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I. J. Niimcnnis.. sources. latonism.. Thesis (PH. By Konneth Sylvan (Guthrie . message. -. IST'"'"' ^- °^ '^^^"'"' ^""^^"^ '^°'^'' ^'^'* ^"^ ^^"g'ish translation": Lo78«7CX0 Qpg Another copy. N. Library of Congress Gop5r2. ^ 2. of Apamcia. 1871-1940. and influence. London. p. Neoplatoni.. Nunionius of Apainea. 215 p. Avoiks ^ ' : ] ( Kenneth Sylvan.Z7G8 \ Restrictions on Use: TECHNICAL MICROFORM DATA FILM SIZE: ^_f_:^_**? REDUCTION RATIO: IMAGE PLACEMENT: lA IB IIB DATE FILMED: i:i_^iX3_ INITIALS ^^ ^ C FI LME D BY / ^^Jl ^^^Jj^j-ji. ( ()ini)arative literature press i*1917] 1 p. 19i"".. iv. G.Master Negative # COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES PRESERVATION DEPARTMENT BIBLIOGRA PHIC MICROFORM TARHFT Original Material as Filmed —rmm^—'r"»'< ' - Existing Bibliographic Record 183NQ17 IF17 Guthrie..>^^ ^ //^ ) . /V6_(r c<it. BS93..)— Columbia university. Bell and sons. 17-29753 rights A 4771pl ^^^^ W .. D. irranrwonrl. the father of neo-Platonism bio^rraphy. 1914 Biography.

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UMENIUS The Father of Neo-Platonism ~" KENNETH SYLVAN GUTHRIE .

i.Columliia ®mbergitp LIBRARY »lSS@*i|.. .

. Sewanee.. f LONDON GEORGE BELL AND SONS Comparative Literature Press.J.D.. Tulane and Columbia.Box 75. ProfeMorin Ixttnsion. by Kenneth Sylvan Guthrie. Grant wood. A. N. in the Faculty of Philosophy. University of the South. and Harvard.. Columbia University. Sources. Biography.D. Sewanee. Medico-Chinirgical CoUege.NUMENIUS of Apamea The Father of Neo-Platonism Works. M. Philadelphia. Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philot^ ophy. and Influence. Ph.O.IW. P. Message.

Translation. a Comparative Student of Religion. Edinburgh.D. Brussels. Ph. M. 22. Hadleigh. N.M. according to Various Thinkers. 11. Providence Cures the Reluctance of Matter. 9a. Teachers' Problems. N. Criticism. Of ComPh. Annandale. 18. deacon in 1890. the Path to Ecstasy). The of Zoroaster.. Agents for America: THIRD BOOK. Spiritual Message of Literature. Providence as the Cure of Dualism. 20. 24. The Road Wiesbaden. How God Perfects the World. True Existence is Supersensual. Motionless and Permanent. The Origin of Evil. priest in 1897. IS (THE FOURTH BOOK ENTIRELY MISSING.. A Numenius Story about Jesus Allegorized.D. Tenn. Existence and Growth. 14. M. Stephen's College. University of South Sewanee. He received B. The Unchangeable is the Incomprehensible. Y. nor in Matter. COMPARATIVE LITERATURE PRESS. 17. (PRACTICAL QUESTIONS? Numenius Numenius is BIOGRAPHY. including that of Translation.. and G. Sewanee. 1893. in the Want to Become a Churchman Words of his Hymns. (THEOLOGICAL METAPHYSICS.A. FROM THE TREATISE ON THE GOOD.) 19. Lausaune. 1890..CO] xrn OOPTMQHT. Grantwood. Legend of the Opponents of Moses. 65. with three gold medals at Medico Chiurgical College. 15. 9b. Limits and Mission of History of Education. 13. Stories for Young Folks . Existent as Timeless. Restrved SPECIAL WORKS. Why You Really Life of Zoroaster. Columbia. in charge of All Saints' Church. FIRST BOOK. God's Power as Solution of the Eleatic Puzzle. Real Being Inheres Neither in the Elements.. Kenneth Sylvan Guthrie was born in Dundee. The Soul as Savior of the Body. 1903.D. Method of Teaching Modern Languages. 16. . FIRST. Investigates Comparatively and Alle- gorically. Philadelphia. Scotland.. to Understanding of the Good (or. 12. munion with God. Frankfurt. 1915. Box 75. 1894. 10. Text. or Conception and Perception. (ALLEGORIC EXPOUNDING BY COMPARATIVE RELIGION?) 23. 1917 INDEX TO NUMENIUS PART I. Professor in Extension. as Allegorical Student of History. Ordained in Protestant Episcopical Church. A. and How to Solve Them. the Gathas The Mother-Tongue SECOND BOOK. 22.D. Plato as a Greek Moses.. St. 1893.) .A. Message of Philo Judaeus. Harvard. July Attended schcx)l in Florence. 21. KENNETH SYLVAN GUTHRIE "All Rights. New York. The Philosophy of Plotinos Complete Translation of Plotinos. Y. Has published.. 1871. Tulane. J. University of the South. N.

All in AIL 49a. Even the Creator Dependent from the Idea of the Good. 47. 27b. Life is a Battle. 61. Presentation a Casual Consequence of the Synthetic Power of the Soul. 28. Numenius Unites the Super-existence with Existence. SIXTH BOOK. The Problem Numenius of Sincerity. Homer Should be Interpreted Allegorically. 77. The Legend of the Atlanteans Only Allegorical. All Incarnations are of Evil. 49b. The Mutual Relation of the Two First Divinities. 39. Life-process of the Divinity. as Pilot. by Impulsive Passion. as Revealer of the Serapistic Mysteries. 37. 59. (See Phaedo. 38. 54. 36c. Numenius as Vulgarizer of the Serapis Mysteries. "How the Second (God) is Subordinated to the " First CONCERNING THE MYSTERY-TEACHINGS OF PLATO. CONCERNING THE INDESTRUCTIBILITY OF THE SOUL. Numenius Assumes Two Souls. Porphyry follows the Teachings of Numenius. 45. Salvation Streams from the Standing God. Process of Human Degeneration. 42. Immortality of the Forms of Matter. INDEX TO NUMENIUS m (PHILOSOPHICAL THEOLOGY. Inner Relationship Between God and the World. All Souls are Immortal. The Soul is Indiscerptibly One with God. Birth as Wetness. Mutual Relation of the Triad. 40. 30. Existence Itself Not Mingled with Matter. Strained Etymological Interpretations. The Evil Demons Delight in Sacrificial Smoke. The Soul is Retained in the Body as in a Prison. Numenius tells Marvellous Stories. The Vitalizing Influence of the Divinity.) 25. Allegory of the Cave of the Nymphs. (SPIRITUAL INTERPRETATIONS?) 31. IV. 33. God as Cosmic Sower. 57. 51. 55. The Demiurge is Dependent from the Idea of the 34. 36b. 62b. THE BIRD OF PROG- NOSTICATION). Life is Concatenation among the Laws of Life.) Cause 29. 56. The World of Ideas is Located Within the Second God. (OR. II. 62a. Soul-struggle before Incarnation. Everything Everything is only Signification of Higher Things. 50. 32. 41. 44. 35a. Evil as an External Accretion. 52. 46. THE INITIATE THE HOOPOE. Theory of the Divine Development. in. 64. The Divinity is Undiminished in the Distribution to Men of Knowledge. 43.B INDEX TO NUMENIUS FIFTH BOOK. 27a. not Soul-functions. 53. 48. Numenius Distinguishes the Divinity. The Soul is Explained Mathematically. 26. Good. The Cosmic Triunity. First and Second 63. 36. The Soul is Immaterial and Incorporeal. 35b. .

Numenian Name for the Divinity. 3.) Perhaps Numenius Taught Pythagorean Numerical FRAGMENTS Cabalism about the Soul. 6. TIMAEUS. (SEE 60. 4. and Foundation of the New Academy. VI. Carneades as Conscienceless Sophist. ATTRIBUTED JOINTLY TO NUMENIUS AND AMMONIUS. Why the Successors of Plato diverged from him. 8. 44. TIMAEUS. HISTORY OF THE SUCCESSORS OF PLATO.) 58. 11-17. 69. (i7. Evils are Necessary. . 70. 1. Schism of Philo. who Secretly Taught Truth. VIII. AND PLATO. VIII. Why Mentor opposed Carneades. 68. 46.IV INDEX TO NUMENIUS V. 14. (SEE FRAGMENT 11. Carneades as Mystic. Numenius Allegorizes out of Hebrew Scriptures. Extant Works OR. 25. The Iliad of Arcesilaos and Zeno. RERERENCE FROM PLOTINUS. AND PLATO." Theology of the Cosmic Genesis. WHY THEY DIVERGED FROM HIM. The Comic Experience of Lakydes. FRAGMENTS FROM NEMESIUS. Text and English Translation 2. VII. First Book. 10. On the Immateriality of the Soul. 7. Carneades follows Arcesilaos. NUMENIUS of APAMEA 66. ABOUT NUMBERS. 5. CONCERNING SPACE. Derivation of '^Apollo.

has demonstrated that he is most estimable. Magi. 18. Maprupiaic laTc TTXdTujvoc dvaxuupricacGai Kai HuvbrjcacOai ToTc XoToic ToO TTu0aT6pou. 6ca irepi toO 0eoO ibc dcuufLidTGu bieiXnqpev. 13. see in the 29. ouk OKvricac dv Ktti iri cuTTpaqp^ auioO xPncacGai Kai XoTOic TrpocpnTiKoTc TpoTroXoTfjcai auTOuc.) (This consists of a Dialogue between a Philosopher HEPI TArA0OY. and Egyptians. Liber IX a. TTocu) Than how much less of a partisan is the bk PeXiiuJV KeXcou Kai bid ttoXXiuv beiHac etvai Kai TrXeiova Pythagorean Numenius. dXXoTi)iituTaTOc pacavicac boTMCtTa Kai ajro dXriGti TiXeiovuJv cuvaxaTibv d dcpavidcGr) eivai 6 TTu9a- Topeioc Nou^rivioc. Plato as a Greek Moses. IXb. Nou)Lirivioc bk 6 Numenius. 6ctic dv tuj TTpuiTtu Ttepi rdTaGoO X^T^JV 7T€pi tOuv dGvuiv. XIII. dTTiKaXecacGai be id iGvn id euboKi^oOvTa. FIRST BOOK. dYKaTCiaHev auToTc Kai loubaiouc. Then (but only) so far as they agree with Plato. teachings and conceptions of the Brahmins. in that he investigated still other opinions.) NuMENius IS A Comparative Student of Religion. A. and expounding them allegorically. 9b. the Pythagorean philosopher. and from many sources gathered what to him seemed true. not scrupling to quote the expressions of the prophets. Celsus. the Hebrews. 9a. Hebrews. by many proofs. will he have to cite (the religions of) the famous nations quoting the mysteries. Philosopher: In respect to this matter he will have to teach and interpret in the (best) Platonic tradition. FROM THE TREATISE ON THE GOOD. who. and a Stranger. and fuse it with the teachings of Pythagoras. 6TT6cac Bpaxjuctvec Kai MoubaToi Kai Mdyoi Kai Ai- TUTTTioi bieOevTO. says out"What else is Plato than a Moses who (speaks Greek. Trpocq)ep6)bievov auiuiv idc xeXeidc xai id boTlnaia rdc le ibeac cuvTcXou^evac TTXdiujvi 6|ioXoYOufievujc. The first Fragment begins midst of a sentence. among the nations that believed God was incorporeal. In the first book of his treatise on the Good he also mentions. 3 . (GOD AS IMPROVER OF MATTER. Elc hi toOto bencei eiTrovia Kai crmrivdjuevov xaTc I. Ti TTuGaTopiKoc qpiXococpoc dviiKpuc Tpd(per f| ydp €CTi nxdiiuv Mujcnc 'AiTiKiiuiv. I. or) reveals Greek tendencies?" right. NuMENius Investigates Comparatively and Allegorically. ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF THE TEXT OF FRAGMENTS OF NUMENIUS.'• WORKS OF NUMENIUS.

The Road A. brooding over existence in a manner which though solitary and dominating. To imagine that one sees the Good floating up to oneself is entirely wrong and to suppose that he has approached the Good. ppaxeidv Tiva toutuuv tujv eiraKTpibujv tujv fiovriv. and should.difficult). immediately divine solitude. )Liiav. ttTXatai. in an inexpressible. outuj br| xiva dTreXGovia |li6vuj TTOppuj diTO tujv aic0r|Ta)V ojiiXficai tuj dTaOiij iiovov. ff] Kai x6 irOp Kai ai dXXai buo luexaHu qpuceic. eT Te ?CTiv 6pdv auxd il dXXr|Xujv Tivojueva Kai ^TiaXXaccofieva Kai )ir|X€ cxoixeia uTrdpxovxa jarjxe nor compounds. biaipipai re Kai rjpejLiov. & fi kTi Kai yevvriTd Kai TraXivdTp€Ta. This you can even observe when they arise one out of the other. Thus.4 10. which shows that they are neither (genuine) elements 'Apa GUV bx] xd 6vxa xaOxd kxiv. X. irpoc fdp ovxi gli paauTO bei jneGobou* Kai ecTi KpdxiCTGV tujv aicGriTUJV d^eXr|cavTi. and to contemplate numbers. TO ^V. is nothing less than impudent. II. A. indefinable. fjGn |ar|be cujjia pe'TCt ^rjb^ c)LiiKp6v. gracious and friendly. courageously to attack the sciences. Tot |i^v NUMENIl FRAGMENTA. It is) as if one were sitting on an observation-tower. and therefore transitory. or any body. Stranger: Asking myself the nature of Existence. cub* av aicOtiToG oubeiiia* dXXd oiov ei tic em ten Xapeiv Mnx«vr| tic CKOTrrj Ka0r||Lievoc vaOv \x6- dXidba. viwv. cuXXapdc. ^v6a |ir|T€ TIC dvGpujTroc |Lir|Te ti Iwov eiepov. 'AXXd f) Tl brj dcTi to 6v. wonder whether it could be the four elements. Real Being Inheres Neither in the Elements. fire. dpriiLiia dXXd tic aqpaioc Kai dbiriYHTOC diexviuc GecTTdcioc. discover a little solitary fishing-boat. toO ttovtoc d)LiapTdvei. world. and watching intently. is both peaceful. |Liia epriiiov. Tuj biac. NOR IN Matter. far from man. thus is achieved meditation on what is the One. auTO bk iv iv eufneveia. to irj to fiTejiOViKov. dwells the Good. WORKS OF NUMENIUS. separate ? Philosopher: Impossible! For these were generated. But not from any cognizable object can the Good be deduced. and transmute. so long as he For the approach to the dallies with the sense-world. dpa Tauii xd CTOixeia Td KaG' T^TTapa. at a glance. far from the visible world. S to Understanding of the Good (oR^ THE Path to Ecstasy). Geiac bk. GUV cu))LiaTa Xapeiv f^iv e^ecii cr|)Liaivo)a€- VOIC €K T€ 6)H01UJV dlTO T€ TUJV ^V TOTc TrapaK€l|Ll€VOlC TVUJpic|LidTUJV dvovTUJV TttYaGov be oubevoc ^k TrapaKeijiievou diTO 6)Lioiou ber|cei. Good is not easy. sailing along between the waves. — XI. Tl dCTl Touc dpiGjiGuc Geacafi^vuj gutujc eKjueXexficai jidGrma. ineTaKujuioic excjuevriv oEu be- bopKibc poXfj Kaxeibe xfiv vaOv. Kai TTUJC. €i hi tic TTpoc Toic aic0r|ToTc Xiirapujv to TTidiLievov cpavidlexai . iXeuJV eTroxoO)Lievov eiri oucia. small or great. and the two intervening natures (of water and air) ? Could it possibly consist of these. being alone with the alone (solitude). fixoi HuXXripbriv li ^v fe Tl auTujv. IvGa toO dToGoO tiprivr). veavieucajnevuj irpoc Td ^aGr|^laTa. There. dTaGov dcpi- KctTTeixa Tpuqpujv gigito tuj dTaOuj dvTCTuxTiKevai. in radiant beauty. B. either together or . but what you might call divine (ly The best way is to neglect the whole visible . I earth. (Only by an illustration can we explain how to achieve an understanding of the Good. must he commune with the Good. ^^1-^'M ^ . or living being. Bodies have to be perceived by tokens which reside in contiguous objects.

Stranger: That is surely self-evident. bodies are dead and unstable. dTVUJCTOC. Since matter is unlimited. it remains to ask 5.6 WORKS OF NUMENIUS. buvaTai eivai 6v. ei b^ dXofoc. it is con- B. Tuxoi be tovjtou. NUMENII FRAGMENTA. fj ^xo^ev irapd TaOTa dXXo ti ^v Trj cpucei Tujv oXujv. therefore. would be the following statement. it is indefinite. which results in unknowability. Surely I shall show you that easily. Since. A. alhave to agree on some preliminaries. namely. B. Stranger: whether within the nature of the universe exists anything else. and a jumble cannot €tand or survive. to explain their experimental consistence. is there not the alternative that it mght be matter (in general) ? Philosopher: Neither is this any more likely. breadth and length. €1 ixx] A. A. 6 ti be eiri kTTiKev. will we not. this unknowability means disorder. XII. Philosopher: Consequently I assert that neither matter as such. and this entails incomprehensibility. TTavTOC juaXXov. I A. TTj br|. and vincing. "Atviwctov be fe oucav auTrjv dvaYKaiov elvai eiTi diaKTOV 6v. But as order facilitates comprehension. . at least to me. fi^v Nai* toOto oub^v eiireTv ttoikiXov. "QcTC KaXuuc 6 Xotoc eTprjKe qpdc. This being granted. have to assume some principle of coherence? Stranger: Of course! Philosopher: Without such a principle could they endure ? Stranger: Surely not! Philosopher: What then is the nature of this principle through which they endure ? ! Philosopher: A. ouK dv ToOto bk fjv Sirep f]|LiTv auToTc dj|LioXoTTi- cdjueGa iv toic e|Li7Tpoc9ev. TauTi irdvTa cuvevexOnvai tuj predicates to existence. Philosopher: Correct. dic TeTayiueva YvujcGfjvai Tidvu br|7Tou9ev av \xr\ pdbia* TO be dTOKTOv oux ecTTiKev. it is as undefined as a swift flowing stream of infinite depth. TttUTi ouTUJC b' uXti cuK av eiTi to 6v. The Soul as Savior of the Body. )Li^v fi 7 'AXX' fipa Stranger: If we then grant that Existence could not consist of any single body. and as they tend to alter. This is the very point about which we agreed above. (and this can be proved by its contrary). for it is improbable that any one would attempt to demonstrate existence from a characteristic of instability. B. AoEdTiu iLidXiCTtt fn^v cpTiiLii Trdciv el be )ir\. 12. dXoTOC. el ^ctiv dTreipoc ei f\ uXn. nor (matter made up into) bodies really exist. dpa ineiveiev 5v. 6. OuKoOv Ti CUV Tf]v viXriv oure auTf]v ouTe Td cu)|LiaTa elvai 6v. pd- dopiCTOC xai dvrivuToc. Ti oijv dcTi TO KaTacxncov. dopicTOV eivai aurriv be dopiCTOC. 6vTi dSejiiCTOv eivai. 'AXXd Ktti auTri iravTOC luaXXov t\ dbuvaTOV dppujCTiqi ToO ^leveiv iroTaiuoc t^P Goc Kai TrXdioc Kai |LAfiKOC liXr) pouubric Kai oHuppOTTOC. iv fiinTv el Tobe TTpujiov 'Girei though we shall auToTc a\ia TreipaeeiiiiLiev biaXetoiievoi. B. Cujjua TttUTi \iky ou. dXX* e|Lioi. by nature. that it would be irrational to apply such 4. TTavToc fjTTov. bl Td cuj)LiaTd icTi 9ucei TeGvriKOTa Kai veKpd Kai TrecpopriILieva Kai oub' iv TauTUJ inevovra. for matter is incapable of stabihty. B. dp' oux'i toO KaGeHovTOC auToTc Ibei. A.

says he). and ungenerated. dici non racte assacutos pu- etiam illam indeterminatam et immensam duita- tem ab una singularitate institutam. if this doubleness is indeterminate. then must that (uncreated and) unadorned. then it cannot have been generated. you know) Numenius. U'>ht\>e\ ^^ cPi^ <^ hoc de initiis XIV. who came out of the school of Pythagoras. and who uses the latter teachings to confute the views of the Stoics about the principles of existence.8 WORKS OF NUMENIUS. he) says that Pythagoras applied the name of Unity to the divinity . axomatam gastore dao esse generatam. aaquaaest vum deo a quo ordinatum intailigi dabaat. and who asserts that the teach- (Of dogma refellens Pythagorae dogmata. atqua quia ganarationis sit inomatum illud. (especially) at times when they are born (or tested by strain). recedante a naturu sua . CCXCIII. inasmuch as the fate of being generated must surely fall into a time that is posterior. Philosopher: If then this principle of endurance must be freed from the body's tendency to become dispersed. . ifjc A. B. Numenius ex Pythagorae magisterio Stoicorum mgs of Plato agree with those of Pythagoras. it was unborn and ungenerated before it was (created or) adorned. On this account. we are justified in reserving for the Incorporeal the highest rank.: hr\ 9 cuurfipcc boxei Stranger: If this principle of endurance itself were a body. 8. xai toOto eiri coifia. ortu et ganeratione. limiest. but to matter. nor disturbed by any sort of motion. (Evidently. fortuna posterior. naturally) tends to become dispersed. but when so (created and) adorned. be considered as contemporary with the divinity by which it was organized (or. then it seems to me that It can be absolutely nothing else than the incorporeal. it would need a savior that was a divinity. Oure to^v Yivexai auT€ auHerai ouxe kivticiv KiveTxai dXXnv oube^iav. put in order). €1 ji^VTOi xpn ct^TO dTTTiXXdxOai tuuv cujfidTiuv TidGTic. Pythagoram deum quiduitatis. hoc antaquam exor- quidam formamqua at ordinam nanciscaratur. cui conait cinere dicit dogma Platonicum. For it is not generated. In other words. (Numenius also insisted that) some Pythagoreans had not correctly apprehended this statement. €1 \xhf NUMENII FRAGMENTA. nor IS It increased. as the body (by itself. tatam vero generatam esse dicera. However. silvam vero Quam naratur duitatem interminatam quidem minima ganitam. or irradiated by the adjusting divinity. for they thought that even yon indeterminate and course. ^ |n6vov ecxTiKC X€ TO dciL)|LiaTOV (xmr\ ydp q)uc€UJV Ttacwv \i6yir\ Kai ?CTiv dpapuTa xai oubev cuj)LiaTiKr|. it seems to me. God's Power as Solution of the Eleatic Puzzle. minima ganeratum. Ttti Ktti iva KdKeivoic K€Kurmevoic Tf]v qpOopdv djuuveiv bOvn- xai^x^f ^Mo'i M^v ou boK€T dXXo bfj' xi eivai. 14. it was generated. dem singularitatis nomine nominasse. which could have been the case only if determinate or limited. Sad non- nullos Pythagoreos vim sentantiaa tasse. and forefend it destruction. For. among all other natures this incorporeal nature alone can stand (or endure) . Kai bid xauTtt KaXoic bixaiov dcpdvri TrpecpeOcai to dctujuaTOV. it seems to me that. nature) and in no way (is it subject to the tendencies of other) bodies. the name of Doubleness (or manifoldness). Ai6c Sv i\JiO\ beriGfivai auid TTapaXuo^evov Kai CKibvdjievov. so as to be able to hold the body together. sine vero atqua illustratam a diita. (Well. it is the only self-adjusted (or poised.

esse desineret. ^^XVL malignam of Evil. quod genus appellant indiflferens. singularitas. sam bonorum. and from whom nature herself derives . et a sit banc dei esse efficere ne- quod natura omni virtute potentior ac quo natura ipsa vires mutuetur. which is considered indiflFerent. sed Pythagoras . Stoici quam Silvam igitur informen et carentem quaUtate tarn Pythagoras consentiunt. non posse ad modum naturae atque solius ordinem redigi censeant. and which. as the Stoics On mediae interque malorum bonorumque illi vici- niam. ut queat. that is easily possible to God. The Origin CCXCV. but the world. fluidam et sine qualitate silvam esse censet. Pythagoram virtutem ac potentiam asserere. ex speciei bonitate silvaeque malitia temperatum. and incommensurable and indeterminate doubleness (or manifoldness) out of unity. natura sit Cumque illi. ut Stoici. who is more powerful and excellent than any Power soever. according to Various Thinkers. Providence as the Cure of Dualism. C<^ >^^^" cording to the teachings of the ancient theologians. which they call indifferent. Pythagoram vero infinitam et sine limite dicere. Such an opinion would not seem plausible to people of even mediocre education.10 WORKS OF NUMENIUS. but Pythagoras held that this organizing resulted from the energy and power of the Only God. for what is impossible to nature. This is wrong. quoque. for he considers it entirely of evil. So the Stoics held that what was by nature undeterminate could not be organized naturally. At sit. According to Pythagoras. Further. says Numenius. naturae Igitur Pythagoras that account. 15. quae non erat duitas sobsisteret atque ex dec silva et ex singularitate immensa et indeterminata duitas converteretur. arose from both Providence and Necessity. Deum vaque quippe esse (ut etiam Platoni videtur) initium et cauvero. inquit Numenius. was transmuted into the form of doubleness (or manifoldness). quae erat NUMENII FRAGMENTA. That would be indifferent. thought. ^ CCXCIV. sed mundum. but not. Thus would matter be converted out of c'/inity. nee tamen. and process. sed plane noxiam. quod immensum. which is a mixture of the goodness of the Idea. ut qui praestantior. and matter. ut incommensurable doubleness (or manifoldness) had been organized by yon single unity. the Stoics held that matter was defined and limited by its own nature while Pythagoras asserted that matter was infinite and unlimited. and would have been replaced by a premature doubleness (or manifoldness). It is therefore not matter. her powers. through the following This unity receded from its singleness. tC^^ XV. The Stoics and Pythagoras agree that Matter is form16. denique ex providentia et necessitate progenitum. does Pythagoras consider Matter a fluid lacking quality . singularitate at in duitatis a Non recta. Denique Stoi- cos definitam et limitatam silvam esse natura propria. veterum theologorum scitis haberi indifferentem. silvam malorum. For thus would unity have ceased to be unity. and the badness of Matter. criter Quae opinio ne medio- quidem institutis hominibus competit. the divinity is the principle and cause of the Good. Non ergo silvam. habitum migrante. which would derive from both the Idea (of the Good). deus facile possit. quod ex specie sil- indifferens. ac. after all. a nature intermediary between good and evil. while matter is that of evil and Plato thinks likewise.

any misfortune that may have overtaken them among the cause vicissitudes of life. he was in realty evoking the de- mundi animas autumet. NUMENII FRAGMENTA. just as the rational qua est aliquid corpulentum mortaleque et corporis a simile. God. considers it evil the Stoics. scilicet silvam. quae genuine motu patibilis whose motion is is innate. however. exter- minaretur. and that in thus desiring nionem hominum operantibus asseverationibus non Qui ait. For he says that evils must exist necesbecause of the existence of Providence. mortal and similar to the body. quae malorum fons laudat. For if nature is in even only moderate motion. For if the world derives from matter. perversitatem seminarium esse malorum causati sunt. 45: that the Gods would endue us with all sorts of virtues. moventur. then must according to the it necessarily be alive and animated. Gttthrie: Numenius von Apamea . Sed Pythagoras assistere veritati miris licet et contra opiveretur. lege eorum omnium. est. inasmuch as their teachings allow only for two principles of the world: God and matter. certe factus est de existente laudatHera- olim natura maligna. siquidem silva. the perversity of its germs. cum iuxta ipsos et prae- duo sint initia rerum. however. nee bonum nee malum. malum aliquod obvium. then must it necessarily have been created from a precedingly existing evil nature. propterea quod silva et eadem sit malitia prae- dita. nee expediunt adhuc. deus et silva: deus silva. Proptereaque clitum reprehendentem vastitatem malis vitae. malignam alteram. as neither good nor But if you ask these same Stoics for the origin of evil. ut summum cellens bonum. existente providentia mala quoque necessario subsit stitisse. and lacking . of humanity. Numenius Homerum. which implies the existence of matter and its inherent badness. Homer seems to have forgotten that evil was rooted in matter. Platonemque idem Numenius quodduas extermination of evil struction of the world. in also the cause and director of the passible part of the soul. does not hesitate to defend the truth. quoque. laws of all This (matter) things quae licet modice fluctuet. they are unable to go further and in turn explain this (alleged) perversity. unde ipsa perversitas. matter. Nevertheless. tamen quia intimo proprioque motu movetur. The same Numenius praises Plato for having taught the existence of two world-souls :—the one being very beneficent. which contains something corporeal. even if he has to do so with assertions that are remarkable. who finds fault with Homer for having wished that all evils might be so eradicated from life as to evanesce (as he says in Odyssey 13. and that contradict the universal opinions they are wont to assign as its unde igitur mala.12 less. 13 Pythagoras. quod non qui optaverit interitum ac intelligeret "Oh mundum sibi deleri placere. in qualities. censent. Stoici nee bonam nee malam: dehinc tamquam in processu viae perrogati. Quodsi mundus ex silva. Pythagoras. "And that there were no evil in the world!*') Unfortunately. sarily. and the other malevolent. the highest and supereminent Good and indifferent matter. vivat et anima convegetetur necesse est. Consequently Numenius praises Heraclitus. WORKS OF NUMENIUS. Quae quidem etiam animae partis. however. unam beneficentissimam. namely.

whatever disturbs the motion of the stars so as to confuse its purposefulness or efficiency. et adversatur providentiae. does the world owe its qualities to the generosity of a paternal divinity. conexit. and of Providence and chance. as a mother. chance. and are "perversity. quodam et improspera sorte habebatur. which contains much unmoderated (desire) and unforeseen (impulse). in vain attribute the cause of evil to a certain For even the stars are of fire. liberalitate coUata sunt. when they assert that everything arises from the motion of the stars. tamquam Igitur Platonem mundo bona sua del. If then. coetu cunctae rei molem cesserit. according to Plato. and consequently. and passion. must derive its origin from matter. ut Omnium quippe corporum utiliter etiam quae sidereus motus minus et improspere turbat. silvaeque. sicut rationabilis 15 part of the soul derives from reason and God. originem trahere videantur ex est silva. auctrix est et patrona. This fact makes it evident that the Stoics. and it opposes Providence. CCXuyi. consequently it is evident that. silva nutrix est. ut sit evidens. Stoiperversitatem. is the Soul of Matter not without substance. esse constructam. caeca vero fortuitaque temesilvae. u)y XVII. while its evils are due to the evil constitution of matter.14 WORKS OF NUMENIUS. ex cum quae proStellae porro motu stellarum provenire corpora sunt ignesque caelites. while blind the work and funcand fortuitous "rash- dem ritas est del opus et officium. as is taught in the Timaeus (10) of Plato. however. good Therefore. utitur ratione NUMENII FRAGMENTA. Therefore. Porro ex dec et silva factus est mundus. consulta eius imviribus. God so perfects matter as to eflfect order out of disordered patris. Ergo iuxta Pytha- goram que silvae anima neque sine uUa est substantia. after matter has been organized. according to Pythagoras. For the world is created out of (a commingling of) God and matter. Providence is tion of the Divinity. or from an unfortunate fate. the whole world is created by the commingling of God and matter. ut in deus earn Timaeo loquitur Plato. then must it have derived this confused contrariness from chance. Sed postquam silvae omatus acet ipsam quidam matrem esse factam corporeorum 4* . certe confusa haec intemperies eius casu and turbulent motion. item providentiae fortunaeque. However. is the nurse or heavenly ''bodies." feeder. Qua quam cos frustra causari nescio veniunt. redegitque in ordinem ex incondita et turbulenta iactatione. ^^W^ 17. pugnare gestiens malitiae suae Sed providentia qui- On the other hand. animae pars auctore iste ac dec. not from the normalizing intentions of Providence. dicantur. in qua multa et intemperies et improvidus impetus Itaque si et casus atque ut libet exagitata praesumptio. iuxta ex prosapia Pythagoram dei ness" derives from matter. nee ex providentiae consultis salubribus. ut pleri- arbitrantur. silvae vitio cohaeserunt. as is believed by a majority. according to Pythagoras. iuxta Providence Cures the Reluctance of Matter. mala vero matris ratione intelligi datur. plotting how to attack its decisions by the power of its maliciousness." Matter.

in the bodies of animated beings. nee vero permittens porrigi dilatarique passim. he did not permit her to extend entirely perish. or in nature. immunem usquequaque nam. nor in the blowing of the wind. tirely CCXCyn. Idemque nudam silvae imaginem change their form (as it were) in the lap of matter.16 it WORKS OF NUMENIUS. and beauty into its repulsiveness. lest material Nature should Still. non in natura. divinities. or in trees or fruits. quoniam naturale vitium eliminari omnino nequeat I V 1 8. animo considerari iubet. no. eamque ^"f^ i-«**w^ . in the flowing of the water. detractis omnibus singillatim corporibus. but not entirely so. ex parte. he suggests. Everywhere does the nature of evil mingle with Providence. set ut manente natura. quae ex incom- modo sit. (as a suitable method to attain such a conception). Her own lot. inasmuch as her native malice cannot be entirely eliminated." The whole world-machine arose from this (residuum) and God. some flaw. and corrected its faults in every possible way. ne na- eliminating tura silvestris funditus interiret. proportion into its incommensurability. / \^ xvm. herself too far in all directions. illud ipsum. NUMENII FRAGMENTA. quasi all single bodies. That which remains after this abstraction should be contemplated in the mind this residuum he calls "matter. and necessity (matter) yielded. and this he accomplished by introducing system into its disordered confusion. fortunam vero eius prosperam esse magna said to be). is nativonim deorum. that one As (Numenius) quidem caelo: ubique miscente seprovidentiae deterioris na- should think away tura. et quae gremio eius formas in- vicem mutuantur invicem mutant. et recte negat. and to bring it into the light. nee vero in arboribus aut stirpibus. non in corpori- bus animalium. demonstrare et velut in lucem destituere studens. habitu ad prosperitatem devocari commutarique pos- ordinem inordinatae confusioni. How God Perfects the World. non interficiens." and "necessity. preponderatingly happy. quod ex goodness). enthem. ne in ipso an unveiled image of Matter. in that God persuaded (to . without. nor even in heaven. 17 becomes the mother of the corporeal and nature-born (however. that continually quodam piaculo. igitur silvam God therefore (created or) adorned Matter with a certain magnificent virtue (or strength). Deus magnifica virtute exomabat vitiaque eius omnifariam corrigebat. as atque exomando convertit. however. Denique negat a vitiis inveniri Numefortu- nius. modum immoderationi et cultum foeditati coniungens totum statum eius illustrando Very rightly does Numenius deny the possibility of finding any flawless condition. whether in human works of art. non in artibus hominum. strives to represent non in aeris serie nee in aquae tractu. egestione vacuatum est. non tamen usquequaque. non in frugibus. but he transformed her whole condition by enlightenment and adornment so as to leave a nature which might be turned from inefficiency to efficiency.



silvam et necessitatem cognominat


This teaching of the origin of all things to Pythagoras. (However, it is Platonic, as may be seen in Timaeus, lo, 14).

