingweavingas exclusivelyfemale...forit remains certain that the use of the crude thatstarted weaving withthe pen. Women restrict their architecturein returnfor protectionand praise. Decke. spatial Zaun Likewise.its promise."figurative" formen and"literal" for weaving weaving women.In this position. out of stoneoranyothermaterial. because it promPenelope'sdolosof the shroudis persuasive ises conformationwith this ideal of female architecture.A praiseweavesto cover (herselfas) shame .and worthy"Pandora" blames women who do not. The structure thatserved to support. woven secondary fabrics almosteverywhere andespecially in the southern andwarm countries out carry theirancient. But the Odysseansystem of praiseand blame confines women's architectural powerto weavingits walls..to elicit fromwomen its double.as a meansto makethe the inner fromthe 'home. Inthisconnection. to to carry thisspatial enclosure wasa secure. In allGermanic the word Wand languages (of the samerootandsamebasicmeaning as Gewand) recalls the oldorigin directly andtypeof the visible enclosure. earlyGreek thought attributesto women the foundingof architectural art..metisas "swallowed" by the anagkeof Zeus's regime.it fulfills . textilewalls.' lifeseparated outer creation of the life. thathadnothing to do requirement directly withspace andthe division of space. The Vitruvian archining myth of aboriginal tects "imitating" the weavingand daubingof birds'nests continues a traditionthat reachesto the etymologyof telchos/ toichos. space withoutreference to secondary concepts. andseamed-together. The same arrestedrelayof emulativemetis underlies Odysseanarchitectural theory.assemblage 21 It is "nonoriginal origin"and the "literalfigure"of the other..indeed.the semaof the philosophicaland political powerto erect and enforcethe hierarchy of figurativeover literal. Bekleidung. andmanyothertechnical (similar arenot somewhat latelinguistic expressions to the building but trade..For in the female invention of the threads adhere to one another"is also the begin"making of architecture.andasthe formal ideaof space.undoubtedly the preceded eventhemostprimitive oneconstructed wall. it is of the greatest to notethatwherever these importance motives arenot present.. symbols applied reliable indications of the textileorigin of thesebuilding parts. Schranke. to Saum).
Wattle and daub hut in Greece 5.Bergren 6. Myoki-an Temple. Tai-anTea Room. 1582. A wall of earth is applied to a lath of bamboo. Interiordome of wattle and daub hut 15 . 7. which is left exposed to form a latticed window.
This scheme spendingand savingadd up to a kerdos in of rotatingreversal is.as in the case of "place" Clytemnestrawith Aegisthusor that of Odysseus'sdisloyal with the suitors. she is allows and even courts of whose place question weaving its occupationby the suitors.42 of a stranger Henceforth is devoted to the architectural philosophy Penelope'sme^tis of his identification.keep his place alive (unweavehis father's shroudby night).43 Penelope refusesto believe the nurse. women are also. if dead. for example) whose meaning changes accordingto their of usage. Such is the vulnerability of her "vertical space enclosures" to the perforation of speech. of secret speech worksonly so long as As Penelope'skerdos the many suitorsare silent. a "circular reciprocity" system they represent.ambiguitybecomes architectural. so sweetlythat she beratesthe nurse Eurycleiafor awakening her with the news of Odysseus'sreturn.Their prolongedpresenceattractsthe allegianceof women trainedto exercisetheir metis on behalf of the men who occupy their oikos. just as worthy? Penelope is said to enter the room "liketo Artemisor golden Hers is a metis of doing both while doing neiAphrodite.Eurycleiarepliesthat Odysseushas returned "really. This is not a static standoff. But a woman can also .The winner had to be at least a good copy. Penelope'ssolution to the probof Odysseanarchitecture." account. of the betrays figure A treacherous double of Penelope'smovement without changingplace.assemblage 21 How doesPenelopemaintainby resistingand resistby mainideal? taining the Odysseanarchitectural For as long as it operates. Therebymake yourplace simultaneouslythat of both men and no man.too." Overjoyed. Bed The Metis of the (Re)Marriage TheTestforArchitectural Signs bed begins with Penelope The metisof the (re)marriage sleepingon it while Odysseusslaughtersthe suitors.comes the completion of her weavingby anagkeand the orderto returnto her father . slaughteredthe many. the servant'sunmoved self-movement exploits the female role in marriage exchange. Now. With Resistingthe repetition. with the breakingof the women's univocality. lem posed by the program gender. so the dolosof her shroudsucceeds only so long as the many women in the oikosspeakwith a single voice.Penelope's in the dislocatingarchitectureprovokesits "dys-location" servant woman who her.not false pretendersto his place like the originalman. she designs or "test.a "penetration once a workof architectural philosophyand of philosophic architecture.like Clytemnestra.refusingmarriage a husband'srival.use her place or herselfas maidservants place by designatingits owner.how he "althoughbeing only one. as Levi-Strauss serves. promisingto marrywhomeversucceeded."that is at to the boundary" a peira. a movement without (re)location.for equal of praise. someone like (eikelos)or equal to (homoios)Odysseus."40 that binds the suitorsand the ther.towardthe oikosof