Ex qua

dec mundi

dec persuadente, necessitate obsecun-



Pythagorae de originibus asseveratio.


The Existent

as Timeless^ Motionless

Liber IL

AND Permanent.
Philosopher: Very well Let us approach as near as possible to Existence and let us say "Existence never was, nor ever became; but it is always in definite time, namely, the present moment" (see Plot. Enn. 3.7.3). 2. Should anyone desire to name this present moment "aeon" (or eternity), I would agree with him; for, on the one hand, we shall have to assume about past time, that it has fled, and has disappeared into Whatno-longer-exists. On the other hand, the future does not exist yet, and all we can say about it is that it has the potentiality of coming into existence. For this reason it will not do to think of existence, in a single expression, as either not existing, or as existing no longer, or as not yet existing. Such an expression would introduce into our discussion a great contradiction namely, that the same thing could simultaneously exist and not


oijv 6cTi buvajiic

eTTVJTaia irpoc t6 6v dvaTuifjv,



XeTi^M^v' to 6v ouxe ttot^

out€ Trore



Tar dXX*

Icxiv [del] iv xpovuj djpicfuievuj, tuj dvecTiLii ^ovuj.

ToOtov Mev

lov dvecTuuia

ei tic

d0eXei dvaKaXeiv aiiliva,

xdYuj cujLiPouXo)iai* tov be TrapeXGovia xpovov oTecOai xpn
f]ndc [6iaTT€q)€uT6Ta]

biaTteqpeuTevai dTrobebpaKevai re
jLieXXujv ecTi )Liev oubeTru),

to £ivai ^n^^tir 6 tc av


TeXXeiai be oloc Te IcecGai
dCTlV dvi T€ TpOTTlU

fiHeiv etc



Ouk guv


TO 6v





TOUTOU ft ouTuuc XeTO|uevou dTTiveiai
dbuvaTov, eivai Te o^oO TauTov Kai








Stranger: Were this the case, and did Existence itself not exist, in respect to existence, then indeed could anything else hardly exist. Philosopher: Therefore the Existent is eternal and firm, ever equable, or identical and it neither arose nor passed away, nor increased nor diminished; never did it become more or less, and it entails no spatial or other kind of motion. For it does not lie in its nature to be moved, the Existent will never be displaced backwards


€1 bk ouTujc Ixoi, cxoXf) t'

dv dXXo

ti eivai




To dpa ov

dtbiov tc pepaiov Te dcTiv, aiei KOTd tqu^lev,


tqutov oube T^Tove



oub' ijie^eQxiirXeTov

vaTO ^dv,






Ktti ^i^v bx]

Td Te dXXa Kai oube

totcikujc KivriGriceTai.




Oube Tap


or forwards, up or down,

kinds of motion) ever remainit will stand self-poised and (still) standing, ing self-similar and identical.

right or left (the six Platonic nor will it ever turn on its axis, but

auiip KivriGfivai, cube ixev 67ticu) cube irpo-


divuj TTOie



oub* eic beEid oub* eic dpiTiepi


iLiecaprjceTai Troie





)li€Cov Trore




dXXd |udXXov kqi

^crriHerai xai

dpapoc t€

^CTTIKOC ^CTttl, KttTd TttUTd IXOV dei


True Existence is Supersensual. So much as introduction. I myself 6. Philosopher: shall make no further evasions, claiming ignorance of the name of the Incorporeal.






Tipo 6bo0.


cub' dTVoeiv



Autoc bk ouKeri toO dcuj-

Stranger: than not.

I also


it is


suitable to express





ydp Kivbuveuei vOv


f]biov eivai eiTreiv juaXXov

course, I do acknowledge that his name is that which we have so long sought; and let no one ridicule me if I assert his name is "Being and Existence." The reason of this name ''Existent" is that he neither arose nor decayed, and admits of no motion whatever, nor any change to better or worse; for he is always simple and unchangeable, and in the same idea (or form?), and does not abandon his identity either







XeTUJ to ovojLia auTijj eivai toOto to TidXai







toO dcuj|idTou



ouciav Kai 6v. 'H be ahia toO ovtoc ovojuaToc








Kivr|civ fUTibeniav bexecBai,


|LieTapoXr]v KpeiTTiu


Xtiv eivai bk dirXoOv xai dvaXXoiuuTov



ibeqt Trj auTrj,

voluntarily, or compulsorily. 8. Then, as you remember Plato said in the Cratylos (587D), names are applied according to similarity with the things.



dGeXouciov dHicracGai




iiipox) TTpocavaTKdJlecBai.



6 TTXdTiuv ev Kpa-

Stranger: the Incorporeal

We will

TuXuj Td dvojuiaTtt 6)ioiuucei tuuv 7TpaT)ndTuJv

eivm auTd

then accept the Existent.


as demonstrated that

B. "EcTUj oijv


beboxQuj, eivai to ov to dcui)LiaT0V.

Existence and Growth, or Conception

AND Perception.

A. B.


I said that the

Existent was the In-

corporeal, and that this



far as

was intelligible. I remember, that

To 6v eiTTOV dcu)|uaTov, toOto be eivai to votitov. Td )nev XexOevTtt, oca )«ivr||Lioveijeiv ecTi )uoi, TOiaOra


I said.


Philosopher: I will now proceed with the further investigation, premissing, however, that if this does not agree with the teachings of Plato, it must be assumed that


b' eTTi^riToOvTO

Xoyov dOeXuj TrapajuuGrjcacOm, toel

c6vbe uTTemiuv, oti raOra toTc boT^aci toTc nXdTUivoc

cu|Lipmvei, dXX* iTepou t'

^XPH^ oiecGai tivoc dvbpoc


it is




derived from another great and powerful personality, such as Pythagoras. It is Plato, however, who says, stop, I remember the passage literally ( Timaeus 9) "What is the Ever-existent, which has nothing to do with Becoming? On the other hand. What is the Becoming, but which is never-existent? The first is intelligible to the understanding by reasoning ever remaining the same while the other is perceptible by perception, by unreasoning sensation arising and passing away, but never really existing." 11. So he asked, "What is the Existent?" and designated it unequivocally as the Unbecome, (or that which was not due to growth). For he said that this could not aflPect the Existent, which in this case would be subject to change; and what is changeable would of course not be Existent.

buvaju^vou, oTou TTueafopou. A^t^i ToOvTTXd'Ti to ov dei, reveciv be

TOiv, (pep* dvaiuvTicGu) ttiuc Xi-^ev

ouK ^xov,

Ktti Ti

TO Tiv6)Lievov


6v bk oubeTTOTe; to


bf\ vorjcei ^xeTtt


TrepiXriTTTov, del

kctu tqutov



b' aij boHr)



dXoTou boHacTov,

Tivofuievov xai
ti ecTi


dTToXX\j)Lievov, ovTiuc be oObeTroTe 6v;*

"HpeTo ydp'

to 6v, qpdc auTO dTevvriTOv


f^veciv ^dp ouk

eivai tiu 6vti, iTplnejo

ydp dv* TpeTtoinevov bk ouk av

€i n^v

is the Incomprehensible. Inasmuch as the Existent is wholly eternal and unchanged, and in no way jutting out over itself, for, (according to Plato, in Phaedo 62) "it stands fast similarly," this must surely be comprehensible by But as the Body flows, and suffers intellect and reason. change, consequently it passes away, and is no more; so that it would be sheer folly to deny that this (Body) was not the Indefinite, perceptible only by sense-percep"becoming and being tion, and, as Plato says (Tim. 9)


The Unchangeable

t6 ov TTdvTUJC




dcTi xai


dTpeTTTOv Kai ouba^oic
^evei be KaTd rd

dHicidjuevov [e£] eauToO,

auTd xai ibcauTUJC







vorjcei jueTd


€i be to cuj-

|ua pel Ktti

9epeTai utto


jLieTapoXfic, drrobibpacKei

OUK ecTiv 69ev ou
bk. juovr]



ou toOto eivai

dopiCTOV, boHr]

boHacTOV, kqi

ujc qprici TTXdTuuv, xivo-


destroyed, but never really existing."

dTToXXu|Lievov, 6vtujc be oubeTTOTC ov.






Legend of the Opponents of Moses. we have Jamnes and Jambres, Egyptian and savants, men whom fame credited with being





Mavvfjc Kai





dvbpec oubevoc tittouc laaTeucai KpiGevTec

able to perform incantations as well as any one else, at the time of the exodus of the Israelites out of Egypt.


*loubaiuJv dHeXauvojiie'viuv il AitOtttou.

Moucaiiu touv

Whether he interpreted it rightly or wrongly. (PHILOSOPHICAL THEOLOGY?) 25. ei 6 juev bTnuioup- Toc Geoc icTi T€v^ceu)c dpxn. in that he voluntarily investigated our histories out of thirst of knowledge. who led the Israelites away. mentioning his name. *AXX* ouK ^v dK€ivr] C€|Livuv6)ieGa* dTTobexojueGa b* auTov Tpo- jidXXov KeXcou xai dXXujv 'EXXrivujv pouXriGevxa cpiXoiaaGojc Ktti Td njieiepa dHeidcai. Numenius relates a story about Jesus. xaurric b' ibfioXoTnGn TTpecPuxepov xai aiTiov elvai 6 voOc. NuMENius AS Allegorical Student of History. If it XXV. to 6vo}ia aurou ou Xe'Tiwv. buvaxiuTdTUj. XXIV. dTTiXuecGai uj90Ticav buvaioi. A Story about Jesus Allegorized. Tf) bk oucia f\ revecic. 01 TTapacTTivai dHiuuGeviec utto toO TTXr|6oiJC TOO TUJV AlTUTTxiuUV OUTOl fjcav. as its cause.) TTOXOTOUjU^VUJV KQl OU ^llUpUJV CUTTPCt)Ll|LldTUJV. about Moses and Jamnes and Jambres. xdc veaviKuuTdiac [auiuiv] 24. Liber quartus totus desideratur. Tiu 25 Moubaiiuv dEnrncaiLieviu. even if we do approve of Numenius. LXV. eiKibv auTfic icji Kai . because it is its image and imitation. oucia xai f) ibla. enter into the . dvbpl revoM^vuj Oeiu euEacGai against Moses. WORKS OF NUMENIUS.'AvdXoTOv b^ TOUTUi |Li^v 6 bTiiLiioupToc Gedc. dpK€i to dyaGov ouciac eivm ^PX^. *€v hi 'IricoO Till ipiTUi TTepi TdTaeoO dKiiGerai Kai irepi toO iCTOpiav Tivd. then it must be concluded that this Mind alone is the Good. and in that he accepted them (at least) as stories that were to be received allegorically. Inasmuch as the Creating Divinity is analogous to him. rather than of Celsus or of any other of the Greeks. b' dTTiTeieuTiLieviuc f| Km TpoTro- He also relates the story XoTeT auTrjv TTOiepov dTroT€T€UTM€vujc. xai KivnGevia ibc irepi (THE FOURTH BOOK IS ENTIRELY MISSING. Km ^dp. must be discussed in another place. then must Becoming (be analogous) to Being. uiv f^ au- ToO MiMnTrjC.24 2. Sc 6 MoucaToc dTrfjTe tx} AituTTTiu. 3. however. through prayer. and the Idea. b' dcTi |i^v voTiTov f] intelligible. and not as stupid inventions. FIFTH BOOK. In the third book of his treatise about the Good. 65. MavvoO xai MajuppoO This however does not fill us with pride. without. had much influence with the Divinity and it was seen that they were able to turn aside the worst plagues that Moses brought over Egypt. dXXou KaipoO dcTiv emeiv. The Egyptian people considered them worthy to lists NUMENII FRAGMENTA. then surely must the Good be the principle of Being. and who. Theory of the Divine Development. auxoc ou- toc jLiovoc eupTixai u)v to dTaGov. is and that Mind is older than this. being his imitator. and he interprets it allegorically. A. be granted that Existence. C6UJC Kai 'GKxiGexai kqi Tf|v Tiepi Mujuiciopiav. For if the Creating Divinity is the principle of Becoming. '€! Liber V. TIUV T€ CU|Liq)OpUJV .

eireibdv boKfj fjbn exi ^x^iv. B. is simple. auTOTTOiei cuiuqpuTOv Tr|v '0 Tap beuTepoc. let us begin. CuXXeXoTicjLievujv b' tduoiv 6v6)naTa tctjiiev idpuuv TTpttTMdTUJV. 2. auToaTaGov. 1. his whole treasure turning to ashes. bieXecGai be bei. KaXoO. that we may show up a treasure of thoughts. So let us pray. and another of the Second. 3. will first have to coordinate logically everything in correct sequence. n TTOu ^CTtti KQi 6 tfjc ouciac bTiiLiioupToc Tfi ouciot. in the words of the proverb. and the World. he is in no way divisible. Gmep hk. dpxuOjueGa oiiiiuc. 6 briMioupToc 6 tfic Tcvdceiuc the 66c. Mr) bf\ 7TdGiu|Liev niLieTc rauTov Geov bk TTpocKaXecdjuevoi. But may this not poc TivecGai Xe'Teiai. ^lepa bk xoO beuiepou. dXXiuc be jar)- tuj irpuji- aiT€pov. will experience. his imitator. Tov iLieXXovia bk cuvnceiv GeoO Tiepi TrpiJuTou Kai beu- Tepou xpn TTpoiepov bieXecGai eKacia iv tolHx GTiiuocuvri TiviKtti mi iv eu- KdireiTa. then must Creator of Being be the Good-in-itself. but not otherwise. t6t€ fi bei dTTixeipeiv eiTreiv kocjuiujc. which is beautified by the participation (in the Being) of the First. Philosopher: Whoever wishes to make himself a correct idea of the communion (or relation) between the first and the second. 6 bk toutou oucia fjc |ui|ur|Tfic briiLiioupToc f\ dTaGoc* f] bk luia ^lev f] toO TrpiuTOu. (who is) the Good-in-itself. whose imitation is the Beautiful World. TTpiv id TTpwia TCvecGai. who exists in himself. bid TO iavTiI) cuTTiTVOjLievoc bioXou Troie eTvai biaipeidc etc. he himself produces the Idea of himself.cujuqpepo^e- 6 Geoc jnevToi 6 beuiepoc xai ipiioc eciiv o-^ . juri Philosopher: (Good!) The First God. the Good Creator.26 But WORKS OF NUMENIUS. He however. A. and so. 26. although he himself remains intelligible. being cognate as to Being. Life-process GeuDpTiTiKoc oXujc. TeiTapa kiuj TauTa* 6 TrpujToc 0e6c auToaTaGov. inasmuch as his nature is that of a Creator. 27 kriv dya- if the Creator is the Good of Becoming. who undertakes the latter before the First has become (clear). that we may become his own interpreter in the Investigation (about the Logos?). has he any right to try to speak formally. however. m'jLiTma. K€KaXXiuTric^^voc toO of the Divinity. Stranger: tion). T€ ibeav dauToO Kai tov kocjligv. *0 Geoc 6 jnev irpijuToc ev ^auiuj ujv kiiv dTrXoOc. but there is one Being of the First. XXVL A. and begin (the investiga- GuKT^ov }Akv rjbTi. dTTTO^^vuj ciroboc 6 Gncau- happen to us! On the contrary. only then. iamov Tvuujuova revofievov xiu \6f{\t beiHai Gricaupov (ppoviibuuv. biTToc ujv. first having (as Plato and Plotinos ever did). for as he absolutely deals with none but himself. NUMENIl FRAGMENTA. bTijuioupToc ujv ^Treixa As we now have deduced the name of four things. But as the Second (Divinity) is double. when it seems to him that he has done this correctly. invoked the Divinity. |li6touci(ji iLiiMnMOi 6 KaXoc kocjuoc. there results these four: The First God.

27a. because he was moved by desires for Matter. xu)v KQi PaciX^a. 8. to their relation (about the Logos?) but if the investigation is not about the Creator. ecu xpeibv t6v Trponov. For through this one comes our Progress (?). Traiepa lov Gi \xkv ovv irepi roO bTi|LiioupTiKoO lr\Tox^ev. inasmuch as he is King while the Creator rules in that he passes through . budbi oucr) ^voi juiev aurriv. If. He forgets himself. the (One Divinity) indeed unites it. bid to t^jv lauTTic dTTi^eXoO^evoc dTTepioTrroc lauroO five- lai. however. utt' When however the Second and Third God are One. while He gazes on Matter. Kdxuu xoO voO TrenTTOfi^vou iv bieHobiu Guthri*: Numeaius Toa Apamea Tiaci xoTc koi\ ujvficai C cuvxe- . 27b. which is Doubleness. of the Two First A. Aid bk xouxou xai 6 cxoXoc fmiv kxi. He leads it up into His own nature. bk ^XeTv xov Xotov xflc dxepujGev Gripdcac. that creation specially characterizes him. dvdtei ex In t6 ibiov fjeoc. and cares for it. in that on this passage (of the Creator through the heavens) pavoO I6vxa. which would be more suitable to his own nature.28 WORKS OF NUMENIUS. and in a flowing condition. . <pdcK0VT€c beiv Tov TTpoiepov uTTdpHavia outujc av TroieTv ?X€iv biacpepovTiuc. KOI Icxuj liky dKeiva dppnxa. cxilexai aUTTJC. voc bk Tf) NUMENM FRAGMENTA. uXr) 29 hk. but is by Matter split. dTTOpeHdjuevoc xfjc uXtic The Mutual Relation Divinities. Tap oCie bTniiioupTeTv The First God may not undertake creation. another side. But inasmuch as He is not only in relation with the Intelligible. But before we can run down ( ?) this relation (the Logos?) we must agree unequivocally about this point: that the First God is free from all labor. or. but about the First God. then we would have a suitable starting-point for our investigation. and should say that. Kttl d7TT€Tai elc ToO aicGriToO kqi Trepieirei. xov }ikv TTpuJxov Geov dpTov eivai ^pTUJV ^ujHTrdv- The Vitalizing Influence of the Divinity. and busies Himself with it. dKoOcai. ToJ GUV ^f) elvai TTpoc Tip voT]TUj fiXilv pX^Tieiv (r{yf tap av Tipoc dauiiu). Ka\ xxvn. TTpo jnevxci xoO Xotou dXiuceuuc biojLioXoTTiciujueGa fijuiv aiixoTc bjnoXoTiav ouk d|Li(picprixrici)Liov the heaven. dcpocioO)Liai jLiexei)Lii xe xd XexGevxa. and therefore the First God must be considered as the Father of the Creating Divinity. this (unity) is brought together with Matter. first granting his existence. ^TTieu^HTlKOV fjeoC ^XO^CTIC Kttl pCOUCTlC. xov bTijixioupTov bk Geov fiT€|LioveTv bi' ou- 9. inasmuch as Matter is full of desires. He comes into touch with the Perceptible. doiKuTa ein r\ Trpocoboc auir) T^TOvuTa av jnf) ToO X6tou* bk el bl Tiepi toO bTHLiioupToO ^criv 6 Xoroc. xal voiiiiZieceai ToO bn)LiioupToOvToc GeoO xpn eivai TTpoiTov Geov. we should conduct an investigation concerning the Creating (Power). 2lTiToOjnev Tiepi xoO TTpiJuxou. I retract what I said (out of religious reverence) and I will undertake to ferret out this relation (or Logos?) from .

'' alxiou x6 beuxcpov Oirdcxr]. then all this (animation) again is extinguished. and transplants in each of us that which has been sowed from there. xpn^cixa. fi|Lia)v NUMENII FRAGMENTA. The Divinity is Undiminished in the DistriTTOuc dtrd XXDC. A. however. and animation of bodies. the Divine is communicated. Now whenever the Divinity glances on any one of us.30 WORKS OF NUMENIUS. oia juexaboGevxa. A. and leaves the Giver. tov aurov Xotov fidXicrd kriv 6 toc Oeoc TTpbc tov bTniiiGupTov. riches. ID. and passes over from the one to the other. This beautiful process occurs with knowledge. ujvaxo 6 Xapujv. and turns towards us. (and) this occurs whenever the Divinity occupies himself therewith even only from ?. God as Cosmic Sower.. xxvni. distributes. th^re results life. toO irpilixou "How bution OF Knowledge to Men. and sows (himself) in all the (receptive?) things (of Matter) which are allotted to him. The relation ovia dvacpep6)nevoc. the Second (God) is Subordinated to the First Cause. it does not leave the Giver while being of service to the Receiver. |Li€TacTp^(povToc cic Tf)v lauToO TTepiujTrfiv ToO 6eo0 taO- Ta )Liev dTTocpevvuc0ai. But whenever the Divinity turns again towards his \yatch- BX^TTovToc ^ev ouv Kai dTTecipajninevou Trp6c Iy\v ^KacTov toO GeoO cu^palvel Tot ciu|LiaTa. as well as the Giver. but he gains this Govxa eK xoO bebujKoxoc. \6toc ecxi TeuipTiu Ttpoc tov cpuieuirpoi- between the farmer to the sower is exactly God and the (Becoming) -Creator. dTTiCTiiLiov xttuxi dcxi GepaTieia. by which the Receiver profits. For this (Second God?) is himself the seed of every soul. direX- Everything that passes over to the Receiver. distance. This can be seen when one candle receives light from another by cxaxo f] dvajLivrjcei. xaYMtvoic. tov be voOv lr\v piou eTraupojuevov tower. 'Ottocq bl boOe'vxa juexeici Tipoc xov Xajupdvovxa. xdKeTGi T€v6jLieva x6v ^Iv ujVTice. 16. r\c "Gcxi b^ xoOxo x6 )uev xaXov xpn^cx ^TTicxri^n b* KaAr. Oiov dv Tboic ilacpQiyja dqp' Ixe'pou Xuxvou 5* ll . this is the process with human and earthly gifts. The lawgiver (the Third God or Creator?) plants. ouk dTToXeiTiexai auxnc 6 bebwKiuc. not only does the Giver not lose anything thereby. evGevb' dxeiGi t€T€Vti- dvGevbe xe ouk direXriXuGe. or coined or uncoined money. vojiiic^a |Liev ouv Icxi GvTixd Kai dvGpuLJTTiva- xd be Geid ILie'va. When. ecxiv. xov b' oiJK e'pXaipe xai 7Tpocujvr|ce xf] trepi (Lv niri- further advantage. during the act of Giving. 31 the (divine Mind) is shed upon all who were appointed (or who make an effort?) to participate in it. KoiXov. is such as service (heaHng?). *0 jLiev that between the First fe tuv CTr^p^a ird- cnc MJuxnc CTTeipei eic xd lueiaXaYxdvovTa auToO xprmara HOuTTOvTa* 6 vojLioGeTTic be qpuxeuei Kai 9UTe\jei eic f]|ndc biave'iuei Kai inexa- kdcTOuc rd dxeTGev 7TpoKaTapepXTi|ie'va 29. the memory of his giving (or generosity). ''QcTTep bi TTttXiv 28. but the (divine) Mind itself tranquilly continues its blissful existence. t€ xai piu)CK€C0ai t6t€ KrjbeuovTOc toO 0€oO toTc dKpopoXic^oTc' bk. eubaijuovoc.

€ic dv9pu)TT0ijc jLierd (pavoTdrou tivoc irupoc XXX. cuvecri toi Xap6vTi f] auTrj. but its component Matter was kindled by the fire of the other. the cause of this process is nothing 18. Similar is the process with knowledge. because the Shaper of things as well as the Being which possesses the knowledge. 6cTic KaXeiTtti auTO 6v. ?xovTa. wisdom) had descended to humanity through Prometheus. likv *6Treibf] fjbei Everything is only Signification of Higher Things. That is also why Plato (Philebus 18) said that Knowledge (or. while. ujCTtep dv tic outu) Xetoi' unknown is called Self -existence. as with you and me. on the contrary. 6 be beurepou GeoO. Stranger. not marvel at this my statement. and salvation. bid toOto outujc emev. dXX' r\ 6ti iHic T€ Kai oucia ^xouca Tf]v dmcTriiLiTiv f] aurri dcTi Tiapd TC TUJ beblUKOTl 0€UJ coi. was entirely to them. SIXTH BOOK. 'Avti Tdp TTpocoucTic TUJ beuTe'puj Kivrjceujc. A. 6 be beuTepoc Tiepi b* el Td vorird xai ^ti Mr) Gaujidcric the Perceptible. WORKS OF NUMENIUS. '0 )Liev ouv TrpoiToc aicGriTd. dXXa iv auTuJ uXtic TTpdc to eKCivou irOp d^aqpeeicric* toioOtov TO X9W^ ^CTi xd Tnc dTTiCTriiLiTic. oubev dcTiv dv0pu)7Tivov. A. Trapa^^v€i iikv Tip bebuuKOTi. brmioupTov TiTVuucKOjuevov tov juevroi TrpujTOv 22. ui live. Gici b* ouTOi pioi 6 ^ev TrpiuTOu. 6 be beOxepoc kTi Kivoufievoc. as well with the Divinity. Xuxvov cpojc NUMENII FRAGMENTA. which gives (the Shaping element. I call that characteristic of the First God. Do tout' TTic lq>r\yf. eternity. on the contrary. 17. the Second is in motion. Philosopher: alone was known the First Mind. the First God is the Standing One. From this (First God) is shed abroad into the universe the organization of the world. as by a radiating light. are identical.i 32 . This is the manner of life of the 20. for thou shalt hear (of things) far more marvellous still. and that. AnXovoTi 6 ^^v I^TTttXw TTpujToc Gcoc ecTtti dcTu»c. T^ boeeictt Ktti XTi(peeTca hk. 5 jnf) 33 Tflc mere touch the fire was not taken away from the other. 30. TTepi Td von- Td. a standing still. and knowledge). Evidently. (SPIRITUAL INTERPRETATIONS?) 31. XXXI. which voOv. Salvation Streams from the Standing God. while the Second One deals with the Intelligible and tov Trpoiepov dcpeiXaxo. which by both giving and taking remains with the Giver. while passing over to the Receiver. that the Creator among men. who receive it. Tf|v TTpocoOcav (pr]}x\ TUJ TTpujTUJ CTdciv elvai kivticiv cujuqpuTOV dqp' f) fjc f[ Te TdHic ToO KocjLiou XeiTtti eic Kttl jbiovf) x\ dibioc Kttl fi ciuTTipia dva- Td 6Xa. ttoXu ydp GaujuacTOxepov dKoucr). The First God busies himself with the Intelligible. Liber VI. In contrast to the motion characteristic of the Second God. Since Plato knew. O Toutou hk to aiTiov. TravrdTraciv dfvoGiJjLievov Trap* auToTc. 6 TTXdTUJv Trapd toTc dvGpiuTTOic tov |li6vov. he spoke as if some one said: . an innate (motion). or rather. human. Kttl TTttpd Tip eiXtlCpOTl djUOl Kttl A16 Kai 6 TTXdTUJV Tf]v coqpiav u7t6 TTpo^TieeuJC eXGeiv l(pr\. 21. Philosopher: First and Second Gods.

irapd be €i For if the Second (Divinity) is good. sits high on the rowing bench. that it should not be injured nor broken up. Trap' dauToO. dpjuovia HuvbricdiuevGC. WORKS OF NUMENIUS. but not otherwise. So Plato taught the sharply observant (auditor) by is jLieTOuciac dcTiv ouToc dyaibc dTaG6v eivai. not from itself but from the First. KupepvnTric ^e'v ttou dv laecuj TreXdTei qpopoujuevoc UTTep TTTibaXiLuv uv|iiJ:uTOC ToTc oiaHi biiGuvei Tf]v vaOv icpelo- Hevoc. re dvfi loO ojujuaTa. then would it betray foolishness of soul to hesitate in the matter from whom the other derives its color and goodness. and directs the ship by the rudder. Tap OTaGoc dcTiv 6 beuiepoc ou TTpiuTOu. Kai TTXeovTi Kdruj f] 656c auTUj dvuj rfiv bi' oOpa- voO d7T€ici. is NUMENII FRAGMENTA. Outuj toi 6 TlXdiiJuv Ik cuXXgyicjugO T(|i 6Hu pXeTTOVTi dTTebuuKe. discernment) from the contemplation of the Divine. he looks up to the God in the height. XGnvai auinv. cuju- ticipates in him in nothing but in thought in this manner dv be iLioviu xili alone will it profit by entrance unto the Good. TTiuc oiov T€ u(p' Goc. Everything is Dependent on the Idea of THE Good. Creator adjust Matter. ojujuara be aOToO Kai voOc euGu toO aiee'poc HuvieTttxai TTpoc id lueidpcia. Now if this is to be found only in the Good. the . par- auToG id lueTicxovTa ev dXXui (ppoveTv lauTri dpa Kai Kai ific |li^v oubevi. t6 dYa66v 6ti dcxiv ^v. inc uXtic pXe'irei dpiuoviav be iGuvei laic ibeaic oiaKi^uJv. auT6c Tnc ibpuiai." .m 34 23. ( 32. toO biaKpoOcai. ^f] oij toO he (the First) not good. dTaGoO pdceujc 6vivaiT* dv. 33. voOv. Meiexei be Philosopher: Whatever in him. t6 be 6p^Ti- Tflc ecpeceujc. and he finds his way on high through the sky. he himself sits over this he (matter) as over a ship on the sea (of matter) directs this harmony (of adjusted matter) which sails along over the chaos. dXXujc re kov luxr] auToO dTaGoO ^exaXaxubv 6 beuiepoc. 6. heavenwards. according to the Ideas. and the impulsive (motion) from his desire (for matter. )nr|Te . who sails along in the midst of Philosopher: the sea. which older and diviner. Kaxd |ir|T€ edXaiTav outuj xai 6 dTTOTrXaT- bri|LuoupT6c Tfiv uXnv. Pilot. especially as the Second participates in him (the First) specially because he is the Good ? 8. |Liev hr] t6 cppoveTv oij toOto be cuvTeTuxnxe |u6vuj tlu ttpujtlu. while below he Similarly does the is faring along through the sea. is Mind but before this Mind is another one. ^T€poc TTpo TouTOu voOc TTpecpuTepoc Kai GeioTepGC. oOpavoO eic t6v dvuj 6e6v TTpocaTOjLievov auioO rd jiiev Xa^pdvei xe t6 tik6v dTr6 kpitik6v d7T6 ifjc Geujpiac. oiov UTTep veubc jnev UTtep lauifiv «^ em eaXdiinc. by the harmony. dpeXiepac av ein li^uxnc eii diuqpiXoTeTv. A xxxn. This thought is characteristic of the First alone. The Demiurge as Pilot. participates . his eyes and mind are directed upwards through the ether to the constellations. "O Men. XXXIII. A. 26). how then would it be possible that 7. ouk ?cti TrpOuToc. T9* ouv rd dXXa dTTOXpaiveTai Kai dfaGoOTai. edv toOto ILioviu eKeivuj |u6vov TTpocf]. 6v TOTTdZ:€Te ufLieTc 35 not the First Mind which you dimly perceive. "That the Good is One. the First). dXXuuc b' ou. his statement. directing So he derives the critical (power of his eyes upon him." dWd A. if the latter derives his goodness from participation with the (other. see Fragm. 'Q dvepujTToi.

and said that he was "good. that men are formed according to the Idea of Man. 34: Ou Tap diro ckottoO oTjuai kqi toTc 7T€p\ NouTf|v ^rjviov dbdKCi 'Obucceuc eiKova cp^peiv 'Ojiiiptu xaid . and to all the Demons who (should?) know that all the souls that descend towards birth have a hankering for wetness. and that those souls lived our death. *'QC7T€p fdp dvGpUJTTOl OUTUJ |Ll^V XeTOVTtti TUTTUjG^VTec utto Tf]c dvGpu)7T0u ibeac. TaOia hk outiwc ^xovra ^0r|K€V 6 TTXaTiuv fiXXr) 37 That this is so. as the Good-in-itself. but all on a ship. Likewise the Poet (Homer.36 34. ID. Even the Creator Dependent from the Idea OF THE Good. That is why Heraclitus said that "It was not death. dv b^ TToXi- T€ia TO dtaGov €17T€v dTa8oO ib^av. that. because he appears to us good through participation in the First and Only. GdvaTOV. For they believed Birth as Wetness. ibia av eiri 6 TrpaiTOC voOc. then would the First Mind. for if the latter is good only because of his participation in the goodness of the First Good. T€v^C€i 6vTac KttXeiv tov Trapo kqi biepouc toijc iv TioiriTriv. 35a. ujc qpriciv 6 Nou^rjvioc. yi. be its Idea (or model)." Similarly. he speaks of the "Idea of the Good." So the fall into generation was a delight for them. A. did the Egyptians (believe) that all the demons did not stand on firm ground. and cattle after the Idea of Cattle. eic XPH Tdc ijiuxdc fivecw KaTioucac* 6G€v xai |uf] 'HpdKXeiTOv vpuxTJci qpdvai Tepiyiv. Odd. This applies to the sun. luv auioaTaGov. as Numenius XXXV. kqi tov f^Xiov Kttl d7TXu)c TtdvTac. Gen. 2) said. fmdc tov dKeivuiv GdvaTov kqi lf\v dKcivac t6v f])LieT€pov GdvaTOv. Homer Should be Interpreted Allegorically. 201 ix. the souls hovered over the divinely inspired water. 43) named the (souls) which were in generation wet (dieros means both living and wet). xai 5XXr) x^Jpicac* •foO ibiq: }iky fap tov kukXikov im toO brmioupirj dTpdvpaTO dvTijLiaiuj emujv 'AtaGoc fjv. toCjc biuTpouc Tdc i^/uxdc libiup. for this reason. poec b* utto Tf\C pOOC. 6ti 7Teq)avTai fmiv dxaGoc ^€touCia TOO TTplUTOU T€ Kttl JLIOVOU. and the horses. dTTicpepecGai dirdvu) na. NUMENII FRAGMENTA. oiicTivac eib^vai ^TTiTTOTUiinevac tuj uTpiu. eiTrep icii jneTOuciqi toO TrpiuTou dTaGoO dTaG6c. d)c br\ toO bTmioupToO ibeav oijcav to dTaGov. Just as one says. uTprjci feyi- cGar T^pniiv b^ eivai auTaic ir]v eic Tfjv Y^veciv tttoiciv lr]yf dXXaxoO hi qpdvai. 35b. WORKS OF NUMENIUS. but an enjoyment for souls to become humid. — IXOVTac* Taic bi tujv qpUToiv Tpoqpf) to Cap. xxxrv. It seems to me also that the partisans of Numenius are not far from the truth in their assumption that in Homer's . dXXd trdviac Tdc em irXoiou.14)." Thus the Good would also be the Idea of the Creator. That is why the Prophet (Moses. because they had souls wetted through. seeing that water serves as nourishment for one part of the plants. bid toOto Xctujv kqi tov TTpotoO libaToc GeoO irveO- (pr|TTiv €ipr|Kevai. "The Spirit of God hovered over the Water. In another place he says that we lived the death of those souls. ITTTrOl b* UTld TTIC 17T7TOU IbettC* Kttl eiKOTUJC 6 bimioupT6c* ou.touc tc AiTUTTTiouc bid toOto touc bainovac drravTac oux kTdvai im CTepecO. Plato has expressed in different ways for in the Timaeus (10) he used the popular manner of expression. 'HtoOvto t otp TTpoci^dveiv tuj uban toc \\i\)\ac GeoTTVOiu 6vTi." but in his Republic (vii. says. so is it also probably with the Creator. after the Idea of the Horse. i.

(consisting) out of the First and Second God. 122. is NUMENII FRAGMENTA. therefore the Creator is double. qprjci. and thus has progressed to those who are beyond the wave and the infinite ocean (Od.. Numenius Unites the Super-existence with Existence. |Li^v NouMTivitu ouv Ktti . XXXVII." (Evidently) "sea" and "salt" denote. dve'pec cube 6' ctXecci o'i ouk icaci GdXaccav eibap ^bouciv. Numenius Distinguishes the First and Second Divinity. *05ucc€iav ToO bid xflc 39 the representation of a man who has passed through repeated generations (or incarnations). the (Numenius) . dTTOTOVOV. but the Third is the Created for it is better to speak thus. IcTi Geoc. the world is the Third God. TrdTTTTOv. TTopcpupiuj hi ^ova xd aicGtixd. and Descendant.. calls the First Father. for. And |LiejLiiY)Lievov TTdvTOC bk uXiKf) Ktti edXacca xai xXubuiv Kai irapd TTXdiujvi cOcTacic 36. eat no food mingled with salt. XXXVI. exTO- VOV. and the Third Creature. \xkv TTaxrip. Fore-father. KaGdTTep eviaOGa biiiov. to TO bk TroiriTric. lUTT* auTO Ktti jiei' auTo* .. according to his opinion. Inner Relationship Between God and the World. poetically. the Second Creator. Kpoviuj Ktti *A)LieXitu xai xd vor|Td xd aicGTixd Trdvxa jnexexeiv dpecKei tujv ibewv. asserts a double Creating Divinity. Numenius. Ktti Numenius.. 123) "Until you have reached the men who do not know Odyssey Odysseus eqpeHfic Ttveceuuc biepxoMevou xai ouTiuc dTroKa0iCTajuevou eic toOc IHuj Travioc KXObuJVGC xai GaXdccTic dTTeipouc. TO bk bTDLUoupTouiLievov 6 TpiToc* djueivov Tdp toOto Xeteiv f\ ujc iKeTvoc q)riciv ipafujbujv.. Nou)ir|vioc ixkv KttXeT tap TpeTc dvujuvricac Geouc Traxepa TTOiTiTfiv )li^v Tov TTpujTCV. than as yon (Numenius). who teaches three Gods. but the other Creator. Kronius and Amelius teach that everything that is intelligible and perceptible participates in the Ideas. 36b.. and (2) what stands be- . even with Plato. but Porphyry asserts this only of the Perceptible. to one Father. elcoKE Touc dcpiKTiai. 37. h\ hk TO Tidcric dHr]pTi)Lievov cxncewc cuvTaixei toTc neath and thereafter. According to him. Further does Numenius group together (i) that which is free from all difference.UJCie 6 le TTpujioc Kai 6 beure- poc Geoc. . . Offspring. The Cosmic Triunity. be Tov beuiepov.38 WORKS OF NUMENIUS. 36c. TTOiriiua be rov TpiTov 6 Tdp Kocjuoc KQT* ttuTov 6 TpiToc 6 kqt' auTov briiLiioupToc biiToc. . fi the Sea. xi.. material substance. briiLiioupTiKov.


Existence Itself Not Mingled with Matter.
X^TiA^MCV, ujc



Among all those who defend the birth of the Divinities, we may say that they either teach that Existence is not mingled with Matter, ... or that Existence is to its mingled with Matter, the mingling being limited
partisans dynamic (Powers), and energies, as teach the of Numenius.

TTepi bk dTrdvTuuv tujv KareuBuvovTiuv Tf|v T^veciv Oeujv



ouciav ^xouci

tt) liXr) cu)U|Lie)LiiT)ii€VTiv,

Kaedirep (pacxy 01 aixd





ouciav ^xo^c»v



ifiv uXtiv,

buvdjueic xal

xdc dvepTeiac dva)iej«iiTM€vac Trpoc auiriv,

ibc 01 irepi


The World

of Ideas


Located Within the


Second God.
as writes Amelias, and before him, only in the there is participation (in true Existence, not would the then Intelligible, the in also but Perceptible),



b* dic 'A^eXioc Tpdcpei, Kai Trp6 'A)ueXiou Nou^nvioc,

^^GeHic dcTi xdv toTc vonToic, elev dv eiKovec Kai Iv auioic


exist in the latter also.

Mutual Relation

of the Triad.
liuov Tdiiei

Noij^rivioc hi Tov fi^v TTpujiov (sc. voOv)

is relates the First (Mind) to that which of desire to the really alive; and says, that it thinks, out First, Second (God). The Second Mind he relates to the for the and asserts that it becomes creative out of desire (human) Thinking. third; and the Third he relates to the


Kara t6 8


iy TTpocxprjcei toO beuiepou voeiv,

TOV hi beuiepov xaid tov TTpujTov voOv xai toOtov av iv

toO xpixou


tov bk xpiiov Kaxd tov


Life. Life is Concatenation among the Laws of is thoroughly everything that believes who Numenius,


Nou^irivioc \xly
eivai dirXoOv.

mingled together, considers that nothing


ouv Trdvxa


old^evoc oub^v oTerai


The Problem

of Sincerity.

€1 \xlv Tpacp^iv uTTOTCivdMevoc 6

had undertaken to write about the theology of and then, in bitterness, had accused them Athenians, the of the Divinities, and their ^ncests discord of the mutual and of deeds of and devouring of their own children, Plato had vengeance of fathers and brothers;— if accusations, brought up all this in open and unreserved
If Plato


irepi xfjc



xfic tiIjv 'AGtivaiuuv

eha ibvcxipaxyey

auTfj xai KaxT]-

Topei ixoic) cxdceic juev irpoc dXXriXouc, tckvijuv b^ toiv



TU)V bi ebiubdc, tujv bi dvxi toutoiv TiaTpdci


them opinion he would ^^ave given another wrong, and to kill him,

dbeXqpujv t€ dbeXcpoTc ujuvoucr], Kai

dXXa roiaOTa.

then according to my an occasion to commit
like Socrates.


6 TTXdTUJV rauTi XapiJbv eic to qpavepov KaxriYopei,

retain life (Plato) did not indeed desire to that he might saw he as but truth the tell moi^e than to represented tell the truth so he live in security, and also Eutyphro, a boastfu and the Athenians under the form of the divinities as badly as foolish man, who spoke about he laid into the mouth teachings own his but else anybody in his genuine form, represented he whom of Socrates, person with whom every confute he was wont to



TtapacxeTv dv boKei

toic A0rivaioic aiiiav irdXiv KaKoTc


T€vec0ai dTroKTeivaci xai auTov ujcirep rov CuiKpdTTiv.
be b^
)Li^v lr\yf


ouk dv TrpoeiXeTO judXXov


dXTiGeueiv, ^lupa


le KQi dXriOeOeiv dcqpaXoJC buvTicojuevoc, e0r]Kev ev


Tuj cxniiaTi Tuuv 'AGnvaiuuv

xov GuOucppova, ovia dvbpa


dXaZova xai KodXejuov, Kai
auTOV bk Tov CuuKpdrriv

dXXoc 0eoXoTeT


he associated.

auToO t€ Kai iv

xuj ibiiu cxniLAa-


AS ReVEALER OF Mysteries.



dv iLrrep £iiu06TUJC fiXefXtv iKdcTUJ TrpocojuiXiuv.

the Among the philosophers Numenius was one of him announced to most eager for Mysteries. A dream because he had pubthat the Divinities were offended, He interpretation. by mysteries Eleusynian lished the garbed dreamed, namely, that the Eleusynian divinities house of ill tame; like prostitutes, stood before a public came to and as he was wondering how the Goddesses angrily answered had they attire, ignominious such an torn out of the that by himself they had been violently exposed for sanctuary of their modesty, and had been
hire to every passer-by.


Numenio denique

inter philosophos

occultorum curiosiori

offensam numinum, quod Eleusinia sacra interpretando vulgaverit,

somnia prodiderunt, viso


ipsas Eleusinias deas

habitu meretricio ante apertum lupanar videre prostantes,

admirantique et causas non convenientis numinibus turpitudinis consulenti respondisse iratas, ab ipso se

de adyto

pudicitiae suae


abstractas et passim adeuntibus prostitutas.

(See Phaedo, 77).

EnO'^. (EnOHTHS?)
'ATToXXuJva bdXqpiov vocant,

StrxMNed Etymological Interpretations.

quod quae obscura sunt clari-

he enlightens 'Apollo is called the Delphian because it in the demonstrates and dark, is what light clear with preNumenius as or, aphane: deloun clear light, ek tou

tudine lucis ostendit, dx toO briXoOv dqpavfj, aut, ut
placet, quasi



et solum.

Ait enim prisca

fers the one,

asserts, indeed, that in the
dicitur, quasi



and onlv. He and Greek language adelphos meant ^^^/y; .adelphos, brother, for word the from this is derived one. because he is no longer the only Retained in the Body as in a

lingua beXqpov 'unum' vocari, 'unde etfrater, inquit, dbeXcpoc

iam non unus\


The Soul


Prison, by Impulsive Passion.

TouToic xpu^nevoi toTc kovoci pabiujc bieXe'THo^ev,

easily be able According to all these rules, we will does the neither that demonstrate to G«^.^;g";JyJ^^ Phaedo ^6), as some prison (of which Plato speaks m (Crat. 43;Numenms says as passion, say, nor impulsive


ouT€ TdTa06v kiiv

(ppoupd, ujc xivec, out€ n nbovn,




The Soul

Tot cwjuara
tt] oiKeiot


Immaterial and Incorporeal.

nature, are (Because) bodies, according to their own and divisible changeable, inconstant, and infinitely evidently unchangeable remains in them, there is

(pOcei TpeTTid re

ovra kqi CKebacid


Ktti eic

nothing them, gather them, need of a principle that would lead we name Soul. and bind them fast together and this body of any kind of constituIf then the soul were a (an atom,) what would tion even if it were as small as we For faid that every body together? that hold then hold the body towould that principle needed some into infinity, until we should reach
gether, and so on the incorporeal.

dTTeipov T|ur|Td, juribevoc ev auioTc djuerapXri-

Tou u7ToXeiTTO)nevou, beirai xoO cuve'xovTOc kqi cuvdTOVTOc
Ktti ujcirep

cucqpiTTovToc Kai cuTKpaToOvTOc aurd, oTrep MJUxnv
Ei toivuv cuj)Lid dciiv
ti TidXiv


ipuxn oiov

br| TToie, ei



kii to cuve'xov eKeivnv; ebeixGn




beicGai xoO cuvexovTOC, xai outujc eic drreiEi be Xe'TOiev

which moved them certain tension inhered in the bodies, outward motion simultaneously inward and outward, the the inward motion while quality, and size effecting then we still would have effected unification and Being, motion derives from some to ask, inasmuch as every what does it consist force which is this force, and in sort of matter, we would 'if this force also is any

however one should

a say, as the Stoics do, that

pov, ^ujc av KaTavTr|ciu|Liev €ic dcuOjuaTov.

\xiM eic



ToviKr|v iiva eivai kivticiv irepi



eictu djua KivoujuevTiv Kai eic



xai xfiv

x6 iHuj jueTeBiDv xai 7Toioxr|xujv dTTOxeXecxiKfiv eivai,


be eic x6 eiciw ^viuceujc xai ouciac, epuuxrixeov auxouc,
xivoc ^cxi buvdjueiuc, xic
x\ f]


^Treibf) TTttca kivticic diro


need the same arguments.


if it

were not matter

^v xivi ouciujxai; €i jnev oijv Kai Guthrie: Numeniot von Apamea

buvajuic auxT]


ttujc evuXov Kai oux liXn. But no body is its food. ''€ti f] ipuxn ei )uev TpeqpeTai. dcuu)naTa 6vTa KaO' dauTd. ^|ui|. dcTi TO jneTexov ttjc uXtic. ou cu)|Lia' Trdtv ydp cujjia IvuXov.uxoc. But inanimate. then I iov what if it were only material— or something different from matter. matter then it surely is all bodies are material. no it is material. be of triple we have to answer that would then body. the soul both animate call to nonsense it would be sheer the soul is no body. 6ti trdv \Jikv cu))ua Tpixn biacTttTov. that by chance it case in be considered as tridimensional ipuxn b^ Ktti oXou bir|KOuca toO cuj)LiaToc. iroTepov cl )Li^v dpa f liXri kqi quto ei duXov. and therefore in the whole body. that because bodies have Penetrates Xe'Toiev. outuuc oijv Kai ijiuxr) Kae* ^auTfiv |nev TtpocecTi to dbidcTaTOv.^5^7. Tpixn biacTaTUj ovti cuvGeujpeiTai Kai aurf) "Gti irdv ctDfLia moved from within or Further. j. ei ei )li^v ^'HtuGev ki- ^vboBev. Were the soul animated. bid toOto TTdvTujc Kai cuj|Lia. every body is either then is it ^nammate without. bi* oti toc cu)|aaTa Tpixn biacTaTd kTi. a is dimensions that has' three are incorporeal. ei be €i hk cuuiua n vi/uxn. then must extension. ou cujjLia TpecpeTai. dTOTTOV bk. n lHuj9ev KiveiTai n €vbo- eev dXX' ei )Liev eHajBev. be oux duXov €i bk. irdv be cajjua Idjov n ^f^X^' . olW" IvuXov (eT€pov be ecu to IvuXov irapd ti TTOTe f| liXnv TO Tap jLieT^xov liXnc IvuXov Xe'TeTai). only cal v\r] TIC ^Ti.46 as such WORKS OF NUMENIUS. ctpa. Kard cuiupepriKoc bk Tuj ev lb ecTi had happened into something tridimensional. as ^t three dimensions. and NUMENII FRAGMENTA.^ But if it body this was the deduction of body of every living being is fed. then is not fed. a then it is animated. however. Therefore inanimate.uxov. ou irdv be to Tpixn biacTUTOv cOjfLia. may and quality. Kai TO IjLiipuxov Kai to diyuxov Xe'reiv Tnv M^uxnv* ouk cai)na f] dpa H^uxn. are sciences the for incorporeal. Xenocrates. which in themselves reckoned quantatively cert'ain circumstances be non-extensive migh is itself in which Ukewise the soul. utto dcuuindTou Tp^qpeTai. KOTd Tfj ir cu^pepHKOC iv ofKLu TiocoOTai. if the soul is fed. for body. liXri. then is without. ^poO|Liev. and the also is the soul no body. from if from without. Kai Sng fdp TO TTOCov Kai TO TTOiov. and then is it fed from the Further. xai also the soul. i%^^-"-.^^^^ again ' and still not be it be material f^ ^-'f\^^^}'^ If then it is im immaterial. . f\ Should it be said. Tpixn biacTaTn. dipuxoc dcTiv be ^vboGev. ei be duXov. but if from within. ToTc auToTc TrdXiv xPnc6)a€0a XoTOic* be Trjv we DUX viXn.^^^ material that which only Is it itselt participates? then is this in which Matter If it matter? not or matter. is the soul no also therefore fed from the incorporeal. it but if from within. ^ oijv liXri. ^)lii|. voiTO. dvaTKaiuuc dipuxov ecTai. three has body although every For quantity body. a be case any yet not everydimensions. is 47 ei Zaurial participates in ?^at|^^!7^. Tpixfi biacTttTr) ecTi. then it s it moved from were and body. UTTO Td ydp |Lia0n|aaTa Tpeqpei auTnv oubev cuijua f) be ciujua dcuj|LidTou TpeqpeTai' ei ouk dpa be jLif) ^f^X^' (^€vo- Kpdrnc ouTUJ cuvnT€v)Tp^qperai.

dXXd Kai 01 ttgXu dTTibeiHdjuevoi tvnciujc cpiXoco9€Tv xai (piXaXriGiuc ^KTieecGai id eic aurouc ibc dv (pGdcavia. ai Kai tuj inc reve'ceujc dcpdpui Geuj Athenians to the separation of the more beautiful souls. it is it asserted by those who call the soul a number. has been the statement of many Greeks not only of such of whom it might be suspected of such as that they were indulging in myths. to the (Neptune). Nou|Lir|Viov (ad Plat Numenius. NUMENIUS TELLS MARVELLOUS That men have. 01 ibc ^^v dpiGjuov auifiv eiTTovrec eK jnovdboc ttgioOciv geometrical figure. . p. 26. ToiaOia Ktti b' dv^TvtujLiev trapd tuj CoXei Xpucittttuj TUJ TTuGaTopeiiu Nou/iriviiu iv tuu beuieouj of the Soul. and divisible. insist that it consists of a point and of two the divergence (either a locus and the divergence which of circle) a radius of the and centre or a lines. Indestructibility. story Only 'AiXavTivujv Kai 'AGnvaiujv iciopiav dva- Several of the Atlanteans and the TTeVTTOuciv) eic ipuxiuv bidciaciv KaXXiovujv Kai xnc 'AGrivdc Tpo<pl^uJV Kai T€vecioupTiJuv dXXujv. Tujv bk Trpo fmu)v ol jLiev Before those. Such have we read in the works Chrysippos of Soloi. and the other creative souls. €ici U ToO ^ev djuepoOc. StORIES.— indefinite doubleness (manifold) as something Others. NUMENII FRAGMENTA. The Legend refer the of the Atlanteans Allegorical. . who conceive of the soul as of a XL VI. 26. 49 incredible and improbable experiences. 'QpiYevnc b^ TTeirXdcGai )u^v ^ere to binTniua kqI tocoOtov T€ cuvexiupei toTc d|a9i tov Tim. at times. who |naGr|MaTiKr]v TroioOvTec rriv ou- ciav Tnc ipuxnc ujc |necnv xiuv t€ <puciKujv kqi tODv urrep(puujv. TTapdboHa hi TrpdriuaTa toTc dv0puuTToic e7Ti(paiv€ceai rroie kqi tojv '€XXiivujv icropncav ou )li6vov 01 u7TOvori6evTec ^uGoTroioOvT€c. in the second book of his treatise on the XLV. fiev TTpoiepac *ApicTavbpov KOI NoujurivGv Kai dXXoi TrXeTcToi iiliv dHriTnTUJV.48 45. the divinity which presides Thus does Numenius explain it.01 b^ ibc T€U)jueTpiKfiv uTTociaciv oucav Ik crmeiou kqi biactddM€picTOu ceujc. whole story is an invenp. who are related over birth. Origen asserts that the companions of tion and thus much did he grant the TTpocriKoucr Kai Icn ttjc dHnrnceujc Tauxnc Nou)nr|vioc. and the Pythagorean Numenius. Aristander. that of the consists of unity. and relate the truth of what has of pened to them. experienced . 01 7T€pi boHnc ific be jnepicTfjc. Km rfic dopicrou budboc ujc ^epiCTnc. and the second divisible. 01 bk (ifiv 7T€pi 47. as something indivisible. but also philosophy on carried have they that demonstrated have actually hapseriously. TTcpi is dqpGapciac H.uxnc. first opinion are the partisans of and the majority of the expounders. inc bk beuxepac CePnpoc XLVII. 2 1 A). The Soul Explained Mathematically. 46. earlier than we have attempted to some explain the nature of the soul mathematically as medium between the natural and the supernatural. which receive their life from Athene (the goddess of wisdom). however. Of the the first is indivisible. of the second opinoin is Severus. p. WORKS OF NUMENIUS.

the West is the abode of harmful 62b. toioOto 01 Guovxec euxoiVTO. and of 61. TiTTicTttTo "Ojuripoc TTOVTipouc Tivac bai)uovac. WORKS OF NUMENIUS. and magic sculptors. LXII. TOTTOC dcTi bai)Li6vujv kqkuutikOjv. em be xauTTic 5v Kai Baujudceiev Numenius. Soul-struggle before Incarnation. iivi tu)v Evil Demons Delight in Sacrificial certam remember having read in the book of a I the hidden expoundmg was he where Pythagorean. bibdcKei.avTi TTOiriTrj ev uTrovoia Tiapd tuj XeXeTjueviuv. XLVin. Tct 51 ciepea cOOjiiaTa rdc ipuxdc KaieXGeiv tto- Xe^ov Tiapabibujci iiuv oOc Trj ijiuxil'v irpoc touc uXikoijc bai|uovac. All in All. on xd toO Xpucou TTpoc toy 'ATToXXiuva eTTiTTeiLicpGeic Kai 6 a on 'AttoXXujvoc toTc "€XXt)ci Xoijuoc. 64. Pythagorean Numenius we read the of books the In of (Serapis). and the plague Homer knew down upon the Greeks. iirei who are of western a struggle with the physical demons behef of the nature inasmuch as. divinity not only by the see that he was erected into a mysteries. 'AveTVUJ|Liev bk irapd Nou|LiTiviui tiD TTuGaTopeiiu Tiepi Tfjc Numenius KaracKeufic auxoO. prayer o meanings of the Poet (Homer). MeVvrmai be Tiapd irepi tu)v ing from that of Numenius. their of others as answer to The Smoke. were proofs that in sacrificial smoke delight who demons. dvaeTrri. xctipoviac TttTc Kviccaic Ktti TttTc 0uciaic. that before the The<^e theologians and Plato teach go through descend into material bodies. tions. ^CTi ific oiriceuuc 6 q)iX6co(poc TTopqpupioc. evil certain of them the ruin and who. evoke means that by their incantaevoked demons the sorcerers. Porphyry. with the aid of profane by magicians and also but demons. of whom we would be he asserted any teachmg differvery much surprised Of LXIV. as reward to the sacrificer. 48. souls bOcei TTpocujKeiujcev Kai r\ bucic. Egyptians. ibc ^Xctov AiTUTTTioi. Porphyry follows the Teachings of this opinion is if dv TIC el eiepa Xe^ei Trie NoujHT]viou Trapabocewc. according to the demons. The latter formation the of a description being of everything that the in was said to participate animals and plants. that the which Apollo sent Chryses to Apollo. they must TTpiv hi €ic NUMENII FRAGMENTA. the (philosophers) locate in the divisible soul the Demons. LXI. grant prayers. ei ^icGouc dTrobibovai toTc Gucaci Tfjv dxepiuv 62a.ecGai Geoc dXXd Kai UTTO ^dTUJV Kai cpapinaKujv Kai tujv diiiubaTc auToiv KTlXoUjLldvUJV baijLlOVUJV. So one could is produced by nature. intelligible whole OiTivec KOi iv TT) MepiCTfj vpuxrj tov voriTov k6c|liov koi Some GeoOc KOi baijiovac kci TdyaGov xai TrdvTa Td irpecpuTepa . TTuGaTopeiuiv dvaTpdi|. and the Gods. as Vulgarizer of the Serapis Mysteries. Tvouc. ibc dpa TrdvTtuv tiuv utto cpuceuuc bioiKou^ievijuv M€Te'xei ouciac Zitbiuv xai q)UTUJV iva boHr] jnexd tu)v dieXecTUJv TeXexuuv Kai tujv KaXoucOuv baijuovac jaaYTOtveiojv oux WTTO dTaX|LiaTOTroiujv inovuuv KaTacKeudZ. the world.

and everything that deserves reverence. Kai xauinc ifjc b6lr]c dva|i9icpr|Tr|Tuuc juev dcii Nou)Lir|vioc. likewise do they assert that all is in all.ujfic Ktti id dvepTrnuaia cuvdrovTec. think otherwise are KaTaT€ivovT€C. an External Accretion. XLIX. 01 ^kv etc €ibTi Ktti cuvxaHiv xai juiav ibe'av id id |u6pia TTic Z. viov is Km 'ApTTOKpaxiujva. but others. Life is a Battle. its nature. Ipyov xe Km d7T0xeXec|Lia. Km iv auToTc roTc TTXaTajviKoTc ttgXXgi biajiiiav CTacidZiouciv. like Numenius. but that its power of presentation is a casual consequence. dtro jli^v xnc liXric Noujunviou xai Kpoviou TToXXdKic L. 51. not its function or result. like Plotinos and Porphyry. 50. hi xfiv cufKaxaGexiKfiv buvajiiiv TiapabeKxicu|Li7Txujjua Numenius. All Incarnations are of Evil. ^v auTfj dvibpuouci. Presentation a Casual Consequence of the Synthetic Power of the Soul. strive to conceive of it. 896. Some of the younger (philosophers) do not make this distinction. Nou)Lir|vioc Kf|V Ln. NUMENII FRAGMENTA. OuK ^Xoviec b^ CKOTTOV biaqpopoiriToc eic xauTo cuTXeouci b' eivai irdcac biicxu- Tdc dvcuj)aaTiuc€ic tujv 6Xiuv. Trj vpuxr) 896: Tu)v and Kronius. Tuiv V6iJUT€pujv Tfjc oux ouTUJC biaKpivouciv. Evil as p. ujCTiep NoujuriviGC biicTajLievuuv TTpoc ine'vuiv Of those who Numenius b' au toutouc xai diro ruuv tHuuGev 7Tpocq)uop. who says that the synthetic power (of the soul) is receptive to energies. for some. comprehend the forms and the organic parts of life. and biacpep6vTujc 01 nepi Kp6vi6v xe Km NouMr)- Harpocrates. in*'€vujciv |Li^v Numenius seems to teach the unification discerptibility of the soul with its source. they confuse indiscriminately the incarnation things. djcauxujc Trdvia eTvai dTToqpaivovTai.a/ ^ WORKS OF NUMENIUS. and namely. 53. ujCTiep TTXujtTvoc tc kqi TTopqpvJpioc 01 be eic |udxnv TaOra 49b. and the oijv Km xaOxoxrixa dbidKpixov xflc ipuxnc 7Tp6c xdc dauxnc dpxdc Trpecpeueiv cpaivexai Noujurivioc. and the energizings (of life?) into a single system and idea . Numenius. xai ^v ttocciv 53 Good. dvepYCiuuv q)r|cac eivai. Ktti companions of Kronius. The Soul Indiscerptibly One with God. ou paKoXouGri|na. LI. but this is in a manner such that each thing is in each in a manner suitable to Of this opinion is undoubtedly Numenius. Kaxdc piZ:ovTai. who think that evil is somehow added or grown to from the outside. oiKeiujc inevroi Kara rfiv auiujv ouciav dv ^KdcToic. and assert boldly that they are all of evil. as a battle. 49a. lafiv auxflc (pr|civ eivm tto- x6 cpavxacxiKov. dXXd . 7TpocTi6evTiuv 6ttujco0v to kokov. and especially the Tivk bk. but a by-product. "Hbri Toivuv Even among the Platonists many differ. As they possess no distinguishing characterof all istic. from Matter.

uxui»v eic feveciv Kaxioucujv. than the . f]|idc Ktti |Liev dXXoi]. most distant and highest of the planets 6 aiTOKepujc d7Teb60r| [fJYcuv Kpo- (Saturn). aiTOKepuuv 01 GeoXoTor )Liev TTXdTuiv hk buo oij CTOjiiia eqprr TouTUJV be KttpKivov eivai. bi* oij dviaciv dXXd xapKivoc popeioc xai KarapariKOc. 6epiv6c KQid KttpKivov. still is pole winter-tropic. Immortality of the Forms of Matter.uxou thing. through which souls deasscended. among whom is also Numenius. h\ Kaiiaciv ai u^uxai. 55 "AXXoi be. For Plato asserted (Rep. Some. x. Souls. (They hold that) in the heaven there are than the extremities there being nothing more southern summerwinter-tropic. others. Tou hk dvipou eiKova q)e'povTOC Nou)Lirivioc kqi cufupoXov 9r|ci loO kocjugu Numenius and his companion Kronius consider the the Cave (of the Nymphs) an image and a symbol of two World. NuMENius Assumes Two Soul-functions. Capricorn The northern opening is to the south. and descending.iiac not assume Others. that of Cancer. dTTO xfic XoTiKfjc li/uxrjc dxpi xflc dv|. ir\y ^ev XoyiKriv. and ascending. 54. Obv kqi Nou|ur|vioc. irrational an and one. . the three parts of the soul. the summer-tropic being that of Cancer. to the soulless forms of ^Heuuc dTra6avaxi2ouciv. do name y. buo T€. because the latter inasmuch as the southern is nearest to the earth. represent as immortal everyfrom the rational soul. thmk that we rational and the irrational parts but they one. aifOKepiuc be voxioc xai dvapaxiKOC* Icix hk xd ^^v popeia n. earth. 2 2'. Tf|v dXofov fiKf|v djuqpu dGavdiouc. jIiv buo eivai dv oupavuj dKpa* ouie voiiuuTepov ecu tou x^i^e|li^v pivoO TpoTTiKoO. the Cancer and the Capricorn. VLu] Kttl cap. 55. a Stoic term). Kai TTpocTeiOTaTOC \xhi uiv fijuTv 6 KapKivoc euXoTuuc Tij rrpoc- Yeioidxr] ceXr|vr] d7Teb60Ti* dq)avouc b* exi ovtoc tou vo- TlOU TTOXOU tCN lUQKpdv ^Tl dqpeCTTlKOTl TTXaviJU)Lievujv TrdvTuuv Kttl dvuiTaTUJ tlu TlIlV cribed the 22. for the souls that descend to birth. 13) there were two openings. not f| NUMENII FRAGMENTA. only the rational. or at least two. WORKS OF NUMENlUS. ouie popeidiepov tou Gepivou* Icix b* 6 tropic. inorganic nature {ov habit. and the Because the tropic that of Capricorn. ou xpia |Li^pr| n^uxflc |. are two gates. through which they cended. like Numenius. dXXd buo vpuxdc ^x^iv hk. but of Capricorn is astropic the to invisible. buo ouv Tavjxac eOevio TruXac KapKivov That is why the theologians asserted that Cap. Cancer is northern.54 53. "Oxi 01 \xh/ LV. a Some of these again consider both immortal. rational have two souls. Allegory of the Cave of the Nymphs. ai|Liev YOKepujv be'. it of Cancer is in the greatest proximity to the was very properly ascribed to the moon. LIII. and that of Capricorn. in reality these two. . LIV. 6 be xeijuepivoc kqt' aiTOKepiuv. ibc NoujLirivioc. 01 be Trjv Xo- dGdvaxov ktX. nor more northern. Kai 6 toutou dTaipoc Kpovioc. TO XofiKov oiovTai [ujCTTcp u)v TtdXiv 01 Ktti dXoTOV.

ctvbpa ttgXXlD KpeiTTOv bin- Numenius Allegorizes out of Hebrew Scriptures. and Numenius.'* 57. an ass. "every soul is immortal. FRAGMENT (SEE 11-17. as in his treatise On the Initiate. is assumed by Plotinos. and in those about Numbers. who permitted to be misled by some expressions of Plato 51) said. '€TUi b* otea Kai Nou|ur|viov. V. So thought Numenius. Lvm. iracav vpuxnv xu)- picinv ciwfiaToc eipriKaci. 11.56 WORKS OF NUMENIUS. when he speaks of a wolf. and the himself vegetative. and has interpreted them allegorically in a not improbable manner. and who placed confidence in Pythagorean teachings. eiTTOVTOc dv Oaibpiu. ^nceibiujv TTXdTUJVoc. the itself. ujcirep iv tiD KaXoujuevui "€110711 Kai dv toic Trepi dpiGjuijuv Kai i\f toTc Trepi tottou. and become assimilated to the irrational creatures. 'AjLieXioc xai Bori06c Ktti (In contrast to an allegorical interpretation of the Platonic teaching of Metempsychosis. 6vov. Kai 6 TTiGriKoc auToTc ouk ctXXo toOto kqi 6 kukvoc ouK dXXo F| KUKVOC vojuireTar kqi tap anb toO ciLjuaToc KttKiac djUTTiTrXaceai Tfiv ipuxnv buvarov eivai Xe'Touci Kai Toic dX6T0ic dEeiKdrecGai- ip roOv uj|LioiiueTi. CONCERNING SPACE.) HEPI TOnOY. that when Plato speaks of a kite. and Hkewise.rraca i^iuxn ^Qa- vaioc. For they assert that it is possible that the soul should fill itself up with badness from the body. aXXri dXXo Ziujov UTTObOca. Tujv hk xwjpicifiv eipriKOTUJV 01 \xhf 57 All Souls are Immortal. LVI. 9€peTai. and Space^ . TTXujtTvoc toOv Kai 'ApTroKpaTiiwv. the irrational. AND PLATO. NUMENIl FRAGMENTA. KaTd toOto other into the other animal. kqi Tr]v XoriKriv xai ifiv ctXcTOV Ktti Tfiv cpuTiKnv oloc fjv Nou)Lirivioc TtXavneeic oitto rivtuv who {Phaedr. some declare that it is from the body. ings expounds utterances of Moses and the Prophets. Nou^riviGc Tov TOO TTXdiujvoc iktivov TrapaXaPoviec Kai tov Xukov XOkov xai ovov tov f| IktTvov TTapabiboaci. Amelius. Harpocrates. LVII. he means nothing else than a kite. a monkey. 56. to whomsoever it has assimilated this. Process of Human Degeneration. a man who has supremely well interpreted Plato. or a swan. Tncdjaevov TlXdriuva Kai TtuvTTueaTOpeiiJuv boTjadriuv ttictcucavra. in Phaedo 70). TIMAEUS. Among those who have spoken of the divisibihty of divisible the soul from the body. But I know that Numenius. the rational. to it does it strive and the one enters into . TToXXaxoO tuiv cuTTpaMMaTujv auToO ^KTie^jnevov Td Muiuceiuc Kai tuiv 7Tp09TiTa»v xai ouk diriedvojc auTd TpoTToXoYoOvra.— in many passages of his writ58. it Boethus.