her husband'srivalsas she weavesby day. when uncertainwhetheryourhusbandis alive or dead?If alive. Time does not stand still.Althoughthey are the passivesemataof this system. And like the ambiguity of Penelope'sposition.46 Penelope'speirawill define Odysseusby penetratingthe space up to the boundaries(peirata)that enclose 16 .but also not necessarily Now. exchangedso men can obspeakwith each other.sleeping more sweetlythan she has ever since Odysseusleft for Troy. changesher place without movement.and the arrival in the oikos.Penelope asksto hear "unerringly" if he "really" has returned.Afterlistening to Eurycleia's and initiates a test for the she denies that it is a "truestory" realidentity of the "stranger. the servantwoman.Penelope'sdolosmaintainsthe ambiguityof her position as aition. in orderto determineOdysseus'sunique identity.active signesparlanteswho can speakfor themselves.the most praiseexchangeor marrying When they are done at the same time.41 Women are thus like "linguisticshifters"(the pronounsI and you. feand philosophy: how do you constructa praise-winning male place. make a new place for yourself (weavehis father'sshroudby day). But it binds Penelope. fact. towardthe oikosof her husbandas she unweavesby night.45 the suitors."44 Earlierin the day Penelope set up a contest to see who could stringOdysseus'sbow and hit a targetthrougha rowof twelve axes. Her strategy tropesthe riddleof her situationwith another:when are the most blameworthyfemale actions.
The two sit apart. Odysseusbids the nursepreparehis bed. of Odysseusare architectural These "boundaries" signs:the semaof the scarengravedon his body and the semataof the bed he built. His counter-ainoselicits from Penelope the final move of her peira.but no longer pied by them alone. Afterlistening to Eurycleia's descriptionof her discoveryof the scar.one she had recognized she Her moment of recognitionoccasionsthe previousnight. It was to collect this patrimonythat Odysseuscame to Parnassusand duringthe hunt that he receivedthis initiatory sign of naming and manhood.a traceof mortality in the living organism."the signs of the bed circumscribean interiorlocation. an "unmoved mover" something only Odysseus one.Autolycusgave Odysseushis name as an infant and promisedto give him many possessionsas an adult.It marksidentity as born at the writingon the body of the body'sdeath.Forwe havesigns whichwe twoonlyknowhidden [semata] fromothers.By wayof "testingher husband. "Penelope" targetso that it becomes something immovableand Formal again.a sign Penelope will have recognizedas well as any- shallknoweach indeedwe twoespecially otherevenbetter. "allowyourmother to test me [peirazein emethen]."55 AccusingPenelope of a heartmore stubbornthan any woman'sand answeringher test of their privatesematawith an ainos of his own. Alleginghis raggedclothes as the reasonhis wife denies him. in particular. body. Odysseussmiles and bids his son. Odysseus'sarchifalse signification.51 Embedded in the edge.interpretation. Put his firmbed out there."56 17 . the bridegroomhimself is bathed and beautified. "Atone time she looks him in the face and at another."he sits down again "oppositehis wife. Qualifiedby Penelope as semata"whichwe two only knowhidden from others. The Sema of the Scar In keepingwith the properprocedurein earlyGreektradition of testing the identity of a "stranger. and him who slew them."52 The Semataof the Bed The ultimate conversationof Penelope and Odysseusbegins with the woman'suncertainty. suitors."54 With this invitationto his wife. hunting on Parnassus Autolycus."53 When her son berateshis mother for holding back.she avers: Odyssey23.an inside distinct from all that is outside.And quicklyshe will point things out to herself better.48 of OdysEurycleiathe "veryclearsign" (semaariphrades) him the as bathed seus's scar. it is the gravemarker. He directsthe men and women to (re)marriage dresshandsomelyand the bardto sing the "weddingsong" (expected afterthe contest of the bow to decide the bridegroom) so as to put off any rumorof the suitors'slaughter. a scaris a sort of gravemarkerin relief.Now "like [homoios]to the immortalsin build.beside the architectural form associatedwith each: she by the wall. lookingdown and waiting. the same place.107-9 If reallyhe is Odysseusand has come home.She debates whetherto question or to kiss him."she ordersEurycleiato "makeup a firmbed for him outsideof the well-stabilized bedchamberhe made himself." Penelope claims first This alternativepossibilityelicits from that he is a god.And by the circularreciprocity Penelope'speiraof Odysseuswill proveher own identity as is simplyshe who moves (herselfas) the well.Bergren an individual.reminiscentof her weaving. an elicitation to test his knowledgeof the secret signs. Apparentlyrecognizingin these wordsan ainos. she does not recognizehim. wearingfoul cloths on his skin.49 text's own extended reconstructionof the mark:It is the sign of a wound Odysseusreceivedfrom a boar'stusk while with the sons of his mother'sfather.dead. Odysseussets the scene for a of the two. It is the sign of name as incision.and he beside the column. anotherkerdos In defininghimself.47 bed defines Penelope in and as tecture of the (re)marriage of metis. she leaves the bedchamberand goes down to see "these men.50 The semain Homericpracticeis most often a three-dimenand knowlsional object entailingrecognition. in his "Formal" uniquenesscan hit. an exclusivemental place occuof secret.