VI. ciple that we call soul. their form. 25. iiiuxnc OUCTIC E NEMESIO LXVI. . 14. lujv NoujLin- 60. the philosopher of Asine.. containin. are naturally subject to change. 44-57. this is the unifying But if the soul also is material.. 7Toiou|uevoc rdc eTiipoXdc Tov cO^TTavTa fj . 46. LX. elprj/xepa. KoLvfj fi€v ovv 77/309 TTOLVTa^ Tov^ XiyovTa^ a-cofia TT^v ^vxrjp^ dpKeo-CL (See Fr. f\ lov TeiwjueTpiKov dpiGjuov. crct. AND PLATO. 6 ^k Tfjc 'Acivnc (piXocoqpoc." XewTOfxepeo-TaTov^ tC ttolXlv icnl to (TvvexoviKeLvrjv. oirep Et tolvvp acofid icTTiv rj ^VXV^ >^€yofiev. was veiujv XoTujv djLicpopTi0€ic KaivcTrpeTrecTepov toOc Trepi ttjc MiuxoTOviac bUGriKe Xorouc. On the Immateriality of the Sottl. dreams about with the teachings of Numenius. irdv a^fia heladat SyjiroTe^ el TOV o-vvixovTo^. vide Numenii Fr. aura.58 WORKS OF NUMENIUS. busying the birth of the soul in a rather original makhimself with letters. Geobopoc hi. XapaKiripujv Kai tujv TTOieTv (Tf)v diTro tluv Tpamndrujv xal tujv dpiGiLiajv. 44-57-) oppose the arguments of Ammonuis. dv tiJ> ovoMaii inc . Perhaps Numenius Taught Pythagorean Numerical Cabalism about the Soul. to nothing unchangeable. inasmuch as the group soul. what could contain the soul herself. however subtle be the matter of which she may be comhave posed. since we just seen that all matter needs it? and to infinite divisions.) HE PI API0MiiN. ATTRIBUTED JOINTLY TO NUMENIUS AND AMMONIUS SACCAS.^ /cat ovt^ ets aireipov^ icjs ap /ca- TavT7](r(0fjL€p cts acrco/iaToi/^ . (SEE FRAGMENTS lo. Pythteacher of Plotinus.2: material. that prinbind and strengthen their parts. 44. tiTTac . gf the name itself in the . /cat xffvxff olov The same until we arrive some principle to contain process will go continuously to infinity at an immaterial substance. . koX kol <TvyKpaTovvTO<. and numbers number out of the ing the universal or geometrical of seven finds (fourfold^ soul. TerpaKTuv). He spins manner. 59 ABOUT NUMBERS. 66. TIMAEUS. ii. . to that of all those who claim that the These are the reasons: "Bodies. dpi0)Li6v . VII FRAGMENT FROM NEMESIUS. NUMENII FRAGMENTA. permeated Theodorus. "ESeixOrf yap. They inevitably pOV TflTJTa^ fMTjSePO^ aVTOLS afJL€Ta/3XT]TOV VTToXct- TTOficpov^ Setrat (oa-irep (TV(T(f)LyyovTo^ tov (TvvTi64vToq koX crvvdyovTo^. Ta acoixaTa ttJ oi/ceta (^vctTTCt- TpeTTTa oma /cat cr/ceSao-ra /cat €1/ StoXou eU may need some principle that may contain them. and those of Numenius the It will suffice to ra irapa "AfificovCov tov StSao*- KciXov UXcjTLVOv^ Kai ^ovfi-qvLov tov UvOayopLKov Elcrl he TadTa- soul is agorean. . De Natura Humana. dissolution.

(See Fr. WORKS OF NUMENIUS.6. 69. Aco /cat TOLS (See Fr. 8.) numThis is the reason of the saying. 42. 4» n iii. 4.8. Enneades y*S. (See Fr. 'its destruction (especially) at times when they LXIX. iii. 5. Enneadcs v.) said that ideas are essences Numenii Fr. LXVIII. REFERENCES FROM PLOTINOS. Pythagorean Theology of the Cosmic Genesis. v. 15-17. Numenii Fr. 70. Enn. Enn." E PLOTINO LXVII. 2.3» 7-) Let us examine the opinion that evils cannot be de- €Lpr]TaL cV rrjs dopCcTTov SuaSos /cat " tov €vo<. Enneades i.) among That is why the Pythagoreans were accustomed. Numenian Name for the Divinity. 6. 17. 2. vide 1. 1 1. Evils Are Unavoidable. "The ideas and and the bers are born from the indefinite doubleness. v. 68. to refer to this principle in a of manicalHng him Apollo. E7n<TK€7rT€op Se^ /cat t/at ttoj? Xeyerat. v. also i. 16. which name means a denial foldness. 4.3. but are necessary. i6. . NUMENII FRAGMENTA. 61 Derivation of ''Apollo. 15-17. Enn. tScas ovra eXeyov eTvaL ol irakcuol Kai ovcrias. 20. ^1^ ai/ aTroXccr- ra Ka/ca^ aAA cti^at eg auayKT]s. That is why the ancients and beings.7. (See Fr. 67. 17." for this is intelligence. elorj /cat ot apiO^ioi • tovto yap 6 vovs^ 4 foreiend stroyed. Enn. 6. 20. vide Numenii Fr. 8. TO.60 VIII. 5. each other. symbolic manner. vide One . vide Numenii Fr. 42. Enneadcs v. I OOep 7r/>09 /cat AiroWcDva ol TlvOayopiKol (ru/ui/8oXt/ca>9 aTTOc^acrct tcov aXXiyXous io-qfiaLvov^ ttoWwv^ LXX. 8. 5.6. i.4. Aio KoX .

ouk dvejueivav Trj dpHdjuevoi be an' eKCivou. and the (teachers) did began with Plf «. ciuZiovTec tiu nXdriuvi xard -i On the Epicureans should but they understood them their master so scrupulously. on' Hn TTdv eiraeov re kqi ^bpiuv. Td be br\ tivi airia dXXii ouk dqpiXoTi)ULU Tcujc. some more emained almost the same.u^v dtbeX(piboOv. Kai ou ^ev pouXojuai ti cpXaOpov emeTv bid EevoKpdTT] MdXXov unv uTtep nxdriuvoc eGeXiu. CTreuciTTTrov tov TTXdTujvoc . Although they all left Xe>ujva be tov €KbeHd|H€vov rfiv cxoXnv Tiapd EevoRpdrouc. Kal ydp ^e bdKvei. however. '€m M^v Toivuv Ho- differently and was Later. ^r\b* ttu) auToTc eineiv ^vavriov oure dXXriXoic oure 'eTriKOupu) Guthrie: Numeaius von Apam«a 63 7 ^ .' ^v€Kd re Tfic ^riTTUj eTTOxnc tquttici Tnc TToXuepuXriTou re Ktti ei bri Tivujv toioutuuv dXXiuv. ou MevToi icu)c oube cpXauporepoc eKeivou.^TouTo bk 01 *€TriKoupeioi ouk ujqpeXov ^ev. and Why the HEPI THS TiiN AKAAHMAIKiiN nPOS HAATiiNA AIASTASEiiX I. OUK djaeivujv ju^v ' ^3. surely the great Pythagoras. and 1. some more fw^J^ Pn ^^^ men like is not to ^ppose 2. hey all radition. 'ETrei eic ye Td dXXa ttoX- even out of ambition. Epicurus of doctrine the from unanimously remained Wise-man. Plato's nephew. but to save the honor not prefer to suffer did they that indignant makes me save their agreement Tnd do Tny and^ll things. juaGovrec b* ouv ^v oubevi ju^v ujcpGncav 'Ettikoupuj evavTia Ge'^evoi ouba^uic. to have highly esteemed . (L cuvaKoXouGoOvTec cecpGevrec re oi TvujpiMOi erevovTO TToXuTijunTiCecGai aiTiiuTaToi TOV TTuGaTopav. 6MoXoTr|cavTec be eivai cocpoi cuvbeboTjuevoi kqi auToi bid toOto direXaucav rfic Trpocpnceujc eiKOTuuc. Xenocrates. OR HISTORY OF THE SUCCESSORS OF PLATO. WHY THEY DIVERGED FROM HIM. however. character of the teachings school from Xenocrates. did not yet and judgment" of "reserve of the exist. TTdvTtt TTdvTTi TTdcav ojuoboHittv. rates his successor. but also have followed and deserved it of them. -evoKpdTTiv be tov bidboxov toO CTreuciTTTrou. Successors of Plato diverged XenocSpeusippus. My object. Under the over took who Polemo. that they should had good reason have also would honored him and they Pythagoras. Even among the later ^> great necessity that the contrary. l^or it of Plato. or unconsciously and sometimes him.ous teach. nothing that diverged and it was evident that they taught 1 hey agreea in any point. TTXdTujy. kqi edrTov kqI ppdbiov bucTavTo TTpoaipecei f| dTvoia. there was no have preserved the teachings of KaiToi dHioc nv auToTc 6 TTuGaTopou tou jueTdXou. because the the like. much was declared not remain with the firs twisted. Plato. and therefore were fully Epicureans it was an his name. Xaxn TrapaXuovTec. merely to was not better than (with Plato). rd b^ CTpe^XoOvrec. I. the "otor. TTpuiTri biaboxrj- 2.62 WORKS OF NUMENIUS. FIRST BOOK. true the that he was justified in bearing with him. I. del TO fjeoc biereiveTO tujv boTjudTUJv cxebov ti toOtov. from Him. who though he probably no worse. TirnpHe T€ iK TOO erri TtXeTcTov toTc iLieTeTreiTa 'ETTiKoupeioic.

and . but beheved that he accordance with the all these expressions on chance. in oppinion which happened to have the upper hand with 6. '0 be TTXdTujv TTuGaxopicac y\ (rjbei bk tov CtuKpaTtiv kolx Plato. will ever remain Stoics. and (exercise?) themselves argument that is difficult to refute. For it was the latter who especially exceeded the others. Ktti ings from Socrates. 5. 01 bittKouovTec TOUTO jn^v nTv6ouv. 01 b' r]b^ |Li€Tae€)Li€voi. ibiot bk 'AvTiceevHC. and apparently. Kai KaieTVUJCTai to xaiToX|Lia. and faulted them for being busy. were disagreed. and they each other nor Epicurus in any material it is forconsider it an infamous piece of outlawry. It is with preference over any hold disputations. dp£d)Li€va dTTO tiDv Ktti iLiTibeTTUj dpx6vTUJV TeXeuTUJVia Kai vOv. The cause was that Socrates asserted expresof three Gods. 6tou xai Mvncefivai d£iov ctXX* ^ctiv 65 auToTc neither understood thing. AiTiov be. him 7. at the time. from the very leaders. In the School of the which. Some have remained already introduced in the ancient teachings. dcTaciacTOTdTr]. that they indeed. koivov ^va voOv. TToXu Me'vToi toutujv Trporepov Taurd iTTaGov 01 dTTo ibiqt |li^v bodies and quibblers. any promote to bidden teachings have of them dared such a thing. none Consequently. and others. the existence 6. they such. and later TtoXXfic juev toic TTpoxepoic. innovation. 'EXeYXOuci bk 01 lue'v dTaiTuiVTWc UTTO bucjLievoOc iXifxoVy iivec auTUJV ^MMeMevTiKOTec In. piKoi re Ktti *epeTpiK0i f| e! Tivec dXXoi laerd toOtujv. \ir]heyf eic NUMENII FRAGMENTA. each in his own manner. who method) knew followed Pythagoras (in teachings or that Socrates had derived his teachings Mn^aMoGev eKeiOev bid rd auxd TaOra eiTreiv re Tvovra 7* .— Aristippus. beginning 4. oi bx] eic biacrdviec uirnp^av ttoXXtic bk e'Tepoi Touc neieTTeiTa dXXnXoic changes. however. But CujKpdTOuc dcpeXKiJcavTec biaqpopuuc touc Xotouc. mqWov bk dce'PriMa. AuToi Tap outoi touc ^repouc UTtep^aXXo- M€Voi JLIUJV Trj re TroXuTipaTjLiocuvri toic tc CKapicpTi0|uoTc ineTx- GdTTOV. has not ceased yet. MH^tv. did not understand this. Sttuuc ttv^oi. Id bk Tiuv Ctujikuuv eciaciacTai. aixioi. howsions suited to each single auditor. the Mega- dXXaxoO ibia 01 Meya- rians. ^cov- TQi q)iXaK6Xou0oi. 'ApicTiTTTTOC. CiujiKUiTepor kqi ^dXXov ocoi TrXeiov irepi to rexviKOv oKpOTicav MiKpoXoTOi. successors. the Eretrians. 5. others have Even the first were similar to oligarchs. because they properly unanimous. others especially those who disputed about and were petty. eice'ii it was really their fault that the [ifjc] €TriTi)nr|ceujc ItIqwv even Stoics criticised the earlier ones so much stoical than more be to claimed some that to the extent externalities. iIiovTO be Xexeiv iravra auTov eiKri Kai and xnc viKiucric aiei TTpocTuxuJC dXXoTC dXXric Tuxnc. ^xoucri dcp* y\c fjcav xai eici xai. 6ti TpeTc Geouc TiGeiuevou CiuKparouc kqi cpiXococpoOvToc auToTc iv toic TipocriKOuciv ^KdcTtu puG)LioTc. 7. Kai bid toOto oubeic oub^ be eiprivTiv auToTc T^pejueT aiei ttotc cujuqpujviac. in ditthis fate far more overtook those who teachferent ways. Kara TroXXfiv id boTMaia urro inc dv dXXr|Xoic f] voTOMnOev. The School of Epicurus is like a who have administered state in which there are no parties were genuine the same thoughts and opinions hence. |niav TVWMnv 4. GiEaciv oijv ol TTpujToi 6XiTapxiKujTepoic. derived his . TTapavojurma. Antisthenes. uttered ever. that they should contradict point. and philosophized about them in His auditors.64 WORKS OF NUMENIUS. XiT€i(ji "GoiKe re 'eTTiKoupou biaxpipf] tto- Tivi dXTiGeT. has ever reigned discord. and those were always always remained unchanged. ibc ^oikev.

cure (But he taught) built himself his own system also. Now. eiiuGoTuuc ouie be eic to 67 from no other person. f| hx\ 9poOboc dvabpajieiv boKuj 6bou Tflc qpepoucric. therefore. iiiri dKeice.66 WORKS OF NUMENIUS. his members suffer. auioc be aiiiav irapecxe a|Lia ttic ^ei* auTOV CTdcedbc le q)86vuj \iiv. security. grant that. and agreed with him eipnKevai) a)be oiiv xai auioc cuvebncaTo la TTpatiLiaTa. return to the original point at issue. NUMENII FRAGMENTA. we must now Tnv Yvu)|inv. so I will now return to my theme. Kai auTO toOto. at the beginning. entirely. Ktti ujCTtep il dpxfic TTpo\j0e'|Lie6a x^JpiZleiv auTOV 'ApicTOTeXouc Kai Znvuuvoc. ''Oc vOv juaviKuuTepov TTevGeT Tivi TTpocfiKe bieXKOjuevoc Trdcxei |uev Kaid \xi\r\. (as indeed we are going to try to do here). toO be TO KOjLiipov toOto Kai TiaiTVifjiLiov dvaTaTtuv dTio rfjc eipujveiac eic d£iuj|Lia Kai 6tkov. The it Iliad of Arcesilaos and Zend. ^TTiKpuH^diLievGc toO bfiXa eivai Kai bfiXa. nor did he make his teachings very clear. Plato seemed more popular than Pythagoras. II. Kai TTOu dvaKpoucGuj^ev Tf^c I . however. outuj Kai vOv ific 'AKabriiLiiac. as it is not my professed object . originate in malice. dcqpaXiIjc m^v dTpdu^aTO. because he stands in the midst between them softening the greater severity of the one to philanthropy. and. but he treated each point just as he thought wise. from which I seem to have wandered far. but he himself thus became the cause of the subsequent discord and difference of opinions (This discord therefore) did not about his teaching. ToOto be xpn MaGoviac r\\xac dTreveTKeiv eKeice ludXXov Having understood this. just as it was our purpose. Divinity. dm dvbpdci TTpecpuTepoic eiTreiv 8. "Ottujc ouv dvf]p jueceuuDV TTuGaYopou Kai CuuKpdTOuc. from irony to dignity and reputation and this he accomplished specially hereby. for I would not utter any inauspicious words about men of ancient time. to differentiate him from Aristotle and Zeno. TOUTuuv oucTic vuv Kai elfLii ir\Q iTiTriceujc. is il 6Xou dauToO ineTaTiGeiai re Kai dvTi)LieTaTi6eTai bajuOac. leaving it in twilight. g. that he mingled ToO \xhi TO ce^ivov uTtaTaTtuv inexpi toO (piXav0pu)7TOu. Kai bioXKfjc tOuv bofindTiuv. x^Jpi^^ovrec ddcoinev auiov e(p* f| ^au- We ToO vOv eivai TTuGaTopeiov. torn as he ddv 6 Geoc dvTiXdpriTai. toO jaev br||LioTiKu)Tepoc. in his real nature. bd TipoubeboKTO jlIGi. we shall have to differentiate him now from the Academy. 2. ou cube ye bucvoia* dXX' ou PouXojaai pninaTa ouk dvaici|Lia. qpavepov biaYaxibv be eKacia bi )necLU 6TTr| )uif> evomJlev. lest I stray from the right road. and more reverend than Socrates. 'AXX' OU Tap TOi Taura \xo\ biairricujv iiXGov. toO bd cejuvo- Pythagoras and Socrates. in his writing. half way between He did indeed thus attain clearness and unclearness. more lo. Kepdcac CujKpdrei TTuGaTopav. oXoc b* ou- with greater ferocity than a Pentheus. with the aid of the 8. neither in the usual manner. or envy. No one however attempts to restore the whole body. But was not my object to investigate this minutely. he was a Pythagorean. ''A \xr\ Ttepi 10. and raising the mockery and jocularity of the other. Tepoc ujcpGr|. shall.

and contradicted himself and rolled hither and yon. successors of then with [*olemo. Nuvi be auiuj XeXo- 6t\ KQi CxiXTTUJVoc T€ jncTe'cxe xai tujv Xotuuv tOuv *HpaKX€iTeiujv. F| Aiobiupov. Polemo were Arcesilaos and 11. by the fluency of speech of a Plato. hiding under his cloak vitriolic Pyrrho. On the other hand. iLv utto |naxnTr|C. Pyrrho also. and through Crates he became a Cynic. utto bl TTuppuuvoc Kai i'lric Kai oubevoc. vi. biaXeKTiKoO 6vtoc. XeTTioXoTiaic Touc XoTicfLiouc Touc TTuppuuvoc Kai t6 CKeTTiiKov KaiaTTXdHac bieK6c)ur|ce Xotou beivorriTi irj TTXdTUJVoc qpXrivaqpov Tiva xai ^eTCKuXivbeTTo KaiecTiufAuXfievov Kai IXeye Kai dviAcTe . and Diodorus further . For while they (Zeno and Arcesilaos) were fellowstudents of Polemo. TicGuj. impudent and independent of all. He asserted. and that he busied himself with the teachings of Ilcraclitus. TTpocGe TTXdTuuv.It was concerning him that circulated the ribald saying: ("Like the Chima^ra of Theognis. Pyrrho behind. on all sides. . of strife from it that people * * Xapdvia qpnci irepi auToO* "There he comes running. and at last became a Cynic. auGic b^ Ttapd KpdiTiTi Kuvicai. Combining the quibbles of Diodorus. ludccoc Aiobujpoc. 69 ^YtvovTO Tvuipifioi 'ApKeciXaoc xai 2r|vujv TtdXiv Tap auTujv |uvnc0r|co)uai ^m xe'Xei. eiTTep ye br| qprici Timon asserts that he also derived love Menedemus.1^. 'GTTei Totp cuMqpoiTuuvTec Ttapd TToX^)nuJvi dcpiXoTiiur)eic ifiv Trpoc Gncav dXXr|Xoic. T^ fui^v IxwJV Mevebrijuou uTTd CT^pvoici ludXupbov f\ or Oeucerai. they became jealous of each other and ui their struggle (Zeno) used Heraclitus.C8 11. 6 b* 'ApKeciXaoc GeoqppacTOV koi Aiobiwpov. • m The influence of Krantor made him an adept Kai KpdvTopa tov TTXaTuuviKov TTup^ptuva. WORKS OF NUMENIUS. The I NUMENIl FRAGMENTA. he was) "Plato in front. 14. 14. persuasion. the Platonist Krantor. TTepi 13. Arcesilaos made use of Theophrastes. and so perfected himself in sang about him. Zr|vuuva M^v oOv M€)LiVTiMai eiTTibv EevoKpdtTei. Diodorus. KuviKoc hk UTTO KpdTrjTGc icxei. by associating with Krates. TiMUJV bk Kai UTTO Mevebrnuou to dpiCTiKov dHapTuefivai. with the sceptical expressions of Pyrrho he made of himself a vain chatterer. utto AiodTeveio TTavTobarroc bu'jpou bk co(picTr|c. eiia noX^jLiujvi 901- incai. Kai iXlfejo auroO dbojaevdv ti ^ttoc TtapdYu)- Yov Kai uPpiCTlKOV. I remember that I said that Zeno first studied with Xenocrates Zeno. (Lv utto m^v KpdvTOpoc TTi0avoupTiK6c. 1 2. ottiOcv TTuppujv. i8i Dioe ^' Laert. To this we must now add that he was an audUor of Stilpo. nu(5^uiva t6 TTdyKpeac. Diodorus made him sophistic. and Diodorus in the middle. with the leaden ball of Menedemos. 12. iv. through the influence of Pyrrho he became Protean.— the inrtuence of Stilpo making him eager for battle. 13. TToXe'inajvoc bk. Stilpo and Krates as allies. utto bk * M^v CtiXttujvqc dT^veio 'HpaKXeiiou aucTti- poc. through the influence of Heraclitus he became obscure and severe. shall return to them at the close. who was a dialectician. elra . just as it happened TaTc oiiv Aiobuupou. cu^TiapeXapov 6 ^i^v dXXnXouc ladxnv 'HpdKXeiTov kqi CTiXTTiuva djua kqi KpdiriTa.

which cut itself in two. 6tt60€v tuxoi TraXivdTpett^tt Kttl 7TapaK€Klvbu- would become like a wise man. more obscurely than was permissible. That is the reason his auditors were disposed to accept his teachings. oti jLUiTe ti f| xaXov. oubev nirov 'ApKeciXaoc nTVoeiTO. T€vvaToc ujv* eiid TTUuc eHepaivev (cap. whether among the Trojans or the Greeks. NUMENII FRAGMENTA. oube fe nHiou dvbpoc eivai beHioO oubajLiujc. or many-sidedness. for he knew that in itself nothing v\^as either shameful or handsome. vi. To Tap €va xe Xotov xai rauTOV ttot' eiTreiv ouk ttuj man. and at the same time rash. "QcTT€p Tcip oti "GiuTTOucai iy toTc (pavrdciuaci toTc tojv Ktti XoTuuv UTTO TTapacK€uf]c T€ rjieuev. He terrified and confused. as he was of noble lineage. Just as the Furies. diLicpoTepa dXXriXiJIuiv bucKpiTuuc xai tou beovTOc dcKe'TTTUJC. untrustworthy. dKaiepiueev. or guided it in prepared (paths). for he claimed that he himself knew nothing. because his speeches came from a beautiful mouth.70 WORKS OF NUMENIUS. It was not in him to say the same thing twice. bi' ocuuv KarecKeudKei. and was cut in two by itself. ToO re ei 'Ojuti- piKoO Tubeibou 67TOT€poic iLiereiTi dTvoou)Lievou ouxe Tpuu- civ 6jLuXeoi ouT€ €i Ktti 'AxaioTc. through the resources of knowledge. . and were accompanied by friendly glances. TOC KQl buCKplTOC KQl 7TaXi)LlPoX6c T€ 71 to suit him. at diflferent times diflferently who 'beivoc coqpiciric. dTU)LivdcTUJV cqpateuc'. good or bad. He assumed a marvellous appearance. ifotoijc oubev elyev eibevai ouie auToc oure dXXouc ebei)LidTou be kqi KaieGopupei. 6|liou tt) dKpodcei euTTpocujTTOv ovTtt 6eiu|Lie'voic' fjv oijv dKouojuevoc xai pXeTTOiuevGC nbiCTGC. diTei Te Trpoc€i0ic0ricav dTTobe'xec0ai auToO Touc XoTOuc iovTac dTT6 xaXoO ttpociuttou tc xai CTojuaToc OUK dveu Trie iv «roic ojUjuiaci q)iXoq)pocuvT]c." 2. dXX* orroTepov eic Tdc ipuxdc toOto aij0ic jneTapaXiuv dveTpeTrev dv irXeovaxOuc 3. i)'he KdKeTGcv KdvieOGev. as to hear him. indeed. nor did he admit that such could be the case with others. like beautiful and ugly) in . fjbei. kolx cocpicjudiiuv fe kqi KXoTTfjc cpepojuevoc XoTwv Ktti id TTpiIiia xaiexaipe Tip oveibei. jLieXeiric eqpdp^aiTev. as little could one tell that of Arcesilaos. and his training. alcxpov f| nPpuveTO 0au|LiacTU)c. he took a malicious joy in the defeat of his interlocutors. Just as it was impossible to see on which side the Homeric Tydides was. Then he would turn it hither and yon. dvnv iv auTUJ. he insisted that (the moral quality of a thing depended) on the manner in which it was conceived by anybody. a manner hard to differentiate. ti. or to remain with a single assertion. so that his plays with words gave him great apparent breadth. ttXtiv toTc dKOuouciv fjpecev. 6. a fine voice.— for it was as great an enjoyment to gaze at him. if only he pleased his auditors. he did not even believe that this was the part of a worthy V€U|U€voc. ^ctv. and while he took the medal for twisting words from their meanings. ''A Hence he was mighty sophist. for neither did he have any element of definiteness in his knowledge. and a handsome appearance. indeed. was unstable. did he bewitch and throw spells with words in his sham fights. utto CKiarpa- (piac Td)V XoTUJV TravTobaTroc 7TecpavTac)Li^voc. ""Hv oijv ubpav Te|Livujv ^auTov kqi Tejuvojuevoc u(p' explaining both (opposites. He had. was hard to interpret. 3. ^auTou. during the battle. 'QvojudZieTO oijv called to toioOto tujv slaughtered the undisciplined. recalled his own expressions. Therefore he was like an eel. |Lir|Te oijv dTaGov TTe'coi f| xaKOV kTi eiTTiuv.1) 6)ioioc toTc eibociv. Then again (Chapt. 2. oubev T€ €ibiuc iLc auToc ecpn.

AexGeic ouv dv im tujv Huppujveiwv Huppiuveioc. aiboT TOO ^pacToO uTrejueive Xe'TccGai 'AKabTiMaiK6c cti. 4. 'Hv M^v Toivuv nu^pujveioc TrXfiv toO ovcjiiaToc. i'va |ufi TipdrMttTa ^xn. dvbpi irpduj ^ti ouK dcpuei Td epujTiKd.72 4. uiMiXnKUJC bk nOppujvi (6 bk nuppujv ^K AriMO- So (Arcesilaos) received KpiTou ujpMTiTo probable. and because his love of strife made him rebellious he associated also with Diodorus. he had dealings with Pyrrho. • TrdvTujv dvaipecei. 73 AeT hk TaOia dKoOcai CuMpaXuiv rdp ^v juf) dTrXujc. He therefore was a Pyrrhonian. attack distinct teaching out of fear of the followers of Arcesilaos enunciated bk OUK fjv TTXfiv TOO X^T€cGai. and associated with him. in all regards. remained with all 67T6eev T^ TToGev) xfic oOtoc Mev bi] ^vBev KaTapTuGeic. npo dauToO Tfjv ^tto- ToOt* ouv i^\h ou TreiGojiiai. ^eia- cxujv M^v Aiobiupou eic rd TteTravoupTrmeva TTiGdvia TaOia Td Ko^iiid. but NUMENII FRAGMENTA. Ou Tdp TieiGoMai toO Kvibiou AiOKXeouc qpdcKOVTOC ^v xaTc dTriTpa90)Li€vaic AiaTpipaTc Theo- who made it and did not scruple to discredit ^!'^^ Arcesilaos therefore was on hltZZ^''^^ Tl' his guard. For Diodes of Knydos. as they themselves also were inasmuch as he abrogated truth. 'AKabninaiKoc fT^ no dorus and the sophist Bion. Arcesilaos and Zeno. oia be ifiv qpOciv ouk dcpunc. kindly man.1 hat is why the sceptics Mnaseas. This (attractiveness) its however. Trj TrXfiv Trpocpnceiuc dve'jueive TOppiuvi xai things. must not be con(wider effects) must be expounded further. who hides himself within his own black 'ApKeciXaov cpopuj tujv Oeobiwpeiujv te kqi Biujvoc toO coqpicToO dTreiciovTujv toTc cpiXococpoOci xai oub^v 6kvouvtujv dTTo TiavToc dXe'Txeiv. who derived his scholarship from Democritus. Further. a business to Tl the squib. in his book en- dvaipoOvia Kai auTov to dXriGec xai to H^eOboc Kai to iriGavov' 6. sidered so simply. and (it was from these associations) that he learned his deceitfully convincing subtleties. Ktti Traici GeocppdcTUj. who. and that like philosophers. he associated considerably with Theophrastes. lest he fall into some perplexity. As he was still beautiful in the time of his bloom. WORKS OF NUMENIUS. 6. Mnbev m^v boTiua UTremeTv cpaivojuevov. dXX* e^cxev iLbe il dpxnc. ujCTrep bk TO ^A€Xav Tdc CTiTTiac TTpopaXecGai Xnv. and except l^yrrho in his (teaching of the) abrogation of 5. bid TO KaXoc eivai ujv ujpaToc Tuxuiv ^pacToO KpdvTopoc toO 'AKabnMaiKoO Trpoc€xu)pnc€ Mev TouTUj. As he was not lacking in natural talent thereto. 7. djucpoTe'poic CUJUTTOXe- . While he was still a boy. and what was' ocritus?). he found in the Academician Krantor a lover. the false. 6 re 'ApKcciXaoc kqi Znvojv. and made use of this superhcially. UTTO TUJV ToiouTiuv dpiuTiuv. out of consideration for his lover (Krantor). also instructions from (Demfor the name. Proceeding with . a mild. who was not opposed to love. and of the academicians he had only the name. UJCTTCp aUTOl fjCOV. 5. yet he allowed himself to be called an academiaan. Oi b' oijv evGev dqpopjLiTiGevTec. uft/^'^l titled Entertainments" insists that Although he was called a Pyrrhonian by the Pvrrhonians. started out ^' from thJvfrhnnl'lf^P the (school of Polemo) but forgot it. Tpexoucr] XPncdMevoc auirj ^abiqt. aOrov ^HeuXapn3evTa. GepjaoupToc utto cpiXoveiKiac. Mvace'ac yoOv Kai (DiXojlitiXoc mi Tijuujv 01 CKeTTTiKOi Kttl CKCTTTIKOV ttUTOV TTpOCOVO^drCUClV. Philomelos and 1 imon call him a sceptic. without bearing that appellation.

and disputed his whole teaching. TTJc pdceujc auToTc ceicGeicnc. 447-9. 131. and fighting with such weapons. cuv b* efx^a Km lueve* dvbpujv XaXK€o8uupr|KUjv dtdp dcTribec ojucpaXoeccai "GtrXriVT' dXXr|Xrici. Tnc jLi^v 75 ibpiiiri- methods (Arcesilaos with the Pyrrhonic. 472. and Zeno with the Cynic). Kai KaTnTopei dpEdjLievoc diro tujv ibeiuv. he did not sufficiently know Aristotle himself. eiTiep )Li6vov ev ti lueTecTpeipav dTio toO opou toO I shall it not elaborate this further here. . oux 01 bvjo. |Livric6r|- eirdv For as this Kephisodorus saw that his pupil Isocrates was attacked by Aristotle. dTVoou)uevoi f) rjcav dXiIivai buvaruuTepoi. dXX' 6 'ApKeciXaoc tov Zr|viuva. but shall re- KaTaXnTTTiKTic qpavTacittc dqpeXovTec. *'evGa b' an' oi)aujYn xe xai euxujXfi ireXev dvbpujv 'OXXuvTuJv T€ 8. TeXeuToiv eic Td dXXa. 9. iv. eTToXe'iuei )uev 'ApicTOTeXei. dpxn larib' rjv TTXaTUJviKd definition of the (doctrine of the) incomprehensibility of XefovTac auTouc eXeTHar to be exeiv Tivd dcpopjurjv. tov bibdcKaXov auToO ^ev 'ApiCTOTe'Xouc fjv djuaGric Kai dTTeipoc.74 different WORKS OF NUMENIUS. beginning with the Ideas. let which shall be devoted to (Now us return to our two fighting cocks) the They separated publicly. The bossy shields strike together mighty noise arises. had it been demonstrated to them that their teachings did not agree with those of Plato and that they would lose their footing* were they to have changed even in a single point their 8. *lcoKpdTTiv eiupa. and he assumed that Aristotle philosophised according to Plato. II. co)uai b' aijGic. (inflicted) by Arcesilaos. They separated. Kopuc Kopuv. ttgXuc b' 6pu)naTb6c opiupei. shield strikes against shield. AiacTdvTec b' ouv eic to cpavepov e^aXXov dXXnXouc. only that of Zeno. measured each other. oinGeic KaTd TTXdTiuva tov *ApiCTOTeXr|v qpiXococpeiv. 'H ^ev bf| ei |Lir|Te dpxnv exoiev to juf) jurixe MdxecGai dcpopjuriv. vOv auToO )uev ouk ecTi fUTivueiv juoi ev Kaipuj. '0 ydp Znvujv eixe br| ti Trj judxr] cejuvov kqi papu Kai Knqpicobujpou ToO pr|Topoc OUK d|ueivov 6c bx] 6 Knqpicobuupoc. when he was in — battle. ^ouvTUJV XoTujv. dvepa b* dvrjp 'GbvoTTdXii^ev. UTTO be toO KaGopdv evboHa Td TTXdTujvoc urrdpXOVTQ. irepi Tflc presentation. KaTd toOto judXiCTa yevecGai laeXXuj. but hit Plato. Then arises sighing and moaning of the killing and dying men !'* dpxnc oGev ex TToXeiuujVGC Gricav eTriXavGdvovTai. without knowing them sufficiently. S oub* auToc ^bei. TU)V Ktti 6XXu|Lieviuv Ctuuikoiv 01 *AKabTi|LiaiKOi ydp ouk dpdXXovTO utt* auTujv. but wounds were not the lot of both. they forgot that they originated in the school of Polemo. dXXd Td vojuiZiojueva dja9' auTiuv rj XexeTQl UTTOVOUJV. the lances met. bore a grave and reverend aspect and his experience resembled that of the rhetorician Kephisodorus. ''Oirep turn to this. 9. biacTotviec be ye Kai cqpeac auTOuc dpxuvavTec Cuv b' ePaXov ^ivouc. That is. iv. e^aXXe be TTXdTUJva. *Ac7Tic dp* dcTTib* epeibe. For he saw that the teaching of Plato was well reputed. . fighting with each other (Homer. and the forces of men. taking his conception of them from the popular estimate of them. helmet against helmet. fiXicKovTO be. inexbx] utt' 'ApicTOTeXouc PaXXo^ievov eauTOj . For they might (easily) have been conquered. of the Stoics. so he antagonized Aristotle. man downs man. for they did not attack the Academicians inasmuch as they did not know how much easier (than the Stoics) they'might have been upset. in another place. armed in metal. For Zeno. 450): "shield struck shield. and fought each other. xiii. NUMENII FRAGMENTA.

11. As it is. TTXnv oijTOC )Li^v )Lif| 77 Kephisodorus fought with him whom he did not at all wish to antagonize. ^r|T€ 6v flbei ttXtittuuv. op- posed the doctrine of the incomprehensibility of presentation. id jnevioi TTXdTUJVoc dTVoujv. edv cpiXococpiac cxoXfiv driw TTOie ^levToi dTdTOiMi cxoXriv locauxriv. but he certainly did not know Plato. so would the former. he turned the "wide open jaws of war" so that they glanced off from himself on to Plato. But as Zeno was weaker. Kal laOia ttoXu KdKiov fi irpocriKei Kuvi. ncuxiav drujv. icujc ttgu ^jligi Kpirrj TrXeicTou jn^v ^vcKd re ttic eipnvTic xauTnc. Tujv eipriceiai TTXdxujva KaKiLc T€ Kai aibriinovuuc oubaMojc veuurepiceevjuoi aijeic 7tot€. 13. was famous in Athens. HVTicGfivai* Tfjv ^xuJ. he did indeed cease the struggle with Arcesilaos. irpoc be tov rOjciv 6vTa TTXdTiuva dcKia)Lidxei Kai thv and . for the sake of peace. ^^v TUJV dXXuuv d €iTe ^jnejLidxnTO keivuj.) He fought with the shadow of oubev ^bei vuv auTUJv TO be boTjua touto auToO irpuuTOu eupojue'vou. But (I do . had not undertaken to antagonize Plato. 'ApKeciXdou ^X^v. and yet did not wish to suffer wrong. this might not be the time to record them. perhaps he did not know Arcesilaos. so he attacked his teachings trines . if he. KauTO Kai TO ovojua PX^ttujv euboKijuoOv ev Taic 'AGrivaic. dTreibf] toO *ApK€ciXdou ^eQiero. "Htoi rdp QTVoia tiuv dKeivou n beei tiIiv CtujikiLv 'TToXe'iuoio jut'Ta dXXri €ic TTXdTiuva. and he was not willing to speak out. ou buvdTioXXd av eiireiv Mevoc dbiKelcGai. I will treat of them at some time. have behaved as a true philosopher. when I take a rest from Philosophy but. TTXfiv biebeiH^ fe ^f] ^eTaXocppocuvr] dTTOcxojLievoc ToO 'ApK€CiXdou. dXX* OUK ouK^Ti dv rjeeXe. because he saw that this doctrine. who had certainly not deserved it at his hands. perhaps I know but little and if I did know more. As to the innovations which Zeno introduced into the Platonic doc. Trdcr) Mnxavrj ^xPHto in' avTY\v. Kai Tiepi icujc eiTTcTv ujKvei. i^&xeio Ktti Oj T^oX€^€Tv dpouXeTo. ctomo TreuKebavoTo dTTeTpeipaio 'AXXd Kai Trepi juev tujv Zr|vtuvi eic ' most irreverently. 10. WORKS OF NUMENIUS. touc Trap' dKeivou dva9€po- M€vouc XoTouc Kaer|p€i Kai oubev 13. and antagonized him with whom he did not wish to fight. u7t6 TTaibidc. ei b' ouk dTvoujv id 'ApKeciXdou. (So he started in a different manner. and remained silent. which was first taught by (Zeno). Now as Zeno gave up the fight with Arcesilaos. and he injured not him whom he should have injured. or out of fear of the Stoics. except as a joke. So this NUMENII FRAGMENTA. 6ti dTToincev dvaviia kqu- Toc. br| d }xkv ^ribe TTXdTujvi ^TToXeVei. As Arcesilaos recognized in Zeno an opponent who was worth overcoming. inoXluei ^i\ |nax6'0 juevioi Zr\vujy auToc. ibc ^2 tLv auTiIi dvT^Tpavpev ^Xerxeiai. as appears from his anti-Platonic writings. 6 Kncpicobuupoc ip M€voc. out* know that Arcesilaos) by every means in his power. '0 b* ^v TiD. regardlessly. though he had much to say. as well as its name.! 76 10. and worse than any dog. 6v le ouk dxpfjv dTijuoTaTa kqi aicxiCTtt TTepiuppiKiuc. 11. Tov b* oijv Zriviwva 6 'ApKCciXaoc dviiiexvov kqi d£i6viKov uTTdpxovTtt Geupajv. juev aqpiero. 12. according to my judgment. dcGevecT^puj ujv. dtpiXococpei dHiujc. Kai KaTaXtiTTTiKfiv (pavTaciav. Concerning the other points about which they fought. €1 jLin Mn toutou toOv ^V€KeV. This (anti-Platonic polemic) proves that he did not leave off from Arcesilaos from generosity for either out of ignorance of his teachings. Tdxa be ludXXov dXXiuc. may I never have leisure for such a purpose 12. eixov. while he treated Plato. in the most disgraceful manner.

or lack of slaves. as Plato could no longer defend himself. of Lakydes. WORKS OF NUMENIUS. 7T0T* \xx\hl dxpncTov TOuvavTiov 6(p0fivai dv. oub* dTTopia boOXujv. and as no one had any interest to appear as defender for him. could hope for approval. indeed. for he would thus have distracted Arcesilaos from himself. It was. As he was his did not consider it necessary to carry 2. urrepbiKeTv le auToO ctXXuj oubevl MeXov eiie jiieXriceiev *ApKeciXdtu. oub' dXXujc oi xpwMevoc. and everything else of the kind he did with his own hands. ToOto be ^bei Ktti 'AraeoKX^a tov CupaKouciov TroirjcavTa to cocpicjua^Tri Touc Kapxn^oviouc. Td hi u7T0Te>vujv. and resembled the proverbial econom1. and not out of poverty. iy b* ok hi XeTwv rjv KaTaTreirXnTM^viuv. that the tyrant Agathocles of Syracuse had employed this trick against the Carthaginians. if it had not first been approved by the (persuasive?) Arcesilaos of Pitane. bebeiTjuevov )ur|T* ttiuc toTc t6t€ ponents were overcome. The Comic Experience in like to tell a rich story III. Stoics listened to all these polemics with amazement. 3. He himself selected what he needed. t€ utthpxov boOXoi 2. circumstance. overwhelmed by his oratory. and ridiculed him in every possible way. for even at that time their Muse was no friend of graceful philosophical disquisitions. Ta|uieuujv Tr]v juev Tdp auToc dauTUj. for he had as many of them as he desired. Oi Ctujikoi hi UTiriKGuov ^KTTeTTXnTMevoi. *6tuj be 6 uTTecx6)uriv [t6 f]bu] biriTncoMai. By means of such. 14. iLc out* av toO TTXdTUJVoc d)uuvo|uevou. dv0pu)TTOic iJTTfipxe \xr\hlv elvai ouv ^ttoc jurJTe Ttdeoc MnTe ^pTOV ev ppaxu. indeed. or even the smallest deed. €1 Ti \xr\ 'ApKeciXdtu boKcT tuj TTiTavaiuj. uTTOCKeXirujv KaT€TXujTTi2:eT0 auTOuc xai TTiGavoc ToiTapoOv TTpoc ouc ^^v avT^Xeyev fiTTUJ)Li^vu)v. agreed by his contemporaries. not indeed because he thought so highly of moderation. He was rather miserly. Diogenes Laertes iv. auToc b' dTTOKXeiiwv. (Also to be found I TTepi hi AttKubou PouXo)uai ri biTiTncacGai fibO. oub* dTreqpaiveTo oubev judXXov pnua- TicKia tqOt* elvai Kai ipocpouc. among dudHnc TTOjUTreiav Tracav Kaxeeopupei X^t^v.7^ Plato. Arcesilaos confuted them convincingly. Td juev TrepiKpouujv. fi Tdj b* dpa oubev eboKei. however. 'Hv would housekeeper. auioc t€ KepbaveTv OjeTO dTTOTpeMidnevoc dqp* ^auioO tov 'ApKeciXaov. considered nothing true. and dvoiTvuc to TajueTov. So (?) his op14.) about Lakydes. ou TTevia ti ttou auTdpKeiav dTraiviuv. I. I come own manager. 59. nor even its contrary. as occurs in public plays. He knew. He himself. that no word. Kai h\" TTporipeiTO b^ (Lv ^beiTO Kai dXXa ToiaOTa eTioiei Trdvra auToupTiac. Now — 6Tr6coi ^ ToOv Trjv hi aiTiav ^HecTiv eiKdreiv. who enjoys a reputation among the who himself opens and closes his store-room. u(p' dXXa rjv. while secretly removing and lopping off (part of their doctrines). 'A juoTca ydp auToTc oube totc iLv 6 *ApK€ciXaoc fjv The cpiXoXoroc oub' ^pydTic xapiiiuv. and substituting other points. who was no longer NUMENII FRAGMENTA. and taught openly that everything was mere talk and verbiage. \xlv bfi auToc ^i^v people. ouToc 6 cuboKiMoiv Trapd toTc ttoXXoic. you may imagine the cause yourself! ical AttKubnc iiTTorXicxpOTepoc Kai Tiva tpottov 6 XeroM€voc oiKovojuiKoc. KXeiba Tiepicpepeiv dcp' dauToO Guthrie: Numenius von Apamea 8 . (If indeed he could have induced) Arcesilaos to undertake (?) such a r61e> then would Zeno have achieved some gain from these (tactics). 79 the living. he to the promised story.

to the accompaniment of hearty laughter and ridicule. dXXa be dpdjLievoi. buvnco- Hevoc dveXibv tov baKTOXiov auGic juev dTroKXeieiv. that one could not see or hear anything distinctly or clearly. and found them again empty. I sealed it. icxupi^eTo Trpoc auTov uTiepcpuwc. Ti TTpoc . Xepciv. "Oc ydp dTre'KXeica juev Talc d)LiauToO cuMPdcav auTUj irdGnv. auTOC b^ ecTijUTivd|nnv. myself. he could pull back the ring. One day he invited one of his acquaintances into his house. eira b* dvapdXXeiv 67Ticiu irdXiv ecuj tov baKTuXiov bid ToO KXeiGpou. tov |uev baKTuXiov opui ttiuc How then should I not rightfully take a distrustful at- Ivbov. juribev jurjTe opdv UnTe dKOueiv dvaprec f\ uTie'c* kqi noie dTTiCTracdjuevoc tojv TTpoco^iXouvTUJV auTUj Tiva eic Tfjv oiKiav. *0 ouv AttKubnc TrXripri M^v KaTaXiTTiuv. KdireiTa Tec. oieTO 4. cuK djeio beiv. eiTiev. Ik Tiepiobou TauTa ^TTOiouv dTre'KXeiov Mev. or went anywhere else. Then he told the whole story. he did not know what he should think about But as he now heard that Arcesilaos was philosophizit. from the beginning. tov baKiuXiov KttTeKuXie bid toO KXeiBpou eciw eic tov oikov jLieGieic. eat and drink. NUMENII FRAGMENTA. they would open (the store-room). Then they would again close up. eireibri nKouce (piXococpeTcGai Tiapd tuj 'ApKeciXduj Tfjv dKaTaXriHiiav. and carry off as much as their heart desired. . open again. dvoiHavTec dv. KctTTeiTo dpHd)uevoc irepiTiTeiTo Tfjv oXnv toO Tajiieiou to oiJV dv. Tf]v ^TTOxnv. dTteibr] TrdXiv eXGubv dvoi£eie Tfj xXeibi. ^ireibfi eic TrepmaTov f\ ottoi dXXoce. xai icpx]' ToOto ^ev dvaiucpiXeKTov i-^ib coi 1%^ (ppdcai. "Now what could Zeno answer to such a demonstrated case of f'' "For with my the incomprehensibility of presentation own hands I closed up everything. The slaves of course observed this sly manoeuvre. ibc ^boKei. 3. But as Lakydes left dishes full. |aev touttiv etc ti KoTXov TpamnaTeTov cr||unvd|i€voc be baKiuXiuj. 5. dTTopuiv tiD TiTVOjaeviw. seal the writing-tablet with the ring. kriMaivovTO be xai tov baKTuXiov TToXXd fe auToO xaTaTeXdcavTec eic tov oikov bid toO KXei0pou Ticpiecav. he rolled the ring back through a crack into the interior of the house ( ?). €iTa be cn^aivecGai. 4. 'ApHdjuevoc Te ^vGev ^(piXoc69ei irapd toi 'ApxeciXdiu. Td juev cpaTOV- Td b* e^TTiovTec. as I myself have experienced it. uic OcTepov. (He went to the school) of Arcesilaos. I saw the ring within. aijGic b' eXGibv dvoiHac. dTTOKXeicac be Kaieiieei 81 the key around with himself but. they would throw the ring back through the key-hole within (the house?). xai auToi ujc ccpiciv iiv eu)n6c. (and from then on) began to philosophise. and once more throw the ring through the key-hole. ing about the incomprehensibility he suspected that such a process had occurred in the matter of the store-room. *T can demonstrate this unequivocally. as what had happened to him in his store-room. ou biKaiiuc diTicTouv- . often as Lakydes early in the morning took a walk. 5. when he had closed up.80 WORKS OF NUMENIUS. then seal it up again. ouK dXXou ireipaGeic. and positively asserted the doctrine of the reserve of judgment. he laid it in a hollow-tablet. and have not merely derived it from other persons. and threw the ring within when however I returned and opened. auToc be dcpfJKa )nev eicuj tov boKTuXiov. ou juevToi Kai Td dXXa. As TouTO oijv TTpoloi AttKubric TO coqpov 01 boOXoi KaTavor|cavT€c. but not the other things." toOto eKeivo auTuj cuMPaiveiv Trepi to Tajueiov. when he again wanted to open with the key. so that later. Having sealed this with his finger-ring. auToc in' e^auToO ILiaGuiv. xevd be eupiCKO^ievoc Td CKeuri. 3. Iti Zrjvujv Xe'roi ouTU)c 6juoXoTOU)uevTiv bid TTdvTiuv qpavepdv )noi ev ToTcbe dKaTaXTiMiiav. and then.

auToTc fovv Tf|v c(ppaYiba opdcGai rriv auToO. the slaves were no fools. presuming that it would be incompre7. or whenever they perhaps received a (signal) from some other side. loie be oube dXXriv. trouble. having affixed the seal. But he insisted that he remembered it distinctly. iito- vdxrer tujv be xvue* TUJV Ti eiTecTiv cecr||LidvGai XeTOVTUJV. 9. 7. They however took up his complaints. towards things? NUMENII FRAGMENTA. eiie xai dXXuuc exfaaGovTec. auTov icuuc emXeXficGai xai cr]pir\auToc ye eqpri CTi|Lirivd|Lievoc lavrmoveueiv Trepirjei tlu xai dTTebeixvue xai XoTtu Kai ebeivoXoYeTTO trpoc swore besides.ix}Aa- Teiov Geujpujv. pTiHe feXuiTa xai fudXa TTXaxuv. demonstrated it to them in detail. direp- continuous hilarity demonstrated how foolish he had been. auToi ye U7T* auToO TiaiZlecGar ^Tiei coqpuj fe ovti beboxGai d|LiVTi|noveuTUj" fivrijUTiv was a philosopher. But Lakydes became angry. and taught the incomprehensibility (of Aaxubr) eivai dboHdcTiu. and (Plato. who was a mocker. and who even in Dacian stammer with light scorn. ouKtri dpHd)Li€Voc ouKETi jLiev Tov baKTuXiov be ToO TQiLieiou expnio dKaiaXTniiia. |li6Xic kqi Trpoxepov eauioO KpaiOuv. dxardXriTTTa ececGai xai outuj xai dXXuuc. xai judiriv eTieqpiXocoqpriKei. oioi be 01 xuujuujbixoi le xai feiai xai Aaxoi eirei Aaxixflc XaXeiv CTUj|LiuXr|0pac xareTXajxTicjuevoi. bid to oiecGai exeivtu ye hensible for Lakydes. eu0u toO ToX|Lir|)LiaTOC rjecav xai TrapeXuovTO eie'pav auTOu Tf]v ccppayiba. ToTc CtuuixoTc rd coqpicfLiaTa fixoucav. while listening to the tale. finding. They were like the Getes and Dacians. €KbeHd)uievoc to ttSv ibc ecxev dKoOcai. who appear in comedies. and demonstrated that it was not so. ujcre xai . they asserted that he must then have forgotten to affix the seal. r[V Tctp uPpiCTrjc. had had considerable KTuXlOU. 6. tcXujv t€ cijua en xai KaTxdZ!ujv From that biriXeTXev auioO ifiv KevoboEiav. TixpipoXoTeiTO dv xai direbeib' fiTTuj)uevujv tt) dTTobeiHei f] xai qpaiiievujv. Against their assertions that it had been sealed with his own seal. Sophist. 8. uTrdpxovToc ^vbov toO ba- His auditor. 266a) not so easy to control. had to acknowledge the demonstration. xai Tore fnev dvr' exeivric UTreTiGecav. and at other times they did not affix any. They sometimes substituted another seal. Tuuc Toic TTpdtJuaciv e'Huj. But when they heard of the sophisms of the Stoics." Toi ^XGovia Tivot KXen^ai TaOia. and he '0 be eiceXGibv ecxoTreiTo* dcr||uavT0v be to f| fpa. attitude of being ridiculed by him and took the inasmuch as Lakydes iLovTO Tijj Oi be uTToXapovrec rdc TTpocpoXdc dxeivou. and no more used his store-room as demonstration of the incomprehensibility of presentation. one way or another. control. and grievously complained of their thus making fun of him. on his entrance. Ou iLie'vToi dXXd 01 fe iraibec (popTaxec rjcav xai ou Gdiepa xdx le Tfjc XriTrioi. . cecTi|Liac)Lievov |aev. he conducted an exact investiAs they gation. }ir\v vacGar xai auTouc 9. 8. stole the contents. in reserving his selfFinally he broke out into loud laughter. but took up again his earlier views. )Lif] ei jur] cqppaTic. oiojLievoc TrailecGai xai Trpocu)|Livuev. ccppaTibi b* dXXr]. dXXd KaTeXd|upave id dqpeifLieva. they directly made an attempt. or even sealed with some other seal. and loosened his seals. the writing-tablet sometimes unsealed.82 titiide WORKS OF NUMENIUS. Now. time on Lakydes no more threw his ring within. 83 eiTreiv ifijjfi For I could not admit that any- Ou Tap ToX)ur|CUJ body came and 6. "Qcie eKTore AaxObrjc ecuj evepaXXev. and with Kai 6c dKOVJUJV. and philosophised along aimlessly.

uj "AXXwc. as they had heard him himself lately asserting in a discussion with a friend. 13. confute the Stoic doctrines to his slaves. he fell into helpless despair. tujv Traibiuv be juiriKeTi 7TpdTM«Ta exoi. Ttdvia dvarpenjecGai iamw boKuuv. but as the slaves then (turned around. oux oca KaiacKeufiv 12. TeXeuTujv xflc oiKiac. eic oiKiac ou Tujv dv dTT^i^J dXX* ?CTl CUVTCXfl. 11. if he did not control the slaves. 'he himself remained at home and guarded his own store-room. eixe eHeXe'TXOii Tdjirixctvov. brought up (counter-arguments). okoupoc eic fjv cpiXoc toO Tajueiou u7nb6)Lievoc ecpri. iiidxnv eixev dvTiXeTOnevnv inX auTOC dv brjTTOuGev ecTUJiKeucTO irpoc touc to 'AKabTijaaiKd icxupiIo)ievuJV. in the school we argue : lou iou. Ti9e)LievuJV. ouk dveu Tuj8ac|nujv to the incomprehensibility of presentation. iLinie XuciTeXoOcav \x^ up. and) advanced the arguments of the Academicians in order to obviate any further difficulties. ol Oubev be oubev ibqpeXiuv. As now Lakydes had confuted their attacks. that did not agree with the teachings of the Academicians. and became his rivals as academic disputants. seeing that there was no help for him in his own doctrines. Ktti with his dXXai Te 6cai ev diricTiaic beivoXoTOu^evujv eiciv drexvoi TTicTeic. indeed. For a long while Lakydes was in distress. dXXuJC lujjuiev. Thedinga. Kai 6 AaKubric xeuuc |aev nTTopei. and to all other such senseless expressions that are resorted in extremities ( ?) . ecpacav otKoOcai and 10. diTeKaXuipaTO. crying alas! and zi'oe is me! and by the Gods. nor any utensil suitable for a house. 85 presentation). hi iraibec. Kai vr] touc Geouc Kai vf] Tdc Gedc. 10. not without a certain scorn. they developed their arguments before him. not a pot. forced into a wordy argument house-hold of slaves. till nothing remained whole? (there remained no 11. TaOra. boHav ^vaxxoc toOv toO xpovou TauTtt auToG irpoc touc q)iXouc. . he accused the Stoics. They thus carried on arguments and counter-arguments. If. however. xaOTa Trdvra dXe^eTO be ju^v direi por) Kai dHiOTTicTiqt. 13. ouk dYTciov. all this was uttered with cries as ^auTUJ Geiwpujv Tf|v toTc lauToO boT^aci por|6€iav. ToO hi dvacTpeqpovToc auToTc 'AKabriiLiaiKd. then his slaves would oppose his complaints by appealing. and learned by heart responses thereto and starting with this. confirmation (?). But as his utility was thus impaired ( ?).84 WORKS OF NUMENIUS. its con- XoTiai. yap eivai NUMENII FRAGMENTA. TrpoKa6r||ievoc. ev Taic biaTpifaic XeiftTai fijiiv.) TO coq)6v auTiD ^pxeTai. for memory was a sort of presentation. and expressed it thus about things in this manner. !" but it is dififerent in life (Paragraphs 14 and 15 seem to have been shortened by Eusebius from Numenius. Trecibv eic touc T^iTOvac eKeKpdxei Kai touc 0eouc' Kai qpeO qpeO. they went to a certain Stoic. At last. AiaipiPai GUV fjcav TidvTUJV iKei Kai Xotoi kqi dviijneciu further object to fight about?). he must simply be unable to remember it. ( ?). nor tents. he finally discovered ''Children the source of his woes. Ktti tv oubev dv tlD KaieXeiTreTO. auTuj dKaiaXimJiac. he did. iva Traibac. *0 bk CtujikoTc evEKdXer utto o\ Traibec be id dYKXruuaxa TiapeXuGV TIVUJV. . But judging that soon his whole house-hold would break 12. Toi TOtc dirixeipriceic xai XeTovTOC ouK Tivoc auTOi qpoiTUJVTec eic CtujikiIiv XeKiea eauToTc dvejudvOavov KdK€i0€v dpHdjuevoi dvTecoqpicTeuov Kai fjcav dviiiexvoi KXetiTai AKabTiiuaiKoi.

He made use of the same method as Arcesilaos for he also followed out the principle of arguments on both sides. About him Numenius writes as follows: He dbriXa. cpdc dbuvaiov eivai dv0pujTTOv ovia Trepi dTrdvTuuv ^TrexeiV biatpopdv be eivai dbr|Xou TrdvTtt juev Km QKaia- unclear. This infuriated the Stoics exceedingly. V. for he did not seek the truth.Kai ydp auioc eTreiribeue dTTixeipriciv. and what had been changed. P>om Arcesilaos he . he denied. He CTpocpdc XeiTToXoTOuc cuvdqpepe TiKOC Te Kai KaTaqpaiiKdc Te fjv ttoikiXXiuv. He also made a distinction between the Unclear. ^Kdiepa Km Trdvia dvecKeOa^e id utto Tujv dXXujv XeTOjLieva' ^oviu be Iv tlu rrepi ttic eTTOxnc Xortu TTpoc auTov bie'cTH. biacpavfic 6 Kupr|vaioc 'ApicTiTiTvuipijutuv by Evander and his successors. and confuted everything that was taught by any one else. ou Trdvia bl busied himself also with the Stoic teachings. toutou jnev tiiueXei. remodeled the Tradition (bringing to it new and removing old?) scintillating in contention he united contradictions and over-refinements. eHTiYeipeTO Xdppoc olov TroTajioc pou)br|c [cqpobpiuc peujv]. NUMENII FRAGMENTA. 2. lopievoc. asserting that only in the (doctrine of the) resenr of judgment. toTc CtujikoTc dr|biav. eic b' *ApKeciXaov. auioO TaOia. toO (paivodXX* ou ttic dXTi9eiac He'vou ToTc TToXXoTc TTiBavoO. had numerous audiAristippus of Cyrene was prominent. Me0* cue Kapvedbric cuvecTrjcaTO fj u7TobeHd)Lievoc ifiv biaipipfiv Tpiiriv 'AKabrnniav. 5. When Carneades took over the Academy. After the latter. auToO t^v cxoXfiv auToO took over the school. Aofiuv fnev oijv dTuuTrj dxpncaio Tf]v eic Ktti 6 *ApKeciXaoc. yet not everything was diflfered . bieb^Haio Euavbpoc xai 01 jneid toOtov. and thus he renewed have been his duty. CTOxa- "OGev rpdqpei b' GUV Km TtoXXfiv Tiapecxe Km 6 NoujLirivioc Tiepi IV. irdvTa KOTaTri^TrXdc . 15. after him. dHapvTi- Kd)ucpOTdpuj0ev ovtiXotikoc* eiTe TTOu ^bei ti Kai GaOjua ^xovtujv Xotujv. 'Hxe b* oijv Kai outoc koi oTrecpepev. dvTiXoTiac le Kai Trj ludxr] things. So much among whom about Lakydes. is was humanly impossible to refrain from judgment about all things. Carneades as Conscienceless Sophist. taken over dKOucTtti TToXXoi. and the Incomprehensible although everything was incomprehensible.86 14. But about that he cared nothing. WORKS OF NUMENIUS. and disputed for and against. to and distinguish carefully what of Plato's teachings had remained unchanged. 14. S7 tors. r\v. and assented. and his reputation increased through his polemic with them. eiT' ouv djueivuj eiTe Kai (pauXoTepa dTTaveveTKibv bid juiaKpoO Tf|v )idxr|v dveveaCe. Carneades and founded the Third Academy. 15. . but only what seemed plausible to the majority. Toutou h^ Yivoviai The direction of the Academy was. irpoc dm ttX^ov riOHriGri. but and for better or worse restored the condition of things in the time of Arcesilaos. iLv €ic TTOC. Xr|7TTou. contentions for a long period. xptibv cpuXd£ai oca dKivr|Ta Kai oca KeKivr|)Lidva iiv. to preserve Kapvedbric bl eKbeHdjiievoc Trap' 'HTricivou. oCic Meieixe be outoc Km dpiCTiKuic icidjievoc Km tujv Ctujikiuv Xotujv. it seems 4. He (TaOia M^v 'Ek TrdvTUJV Km b* irepi i^jv Aaxubou. Km eivm dKaTdXrjTTTa. When he 2.) Carneades Follows Arcesilaos.

— ToiYapoOv dTTdTiuv touc dXXouc auToc cjuevev dveHa- TTdTriToc. iraXaicToO beivoO Xapf]v bouc TrepieTiTVCTo d'vGev! KttTd Tdp Tr]v ToO TiiGavoO poTrfiv eKdrepov Trapacxuiv. 7' TTTiKrj XricTfic Kai TTapaXapujv Tdp dXriGei |U€v 6juoiov ii/eOboc. KaTaXn- something that was true. nevertheless he insisted that neither of the two could be grasped with certainty. KOTd Tdc dTTo toO TTiGavoO X€T0)Li€vac auTuj GcTiKdc T€ KQI dpvHTiKdc (pavTacittc. 3. . eXaGev ^auTov juf] TTpuiTOv e^riTraTriKujc r)c0fic0ai. ToO eivai Tobe ti rtuov. Tfjbe KQi TdKeiGi. 6 Kapvedbnc ti cfiiKpov. TreTreTcGai h' a\r]Qf] eivai the complete abrogation of all things. For he thus acknowledged that the Truth and Error was contained in the (mentioned) things. & X^TCi bid 4. TouTO CUV Ktti uTTttveic. ujcTtep 01 dvaxdrovTcc Gnpec piaioTdc aixjudc. "Hv touv TOTic coqpujTepoc. To Tdp dXnGe'c tc kqi to \\)e\jboc ev toic Trpdriuaciv ujCTrep dveivai TpoTTUi cuTXiwpujv. OUK eiacev oure to dXnGec eTvai outc to ijjeOboc ou ndXXov TO ^Tepov toO iTepou. HuvepraroMevoc Tfjc rriTriceujc. Tuxoi. he violently. and he did 5. By his howHng he assaulted and deafened his hearers. and would not admit that the one presentaclass together . and negative arguments to the influence of Probability. for he 4. who give a little ground. inundating everything on both sides. this from principle. he roared like a rushing stream. 7. like an experienced wrestler he would give the investigation a master-grip and from there on he had For although he ascribed affirmative the upper hand. l}xliivr]To. Although he deceived all. Cameades was still worse than did not moderate at all (the doctrine of 'incomprehensibility") until he had paralyzed (?) his auditors (?) through his affirmative and negative imaginations (about the Life or the Not-Hfe of Being?). He would and something similar that was false (?) (which was similar only in external appearance (?) ) he would then equate them. was never de3. be cpavTacia KaraXnTTTOV Ojuoiov. cuvecupe touc dKou- OVTQC bid eopupou. he never noticed that he deceived himself first. kqutoc dvt€ UTrocTain xe Kai eu T€pov MdXXov ^auTouc leTciv eic 'GTiei bouc buvaTiijTepov ^TreXGeiv. m\ dTttTiuv eic Tdc il Tcac. f\ juaXXov diro toO TTiGavoO. Arcesilaos. 'Gk€Tvoc Tdp 7Tepi€px6- M€voc Trj cpap^dHei touc cuTKopupavTiOuvTac. 6 Mf) TTpocnv TLU 'ApKeciXduj. r\y Kqkov be Mf) dv KaKiu tTravaKeijuevov. fj ixx] luuov eivai. kqi eiceTriTTTe xai 89 needed potent words.88 WORKS OF NUMENIUS. cared no more about his former assertions. he himself which was not the case with Arcesilaos. he thought that because of some acknowledgment ( from an interlocutor) he could attack (him) all the more Whenever he had attained his object. oube- Tcpov eme pepaiujc KaTaXajupdvecGai. Td NUMENII FRAGMENTA. €^eXXov ececGai. by . making out as if he wished to further the investigation in company with others. When ceived Arcesilaos by his magic threw a spell over his auditors and fellow corybants. Tfic dTraHaTidvTiuv dvaipe'cecuc xpn^dTiuv. only more furiously on to the lances of the hunters. holding as true ( ?) what he had said. TnviKauTa r\b^ Kai ou TrpoubebcKTo ^kujv njueXei kqi OUK 6. xaXdcac ouk drrpaKTOi Like the wild animals. to rush the 5. 6. ucp' oi5 ruj 'ApKeciXdui. He thus showed himself a still more cunning robber (or plagiarizer) fend imposter (than Arcesilaos?).