it all constructing fromthisI overwithanauger. The center posts are made of unfinished tree trunks.andtrimming long-leafed it around with fromthe rootup.woman. Penelope What is it a sign of? The bed is a sign of the Odysseanideal of architecture. the trunk olive. Katsura Imperial Villa.he declaresthe details of his building. column. 1636. ca. decorating AndI stretched insidethe thongof an ox. and mybed. Beginning it. to the blooming waslikethatof a Itsthickness topmost.He demandsto knowwho put his bed "inanotherplace. 18 .untilI finished keptcarving it withgoldandsilver andivory. So I havearticulated withpurple.firstof the bedchamberand its entranceand then of the bed inside: Odyssey23. is the secret semathat Odysseusand This architecture know apartfrom others. and philosophyin and as immovable (re)marriage. lateraldisplacement.no mortal could "moveit to the other side""sincea greatsign [mega sema] has been built into the skillfully wroughtbed."57 Finally.assemblage 21 Odysseusrespondswith the self-identifyingsign of the bed he built so long ago.Odysseusemphasizeshis unique architecturalauthorship. withcloseit downfromabove set stones. gender."Imyselfwroughtit with toil and no one else. shining foryouthissign[sema]. He firststressesthe unique resistanceof the bed to the instability of both the oikosand female. whether nowsomeothermanput it orwhether elsewhere. I planed andI wellandwithknowledge. A long-leafed trunk of an olivetreegrew insidethe enclosure.I builtthe untilI finished bedchamber it. ButI do not know the bedis stillin place. Shokintei."Not a god himself could easilyput it "inanotherplace". jointed AndthenI cut off the foliage of the closely. the bronze to a chalk madeit straight line.Surrounding this."Metonymic of such fixity.190-201 8.thereby I borethrough a bedpost. by cuttingunderthe stumpof the tree.andI roofed well.I putuponit compacted doors.
edge.Odysseusremovesthe only partof the tree that is alive. Foursixty-foot-high trunksof three-hundredyear-old cryptomeriatrees. 1988. It embodies the ideal that all columnarforms imperfectlyemulate.Unless he has told the secret or she has. the immovable (re)marriage How can the bedguaranteethe immovability of (re) marriage? Built into its petrifiedroots is the "greatsign"of secretknowlof genderand truth as exclusivedifference.But the move. the stationary (re)marriage movement. What makesmarriage possible.twin tokens of unique If he knowsthe bed. the tree is a copy with roots of stone.Bergren The bed is a sign of supportmade immovableby transmuting organismand structure. By its secret structure and its structureas a secret." "cure. makes its stabilityuncertain."If she has not moved the bed. a fortiori. he is identity as unique relationship.Now the tree will petrify.or an imitation.59 closureand displacementcoincide. By planingoff the bark.the bedpost signifiesthe ideal immovabilityof and. own architectural antidote. 9. no but one other than the actual man. she remains (his) Penelope and unmoved.Musashi-kyuryo CountryClub. as his swallowingof the female'spharmacological "rationale" whose logos"account. woman must be movable so that men can if can female must enclose so that he can support. Arata Isozaki. the knowledgeand the location of the bed operateas symbola.60 (her) Odysseus. Apparatus the secret sign divides inside from outside. her placement is uncertain. of the walls the within by and theses. its only sourceof growtheither lateralor vertical. she can unweavespace and place. her kleosas Penelope has castratedthe marriage female paragon.SaitamaPrefecture.Now surpassing column." She communicate. But if it has been moved. support an obelisk-shapedtower at the center of the entrance hall. an equivalent. It is the sema of female mobilwithin parenity limited to the movement of (re).If she can weave."can speakits "hiddensigns.58 "Formal" By its fixity.the bed framesthe unity of a sharedknowledgethat cannot be replacedwith a representaDesigned so that distive. 19 ." that tropos"turning" A sharesthe structureof the pharmakon "poison. once she is moved (re)marriage to weave the place of the bed.So this constraintof the female architectural capacityis both health and harm. requiringits bed.model and copy.of the woman.turninginto the materialof monumental even the stabilityof its model. stripped of branchesand bark. of "again" betokens bed for the man himself. a building. then their (re)marriage and with it. not a pseudo-Odysseus only the one "liketo himself. of "again" Built oikos.
"she who leads. The term (re)marriage designate the renewalof an existing relationship. MacCormack In acknowledging her recognition. N.assemblage 21 Did a stranger melt her heart." could have told what she knew about the bed to others. 1-2 (1983): 35-55. Stationed in the liminal position of the female. mistress of passages. for . .225-30 summate image of its ideal "joint. since someone other than Odysseus could now be speaking the secret signs. the firmlystanding. Actoris. Nature. see GregoryNagy. The distinction between the two is not exclusive.He weeps and holds the wife who is "jointedto his nizing them bringsecstasy.see Rudolf Wittkower."see Marcel Detienne. gender. On the foundation of historyand philosophyvia the "invention"of mythology as their differentiating "other. eds. Marcel Detienne and Jean-Pierre Vernant. with Did he speaksigns "falsethings like [homoia]to realthings"?61 with the same uncertainfooting as the semataempeda"recogOdyssey25. Here in the "parenthetical" person of the maid Actoris . 1986).with this conhim evil matches itself againstgood forever" Odyssey23. Margaret Cook (Chicago: Universityof Chicago Press. of our bed. 4. But the bed has not been moved. identity unique. "Sema and Noesis: Some Illustrations. though it is veryunfeeling.exclusivelyseparating Such a subversionof the system is a possibilitythat Odysseus and philosophicquest.for it cannot maintain (re)marriage The semataof the bed are "footedin" (empeda)the ground."63 Againstall its detractors count of Pandorathat concludes.is a potential gap in the semata ariphradea of Odyssean architecture. On nous as the mental faculty of recognition and knowledgeof the sema. 1982). 1980). Actoris." Odysseanarchitecture But now.such as the Hesiodic acheart.the authorityof the Odyssey as sherecognized vouches for herownheartwerereleased Penelope's fidelity. who would be compromised? Only Penelope. Janet Lloyd (Atlantic Highlands. see Thomas Laqueur. one who is jointed to his mind.whom my fathergave to me when I came here. Martin's Press." Penelope cannot. "Anyman who marriesand has a praiseworthy Ideal The Metis of the OdysseanArchitectural wife. Feminine Sexuality:JacquesLacan and the ecole freudienne(New York:Norton.Cunning Intelligencein GreekCultureand Society. If Actorishas that the fixedsigns[semata empeda] told its secret. if anyone has spoken these signs before. but only you and I . 3. immovablenor philosophy. Recogtelos of Penelope'sarchitectural overlooks.:HarvardUniversityPress. 2. 1978). As for the past.205-6 nized"earlierby Penelope in Odysseus'sdescriptionof his So he spoke.Unless otherwise noted. And Odysseushas spokenits function: "hiddensigns. recognize [semataariphradea] which no other mortalman has seen." Arethusa:Semioticsand Classical Studies 16.: HarvesterPress. Architectural Principlesin the Age of Humanism (New York:St. since you have spoken signs easy to would close the door. and MarilynStrathern. and philosophy."The text reiteratestheir architectural Notes It is a pleasureto thank Jane Carter and SarahMorrisfor helpful reading of this paper." Did the sight of the bed reveal its foundation? And if Actoris did know and tell. 1-24. unless she is hiding a past deception.. 1990).trans.as did Odysseushimself. all translationsfrom the Greekand the Latin are mine. Penelope cannot take the present speaker for the unique Odysseus. For a recent reviewof the research on gender. nos.ratherthan a remarriageproperfollowing either divorce or death. The Inventionof Mythology.Odysseuscannot. and Carol P. see Juliet Mitchell and JacquelineRose. On the "archaeology" retracing Renaissancearchitecturaltheory through Vitruviusto Plato's Timaeus.J. For a psychoanalytic and an anthropological account of the relationbetween gender and what is understood as biological sex. 5.eds.you indeed persuademy spirit. Cultureand Gender(Cambridge: CambridgeUniversityPress. inside from out.and only one handmaiden. is the 20 . Mass. is used to 1. who guardedthe door of our firm chamber. MakingSex:Bodyand Genderfrom the Greeksto Freud (Cambridge. just as before Penelope's disloyal handmaids revealed the metis of the web.trans. "We" know that either the present speaker is the true Odysseus or the Odyssey itself is a "Cretan lie. 1988). andrightthereherkneesand mantle and brooch?62 Again. Penelope inserts a parenthesis within the security of her immovable (re)marriage.the bed failsas a constructionof genderand Odysseus spoketo her. But what did Actoris know? In Greek "to know" is "to have seen.