'Hv oi5v 9i was truer or more false than the other. VI. caught him in intimate relations with his own concubine. and none others were recognised. Victory was achieved for every thought of Carneades. in which he taught the same thing as others. cpaciv. he was pubhcly a pirate. 'Hv bk kXe- nev dqpavnc cpaivoMevoc be XricTnc. made Kav dXXoC TUJV dTTlTUXOVIlUV. Secretly a thief. 8. thing. and a kidnapper of men.90 tion WORKS OF NUMENlUS. Tpdij^ac toic uciepov. who occupied so high a place in the esteem of his contemporaries. 9. Antipater. ujc be MdXicia ttictcuiuv ttj 6ii/ei Kai KOTaXapubv TrapKapvedbnc ^inv bidboxoc. he dTToppriTujv lUMoXorei Te Kai nXnOeue kqi dTre9aiT€T0 nevertheless a veridical confession to his pupils. ouie 12. he composed treatises against (Carneades). 10. ibc diro ibou Knpivou TTpoc TO dXnGivov UJOV. neither in the school. who robbed the best prepared by cunning or g. for in his oratory Carneades certainly was a misleader of souls.v. oux UTTO TTiGavfic (pavTaciac. Cuve'Paivev oGv Td xaKd kqi irXeiuj. bidvoia eviKa. just as the appearance of a waxen egg is similar to the appearance of a genuine tgg. oube rpO' TrepiTrdToic. xai t6t6 ^v dbuvaiuiTepa Trpoc outujc dvbpa uTtepiueTav cpavevTa xai KaiaboHavTa eivai toTc totc dvGpiuTTOic tov Kapvedbnv. he never said anything publicly. present daily at the discussions of Carneades. 6. Km mevtoi Xerujv Further evils result from this philosophy. When Carneades. 12. but did not become his successor. ouk ev toTc oube ^cpee'THaTo. 6veipaTa dvii dveipdriuv. nor on the walks. aipiuv xai boXui Plot Touc KQi TTdvu ccpobpu 7TapecK€uacjuevouc. and did not take em iraXXaKri MOi'xov €upa. So dream-fancies were equated with dream-fancies. 11. a Why Mentor Opposed Carneades. trpoc b' oi5v touc dTTo Kapvedbou TiOTe ebriMOcieucev Kae' fiMe'pav dTToqpepoMevoc Xotouc ouK ^v Talc biaipipaic. which can neither accomplish anything now. his M€v dTujviu. "Omujc be. oub' ibc jur| KaTeiXnq)^c. 11. wished to indite a Although he was controversial treatise against him. for his opponents were less skillful in oratory. he did not consider it MevTujp ^Iv ttpiutov oO an optical illusion. because false presentations are similar to the true ones. 8. oub' nKouce tic dvTiTpaqpdc vOv buvdMeva. any more than they had been able to accomplish anything contemporaneously against a man like Carneades. kqi oObe^ia flTicoOv dXXujc. however. Kapvedbou be riveTai TVU)pi)uoc At first Mentor was a disciple of Carneades. Although Carneades (?) publicly confused everyon account of the Stoic passion for contention.€TTei oic TTpoceTToXe'iLiei ficav eiTreiv dbu- vaTuuTepoi. ndca ToGv Kapvedbou Ktti violence. or that the one was more credible than the other. while alive. In his retreat.v . He allowed no sound to escape him. 10. NUMENII FRAGMENTA. KaiToi xauToc utto Trie CTiuiKfic cpiXovei^ Kiac eic to cpavepov kukujv. and left to his heirs books. 'AvTiTTaipoc ToOv 6 kqt' auiov revoMevGc oCi ^jaeXXe contemporary. trpoc re touc ^auToO ^Taipouc bi^* Xme U eTraveTeiveio kqi Tuuviav Xapiuv PipXia KOTe- oube elTrev auToO. and no one heard a single syllable from him.dXX' ^Ti ru. 6 Kapvedbnc 7TTUJV Ktti iy\f\)xajdj^e\ xai nvbpaTTobireTo. bid t6 6|Lioittc (pavTQciac dXnee'civ elvai xdc ipeubeTc.v ti ypdcpeiv.

'0 be OiXujv dpa outoc. and became his opponent. he desired nothing better than to meet opponents who would be willing to oppose him. and banished him out of his school. taught the opposite of what had been taught by his teacher Philo. and against the Stoics he "armed himself with the coruscating sword. an auditor of Philo. id XPncTd be auTuuv ecu Kdiuj kqI ev VIII. Mvncdpxtu toOv iw Ctujiku) cxoXdcac evaviia 3. who Secretly Taught Truth. e£iTnXou )uev b' utto as the doctrine of the reserve of judgment had lost its force. and Foundation of the Academy. as soon as he had taken over the school. '0 5e otTrocTdc dviecocpicTeue xal eXe'TX^v auioO ifiv ev loTc Xotoic dKara- VII. Antiochus founded a new Fourth Academy." 2. NUMENII FRAGMENTA. iroXXfiv bnr* exujv nbn rfiv biai'cOnciv uTrepeTre0uM€i eu ic0' on loiv eXerHovTUJV luxeiv. and even projects. 7. OiXujvoc be Tweiai dKOucTr]c 'Aviioxoc. dvTiTexvoc Xrm^iav. He resembled those plants whose empty portion swims on the surface of the water. while the serviceable lower portion is out of sight. dpii ^ev eKbeEdiuevoc Tf|v 1. adorned himself with lies. as a result of habit. . New 1. and desired to run away. iva jun eboKei jieid vtuia paXujv auioc ^kujv (peOreiv. oubev Kaid id auxd unanimity of circumstances. Schism of Philo. who philosophised in contradictory manner. biaipipfiv UTTO xap^ovnc e^eTreTrXiiKTO. OiXujvi Till KaGriTnTri dqppovnce. 2.92 WORKS OF NUMENIUS. He used lies as a curtain. Carneades as Mystic. He broadened out the teachings of Kleitomachus. Mentor then fell away from Carneades. ocTTpiujv. This Philo (of Larissa). But with the passage of time. and introduced into the Academy a mass of strange doctrines. (of Ascalon). ft '0 be Kapvedbnc oiov dviecTpajLi^eva cpiXocotpiuv rote ipeuc^aciv iKaWwrnlejo Kai utt' Carneades. and changed his course of life. 93 refuge in his doctrine of the incomprehensibility of presentation. iLv ^X€i. Kai xdpiv dTTobibouc deepdireue. was overcome with joy. convicting of error his doctrine of Incomprehensibility. Kai id beboriueva tuj KXeiTojudxu^ r]vie Kai toTc Ctujikoic 'eKopucceTO vtupoTTi xoXkoj'. philosophised against him. 'Qc be TTpoiovToc M€V TOO xpovou. riTncaro rnc biarpipnc. and hid the truth among them. TTapaTTeTdc^aciv ouv expnTo toTc ipeucinaci Kai nXnGeuev ^vbov Xavedvujv KaTrnXiKturepov. and thankfully cared for the school. but without more ado confided in the appearance presented to his eyes. behind which he doled out sparingly the truth. so that it might not appear that he was hitting them in the back. he allowed himself to be misled by the clearness and cuvnGeiac oucnc auriwv inc eTroxnc. f] be tujv 7Ta9rijudTUJv auiov dve'cipecpev dvdp- Teid re Kai OMoXoTia. riv. He associated with himself the Stoic Mnesarchus. 8. |iupia re Heva Trpocfii|^e iq 'AKabrmiqt. ^auim evdei. "GTracxev oijv Trdeniua tiL id )uev Kevd eTTiTroXdrei re ubaii kqi uirepdcpavei. auToTc rd dXiiGn ncpdvi^e. 3. eiepac dpHac 'AKabn^iac. As he attributed great importance to the faculty of judgment.

Antiochus of Ascalon was said to have united the views of the Academy and the Porch. Numenius considered that Plato harmonized with Pythagoras. for the matter of that. would justify the title of eclecticist. It should therefore not be applied to Numenius without some demonstration that Numenius 1. This achievement. Eclectic philosophers. this title is Ammonius be- cause of the claims made in his behalf that he discovered the agreement of Plato and Aristotle. Philo Judaeus had interpreted the Hebrew scriptures through Greek philosophy.IWumenius TOorks anb flDeasage CHAPTER I. NEGATIVE GROUNDS. usually conceded to First. as Dicaearchus later taught. is worthier of it than Ammonius Sakkas. that Plato had combined the teach95 . rather than that of founding a new philosophy such as Neoplatonism. were common.^ and. Why Wat Numenius "Father of Neoplatonism?'' The title of ''Father of Neoplatonism" is generally conceded to Ammonius Sakkas. however.

In this respect Ammonius did absolutely nothing.? So general. however. WORKS AND MESSAGE him sider AS FATHER OF NEOPLATONISM in his writings. (4). that Plato himself was unwittingly the cause of these divergences. who wrote in Succession" . ^ He identified the Ideas of Plato with the numbers of Pythagoras. how abortive these newer developments were. showing that those assertions were not entirely unjustified.^i Tertullian does not quote Numenius. Aeneas of Gaza. Although. Proclus. "8 This is specially significant in connection with the Escoreal manuscript. and Johannes Philoponus. hiiji 97 con- ings of Socrates with those of Pythagoras. while this was the chief purpose of his "History of the Platonic order to show (1). WHAT THE WORD "NEOPLATONISM" MEANS. by Porphyry.96 NUMENIUS. Ammonius is said to have been the teacher of Plotinos. (2).^ That such misunderstandings were not impossible appears from the fact that Plotinos was in the habit of putting out his writings anonymously. but he also relates the simile of the Logos as cosmic Pilot. acknowledges he read Numenius's writings thoroughly. on the basis of restoration of the genuine Plato. 3. in the writings of Clement we find only a single fragment (13) literally.' Second. or references. would he have picked out a name so uncommon as that of Numenius. (3). Trypho publicly accused Plotinos of basing his teachings on those of Numenius. Ammonius Sakkas did indeed write sentences which were authoritative in the school of Plotinos. Elsewhere we shall study this subject in greater detail. On the contrary. what the ^'genuine Plato" had believed. Did the scribe who did so have any reason for that action ? Had there been no reason. Nemesius. Porphyry acknowledges that they contained hidden statements of Stoics and Peripaticians. yet we find many approximations. common sense would read into it an attempt to found a new school. on the other. 2. indeed. through hearsay. POSITIVE GROUNDS. that Amelius was forced to write a long dissertation on the differences between Numenius and Plotinos. Origen. The fragments of Ammonius from Nemesius are not entirely certain. and in the classic anthology of Stobaeus. indeed. "and passed off the writings of others as his own. Chalcidius. and we know him only at second-hand. among others. but who was quoted by Pagan and Christian. and Eusebius of Nicomedia.* and so close was the agreement that. Even Plotinos does not mention Numenius. He is hardly quoted by any writer. How different is the case with Numenius. For we know that the writings of Numenius were read in the school of Plotinos. where something of that very kind has occurred: the name of Plotinos was erased. The name 'Tather of Neoplatonism" really has nothing to do with any eclectic movement which might have operated to heal the bitter Greek feuds. but the influence of Numenius can hardly have been of less which indeed is witnessed to by Eusebius. Olympiodorus. The seal of authoritativeness is impressed on him by recognition in the History of the Philosophers by Diogenes Laertes. Jamblichus." Origen. but they have been lost.^ Amelius had to defend him from the open charge that he was a plagiarizer. was this opinion. on the one hand. in the literary pastels of Macrobius." In this way Numenius achieved immortality through friend and foe. <^ So it would be difficult to a world-figure. and of strutting around in his feathers. and that of Numenius written in. by Clement of Alexandria. how far the latter Platonists had strayed from their master. whose writings were indeed likewise lost.

Significance. to which he demanded ultimate still This CHAPTER Life II. love to. the best of our knowledge the activities of Numenius probably fall under Marcus Aurelius^ according to Chaignet.2 and as the latter probably employed popular anthologies. who. He reveals intimate acquaintance with the tricks of the trade of wrestlers.^^ ^11 this might indeed be explained without a trip to Athens.5 his bitter enmity towards unfaithful Academicians. This must surely be the chief justification of such a title as "Father of Neoplatonism. l^y. Numenius offers to his readers and pupils. which . This is barely possible.!! and of Agathocles.^o He knows the story of Kephisodorus. can we allow tnis title." and it is also the reason why such a title could not yet apply to Philo. have acquired his Greek education at Alexandria. Homer is mentioned as "the poet.W: '^^ Numenius alone."^ He knows Heraklitus^ and Theognis. but not probable. He uses all the mvths of the Greek world. could. but hardly the details which do not even appear in the version of Dioeenes Laertes. with indications how to return thither. of philosto him It was no more than an interpretation Hebrew scriptures. 2. and reverence for Plato. even quoting a liberal pas- Numenius sage literally . and this would seem rather Greek than Egyptian. and 1. He is quoted by Clement of Alexandria . EPOCH. To GREEK EDUCATION. He could in- deed have derived much from such books as the "Essays'' of Diokles of Knidos«. in Egypt. WORKS AND MESSAGE LIFE AND SIGNIFICANCE 99 (S).98 NUMENIUS.^ his thorough knowledge of. and his minute acquaintance with the trifling details of their peculiarities. Moreover Numenius continually expresses reverence and bold loyaltyis to Plato. Even if the latter taught that Platonism was the representative ophy. therefore."^ and must be interpreted allegorically. as he insisted.^ probably twenty years will not be too much of an interval to assume between the two. possibly. in view of his initiation into the Eleusinian mysteries. had collected the best of the best (Socrates and Pythagoras).

the Hebrew quotations remain the most frequent. and who must no doubt have inherited them as a precious deposit.** Here we find the divine bark^® and the passage of souls through animal bodies. to judge from his anonymous allegorical use of a legend about Jesus.^s God is a triad^* of nous. He refers to Moses simply as "the prophet. On m . is witness that metempsychosis was popular Ever since the dawn of historv here in Alexandria. who has demonstrated in many ways that he was a remarkable individual. such an experience might have been the inspiration for his History of the Platonic after all Succession. Here might he have learned all his Hebrew references from friends of Philo. and this would a^ree with the He seems to Mysteres Egyptiens. preferably Alexandria. in view of the If then we assume this. 13 might refer to the solemn festal Isiac processions. imitating the dialogue-form of Plato." 5. how much more unpartisan or impartial is Numenius the Pythagorean. and who gathered what to him seemed true out of many sources. have known (would this have been possible without an initiation?) the Serapistic mysteries. that Origen testifies about him:*^ "Than Celsus. he might have become acquainted with the Valentinians. peia" of ii. just as Luther fumed in Rome.^* of metempsychosis. how he must have raged at the unworthy successors of Plato. his knowledge and use of the Hebrew scriptures which distinguished him from other Greek philosophers.^^ he might have been in the habit of making anonymous references.^^ Here we find Providence. and learned them by heart. ^^ is by him interpreted literally. Morel.*® This consisted of six books. of A. we can Eleusinian initiation. but talked familiarly of the myths of Brahmins and Magi. About the Mystery-teachings of Plato.22 Here we find again the water full of life-germs.*' 1. and according to the assumption of Ueberwejr and Zeller. Everything. who examined still other opinions (besides the Hebrew?).^^ The Demiurge idea is well worked out. It is the names of the Egyptian opponents of Moses The doctrine that he has handed down to posterity. WORKS AND MESSAGE . 2. 32 go that Egyptian traits in Numenius would not be unusual or improbable. When we leave aside the Platonic references.100 NUMENIUS. and others. Egyptian worship of animals here current. INTERNATIONALITY. for it was Amelius of Apamea who copied out all his writings.^^ and he relates the Egyptian myth of the sunset. besides. EGYPTIAN TRIP. 3. Indeed. Plato is described as a Greek Moses. Probably he returned to Apamea to close his life. therefore. References to the common Nile-inundations^^ and two Basilides Numenius was a man of the world. It is. Plotinos. Porphyry. imagine his visit to the Academy. had triads of divinities^^ been worshiped. he was not limited to Greek and Egyptian mysteries. Such Egyptian still traits of more clearly when we Numenius can be recognized consult a book such as the the Good. however. therefore. even if Platonic.^^ It was here that Clement of Alexandria and Origen quoted him.** exactly as for him Homer is "the" poet. LIFE AND SIGNIFICANCE 101 would not have been so very unusual but the trip seems an inevitable conclusion.25 logos^s and pneuma. This was his chief work. WORKS OF NUMENIUS. points to Egypt.** It is no wonder. 4. The "pomto the lotus-plant^i seem pretty certain. that he was studied by If we are Amelius.^^ Plotinos himself spoke of Isiac mysteries. in which case we mieht discover one^^ to the veiled image of Truth at Sais.

which here agree. we learn that Amelius was born in the home of Numenius. PERSONALITY.^^ that from the same place he adopted as son Hostilianus Hesychius.^^ g^g^ ^g ^ joke.67 ^f predestination.«2 At the beginning of a particularly difficult investigation. This is a pity. He speaks of a "standing God". AS POET. makes it probable that he led a very quiet and modest existence.^^ 8.^® He also demands all reverence for Plato and himself shows it.^^ which however is to be interpreted as a determination of the fate through the formation of the. when sent away by Plotinos. Neither do mere quotations rescue a poet from oblivion.65 of a parable of the Sower." Proclus would have been surprised if Porphyry diverged from pupils and followers. well-known language. who quotes Homer and Plato .^^ The or the Hoopoe. About Numbers. From Porphyry. like Plato and Plotinos. About the Indestructibility or Incorruptibility of the Soul. and returned thither. gathered.*^ and Boethos.^^ jq ^ Pythagorean the numbers were as sacred as the Ideas were to a Platonist.«^<^ in eggs.*^* 9.^* wild animals. the famous Bird of Divination. 7. He was very humanly interested in dogs. from philosophy. and mostly learned by heart almost all the books of Numenfus. and yet acquaintance and intimate use of the classic sources of inspiration are really at least one element of poetic achievement.*^ Harpokration.3» 4.^^ of a flaw in sacrifices or means of atonement . He speaks of a single eternal salvation which broods over all.** among them was Kronius. this That so remarkable a man as Numenius left to history no traces of the events of his life. normalizing Ideas. About Space.*» But the most important among these must have been Amelius. '* 6. interests us also. WORKS AND MESSAGE Initiate.64 ^f salvation . LIFE desist AND SIGNIFICANCE 103 probably treated of Eleusinian myths. foreotten rhymesters.*^ who was so bound up with Numenius that Jamblichus wrote an attack against both. Numenius sufficiently FAMILIAR LANGUAGE. while many poetical masterpieces of the world are written in prose.61 Towards the Divinity he is ever most worshipful. he invokes the aid of the Divinity.^*^ in hunting. as it would make a very acceptable reading.^i 6.'^'' and in fishes. point. as is testified by the libraries of we find in Numenius.*** 5.*'' Theodor of Asine is said to have been entirely inspired by him.102 It NUMENIUS. He important to have made companions. The traces of his character indicate the same. COMPANIONS OF NUMENIUS. "^^ Numenius thus speaks our own religious language.*^ Numenius was and friends or Numenius in any because he employs a considers his Divinity as a single unity comprising three divinities. This demonstrated his interest in psychology. Uzener's proposal to read "suntetamenois" instead of "suntetagmenois" has no support in the sources.*^^ He had "written.^o and that Proclus could not distinguish them.'^! He says even that one phase of the divinities72 jg consubstantial with another. he hoped never to have leisure enough to The art of poetry does not consist merely in versification.«« of "all in air'.'^o ^nd finally of immortality.^^ He refrains purposely from saying anything irreverent about the elder writers. That must have been why Numenius identified them.

had introduced the distinction between God and his world-building forces. because of looking at No one the stars fell into the ocean or into a well. which is out of harm's way. modern exponents: men who 11. NUMENIUS. if they lack that." consists in this. that he. the Jew. NUMENIUS AS HUMORIST. was more than he able or disposed to describe philosHe was not afraid to ophic problems in comic form. however. and his teaching of the Ideas. neither mere brilliancy nor poetic disposition are likely to make any one dear to humanity in general. For such people. may pierce their epidermis. the personality of Numenius He is also a thinker. But WORKS AND MESSAGE LIFE AND SIGNIFICANCE 105 not poetic quality be defined as that For instance.' the Good per se. which latter together constituted the divine Logos. following. with whom the world was to be classed as a third. or those of Of malice. but who keep their eye on the main chance irrespective thereof. as may — . is 10. the only corrective is humor. for the reserve of judgment and the incomprehensibility of apperception are not without their call black white. and jkhe not our be seen from the following quotation from Ueberweg. Nevertheless. tarch of Cheronea had treated of God as unknowable in his essence. when he describes the world-directinjs: divinity as a pilot.''^ may which is memorable ? It is still to-day interesting to follow the practical refutation of the silly theories of a Lakydes. NUMENIUS AS THINKER. of Alexandria. and white black. perhaps it is necessary to possess that which makes the whole world kin: humor. injure the truths which might be contained in his philosophy by exposing to ridicule its weaknesses. it — world laughs with you. then indeed are thev in a hopeless case.'^^ ^e also denied to it the faculty of thought in opposition to Numenius affirming chief interest. Still more original is his representation of the flight of the soul to ecstatic harmony in the form of a boat which till the last moment is hidden by the waves. especially the Valentinians. we think inevitably of two immortal similes. However. and desire to polish the rough diamonds so that they might shine. when we think of Plato. and indirectly influenced by the distinction made . safely steering the world-ship entrusted to him by raising his eyes to find his way through the starry vault above him. and its exponents. The simile of the Sower is immortalj* also that of the central sun of existence. the relations of body and soul illustrated by the relations between horse and driver. the relation between the incarnated soul to the body is illustrated by the simile of the man who Numenius fetters our fancy stands up in a foot-bath. or of Carneades. Plu-.'^* "Philo. In it we see no more than all that is genuine or praiseworthy in the maxim "laugh. who. — that was also exalted above the rational nature. and cognizable only in his world-constructing activity. but denied to it—which it still retained in the doctrines of Philo and Plutarch the epithet of Being (to on) for he taught that it transcended the Being'^^ ^f piato. he styled the supreme essence 'the One. perhaps. in the ridicule which he heaps on Lakydes betrays only keen knowledge and understanding of human nature. the precedent of the Christian Gnostics. as illustrated by the simile of the cave. Numenius of Apamea had hypostatized God himself and the Demiurge into two different beings.104 freely. he had none.^^ 'The most noteworthy deviation of Numenius from Plato (but which was not recognized by him as such). and Plotinos went further in the same direction: with Plato. But maybe the humor of Numenius. When we think of Plotinos. Numenius was no Palinurus or Thales.

Saints Bernard and Teresa. From Pythagoras he borrowed chiefly the pre-existence and reincarnation of souls.«^ he works upon matter.^a:^i.98 and even Hebraic. LIFE AND SIGNIFICANCE 107 by the Jewish-Alexandrian philosophers between God himself and His power working in the world (the Logos)). and the psychological facultv it implies.^2 about the Initiate or Hoopoe . and on the other with Clement of Alexandria. distinguished the world-builder^o as a second God.^^^ The expression of the flight of the alone to the alone should not therefore be credited to Plotinos alone. wrote about the mystic teachings of Plato . he being the principle of genesis or Becoming. He also teaches the methods of inner tranquilization title and contemplation. WORKS AND MESSAGE religion.^s 'The world. the production of the Demiourgos. he introduced into and explained by Greek philosophy." In short. Egyp- tian. The first God is £ood in and through himself. . from the highest deity. Numenius had been asked which descriotion he preferred.^^o who wishes to put every- hand with Second. He taught and practiced comparative methods.97 Homeric . or ecstasy. Numenius terms the three Gods. but also even to Socrates himself. is from Numenius. maker. the word flight is from Empedocles. not only in philosophy. He unites Greek teachings with oriental conceptions. Plato is said to have borrowed everything from Pythagoras and Moses. who united Pythagoras. While Philo united Hebraism and Greece.89 and he 12. He considered it his mission to oreoare tor popular enjoyment and use the best in philosoDhv and in mystic rites. He deliberately founded a Platonic school considering Plato the heir of the ages. he would no doubt have answered as revealer. That was the complaint of the Eleusinian divinities .9i he expounded Serapistic mysteries. Numenius united Hebraism and Egyptian philosophy as the soul of a new Platonic movement. thing into the light. and enlightener. opening the way for the Alexandrian school.^s Numenius ascribes this doctrine not only to Plato.^'* desires to become an interpreter of the divinity . and the principle of being.^'-^ He was there- fore a genuine enlightener.^3giye5 out alleged secrets of Socrates and Plato . son.^2 jg good by participation in the essence of the first :»8 he looks towards the supersensuous archetypes.95 wishes to show an unveiled image of matter. and Moses. the Egyptian notions of triads. He was known as the philosopher most greedy of mysteries . even if incredible and unlikely. the mediating divinity.^SSSii. ecstasy. Socrates. Numenius deserves primarily the name of a mystic because he teaches that contemplation is the chief purpose of life. vulgarizer. and thus forms the world. If studied experiences. NUMENIUS AS REVEALER AND MYSTIC. but in religion.^^i He shares this view on one Plotinos.^Mi£i^^l^»fs^. Origen. He also calls them father.9« and expounds all kinds of mysteries. is the third God. and the rush or union of the alone to the alone. and thereby acquires knowledge ." Chaignet's characterization is short and to the point :^^ "He is the pioneer of Neo-platonism.«i The second God. and made (creator and creation). and with the whole company of modern mystics. respectively. Philo was robbing the Greeks: Numenius the Greek retaliated by spoiling the Hebrews as well as the Egyptians. he is pure thought-activity (nous). ^"^ Harpokrates also followed Numenius in the doctrine of the three highest Gods.^^ For what purpose? First to reveal them.a5^^3Sl^ft^ t-^"- 106 NUMENIUS. and ^randson. and the conception of the soul's nature as number. and so in every respect deserves the of a helper to immediate bliss.

humorous. Aristotle made matter a mere deprivation. With Numenius. Plato finds the true being in the incorporeal." or mind. is even if difficult to understand. and coeval with the divinity. but they laid the chief emphasis on the corporeal. VIEW OF MATTER 109 The reader cannot help being delighted with the convergence of the manifold rays of the genius of Numenius: his individual. The Eleatics taught the unity of the incorporeal. Any one of these qualities would justify a claim to a permanent niche in the history of the world. we must that Greek philosophy began with the materialism of the Hylicists. the is acknowledged by Numenius. The Stoics had. in his assertion of necessity of evils. however. comfort and direct us. "» That such a dualism is difficult to justify metaphy^ sically. this doubleness of matter no mere reminiscence of Plato. it plays a part in the creation of the world. and in doing this. indeed.^ while the malicious nature ascribed to matter was ''already present in the beginning. his mysticism so scientific.^ This matter is named indefinite doubleness. matter. It is ungenerated. Numenius's conception of matter. retained a monism. he introduced into Greek philosophy a dualism between spirit and matter. creator of the world unites Seeing therefore that matter . to cheer. Ariaxagoras assumed a **nous. they form a mighty beacon. grateful as we are that at no time has God left himself without a witness in his world. and is not realize To remember derived from unity. which instilled order into this chaos. fidelity to CHAPTER III t Numenius's View of Matter. WORKS AND MESSAGE CONCLUSION. He said that the universe arose out of divinity and matter. his originality as living thinker. even if he cannot carry out a monism rigorously. poetic.108 NUMENIUS. his comparative religion. These Stoics Numenius publicly opposed by reasserting the old Pythagorean dualism.* but nevertheless Numenius praises Pythagoras for the courage of advancing the truth. so that even the spirit became a sort of attenuated matter. Together. worldwise personality. but is split by The it. yet withal so practical.

Third. and a laterformed^s special soul of matter. and the residue is supposed to be matter. or standing still. seems to lie in the ascription to matter of an innate motion.^^ But it does not entirely lack substance. that matter is called "doubleness. opposing itself. that its natural malignity cannot be eliminated. he looks upon it.^® and has no true being.*® Numenius gives us a further definition of matter. it is pictured as the evil world-soul^^ the mother.28 On such lines we will see that Numenius was no more of a dualist than Plato and Plutrach.^® he points out that. ever-changing bodies veil the naked statue of matter.^^ we still find the same contradiction as above. and he raises it to himself." that secondly Numenius draws a double contrast between God and matter. the (second? ) divinity has a yearning for it.^^ The evil in matter consists of much unregulated (desire). it is still not quite without substance. If. it still remains unstable. unforseen (impulse). and indeed.2» Even though matter is mere instability. than Plotinos. characterized by malice. The soul's influence appears in bodies as a tendency to dispersion. and is pictured as an infinite river. This would also be indicated by the fate of generation. and relying on his earlier demonstrations. This contradiction must be solved by the Plutarchian distinction of a non-existing original matter. we demand of Numenius an unveiled statue of matter.^* That which has three dimensions is not necessarily body.*® In the course of his polemic against the Stoics. Numenius calls matter necessity and chance. He here insists on the incorporeality of qualities. for Numenius seems to mean the soul by tri-dimensional Being. and needs a soul as a principle of coherence.^ It is incapable of surviving. we might indicate first.^^ If we were to try a tentative solution of this puzzle.^« the cause and guide of the passible part of the soul. however far we may divide up matter.ilO NUMENIUS. WORKS AND MESSAGE VIEW OF MATTER HI has an appetitive character.^ so that its annihilation would amount to destroying the world.^ A contradiction. however. It possesses no real existence.*^ That is probably why it is generally a misfortune for the soul to enter into a body. indeed. to the effect that the soul is immaterial. or physical and intelligible matter.^* In order to serve as basis for the evil in the world. Numenius directs us to abstract all bodies that are ever changing in the bosom of matter. or hindering Providence. nurse. who considered matter neither good nor bad. and feeder of bodies . chance. that though matter has no being.® therefore opposing the Stoics.22 jhe . that Plato and Plutarch both distinguished between primary and secondary.^^ to whom consequently some little substance might be ascribed. passion^^ ^nd confusion. and Providence and chance. Numenius considers it.** Following in the footsteps of Plato.

and of matter as mother. The latter two might be considered to make ud Thus we would come the "world. meaning J both "world" and "ornament. Only one conclusion is possible." Even Arius already insisted on this point. 1. this afore-mentioned mixture is identical with the water inspired by the divinity.^ therefore. however. that is why the third divinity is called "the world. The soul (of animals and men) is divisible.27 The divinity "adorns (or. including the heavens.i2 ^^ of the utilizable and the inutilizable. creates) the world Among . and the body arises only from its combination with Didymus^ had it is this mixture which constitutes the ship steered by him. begin with." 3. resolves itself into several further divisions. order. ^ THE WORLD-PROBLEMS. inasmuch as all evils originate in matter. scrutinized more carefully.' and the mixture extends to everything. "^^ But this division. therefore.^' nius. body (v). this mixed world would represent the sphere of the third divinity. The divinity improves the world^s by Providence. 25 which are said to consist of fire. generously and paternally. then the inorganic bodies^i are held together by a "habit" or "hexis. CHAPTER The Harmony.i- have intended to conceive of this universe as a triad. and thing (vi). for the following reasons.2o not be eliminated from this world. original matter itself IS a rapidly flowing stream. ^^ and the stars. whose purposes establish standards.» oyer which hover the yet unincarnate souls. composed of Providence and necessity or chance . introducing utility.^^ all is in alL^^ the entities of this world Numenius mentions the usual four elements." Translations from Greek mto Latm. so that when we read therein ornamented. WORKS AND MESSAGE Were we THE WORLD DIVISIONS OF 113 THE HARMONY. 8 Since. Thus the world is a mixture.. and further realm. demand to be completed for To !!^. IV or Mixture with the supplementary meaning omitted in each occurrence of the word. including the inferior divinities. The second divinity is in relation with the soul only by the intermediation of the third divinitv.^^ and elsewhere^^ we read that the human soul is receptive to energies. measure and beauty. or "machine of the universe"^ is unquestionably one of the principal doctrines of Nume- The A soul exists and is active only in a living body. that the soul exists in another. and this illustration would be felicitous. 3. and whose motions are said to exert no evil influence. Were ^^^^y ^"* ^" greater detail the illustration of Yu *^i^m"? !2 the Pilot. Nothing IS simple. depends on its being a mixture of two elements: of the divinity as father."22 then must the latter two^s be located in a realm further out from intelligence or life than the living body. 2.112 NUMENIUS. if Thus evil may to soul (iv)." we must ever bear in mind the possibil. spheres or grades of Being.« existence of the world.. which is organized by the soul.'" *^^ original Numenius might utilization for a world.^ This "harmony "* this mixture.ii of divinity and matter.^'^ The third divinity is the divine energy. for this ship would actually contain the souls of our world. in various successive descending degrees of existence. we must realize that the Greek word 'world" (kosmos) was a sort of a pun.