" 11. strates its load-bearingproperty. Cunning Intelligence.and the hook falls out.De architectura. demon- 21 .requiresthe products of metis to preservehis political But ratherthan secur"property. thaumasiotaton. On the connection between weavingand architecture. 765b. moving in both directions at once. See Zoe Petre. in which the elements must "display" (zeigen) their definitively architectural function. sec. most baffling thing in the world. 2-7: "Therefore. "Semperand the Archeologist Botticher. 9.:MIT Press. the architects build a secret passage through which to steal it gradually. and after obliging his brother. See the HomericHymn to Aphrodite12-15. 15. Le Philosopheet l'architecte(Paris: Aubier Montaigne. See PierreChantraine. In an ironic assimilation of the king's loss of recognition. 2. the Romantic/Gothic types. On the relations between Semper'sworkand KarlBotticher'sDie Tektonikder Hellenen. a dynamic tekt6n.trans.. The circle unites within it severalopposites each one giving birth to its opposite. chap. 34.Bergren essential workon metis. bk. de la Dictionnaireetymologique languegrecque(Paris:Klincksieck. After building many monuments. 737a. and many came together into one place. trans. 6. 699. 224-45. "Trophoniusou l'architecte:A propos du statut des techniciens dans la cite grecque. Hesiod. Compare the substitution of the swaddled stone for the real child with the Muses' capacity to substitute "falsethings like [homoia]to real things"and "truethings.and likewise with their hands and fingersthey handled easily whateverthey wished. Theogony471. Aristotle'sGenerationof Animals presents a similar"battle of the sexes" as the sperm. 10. Theogony886-900. 1. terms the trickof the stone a metis. 176-79..Trophonius escapes to a place where he is swallowedup by the earth and becomes an oracular hero. See Georg Wilhelm FriedrichHegel. 46: "The ultimate expression of these qualities is the circle. 12. 240-43. plays dead. by having from nature an advantage over other animals. and turns into a trap for the hunter." ing the king's gold. 103-10. See also Daniel Payot. to take Hegel's prime example. 10-16. like his divine counterpart. organic forms and emphasize the unroofed space enclosure rather than load-bearingsupport. On the building of war machines as a part of the an- cient architecturalrepertoire. 767b). See Vitruvius. 3." Studii Classice 18 (1979): 23-37.the first stage in the progressivedevelopment towardthe Classical and. the pair design the treasuryof a king who. This monolith would count among the examples of what Hegel calls "symbolic"architecture.possessing a power which is beyond ordinarylogic.. in Hesiod.trans. s. Hymn to Apollo 55-57: "Men follow Phoebus when they measure out cities. 18. see Wolfgang Herrmann.since because of the invention of fire there was born at the beginning coming together among men and reasoning together and living together. 24. See Vernantand Detienne.Mass.Andrew Szegedy-Maszac(Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UniversityPress. in The FourElementsof Architecture and Other Writings. so that its interiorbecomes its exterior. 1989). 305. bk. See Hesiod. see PierreVidal-Naquet. with neither beginning nor end." in The BlackHunter: Formsof Thoughtand Formsof Society in the GreekWorld. 37. 17. in Pausanias'sDescription of Greece. 3640. chaps." Its elements are often imitative of natural. front nor rear." wheneverthey wish.." 13."See also metron "measurement. the architects construct a means for exposure instead of enclosure and dispossess their client of the economic talisman of his political identity. including the temple of Apollo at Delphi.Library. 10.Thomas Malcolm Knox (Oxford:Oxford UniversityPress. or "cladcompare the "dressing" ding" (Bekleidung)of a building in the theory of nineteenth-century comparativearchitecturalhistorian and theoretician Gottfried Semper. 3 of Gottfried Semper:In Searchof Architecture (Cambridge. Harry FrancisMallgraveand Wolfgang Herrmann(Cambridge:Cambridge UniversityPress. 37. 1913). 16. On the ancient sources of the myth of Trophonius and its many variantsin other cultures. and he himselfweavestheirfoundations. severalby imitating [imitantes] the nests of swallowsand their modes of constructing [aedificationes]to make places [loca] from mud and wattles that they might go under." "exact knowledge"and Anglo-Saxon moed "measure.attempts to master (kratein) the passive materialof the menstrual fluid with the instrument of his "informing" soul (730b.34.Thus rearchitectural versingthe "proper" function. 6. Ibid. On the architectural significance of such swaddling. The hooked fox-fish turns its body inside out. Chantraine cites the cognate verbs medomaiand medomai"devise.Translatedwith a Commentary(London: Macmillan.see bk. chap. 2:630-700. see Sir JamesGeorge Frazer'snote on Pausanius."chap."A Study in Ambiguity:Artisansin the Platonic City. the king sets a trap of his own in which Agamedes is caught. 766b. 29-50. Hesiod. is closed in on itself. 1975).. Aesthetics:Lectureson Fine Art. so that they walkednot with their head down but upright and gazed upon the magnificence of the world and the stars. Once he discoversthe dolos. Apollodorus. 7." 1984). The contest then continues as the brothers imitate the enemy to beat him at his own game. finally. 9. On the workand intelligence of the artisan as metis.v.see also Callimachus. the two prevent the king from recognizingthem by depriving themselves of identifiable form: Agamedes asksTrophonius to cut off his head. In contrast to the Classical ideal." 8.the purpose of symbolic architectureis "the erection of something which is a unifying point for a nation.""contrive"and the nouns Sanskritmdti "measure. when Rhea begs Gaea and Ouranus to "devisetogether with her a metis by which she could make him [Cronus] forget that she bore her dear child. 1977). 1982). 14. metis. they began in that joining together some to make shelters [tecta] from a branch. The activities of Trophonius and his brother Agamedes exemplify architectural metis.and which in rotation becomes both mobile and immobile. Vitruvius. it appearsas the strangest. For Phoebus always delights in founding cities. 1986). 736a. for these classic examples:The hunted fox reversesitself.bk.De architectura. Theogony498-500. Theogony27-28. the bond that is perfect because it completely turns back on itself. as a column."Clytemnestra'suse of her metis to "devise"(mesato) evil for her husband is noted below. the climax of his treatise. See ibid. others to dig caves under mountains.
Iliad 16. 38. the jarparallelsPandorawith the oikos. 20.. 1972). Odyssean architecturaltheory is founded on the construction of the secret sign.155-202. See MargaretAlexiou..""envelope. when "dogsdisgracethe grey head and the greybeard and the genitals.Neil Leach.visible image (eidolon)of one of "the most honorable. 1969).and Rodney Needham (Boston: Beacon Press. See Chantraine. when the light hurdles and mattings were later transformedinto brickor stone walls."White Mythology:Metaphor in the Text of Philosophy.678.carpets remained the only means for separatingspace.. 1980).Histories2. 27.""garden" and its Greek derivativeparadeisos "paradise. "The Textile Art. For the oikos is designed to worklike the "swallowing" body of Zeus: to keep the female inside.see Joseph Rykwert."in The FourElementsof Architecture. 22 of StandardEdition. On "weavinga metis and a dolos. Compare the case of Bellerophon in Homer. See Homer. see also the Dissoi Logoi 2. On the role of women as leaders of funeralritual.35.compare the mourning for Hector at the end of the Iliad. See German Decke "cover.the roof with the supporting columns."see Iliad 6.108 who revealedthe metis of the web to the suitors?It could also have been the herald Medon or the domestic Dolion (4.204). 132 (my emphasis). Compare Pindar. actually or ideally. 35. See Odyssey2. for their permanence. 24.On Adam'sHouse in Paradise: The Idea of the PrimitiveHut in Architectural History (New York: Museum of Modern Art." 30. Penelope's kerdosthus introduces the question of the relation between architectureand semiotics."Cognates include Avestan pairi-daeza"enclosure.The relationbetween the two is. Politicus 278e4-79c3. however. and greatest things" (285d4-86bl).. On the stateman's art as "weaving.Joseph Rykwert. 23."in Marginsof Philosophy. 7.they were the visible boundariesof a room. 3. and Theogony506-16. Even where solid walls became necessary.bodiless.weaving is appropriatedas the paradigm of the stateman's knowledge (episteme)while weaving itself is degradedas a small. In the Politicus. 