^i This CHAPTER V The First Divinity improvement world- is therefore the 4. 38 But the body makes the attempt to direct the passible part of the soul.^^ The whole process." But this expression occurred already in the Republic of Plato. 1. therefore. that is located within the appetitive. Numenius represents him as beinjs: the land-owner.' existing voluntarily. mortal. ^ He exists within himself. whose existence is called such in an improper sense.114 NUMENIUS. tasic of the divinity.^ He in relations with none whose life is one of leisure. and the latter implies a higher degree of existence. he remains motionless. is nothing more than an extension of the sphere of activity of the divinity. Numenius divides the divinity into three ^ gods.ii He is entirely incorporeal. "beyond essence. is surprising. but separates itself therefrom (at death)."^ is He is the "Standing God "» spending his life in tranquihty. Life. ^2 THE HUMAN BODY.36 which like some savior or divinity^^ holds it together during life.^ being the supreme. By himself^ he is the Good. 3 He busies himself exclusively with thought.i« not . and we statement that may suspect its being the basis of his the Good "hovers over existence. reason. or activity of thought.12 His solitude is well described as the goal of the experience is simple and indivisible. which consists of existence.^s The body has three dimensions. and other than himself.33 which process produces the "passional" or "passible" part of the soul. "28 ji^q purpose of this effort is to replace necessity or chance by Providence. and is penetrated by the soul. WORKS AND MESSAGE THE FIRST DIVINITY lis with splendid virute.^* The body is somewhat that is incarnated. ^ the most ancient. a material accretion grown up around the soul. or THE TRANSCENDENCE OF THE FIRST It is DIVINITY. we must contrast the genuine existence of the divinity. therefore. ^^ ecstasy. vegetative soul. and corrects its faults. without an originhe does not disperse himself.i» of farmer. For what purpose? Because that which is in order can be understood more easily. corporeal.15 That Numenius should make use of it. Plotinus who is usually credited with the origination of a still superior divinity. With matter.« and his name is "Being and Essence. is a struggle so to minimize the uneliminatable evils. of which the First is sovereign.^^ is The body THE FIRST DIVINITY IN ITSELF.i3 Making use of a poetic illustration. without any compulsion.

23 This conception of the First Good is the Idea or model of the Good^* (which. WORKS AND MESSAGE bemg THE FIRST DIVINITY :ii7 This very expression recurs in Plotinos. is a Platonic expression).^^ and as illustration thereof he first adduces the impartation of the sciences."29 drawing up matter to himself through that same emotion." Alterinjj this expression a very little bit." and forms the ^?' r "^L^^}^?^' '^^'^ philosophical statement is more intelligible if interpreted by the more modern conception of divine love. the "Idea of the Good. or. not even suspected. But in . and that is how he is the inexhaustible source of order. Numenius is enabled to attribute to the Supreme an innate movement which simultaneously appears complete stillstanding. Love is self -f orgetf ul and the bupreme allows his attention to wander by the mere fact that he is the Good. THE FIRST GENERATION. busies himself with matter and comes to desire it." though remaining "consubstantial" with Being. So long as this creator of Being busies himself exclusively with contemplation of the First Divinity. "^^ he remains motionless. diviner and more aged than him whom men accept as the Supreme. the First Divinity remained ever self-contemplating.^s Sometimes Numenius seems to call this "creator of Being" the second element of the divinity. Numenius makes the attempt to explain the procession of the world in a manner such as not to detract from the entire independence of the divinity by inventing the doctrine of a sort of process of giving which should in no manner diminish the giver. of course no world would ever have come into existence. Thanks to this conception.22 Thus he becomes a father. The result of this is that the "creator of Being becomes "the creator of Essence.116 NUMENIUS. "28 He is "fatherlv. Thus the divmity forgets himself.2o The divinity imparts life2i by the mere direction of his glance on matter. by which Idea the second divinity participates in the First. by the bye. so that he is thereby "split" or divided. and becomes the "creator of Being.27 and thinks of the second divinity with "longing. . of eternity and of salvation. is passionate in nature. THE CREATOR OF If BEING." Further we read^» that He is unknown. and in the second place the propagation of light. 2» the opposite direction he contemplates matter which the principle of evil. Numenius makes of it the "principle of existence.

the Idea of himself.2 grandfather.^s on telligible22 participates in the Ideas . he to as the "sower. being analogous to him. forced to produce the "creator of essence. Are we to locate the world of Ideas within the second divinity. This makes of him the principle of becoming." and the "beautiful world" of the primary forms.^ Ueberweg« insists that this deification of the second principle was Numenius' most remarkable deviation from Plato. and instill. inasmuch as he deposits. by Stoics called a "habit. further the pilot (the third divinity). he even attributed this his intellectual.? Yes. and directs the world according to them.* he becomes double and creates (in the very same when he wishes to become creative.? ).^ doctrine to Socrates. "^^ that we derive our progress (.^* "It is from his Forms do not exist exclusively in the sphere of the perceptible. inasmuch as he imitates the First. because the second divinity is double. his own Being in the Ideas. as we saw.^^ But there are also forms of inorganic beings." which are as immortal as the souls of the inorganic bodies.^s ." the divine immanence. constitutes the second divinity.H8 NUMENIUS.24 and thus forms men. it is that he derives all his coloring and goodness. He reigns by sweeping through heaven. 1. and horses. and second. ^» This surely is what is intended. indeed. contemplates the Ideas THE CREATOR OF It is ESSENCE. longing for the third divinity which makes of the second a creator. oxen. WORKS AND MESSAGE him THE SECOND DIVINITY 119 CHAPTER VI.23 3. ^^ by attributing creation especially to the second divinity. as the creator of being was the Idea of being). he is.^ Though still this second divinity remains intelligible.^^ j^ jg possible that this creation of the world constitutes the significance of that strangely familiar predestinational expressions^ that reason IS imparted "to all who were appointed to take part therein. the creator of becoming. i« Speaking allegorically. albeit Numenius himself remained unconscious of it. "the divinity that is becoming.i4 divine Sower he is the dynamic power by which the First Divinity enters into relations with matter. ^^ He is the . intelligible. but in the combination of the perceptible and intelligible. As the First Divinity divinity remains That is why he is the ''offspring"^ of the Through this thoughtful contemplation. his entering in his phase of creator of essence. the "beautiful world"» of the Ideas. 2« which." or a "hexis. and produces his own creator and the Ideas -^i 2." The sower^o sows himself as the Ideas or essence of each soul. first manner high.^ So he remains contemplative or is the intelligible. Hie Second Divinity ORIGIN OF THE SECOND DIVINITY. being. further. or unfolds. the second divinity is essence.^^ He is the second divinity because this creative activity leads him into relation with the perceptible as well as with is referred THE WORLD OF As the second IDEAS." the divine reason being scattered around by this process. above himself. because all that is perceptible.

or group of four. WORKS AND MESSAGE m THE SECOND DIVINITY themselves would belong to 121 IDENTinCATION OF THE PLATONIC IDEAS WITH THE PYTHAGOREAN NUMBERS. 24. to a Pythagorean. (d). Numenius seems to identify feeding on the sciences and contemplation of numbers. (a) 1. the remaining fragments derived from it contained allegorical expositions of the Hebrew writings. we know that the work was not exclusively mathematical. The soul derives sustaining food^* from the incorporeal sciences. and thereby learns judiciousness. for. But. the soul is fed on the sciences. for the remainder of his writings might more easily characterize nim as a Platonist 'i how would if . 2. The contemplation of numbers aids ecstasy. unless it meets.30 Proclus^^ tells us that according to Amelius and Theodore of Asine. progresses to the intelligible sphere. It is also possible that we should discover a reference to the Pythagorean Tetraktys in Fr. On the following grounds we may infer that Numenius identified Platonic Ideas. In the ecstasy. Further.some hindrance. The third divinity looks upwards towards the Ideas. and. the germ of the soul is a part of the second divinity. (b) 1. and that he claimed to find therein all the most perfect Pythagorean numbers.^' 3. The soul should be considered from the mathematical standpoint. and therefore must be one of his Ideas. the latter were as important as the Ideas were to a Platonist.120 NUMENIUS. The contemplation of the world of Ideas imparts judiciousness. it be possible to "contemplate numbers^^ they were not forms? It is from this stand-point that we may realize what must have been the importance of Numenius's treatise on Numbers. for elements evil matter. It IS also possible that it is to this treatise that Numenius owes his reputation of being a Pythagorean. (e).^^ 2.4b. Moreover.^2 2. and arrives at the contemplation of numbers and to the domain of the perceptible. (c) 1. and we have no hint of any other quaternary. according to Fragment 28. Numenius called the soul the "tetraktys" (the ''perfect number"). with Pythagorean numbers. considering each letter individually. and the course of emotions. When speaking of ecstasy.

There are th^ee tindrof dV"!f ".2o that all thes^devi^s were to Serapis.® is developed by his direct 2. Matter the to is the why perSf this. whose relations with matter are entirely limited to this channel. divinitv which presides over the sexual function of menie (probably Neptune).-"*^!^^^*"^^ ^P^^^^ (^^^ i^""^an sphere) » which s receptive for energies. lator who probably jhe Lis is is the creator. the sphere of the third divinity that we find the Soul of matter. He is the Providence of the world. it is solely through this third divinity that the second. The divinities of Olympus " and the heroes. for the Ideas cannot belong to any but the second divinity. let alone the First.^ ^''"^"S' h""^a" souls after f.122 NUMENIUS.^ that the passage about the pilot must surely refer to the third divinity. He constitutes the energy of the First Divinity. 6. this contemplation of the world of Ideas develops the pilot's own faculty of judgment. VIL 3.' mto f ^^f?/. Divinity.''" CHAPTER The Third 1.?°i^ life .^ since he is responsible for it.^^ 7. The souls that hover over the divinity. which souls. That is still a further proof of the localization here of the world of Ideas. and the "function" (of the third divinity). and the "material" demons who oppose incarnation. directs the world beneath him.^^ 5.^o y^is legislator "sows dfsS^^^'^y^^^s in each of us the seed of ?he l''^^^^^'^^ Idea. He himself is called the world* because he contains the "harmony" of the world.'^. which indeed agTeel Jith''f4"t'' Firmicus Maternus^i supports nto' the thP more mL. 3. WORKS AND MESSAGE THE THIRD DIVINITY 123 u'r^ ^i"^. THE WORLD. THE LEGISLATOR. which is sown by the third divinity as sower.^ He is the pilot who by directing his course according stars.13 Providence 2 It is in The third divinity is the offspring. instils life The while his emotional power relations with matter.^ The direction of the world by the pilot is not a profitless activity for him. PROVIDENCE AND THE PILOT. 8."^ which seems to point directly to Philo. Numenius calls the third divinity the legislator. or even Marcion.® Besides. enters into relations . or creature.^^ which hinders as bemg the maleficent universal Soul.n^ tT^^''}^^ ife.^^ beautiful ^\sdom. THE INFERIOR DIVINITIES.^« Porphyry tells us. for Providence is said to be the "creature" (of the second divinity).

into three or five. To begin with.». itcoherent self. ^^ All is in all. The divine triad itself is conceived of in different ways. UNITY PURCHASED AT PRICE OF HIERARCHICAL SUBORDINATION. maker and made. or. the second divinity. the Good. which.^ DIFFERENT DIVISIONS OF THE DIVINITY.^^^ or rather. Then we have the First Divinity as creator of Being. the divisible soul. who sows himself . creator and creature fore-father. The first divinity. Here follows still another division. Inorganic nature. and the Ideas of numbers of the world. The second divinity. the legislator (creator). The remaining fragments of Numenius represent the inner relations of the divinity so variously that no more can be attempted than to group them together. and dynamic power. the world. Evidently unity can be achieved only through subordination of the universe to the divine triad. Elsewhere. of everything to the One and Only is often repeated by Numenius We Numenius. but divided by matter into appetitive (power) and active (energy). Here^ First follow far more definite statements: the Theology. the creator of essence. more poetically. 1. 3. this very subordination is already indicated by the names which We dence.124 NUMENIUS. 6. and the original matter is the mother of the mixture from which springs the world. will have to be organized into one system. maintained by the soul. and the creator of being. also the potential or active energy. The third divinity. The First Divinity is the farmer or landlord. God is the Father. offspring. the creator of essence (the idea). Also the First Divinity himself. and the world of Ideas. appetite. The lower divinities.^ . and the second divinity himself. THEOLOGY and the third divinity is 125 the legislator who makes everything fruitful. the gods and demons. and Father. we find his image. creator and creature. and descendant. says Numenius: that which is still more worthy of reverence (that which is above being). 4. applies to the members of his divine triad: Father.^ find also a division into four. WORKS AND MESSAGE souls." or **hexis. CHAPTER VIII. 2 On the other hand. The human soul. . First. the of all germ as second is the sower. 2." 7. His imitator is the creator of essence. « ^ . and^' all the world that reason can cognize. Primary matter.^ Then we have three systems of names for the triad : Father. gathered from a list of the most important elements of existence. we find the first and second divinities together as creator^ and the third as creator or world. pilot or ProviDivinity thus have three divinities and one universe. as indeed it seems to men. offspring and descendant.* . so that the second divinity was good only by participation in the First. the intelligible domain of thought. we have the First Divinity. the World-Soul. or probably. foreThis subordination father. however. 5. the world of Ideas. organized by a *'habit. The body (animated nature). The unity of the Good^ had been distinctly promulgated by Plato. and then together the second and third generated as a unity. 2. Again. which holds relations with the superior soul. the intelligible and perceptible.

°^^" '^P°''ts.'' ARISTOTELIAN PSYCHOLOGY. and who taught the triad still further into an ennead. THE MICROCOSM. scatters them. of an irrational soul. after all. The soul '^^^* her germ. it WORKS AND MESSAGE IHE HUMAN SOUU 127 Numenius From all this would appear that though rigid classification. CHAPTER The Human 1. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF PLATO. this of two spoke already who Numenius. in its quality of being the creator of essence. Since the world origina ed from a union between God and matter the soul also is attacked and overborne by matter. followed m the the existence of three creators. and indeed we possess thirteen fragments of his treatise on the Indestructibility of the Soul psychology of Numenius we fin^/"i. with originated word that is creators and a legislator. but. but of different Now he uses the dialect of Aristotle.'^^-*"^-7u^ i*?^ find to begin with. and of a vegesouls. and speaks of a rational soul. duc. did not exclusively insist on any one division into he nevertheless was accustomed to use the who divided Proclus^' tells us that Theodor of Asine. and the three creators or Egyptian well have already been current in Gnostic circles. which.=« On the other hand. . and grows.*i"' f^^°//'^V° within the soul the passible partfi Thus evil attacks the soul from without." the latter a might Marcionite or Gnostic. originates in the world of fnlf '/"^u^* Ideas of the second divinity. Soul.126 NUMENIUS. IX. Numenius did not c„-?. favored by this union. merely must have foot-steps of Amelius. prj: immortaT' or[ in ^' Pu°f"' °^ ^"t^^^' ^hc is enabled to rnn LM''^ run th through the whole course up to the First Divinity « '^ inseparably joined to her consubstantial « speak of different parts of the soul. and sows them abroad. greater divne reason is the origin of the thinking part. Platonic expressions. 3 That is why the soul is on^^*!!'^'l-'^J"*f "* '" ^^^ development of the race and the individual must necessarily have extended to psycho ogy.

of the **the unification and indivisible consubstantiality soul and her origin. and this state of affairs if we considered man would also agree with the words. like the genuine PythaTorean^^^ was. A soul is a principle which organizes and maintains a body. considered in herself exclusively.u °. strated 5. but divisible in so far as she is a dyad. we have the right to assert that the soul herself pos- '^'' ^''P^"^'^" that thi ou? feeds on'th?Jl'''. We th<.i^ All these movements of life from within the body compel us to acknowledge the presence of She is immaterial and incorporeal. divinity. which is to gather togetheT whatever we divisible The . While speaking of the world of Ideas we alrearlv saw that Numenius.^^ just as a "habit" or "hexis" maintains any A soul is therefore a savior. meant by numbers what\ Platonist wou d have meant by Ideas. DIVISIONS OF THE SOUL. THE UNITY OF APPERCEPTION."^® would be the The mcorporeality of the soul may also be demonfrom the fact that she draws sustenanceTrom the incorporeal sciences. WORKS AND MESSAGE ^^Jt» THE HUMAN SOUL 129 from the tative soul. But it is the energies.^2 ^nd from third divinity that constitutes energy that the soul proof further a draw could we this also domain further than the is cons'dered as dwelling in a Hence also result the perceptions third divinity. from wh°chTer eerrS had descended at the beginning ^ might still further draw a distinction between these mcorporeal sciences^' and the world v ™ We sciences" 6.128 NUMENIUS. but its by-products. This as microcosm. as the being half-way between nature and what is beyond nature.i*f'^ "'Sht be compared to the contemolatinn /. soul penetrates into the entire tri-dimensional body. 13 i* It which are not its results.^ speaks definitely of a divisible soul. a inorganic object. souF' must therefore divide Nu1'^* ". she possesses no extension. 20 3. which would otherwise scatter into atoms. INCARNATION OF THE SOUL. although. and consequently to be immortal.' "° "«°^°"^ scientific divisions We ZXTiu^' might therefore leave it aside. which constitute her food " bcience may be communicated from one intelligence to another without any loss thereof in him who com municates it 5^2 and this is the nature of the ^ process of whatever the Divinity does for souls. sesses a triple extension. The is be this now present self-consciousness which may ^^ The soul can be decalled "aeon" or eternity. ^^ is said to be receptive to . PYTHAGOREAN PSYCHOLOGY. scribed mathematically.n our duty. indivisible in so far as she is a monad. and the soul. PyEorean 4.i** might also consider the relations between incorporeal sciences (mathemata) and the .?u*"^'" of the "beautiful world" of Ideas. for the body. these are said to be separable body. indeed are to be found every degree of actuality.^ "^"^^^l^^.i^ Nevertheless. He thought that he sorconsisted The latter soul possesses a "synthetic" power. since the does not constitute a body. but we would thus fai^ .

The Our what vegetative soul. distributed These elements of the universe of Numenius are in different manners.^ and assemble above the water inspired by the divinity. X. in the few frag- ments that we possess. Threefold Salvation. synthetic unity of apperception.^® 7. the and the vegetative.^^ we are told. dynamic power.^ These are also divisible from the body. draws no distinctions between the various causes that might result in a return into the body. longs for matter.^® If a division into two is desired.'' Numenius. energy. while the passive or vegetative part would contain the last three. further the fourth will make up an irrational consciousness. the rational part. us the self-con- of Life. ^ After death the soul abandons this world by the gate of Capricorn. Imagination. which grows on from matis mortal. try to hinder the soul stroy the soul.® and although life is a kind of prison.^^ Material demons of the West from doing this. 5. WORKS AND MESSAGE Here is THE THREEFOLD SALVATION 131 find scattered here and there. and the vegetative. Reason. nevertheless. was accepted unquestioningly by all Platonists or Pythago- . thought. and im- pulsion. passion. essence. at least.^^ consciousness possessing the freedom to choose with which part it prefers to identify itself. that which gives sciences of this world. we would have the rational part.28 and seeks to distract the body inevitable evil.27 6. The and 8. hovering over to re-enter into a body. researches: the result of our that which 1. the Good in deserves reverence.^ Then the souls descend by the so-called gate of Cancer.^ But. and what is active. seeking to de- The doctrine of metempsychosis. perceptible. 2. that is synthetic. he considers them all as evil. is one characteristic of all the souls. and all are im- Immortality irrational. 3. appetite. ter. of petite. and Being. it^^ until Such a they find occasion return. the soul is to be made into three.5 The soul follows this attraction although the evils of life cannot be eliminated. In all of the foot-steps this. which cannot be eliminated. that originate in matter. sciousness.130 NUMENIUS. Numenius followed Plato. itself.^^ 4. does not occur easily. will contain the first three elements. The one consists of an unification of all differences between the soul and her source. which is derived from the divinity.^ From this on two paths diverge. and extends even to the inanimate "habit" or form of inorganic objects. suffering. naturally. That which is CHAPTER The Goal 1. on the other hand. the other souls are attracted towards a new body by pleasure or apin mortal. the Good that that which gives the incorporeal sciences as food for the soul. which is receptive for energies. if the division of menius's momentary need. and which go to make up the body which has grown up from without the soul. according to Nu- Thus. bodily anatomy. to lower directions. The THE LIFE BEYOND.

^3 jhjs explanation of the world as wetness seems to us very far-f etched. reads into it the conflict between men of philosophic interests. Combining these unquestioned beliefs. life life. WORKS AND MESSAGE THE THREEFOLD SALVATION 133 reans.22 and this disordered (appetite). Porphyry^*^ combines the latter two opinions." so that Numenius might in perfect good faith.^* . but it must have sounded very natural to the Greeks.^^' If on the contrary the soul. the lower part will yield. in whose language the word "dieros. had busied herself with better things.^* it is evident that our life cannot be anything else than a struggle. 2. 27 The reward of good choice is a fresh happy incarnation . is no more than the same desire which drew the First Divinity on to create the second. THE PUN OF WETNESS. Since evils cannot be eliminated from life. of a wolf. planets. 20 and the object of the soul's life here below is to leave it. and the second to create the world. "becoming") to a river that flowed on. or a swan. or sexual activity (the vegetative part." in the time of Homer. of a monkey. ^^ as well as also to achieve physical Human sense as result of his general doctrine. this attraction.28 but in this world we may hope to achieve the bliss of ecstasy. meant "livdesire to return to this world does not consist only in an animal or is instinct with eternal purposes." instead of "the livmg souls. etc. she would be able to return into a human body. Heraclitus used this word how he came 3. this is m mg. 4. Amelius reads into it the struggle supposed to exist between the fixed stars and the happiness. this word came to mean *Vet. and that Heraclitus compared the world of generation (or. A soul was supposed to choose a body similar to the kind of life she had led below. while Origen sees in it nothing more than the struggle between the good and evil demons. it Not for a moment must we lose from sight that the beginnings of Greek philosophy were materialistic. i« on the contrary. which springs2« from the generosity of a paternal divinity.132 NUMENIUS. THE SALVATION OF THE INDIVIDUAL. of an ass. Nevertheless. appeared the idea that a would seem a desire for wetness. LIFE AS STRUGGLE." Later. as indeed Plato and Pythagoras had insisted. and those who carry on generation.15 The Platonic legend of the struggle between the Athenians and the Atlantians is considered a fact only by Grantor. and thus teaches a conflict of souls for the privilege of reincarnating into the world. it is a conflict to diminish evils. in a lower sphere. On one hand. during life. and. or to be compelled to enter into the body of a kite or hawk. or the unity of apperception) must choose between wisdom (the rational part of the soul).^s This constitutes salvation. and whenever the soul permits herself to be persuaded. to get wet. this impulsion is not fatal. for the divinity strives continually to persuade her. Numenius. after all.^® Individuality (consciousness.21 But then why should the abandonment of sexual life seem so painful ? Because nature endows it with pleasure and passion." Of course. and the knowledge of Good. have read in that Homeric passage. a soul could degenerate enough to be able to wish. "the wet souls. this unforeseen (impulsion) this chance and this passion^^ nevertheless exercise charm enough to entrap souls into the imprisonment of incarnation. 24 But love is divine. but an enjoyment. and that to say that for souls it was not death.

There remains but one more possible salvation a salvation logical enough. From time our improvement. he is an optimist. THREEFOLD SALVATION. and strength of emotions. energies. to time approach these sciences.*"^ and the sexual life. the salvation of the divinity itself. the seeker after the ecstasy will approach that which is still more alone. which consists in his choice.^s The method he suggests as likely to lead to the ecstasy is the following: 1. 7.." But it is only in a divine manner. It is therefore progress to which Numenius points us..3* Thus we receive from the third divinity.3» and this would be equivalent to the contemplation of divine Ideas or forms. though only the third. and contemplate numbers. or exterior realm. but of which few people think . and which Numenius describes in terms so glowing that the reader is invited to return thither. as that of light. Having become entirely alone..^^ 3.. and from the first.83 Sciences are the food of the soul. The rejuvenescence resulting from acquaintance with the sciences might be interpreted as the food the soul derives therefrom . which springs from the divinity is still threefold.32 Thought is useful to US. This salvation. they are identified with numbers and Ideas. from the second intellectual food. All this in the third. The salvation of the world is its improvement.. The increase of judgment and the power of the emotions.^^ and thus follow wisdom. 6. or mental sphere. Numenius is no pessi- whereby he . Even the divinity. and this from steering the ship of the universe. But is it enough ? No so far the passage was "easy. and thus gains^^ therefrom a so-called power of judgment. that we : mist. have also been described. the reception^o of energies that are derived from the third divinity.^i Receiving of the science which the divinity grants as without any loss. even such as seemed incredible and improbable. which derive from the contemplation of the world of Ideas. his feeding on the sciences. 5. This is what has to be done in the second. WORKS AND MESSAGE Numenius suggests methods for THE THREEFOLD SALVATION Then 135 THREE METHODS OF MELIORATION.35 These are the three successive elements of the ecstasy. The salvation of the individual. He was known as a man who studied all kinds of experiences. only in thought^^ in a manner that demands courage. indeed. and the ecstasy.. the sciences. To begin with. as result of studying the stars. PROGRESS. Numenius was not the man to be satisfied with the realities of this world.134 NUMENIUS. 2. ^^ strives to return to unification with reason. which are Ideas.^* . One must put to one side the visible world. of which we have already spoken. THE ECSTASY. identifies himself with the better elements of his nature.

CHAPTER The Greek Sources XI. 2 He insisted that Plato owed the greater part of his doctrines to Pythagoras. unfortunately. and this will be the most important and will most interesting investigation." which of is found again with Hermes. 137 PYTHAGORAS. mdeed. The latter described the generation in terms of wetting. and of matter. of tKe World-soul of the human soul. although very insignificant. descending and ascending These sources divide themselves naturally into the following origins.9 Again. is more likely derived from Marcion. there will also be a great deal that Numenius thought was owing to Plato. But the cause of the creation of the world. who explained the divme nature by the mathematical relations of the musical scale. Heraclitus. the Stoics. the words of Heraclitus himself do not occur. and . Zeller and Ueberweg had insisted upon a Valentinian origin for the idea of the Demiurge. Moeller had already indicated some traces of Stoic influence.136 NUMENIUS. the Placita. have been discovered in the Pistis Sophia of Valentinus. WORKS AND MESSAGE THE GREEK SOURCES Greek Sources. be in Plato that we must look for the basic origins of Numenius.i9 Heraclitus nad said that the one was derived from the whole. Egyptian: historical. Several efforts. and the "legislator. Empedocles. Moeller had observed five Philonic parallelisms. as an intermediary. Empedocles. of Numenius. Brontinus and Nicomachus. Aristotle and the gorean such as Alexander Eudorus. Anaxagoras. it was first used only in the sense of "plurality" by Pythagoras. had already been made. Doubtless. the opinion of Diogenes Laertes. and Hermetic. the Hermetic writings.* of Apuleius ^ and of Plutarch. having blamed Homer for having wished to eliminate all evils from life. ^ but he might have received these doctrines indirectly through Plato.3 and although this.!* The "becoming" is a river. and was thus used in the "Philosophumena" of Hippolytus. was surely derived from Pythagoras. "^s The Life is We here Platonists. and the material demons of the West. Graeco-Egyptian: Philo and Marcion. The Stoic term Sixtus. ^^ one conflict. Greek: Pythagoras. But. Heraclitus. Xenocrates." that we would have expected to find in the works of Philo. path appears as here also. Anaxagoras. to us. 1. but Moeller shows that this idea is in reality Platonic. Pythagorean be by Pythagoreans "harmony. which Numenius himself had introduced into Platonic philosophy from other sources. but this domain has been enlarged. seems strange.^^ Numenius^s also quotes Heraclitus. HERACLITUS. the revered term "Tetraktys"^® was by Numenius applied to the soul and to the world ^^ 2. Other sources have been studied. it was. The idea of the "aeon" is a similar case. Numenius had said that all was in all. The expression "indefinite duality''^ that we find in Numenius^ was recognized to THE SOURCES OF NUMENIUS. Numenius informs us^^ that Zeno had learned to be obscure and severe from Heraclitus.i^ again discover the "harmony. Chaignet had observed some Pythasimilarities. Numenius was indeed known as a Pythagorean. a contemporary of Numenius. but it lent itself easily to a binary division of divinity. it Since Numenius demands that we return to Plato.

however.^^ However. ^^ There is but one Supreme being.25 and consequently this became one of the cardinal doctrines of Numenius. we here find the unity of all things.^^ in this case we could derive this from Herac- We We On the breast of harmony all alone^* dwells the Sphere. rejects it as a Stoic doctrine. the "grotto. a bird or a fish. all incarnations must come from evil. although indeed he used another word.35 this reminds us of the object of the Numenian ecstasy. and by purification of virtue returning to heaven originated without doubt with Empedocles.2» presided over by the evil demons of the West.^^ We have seen that Numenius was accused of believing in a literal transmigration of the soul^^ It is possible that there IS therein some trace of Empedoclean opinions. said he. Since evil comes from matter^s therefore. who made unity pass into multiplicity and multiplicity back again into unity. where wisdom is represented as by itself. "discord. EMPEDOCLES. opposed to the earthly science is a divine science by which each man within himself contemplates the divinity by the eye of love which never sleeps. then the monstrous and irregular compositions. However. find in Numenius mention of the cosmic catastrophe of Empedocles. WORKS AND MESSAGE THE GREEK SOURCES 139 the whole from the one. 3. but in the divine principles." as symbol of the universe. a representation of the divinity . Numenius spoke of a "logos" that we have had trouble to render exactly. when this doctrine is applied to cosmology.27 but they amounted to the same. as a result of this play between unity and manifoldness. ^^ could still consider ecstasy a momentary rest in the effort of life. The passing of the descending souls. 33 litus. this was nothing but the result of "friendship" and **discord" reacting one on the other. Numenius.^® guilty. ^^ The universal reason is the basis of all things. The latter believed that." and Numenius "struggle" .32 The reason for the descent of the souls is that they are of reason. after the manner of Frederic Harrison) between the living forms* 3 §0 that Empedocles could say that he had been a boy a ostrich. the natural construction of the present animal races. In respect to the latter. The opinions of Numenius in the fragment about the Cave of the Nymphs^^ is also derived from a combination of Heraclitus and Empedocles. a transmigration of particles took place (a kind of immortality. and finally the propagation of each of these after its kind. and possesses participation Here we again disco ver38 the gradation of the elements of the universe which we have demonstrated in Numenius. Empedocles describes a sort of evolution of life.39 Numenius shows us that manifoldness could not take its origin from unity ^o This. is exactly the opposite of the opinion of Empedocles. could even find the transcendence of the Supreme being in Heraclitus 18. which separated violently. because they are guilty. with the overhanging roof. later. Heraclitus. . first of individual members.*^ Nevertheless.^^ After all.138 NUMENIUS. 37 elements that enter into the composition of different organic substances. Empedocles and Anaximander taught that the universe was a mixture.22 The psy-chological faculty of ecstasy is found in Empedocles.*« Neither do we find the word **purifica- however. We do tive not. ^^^h V^ Zeller^s ^oes not think that this idea was exclusive of the traditional metempsychosis. and he thought that a harmony of these two natures was impossible. However. according to Empedocles it may therefore be the mutual proportion of the respecis full Everything m science. Numenius applied this struggle to the reaction between the body and the soul. Empedocles taught hatred.^® He finds the union and identity of the soul not in the body. as a dualist would naturally have done.






much used by



God.^« We find this again in Plotinos, but not in Numenius. On the other hand we do, indeed, find the guardian demons.^^ Empedocles thought that the world was filled not only with divinities, but with demons who, in case they were guilty, were forced to expiate their sins by evolutionary incarnations.^®

ment of oneself to the vivifying love, the abstinence from sheddmg of blood, and from impure food.^*^ This purification is thus described: The soul flies toward

the abandon-




between unity and the ^'indefinite duality" of Pythagoras; which, however, may be considered quite a Platonic term.''2 b^^ Numenius himself tells us^a that he took the idea of the soul's being nourished bv the sciences from Xenocrates.