102-3.the wall itself was secondary. Iliad 22.trans.'from the household'] praiseis mixed with blame. 675.Dictionnaire etymologique. compelled by force of necessity [hup'anagkes].1098. See Claude Levi-Strauss. 1974). see On the Art of Building. Works and Days 1-105. Pandorais analogous to the jarfrom which she scatters all evils except hope. Semper discusses these "twobasic elements of building . 9. eds. See Shoshana Felman. 1-2 (1983): 69-95. 26. metaphor.457. the colorful carpets that the walls servedto hold and support.71-76: Priamcontrasts the corpse of a young man.124. The often solid walls behind them were necessaryfor reasonsthat had nothing to do with the creation of space. GottfriedSemper." 22. It retained this primarysignificance.Frag." "roof.28. trans. Wherever the need for these secondaryfunctions did not arise. 32. 1975): "forby virtue of common origin [literally.187 and Odyssey 5. 18. 1988). respectively." See below for furtherdiscussion.v.735). James Strachey (London: Hogarth Press. Worksand Days 96-97. Weaving the fence led to weaving movable walls of bast. teichos "wall. for supportinga load. 37."in ibid." "coat."Language and the Female in EarlyGreek Thought. 31. see also "The Four Elements of Architecture. Odyssey 4.356. 19. 21. they were needed for protection.""ceiling.110."Arethusa:Semioticsand Classical Studies 16.. On the Western tradition of myths of originalarchitecture derivingfrom both Vitruvian and Biblicalexemplars. and the vertical enclosure later to become the wall of the living room.assemblage 21 For the view of Renaissancearchitect Leon BattistaAlberti that "roof and walls"first brought humans together in community. On "weaving a dolos.Mass. in Herrmann. "Structural ArElements of Assyrian-Chaldean chitecture."see Homer. for setting apart Using wickerwork one's propertyand for floor mats and protection against heat and cold far preceded making even the roughest masonry. As a construction enclosing her metis. See Homer. Shield of Heracles. See Ann Bergren. while founded on.17. most beautiful.""screen. 478-97. 352-413. 207-71. Just as later. 1933). On "weavinga metis.. Iliad. Sigmund Freud.Wickerworkwas the originalmotif of the wall. 34. they were only the invisible structure hidden behind the true representatives of the wall. 19. 28." "garden. 386. and Hesiod.2:63076.422. etc.""skin.Gottfried Semper. Hanging carpets remained the true walls. 695-705. 29."in Herrmann. "Femininity. 181.""pretence.93. On philosophy in Plato and Aristotle as opposed to.:MIT Press. in Hegel's philosophy of architecture.324. Compare idem.4-5. s. Odyssey2. It was therefore the coveringof the wall that was primarilyand essentially of spatial and architecturalsignificance.125-26.trans."As both body and house. Antigone witnesses to the preeminent importanceof properdeath rites."On these elements as exemplaryfunctions of the Classicaland symbolic stages." 39. nos. 739. reed or willow twigs and later to weavingcarpets of thinner animal or vegetable fiber. Hesiod. See Herodotus. 10 of Comparative Building Theory. and Robert Tavernor(Cambridge. see Jacques Derrida. material.James Harle Bell.. Semper. in Bruno Snell and HerwigMaehler." see Plato.Alan Bass (Chicago: Universityof Chicago Press. describesthis jaras both a body and a house: "Therein the unbreakablehalls hope alone was remaininginside under the lips of the jar. 1. "she finished the shroud.hierarchicalratherthan equal.25155. trans." 36. Was it the servantwoman mentioned at 2. PindariCarminacum Fragmentis (Leipzig:Teubner. 33.The essence of the wall was wickerwork. 254-55.303.see Aesthetics." in vol. and that of an old man. 13.and it did not fly out from the door. Elementary trans. John Richard von Sturmer.see Hesiod. On Pandora. The Ritual Lamentin GreekTradition (Cambridge:CambridgeUniversity Press. which retains its beauty even in death."see Odyssey9. 25.The Structuresof Kinship. Le Scandal du corpsparlant (Paris:Editions du Seuil. able to use her metis for "weaving" only the walls of the oikosas an image and extension of the ideal wife. 1982).204-6: "It is well known that any wild tribe is familiarwith the fence or a primitive hurdle as a means of enclosing space.even though she was unwilling." 22 . In "Structural Elements of Architecture" Assyrian-Chaldean (chap.. Iliad 6.
implying an essential perversionor a deviation. see Gilles Deleuze. Timaeus28b-29d. when. 48. 54." in The Logic of Sense. 7. Compare Anchises's procedure in the HomericHymn to Aphrodite. Boekoenyi.Sarkatsonoi (Athens:Melissa Press.232. 51. See Odyssey17. Odyssey23. 4. Ibid. see Emily D." For the Platonic idiom "to be homoios" equals "trueto yourself. Ibid. 5. eds. It is in this sense that Plato divides in two the domain of images-idols:on one hand.146ff..462-506. 1979). See Levi-Strauss. 53. 56. 19.""equalto itself. Symposium173d4 and Republic 549e2. 1990). 44.16-19. 1973). On the sema as a gravestone.but a dialectic of rivalry(amphisbetesis). that is.54. 1955).37. In the same categorybelong the purple mantle and golden pin that the disguised Odysseus describes in response to Penelope's peiraof his claim to have been Odysseus'shost in Crete (19. 57. Theocharis. 26-62. Vermeule. 113-14. 61.Aspects of Death in EarlyGreekArt and Poetry (Berkeley: Universityof California Press. and the substitute person. 59. 50. 42. trans. for example. 49."to his unique identity. 113-14. Ibid.84-85. Odyssey23. Creusa'sdescription of the contents of Ion's cradle. On the column as derived from the tree. Ibid. 6. 2:665-69.esp. they can signify Odysseus. "Copies are secondarypossessors. Museo Civico. Aesthetics.on the other. Aesthetics. 184-89. Odyssey2. see Hegel. see Sophist 252dl and Philebus65d2-3.before seeing them. 55. 58. 253-59 (translationslightly altered): "Platonismis the philosophical Odysseyand the Platonic dialectic is neither a dialectic of contradiction nor of contrariety. and Gregory Nagy. especially kept alive in memory when written upon. Ibid.The ElementaryStructuresof Kinship. Odyssey23.S.." 47.see Phaedrus273dl-6.and as exemplaryof the beauty of Classical architecture. For the collocation of "like" and "true"as synonymous."see Plato.The Architectureof Japan (New York:Museum of ModernArt. there are copies-icons. form or paradigm. Chiusi. Ibid.They are well-founded pretenders. The Greek words for test (peira "penetrationto the end. FigureCredits 1.The term is also used of a single object related to individualsby their exclusive knowledge of it.110.203-12.: the ghost of the suitor Amphimedon indicates that the finishing of the shroud directly precedes or is contemporaneous with the returnof Odysseus. In the case of the objects that identify Creusa and Ion as mother and son. and D.. 19. guaranteedby resemblance. Compare the relation of truth in the Platonic system as that of the homoion. R. the symbolondesignates an incomplete object. or any other guest present at the time.215-50). there are simulacra-phantasms" (256). S. 52. 2:650-54 on the pyramidsand the mausoleum." "same. 43.see. the pure display of architecturalpurpose. 45. See n. Odyssey23.Bergren 40.. 2. in fact. 19. See also 24. ArthurDrexler.that must be brought together (symballein) with its other half to prove the identity of the bearer. Penelope them as "fixed signs" "recognizes" (semataempeda)of their speaker's identity. being alreadyrectilinearin its truck and branches. The Best of the Achaeans: Conceptsof the Hero in Archaic GreekPoetry(Baltimore:Johns Hopkins UniversityPress. 111.or "falsepretenders. The basis of this relation is the "likeness"or "sameness"of the sensible particularand the intelligible 23 ." On the tomb as a signal instance of "symbolicarchitecture" in Hegelian philosophy.. as reciprocal. Mark Lester with Charles Stivale (New York:Columbia UniversityPress.73. 3. 166-81. Staatliche Museum. Berlin. simulacraare like false pretenders." "determipeirata "boundary nant") are cognates. his host.124-30. Neolithic Greece (Athens:National Bankof Greece. and Sophist 264c-68d. 23. 1979) 234-41. built upon a dissimilarity. no. 45: "The classical sema can be both the external sign of the invisible dead in the grave..Ion 1386-442). New York. On the ainos. MetropolitanMuseum of Art. each deriving from the root *per"go through to the end point." "test") and for boundary (peirar. Used as a means of identification.plural line. On the relationbetween Odysseus and the suitors as simulacra. T. 60 above. especiallyto secure contracts and treaties.. see 14. such as one half of a knucklebone. 85-95. 63. 1955). Ibid. 9. 60. worksas her "halfof the knucklebone" (Euripides.that which is "like. 41. Republic472c9dl. 8 (July 1988). 8.. 46.. 1984). See also 14.386-475. Ibid.PlatenatlasBij Homerus (Haarlem:TjeekhkWillink. 62.130-65. "Platoand the Simulacra. for example. Kostos Kouremenos. a dialectic of rivalsand suitors" (254).110. Odyssey 23. Papadopoulous. see Hegel.496-97. Architectural Record176. From Jan HendrikJongkeesand Willem Jacob Verdenius. Parmenides132dl-4 (where the participationof the particularin the paradigmis preciselythe relation of likeness).