It was Xenocrates who had added to Platonism the very logical development of wicked demons opposed to the good.51 He also introduced in it the opposition

heaps Lakydes, had already been a source of merriment elsewhere, as in the story of Sphairos, at the court of Alexander.^*

as parallelism between Numenius and the "composite soul,«5 also the imagination.«« Then there are the "symptoms, "^^ and the "parakolouthon," the corollary, or by-product. With the doctrines of Numenius, Chaignet also compares the four Stoic categories; the hypostasis, the property, the variety and the variety of relations. The incpmprehensibihty of presentation^^ which is supposed to be derived from Zeno, and on which Numenius


habit" or ^'hexis" is a form of inorganic beings.^* I tiis IS, in the inorganic sphere, what in the organic is the soul or what in the soul is the "predominating function. "57^ The "tonic tension" ^^ is a clearly Stoic term5» and indicates the degree of incarnation of the pneuma.«o The tonic tension produces motion, and is the substance.«i The "habit," on the contrary is a tension of the "pneuma," or spirit.«2 find here also the "perversity of the germs. "«3 Chaignet«*



the Stoics


telling the story of



mingled with the parts of the soul in the V\^. \^V^ seed.71 When we call the original unity Zeus, we may call the aether Athene, which reminds us of the significance of Athene in the Atlantean legend.^^ The seeds of Jupiter, as souls, remind us of Numenius's parable or the cosmic Sower. ^3 The creative relations, or "loeoi spermatikoi" give us a possible interpretation of the word "logos" in Num. 27. The Stoics do indeed teach cycles but they are cosmic cycles of world-periods, while the cycle which Numenius is interested is thPlatonic descent into incarnation, and ascent therefrom

one of the sources of the philosophy of Numenius, we meet a rather interesting situation Numenius spent his life in opposing this system; but, while doing so, two things happened; he made current use of all Stoic terms, and not always merely to oppose them (as the '*habit;"'^M ^^^ ^j/jg controversy compelled him to define his own ideas more accurately. Further, he would probably never ^ controversialist, had he not been forced fn defend ntf/"!??-^ to himself against their savage attacks ^5

In studying Stoicism as




of Pythagoras for describing the facts of life as they are with common-sense, even if his arguments seem

before whose day all the heat and burden of the personalities involved in the discussion have faded away, the actual differences between Numenius and his opponents have shrunk to a contention about definitions, and we feel inclined to agree with Numenius that the Stoics fought chiefly for the love of fighting.''^ Nevertheless Numenius could not escape the same blame, for he defended Platonism with partisanship, and did not catch a glimmer of the final Neither of the comsolution of the problem involved. batants saw far enough to understand that arguments apply only in the intellectual sphere, and that the latter is not universal, being strictly limited to the exercise of the human intellect, beneath and above which are other spheres, each resting on a different kind of conviction; the sub-rational relying on sense-presentation, the supra-rational on intuition. The difference between Numenius and his opponents was then that of appealing to differing standards of conviction: the monistic Stoics to arguments that were invincible so long as they neglected Numenius's acceptations of the practical dualism of common sense. The Stoics and Numenius were therefore describing the identical facts of life from
US, of course,


differing stand-points, and in differing dialects. Failing to analyze the basis of this difference, the controversy might have continued, and actually did, until

unreasonable; when pressed for a solution, he takes refuge in the omnipotence of God"^^ and Providence.''^ His antagonists the Stoics, with more logic, but less good sense, claimed to be monists; but on their professed theory they were compelled tp choose one of the two, matter or spirit, as basis of the other. Since, however, the experiences of life forced them to accept the reality of matter before their senses, they allowed themselves to be driven to say that all substance is more or less corporeal^o so that the nature of body is essentially good. This denies the existence of evil, and Numenius brings out^i that when these Stoics are forced to explain the undeniable evils of life, they took refuge in a mythical ^'invention" of theirs, the "perversity of germs, "82 to explain an "indifference" of matter.83 But this is quite evidently no more than a quibble, and a quibble on the part of logicians! The choice before them, therefore, was between a false logic, or in an illogical common sense. We must acknowledge that it is impossible logically to correct this dualism by the trick of Empedocles, who said that unity developed into manifoldness, and then returned to

exhaustion of the combatants: terminating with the death of Numenius on the Platonic side, and with the last philosophical Stoic, Posidonius, also an Apamean.

Numenius was indeed an avowed dualist.''^ but was thereby no more than following in the footsteps of
Plato, Aristotle^^ did not hesitate openly to class with other dualists such as Empedocles or Anaxagoras. Numenius acknowledged that dualism raised an ultimate irrational problem^' and he openly approves

Numenius prefers to acknowledge that evil is inseparable from any kind of an incarnation,^^ and he describes evil as an accretion and by-product. Both Numenius and the Stoics, therefore, were unfaithful to something, either logic or common sense, failing to grasp the higher unity of human individuality, which contains both.




have seen that the Stoics hoped to avoid dualism by explaining that spirit was no more than a mode of







But, on their own statements, the Stoics are practically duahsts. They are forced to abstract pure matter into an entirely mobile condition.^^^ They are forced to differentiate two principles, variously named God

and matter, the active and passive, cause, mind, reason, world-soul, law, fate or providence, as opposed to the indifferent material; the soul is said to be corporeal, but they are forced to call it a "spiritual" body.^^ The divinity is by them to be considered hermaphrodite, both male and female.^s Although thus all is said to be one, yet common-sense forces them to discriminate the "predominant" element.^'* The undeniable experience of ecstasy forces them even to teach an elevation of rational consciousness to the Divinity, whereby is achieved kinship and equality with God. Their personifications of natural forces are nothing else than the demons of Numenius, and the immanent predominant element of the universe is nothing more or less than the Platonic World-soul. »»



Greco-Egyptian Sources.


PhlLT.^^f Philonic traces m Numenius. The remainder of these pomts were gathered by Guthrie.

INFLUENCE OF PHILO JUDAEUS. who collected the following


i.J'fh^T^"^"^^''^!;^^^^^ ish theology; therefore



These arguments could not be advanced by Numenius, however, for the argumentative Stoics would have merely evaded and quibbled. So he advances against them arguments which, in their day, seem to have been
considered cogent. From the definition of soul as that which animates and quickens, and organizes body, the soul herself, if corporeal, would demand some still profounder soul to vivify Her and to act as a savior towards her.»i An attempt to evade this by explaining the material nature of the soul as "tonic tension" is merely a change of labels, and an evasion, in view of the incorporeity ot qualities themselves.^^ -pj^g g^^j ^^-^^^ incorporeal, she can unite with the divinity, and become inseparable from it,^^ ^nd so all forms of the scale of evolution down to the lowest inorganic form, or "hexis" are immortal.®^

some Jewish theologian or philosopher who would as colleague in philosophy, specially appeal tThim As Numenius quotes Genesis, he may even have been ^^^"^h th^ acquIfntSnce mTv havr^..n'may f^'T^'^^h have been mdirect, only, through Philo P^^on of the Supreme as the Standing rnri 'c % S^"^f God IS at least noticeable in Philo, ^ even thoueh it makes us first think of the Simonian gnos^^ where
'.?"*'^'* *^ *^^ corporeal f%f^i^l 'ne definite name of the

'""^^ reverence for the Jewhe must have been familiar



God,The word


distinctly Philonic.3

Second Princinle fh^ *^''"'^P^^' *^^

"dittos," or double, which


n"t'p?attic'?^ 'K sTnSilaTappiied lo t^he^LogosT^"'






Second God the Son of God °^ Third God, the offspring of fh.''pof."''*l^.,*°'''''' the Father Philo called the Logos the principle of thl ^"'',.*'^" "'^^"^ ^°^'d. as both God Ihf i.^°"'^
calls the



^ 7. already taught that the Supreme transcended intelligence. Nevertheless. which interchange of sympathy would naturally open the way for interchange of thought.i^ It would result from the threefold soul^^ with the addition of the superior faculty of aesthetic 21 perception. The wise man. which is not easily explainable from any source. Connected with this is Philo's metaphor for inspiration.2« 1 7. NUMENIUS. and. about "feeding" on the sciences. Elsewhere we have already noted Philo's anticipation of Numenius in the use of the word "double" as applied to both the human soul. and to the Logos. ^'Though it may seem incredible. speaking of "the sacred sect of the Pythagoreans. namely. anticipating Numenius and Plotinos.^* 9. Philo did so on Pythagorean grounds. Of course. he had set forth each of these qualities separately." Apparently this good feeling was returned. Philo is fond of the thought that God is saviour of the world. It is probable that in thus considering the number four sacred. meet in Philo also the metaphor of the sun ray.28 19.^ But he does not definitely apply the name Lawgiver to the Second God as did Marcion. of feeding on celestial bread.27 Even the Logos is called a fugitive and suppliant.82 23. the Stoic term for "predominant"). to represent the method of divine giving. Philo states expressly that the Supreme is simultaneously swift in motion. that God was swift^^ and standing still.^^ With this." Elsewhere. This simultaneousness of motion and stillness practically results in strife. he once calls the fifth of the subordinate Powers of the divinity the Lawgiving Power. "the only being who stands firmly.23 15.^^ Connected with this notion of soul-struggle is that of the spiritual armor. God.^o 21. The number four is considered sacred and explained. Philo also employs the figure of the sower. 16. Philo exerted this same philosophic sympathy towards the Platonists. outstrips everything. and the lower Logos! or mere "God. It is. intoxication with spiritual wine. 2« exercise of this psychological faculty then 18. for vision. The term WORKS AND MESSAGE GRECO-EGYPTIAN SOURCES the relation between the :i47 "lawgiver'' was by Philo generally referred to Moses*'. other The results in ecstasy. of course. while standing still.29 Philo also employs the figure of the election of We . With Philo these metaphors represent the soberer scientific statements that each soul has a faculty of superior perception. 22 14. Philo.^® 10." although applying it to wise man and unalloyed knowledge. 13. the soul which we find in Numenius."^^ 3. in which alone the soulathlete gains a prize. and firm in establishment. feeds on virtues. or "standing"^^. therefore. We and the even 20. particularly mentioning their "participation. for he must have sympathized with this school of thought. by which the soul may participate in the supersensual. we must not forget the worldcelebrated distinction between "the" supreme God. and the creative. of course.31 22. Philo is very fond of looking on the Logos as Pilot of the world." without the article^s which reappears in Plotinos. meet in Philo also the Empedoclean conception of flight. preceded by the definite article. therefore.146 6. he usually combines the figure of the Logos as Charioteer of the soul or world. above discursive reason. ^^ 11. 24 This is the identical expression of Numenius. not unexpected to find that the two supreme Powers of God are the royal (or ruling. ^^ 12.

^^ and was generally recognized as ^'gni^cant "^^l'"-'*^'^. 'th^T i"'"." This implies contact with persons who used that term familiarly. is ^' ^^^ not demonstrative. a zealous restorer of Platonic doctrine might have taken it *? directly from Plato as d?d to association with them subordil nof^H demiurges nated which is far more Platonic than Va 1entinian. This does. The basic conception of the Logos. Zeller^^ suggests that Numenius*^ had from them derived the idea of a Demiurge.^^ while Valevidently applies it to the fifst Tyzygy of in Pythagorean "tetraktys. it is only \tmrmit Platonic *'[. however.^^ Later. It may have been the result of his reverence for the traditional "royal middle road" between extremes. Since visited Alexandria. This.^^ strongly reminding us of Numenius.. 25. WORKS AND MESSAGE is 24. NUMENIUS. inasmuch as originally man was created single. philosophically employed already by Aristotle in the first book of his Nicomachean Ethics.^* Still. however. we have scheme of numTrouf TeonT must m K*. this seems a later distinction. This double nature elsewhere explained as GRECO-EGYPTIAN SOURCES T^ifllT^T'"''' strate that Numenius 149 male and female. it need be no more than a sharing of popular conceptions then current. does not appear in the extant fragments of Numenius. or both male and female. The result of this is that the universe appears as a triad^® which may be illustrated by the names father. mythologist. need not be actual debt of Numenius to Valentinus. and the Demiurge. It is quite true that the Valentinians'*'^ taught them that Sophia and the aeon (elder) Jesus begat a son Achamoth^^ who gave birth to the world.*'""/ aeons of course.. Therefore. Ueberweg notes that Numenius might have been indebted for some of his conceptions to the Valentinians. Sto'c Qt* •^°""'^*u'". VALENTINIAN INFLUENCE.! as well as also^^ {„ ^ns division of the mediator between God and man. there are two more. while in Atlas IS discovered the demiurgical power.^^ Second.'^ 26. a connection of some kind is not impossible. which is only the rational explanation of the process of participation (Platonic) or emanation (Egyptian). we meet the Stoic conception of a God who is a hermaphrodite. the pneumatical principle. Atlas is no longer the demiurge.148 J." which Numenius '"^^1°^. or Providence.^l'J\t S ^ hfs?orv'«'"'.n'!l"''' history. indeed." to which'>« Nurnenius states that he "has no objec ion if anybody de jres to name eternity thus. but the lower god procreation. but does not demon- owed it inasmuch as Numenius. ^^^^•^^^^"^'"[^"'^ ^"* ^^ hierarchically Pmninvc employs entinus ''^ his description of the soul. with Philo. may not be identified T.? ^'^ ""u* 'P^^^ ^^ *^^ ^"^ dem?u?ge.with^ NumenTS . Of points of contact. 27. amonJ seen reason to suppose Numenius and since his period of life is the same as that of Valentinus. who is attacked and overcome by he spirit who IS struggling back to his origin rand who therefore." where Athena is the ^^^ Intelligence. son and grandson. is doubtless that of mediation.°fn Stoic '^"lu"^ jargon. MoeIler^« is also of this opinion. "^^ 2. adapted from common sense.^® This.'" ^^' sS such" le^en^' p"?'! the Atlantean m . or c:w. and only later came the female. though in Plotinos. immediately come to mind But the • ^'^'^ his detailed relation is f^'?*°'" " reappears in Corth.^ '^ ^" ^'^ description of 5i^r'"'n' the "smil soul. the Gnostic term "aeon. But in Numenius^s we find the Atlantean legend slightly different. the Logos is an ambassador^^ or a prove that the Demiurge notion was current within Gnostic circles.

which is a sort of fall. who to demons. Both Valentinus and Marcion employed the conception of a demiurge. 64) were at first hard to trace. but represents also a sort of fall of the Divinity. was. MARCION. volved relations with these heresiarchs is thereone case as in the other. There is.^^ Later both retod to Alex?^. but this source did not seem to have any Western reference. Moeller practically confuses this distinction. intelligence. seemed to indicate Stoic origin. pneumatic. WORKS AND MESSAGE and in GRECO-EGYPTIAN SOURCES Numenius. a point practically demonstrative.^^^^^^^^^^er in i^arcion and N^umen us' ' With Numenius.^^ occupation with Matter. iif^/r^' r^^^^'' admit a Gnostic source^f for this idea If we at ^ of the lawdver differ- The word **hylic" Fr. and hylic. wfth^M Marcion. Sophia. at last uncovered in the Egyptian divinities three material demons of the West. who mentions among '^.^^^ created three The Westsubstances. it is perhaps not with- .IJ^'^^^^""' "^'r'^ reproduction of this exact grouping of \fjP'''\^^f Ideas mdicates EgS acceptation of Valentinian influence 3.^owever no fragment remains even to hint any relation between the lawgiver and the Mosaic law. mediary. the word "hylic" might equally refer to Valentinian associations.150 NUMENIUS. in His demiurgic Divinity. entinus We '^ ^^^^ ^^^^^'^^ than wk7va Tl however.'''^^^^^^ *^^^ Numenius migh? have Pnl^'n T^' entered mto • fore as great m and the Numenian idea. it might be than the -cosmic law" of Philo^^ which is eternal f ''^'. Moeller acknowledges that this trend lies already implicit in Plutarch. and is a natural result of the dualistic scheme. but in Plutarch it has not yet become distinct. he was the promulgator of the Mosaic law. So we would have a Platonic origin for both the Gnostic While it is conceivable that Numen^^''' ^^^^^«y from '^. which reappears both in Egyptian religion. as the Valentinian demiur^e.' '''"? ''''''' *^ circumference and Zint extremities whose return to the centre. forming thus the fundamental bond of the universe noS f before Ujrth. but with Valentinus this Idea was not intimately bound up with that of the divine lawgiver and formed no more than a negltible ^^^^^^"> on the confary fZ^'^^'^V^'^''^' r^'^^ ust as in the case of Numenius. the demiurge formed S?I all somewhat Thedinga. for he points out Valentinian influence in Numenius's reason for the creation of the world. or the Crocodile. ^ As to the Hebrew scriptures. of which the chief Now in the Pistis was Sekhet. and thus is split. psychic. however. in this very connection of souls Budge. we find the great god Crocodile. However. where we find hylic demons. In another place. yet this Mosaic law was by Marcion considered cosmic in scope. however. the formation of the world representing the Demiurge's effort to return to immediate union with Thus the creation is not only necessary. against the preference of Dr. regretted to find in Numenius references The "hylic" demons of the West (in PP^^^s in both. forgets himself. or creator. frequently points out. e'n'tinir^'wfmust. acknowledge a '' ern reference. who is rather a cosmological interThus Numenius's Atlas is really a gnostic symbol which Moeller. and this in connection with a fragment gathered by the writer. in the later parts of his work. or loss of self of the The Second God. \5i Second God. With Numenius. however. Which of them became of greatest philosophical utility to Numenius is a question which could be settled only by '"^ ^''' ""^ *^' ^'*'^^'^ correspondences^ in^ Marcion and Valentinus were contemporaries at Rome under Eleutherius.

nor prove much bevond the general atmosphere of the thought of Numenius A reference to the veiled image of Truth at Sais is possible a search for an unveiled image of truth -^ inundations would naturally refer to thi Nile.^ the doctrine of reincarnation interpreted literally. from Eusebius. dualism which relates Numenius and Marcion. Here comes Tertullian'^^ who faults him for havinir followed in the foot-steps of the Stoics.152 NUMENIUS. then for another. XIII.®^ Here again we find a parellelism drawn from the same work of Numenius's. or those of some philosopher connected with them. Then. and this claim is based on details that remind us of Numenius. at first seem a very close connection. friendship and discord (mixture and struggle). who. if not for one reason. surely. It Besides The was. as Budge tells us. or at least have had definite. therefore '"'^ ^'"^^^^ indications as ma^ ^'^ We m ^' m The ma iTfe recommended those very practices mentioned above. Sources. but the soul from the divinity. as would be the case country in which flourished animal-worship . the second God. must have hylic there are three demons . however. for although Pliny does mention Jamnes®* it is tj Numenius''^ who is followed by Eusebius^'^ that we owe the preservation of the of both Jamnes and Jambres. which is very close to ^^*^''' ^^ ^^^"S ^^u" o^ the s^""^^^^^^^ *h^ easiest to estabmust. npH h?r be ?. named. therefore. they came been of Egyptian origin.7 birth has wetness. ' i. in producing plurality (by the begetting of children) separates from unity.^ and that of the lotus-plant^ is a pretty certain Egyptian *^^ ^^^Pt^a" myth sfn^'lTr* ^^:!^. if Numenius knew and discussed the Serapistic mysteries which we learn. Numenius was not a Stoic.^ the Egyptian opponents of Moses..^\ Z'^^ neither objected to. further points of parof the West. WORKS AND MESSAGE EGYPTIAN SOURCES iS3 out special significance that Marcion possessed and used special and peculiar versions of the Gospels. he must either have been initiated therein. That both Marcion and Numenius were acquainted with Empedocles does not. This is quite Numenian. Numenius also seems to have had access to Hebrew writings^3 that were peculiar. even thoWh through Valentinus or Marcion.h"^». and abstinence from pleasures and marriage in order to perpetuate friendship which. Jamnes and Jambres. and perhaps also. the avoidance of meats. Further."l^^ sun setting a bark. but his polemic directed against them indicates that he might have known their doctrines. he is condemned. names CHAPTER Egyptian 1. ge?m7oF allelism.« divine triads . GENERAL EGYPTIAN SOURCES. Marcion®'' derived the human body from the world. But this relation becomes more important in view of the charge of the Philosophoumena of Hippolytos®^ that all that is good in the writings of Marcion had been derived from Empedocles. to have been chiefly connected with these demonic powers.1!l^ff J^l^"'?l^"'^^' lish but the hardest to prove. of Old Testament literature. Wretched Marcion! Like the lamb in the fable. so as not to eat any part of a body that might be the residue of a soul punished by the Demiurge in having been forced to enter on an incarnation.

" Nor must we forget that it was in Alexandria that dwelt Origen and Clement. an Identification of numbers with Ideas. the chief readers and quoters of Numenius. we arrive at a fourfold application^^ division. on the contrary. . he believed that every change is a further esHe trangement from the pure essence of God. 155 first-hand information about them. reasonable 4. less accessible. ^^ The primary explanation of mis is hermaphroditism. facit. which made the second cause proceed from the first without change of any kind.i2 and contains all numbers. that part which is sensible is immortal. homo. one soul.5l4): **In truth. emanationism." ii . qui erranti comiter monstrat viam. . by denying that the divine giving was in any respect to be compared with the same act In the latter. generation upward and motion. Chaignet quotes Philo. Numenius found it a different undertaking to connect God. . whose dependence on Numenius will be studied elsewhere. Unity is the basis of the universe. quum illi accenderet. general Egyptian similarities we must add definite quotations from the Hermetic writings.^'' ^^ ^^^^ unitary basis of existence. which seem to have been Greek versions or adaptations of texts of ancient Egyptian religion.^/'jst have a physical /Dw (Platonic) four motions: of the We must not leave this point without Pythagorean ''tetraktys. we have a psychological one. is which terest m number? Because we find here. First everything is double. where. is both male and female. including the divinity. Justin and Tertullian. the self-perfect essence. to the philosophical doctrine of In a rudimentary sense. and of all numbers. or the view that everything. with matter.^^ "Unitv . "Which way shall I look? ? downward ? outward ? inward ? " Then. 1. ^« Besides this physiological explanation. a dichotomy of the soul: -Of the soul is mortal. because they are less To another. We hear continually of one world. this is to us so inexplicable in- and and especially of one matter. the gift. recalling the ^." **Ut Ritter speaks as follows on the subject (p. and A. It was explained by the simile of the kindling of one light from important. we come WORKS AND MESSAGE Last. Itself being begotten of no other number " 2. passes wholly away from the donor.154 NUMENIUS. instead of numbers. He seems to have placed this view in a very strong and suitable light. one God Indeed. the donor is rather benefited by Apparently we have here the communication. as in Plato. HerI' l^ x?P^t? metic distinctions proceed by even multiplication. more generally » we have God and immortality. it appeared already in Plato as the doctrine of participation which we find again in Numenius and Plotinos. but the father of the Creator deity. These will have to be quoted rather more generously. but that which is . Ut nihilominus ipsi luceat. a proposition in all probability implied the principle of the theory of emanation. Doubling two. DIVISIONS OF THE UNIVERSE.® and gives also the following lines of Ennius: known. . . Why. EGYPTIAN SOURCES 2. and most HERMETIC SOURCES. in passing to the of man. . Quasi lumen de suo lumen accendat. which is su?' gested by a comparison of parallel passages. we find the Idea of the One i* root of all therefore being the beginning. however. . as with science. a doctrine whose object was to explain and account for the link which connects the supreme immutable divinity and the mutable world. containeth every numl ber. as well as Plotinos. recipient.^i Unity is the things. but with the gifts of God it is not so for.

8® In some places^^ the triad seems to consist of God. the Demiurge. so we read "There are three species in human souls: divine. human soul. ecstasy (24 to 26). and lower God. WORKS AND MESSAGE EGYPTIAN SOURCES 157 Doubling four. "For indeed God was exceedingly enamoured of his own Form or Shape. NUMENIUS. body. which is caused by energy of being. lust. then three distinctively Hermetic points. but most important. "being made naked of all the operations of Harmony. they operate the world. and delivered to it all his own works (the Severy Governors?) But He. In imitation of them Nature makes men. craft. unless we should take one of the several schemes of divisions of the universe. World and Man.^* They are spoken of as the circumference of the Circles. or fulcrum thereof. 8.23 They hover between God and the world. The Supreme possesses stability. then. bein. the first arrangement we find is that of the Demiurge hovering above the Seven Governors. ^^ 10. more or less Platonic points (9 to 14). "Nature produced the seven governing Powers of Nature. and the World. or function of ecstasy. are now ready to attack individual points. of course." This third or divine part of the soul is the capacity for. then. luxury and falsehood.'^ 14. but this cosmological triad would inevitably result in a trine psychology. and still capaciously and firmly strong. it Cometh to the eighth Nature. EMANATION. having the nature of the harmony of the Seven. Creation is explained as Becoming. We do not recall any similar arrangement in Numenius. being in the sphere of generation or operation. ^^ Such are the general divisions of the universe and the soul. '"^ 13. First. for he. ready to study the actual process underlying emanation more minutely than before. the Platonic photography of the . This whole emanative trend is based on the fact of psychological We are now suggestion. In trying to discover the nature of these eight spheres. The Demiurge. positive evil (19 to 23).2® Nature.^s 7. the universe falls into a triad.''* 11. an Egyptian conception. VARIOUS MINOR PLATONIC POINTS. from God.?: mingled with man. So the Demiurge is the mediator^^ and Second God.156 5. ambition. the octonary. 3« 12. ^^ This.^^ and it is this very supreme stability which is the basis of movement. his circulation being 9. or again^s of God. First. the Seven Governors. nature and matter. a group of minor. through which the soul successively proceeds. gradually purifying itself therein of diminution. Qualities are incorporeal. B. we arrive at an eight-fold division. emanation (15-18). The Demiurge. would needs also himself fall to work. or Gnostic ogdoad^^^ more cosmologically explained as eight spheres.^i The Harmony has eight zones. These we may classify as follows: First. God.^^ He is simultaneously swift. hidden by his station. rashness. or Second God. constitutes the *'fulness" or "pleroma" of the Gnostics. and so was separated from the Father.^^ C. Second. no doubt. who is fire and spirit."22 6. When then we group the Seven Governors together below the Demiurge. appears also as the Word. Demiurge and World. Second. "^^ This reminds us of the five Powers of God. with their corol- We laries: and last. We already found a binary psychology. brought forth a wonder most wonderful. The seeds of things are from God. is never idle. seeing or understanding the creation of the Workman in the whole. Demiurge (containing the Seven). human and irrational. of Philo.

upon the earth. and the rest striveth upward by harmony. the fair and beautiful shape or form of God. Nature presently wrapped itself about it. . In creating all. in himself he loved it.158 \^ . his creation is without beginnng or end. . we might mention the Pythagorean term of "harmony. throwings down headlong. . however. the shadow of the fairest human form. passions function through the irrational nature."*^ Elsewhere they appear as the Avenjjfers: "But to the foolish and wicked and evil. and desired to cohabit with it. EGYPTIAN SOURCES made 159 model the ——— ? an image. Hermetism teaches (as inheritance demons. and all other things which are the works of evil no from the ancient Egyptian 19. **participation." "Man." The material body of man is subject to change. God stooped down. This celestial harmony is represented by sweet music: "Having already all power of mortal things. tending towards a circular renovation of the Gods. Everything is a part of God this God is all. Immediately upon that resolution ensued that operation. applying to such a man the sharpness of fire. to the envious and covetous. for the energy of God has no past. The term "participation" occurs also. entering privately. and since God has no limits. or limits it. and peeped through the Harmony. a shape like unto himself. torments him sensibly. arming him the more to all wickedness. The process of creation is." "This creation of life by the soul is as continuous as his light. these. and breaking through the strength of the Circles thus showed and . and the form or shape of God. stooped down and peeped through harmony. or did bring forth that which was sown: adulteries. In connection with this great unifying conception of the universe. by irradiation of ? by which 15. or Platonically. as if He had seen the likeness or shape in the water. This irradiating process is really only the psychological application of that which appears cosmologically as emanation. impieties.'*5 17. murders. that he 18. It teaches the existence of evil Demons (the hylic demons of the West already mentioned. . so also of that which is Good. And seeing in the water a shape. may obtain the greater punishment."*^ D. and they were mingled." "But as many as partook of the gift of God. . Which. for . He smiled for love. hermaphrodite. for they loved one another. Body is the image of the Idea. and brought forth the irrational image or shape. In contrast to the Stoics. and the mind did make pregnant. or. being above all harmony. nothing arrests it. who taught there was positive evil. and always fighting in darkness.NUMENIUS. really one of incarnation of the divine: "God. among others). the participation of all things is in the matter bound. who. He perpetuates himself without intermission. THE NATURE OF MATTER.^^ i^yet as manifest the downward borne nature. religion) the existence of positive evil. stranglings. Such an one never ceases. in comparison of their works. strikings of parents. "For there is no part of the world void of the Devil. into ? WORKS AND MESSAGE light."^2 16. when he saw. . sacrileges. Laying hold of what it so much loved. I am far off giving place to the Avenging Demon. are rather immortal than mortal men."-*^ The whole of the third book of the Poemandres is a theodicy in which the emission of Becoming is represented as a stream. having unfulfillable desires and insatiable concupiscences. "^^ O . sowed the seed of his own proper operation. having in itself the insatiable beauty and all the operation of the Seven Governors. which. . as the Idea is of the Soul. Tat. to the murderous and profane. he is made and became a servant to Harmony." or ordered existence.

but cutting through all.i6i Demon increases the fire manners are permitted. is a prison. however." Their office is to teach excellent sayings. All things are constituted by contrariety. which would have profited all mankind. human. In this world. until after descending through each of the Seven Governors. he may. It is not. This world.. evil exists in everything. On the other hand. and irrational.^® 26. and these are called the "first-born of God. and if thou canst. above rational limitations.. The eighth sphere is that of the Supreme Divinity. AND THE SUPERRATIONAL DIVINITY.^^ 20. 24. because He is unintelligible. let alone Plotinos. to be communed with within that ecstatic condition." While man cannot escape change.«^« The Supreme is difficult to understand. fate and generation. The psychological experience which results from activity of the soul's divine sense applied to the superdivinity is ecstasy. it is through the existence of three kinds of souls. we have the divinity which is above rational comprehension. and in the human intelligence. and furtherest Body. a privilege which they accord only to humanity. but left to the Demon. '*For only the understanding sees that which is not manifest or apparent. while in the philosophical language evil appears positively. As a consequence of this. therefore. leaving one sin in each. It is the moist nature..^^ 2 3. . "There are three species in human souls: divine. I was speaking of union with the Gods." Elsewhere we have seen a two-fold psychological division. He is not understood by us because he is something different from us. which appears often in these Hermetic writings. will begin with the psychological faculty. will begin with matter. its function is great essential E. .**^ no wings. there appear also good demons. fate and generation. the crown of ecstasy.160 the idle NUMENIUS.. It is the vehicle of Becoming. This purificatory flight (reminding us of Empedocles's ''Purifications") ends in the (really double or and holy as divinity itself . nor the aether. had they been delivered in writing. and unspeakably troubled. exist chiefly in the religious dialect.^2 22. "In man. the consciousness is raised to the divine order . and a supereminent divinity. therefore. she arrives pure at the Eighth Being. neither God is above essence.. and sooner than thou canst bid it. This incarceration may be caused by guilt from some pre-existent state. escape viciousness. im- possible to speak of or define. not the fire of the sun.^^ it. is. nor the turning of the spheres. and India. We have elsewhere seen how this journey through each successive sphere is purificatory. to Numenius. A few men only have the happiness of rising to that perception of the divine which subsists only in God. nor so various or manifold. "^^ 25. Not all have the true intelligence.^i 21. it will be Command it to fly to heaven. however.^^ "Pray first to the . . Such demons. life is a flight from the evils of the world: ^'Command thy soul to go into and torments him continually." ''It is no hard thing to understand God. Everywhere exists change. during incarnation. there. He who was. the Demiurge. it will fly up to the last. Tat. afflicts WORKS AND MESSAGE triple) EGYPTIAN SOURCES . ECSTASY. and it will need shall anything hinder shall be. it will appear to the eyes of thy mind.. and upon him more and more . which condition entails two corollaries: a psychological faculty to act as basis of that experience."^» However. that is due the doctrines of the transcendence of the Supreme. not the bodies of any of the other stars. but where it becomes three-fold. but a better or more simple." 'The world has a peculiar sense We We O and understanding not like man's.

the loadstone doth the iron. they account it a miserable calamity to make their abode here. by day. In view of all this historical background. native' of Numenius's home-town of Apamea. plain and easy. is the straight way. and who had copied and learned by heart all the works of Numenius. " *bein^' •' ^ and essence. "127 . Further. sleeping. they see the Good. elsewhere. say. from whom is one to be merciful to thee. and to the Alone and One.. XIV."62 u-pj^j^ image of God have 1 described to thee. and the divine way. and it will everywhere meet thee. which are upon earth. O Tat. and seeing it. pointed out the historic connections between Numenius and Plotinos. it We Porphyry. and to will and to hope. thou shalt find the way to the things above. believe me. Amelius's We remember Plotinos's books. Here. the Image itself will lead thee. that thou mayest know and understand so great a God. WORKS AND MESSAGE AS SOURCE OF PLOTINOS 163 Lord and Father. editing all may have. until displaced by also that Porphyry was disciple. Such a substituted the name of Numenius for that of Plotinos on that fragment^ about matter. Porphyry records twice that accusations were popularly made against Plotinos."«* where Numenius had been carefully studied and quoted by Origen and Clement of Alexandria. which if thou do diligently consider. when thou dost not expect or look for it. Amehus. O Tat. and that he would shine one of his beams upon thee in thy understanding. be sufficient to recall that Amelius. which begins directly With Numenius's name of the divinity. at least during his earlier or Amelian period.162 NUMENIUS. in the Escoreal manuscript chiefly as a later re-stater of the views of Numenius. by night. and who later returned to Apamea to spend his declinmg days. But the spectacle or sight hath this peculiar and proper: them that can see it. as they I than mortal. was the companion and friend of Plotinos during his earliest period. and if there be anything above heaven. of later supplanting Plotinos. we have the prima-facie right to consider Plotinos conception of the state of affairs must have been in the mmd of that monk who. Son. sailing. they make haste to the One and only. and everywhere be seen of thee. Nnmenius as Represented by Plotinos. or rather. HISTORICAL RELATIONS BETWEEN NUMENIUS AND PLOTINOS. Comprehending all things in their minds. and behold it. and heart. as well as could. are men rather immortal CHAPTER 1. that he had plagiarized from Numenius. "^^ "As many as partook of the gift of God. "^o To be able to know God. it will meet thee waking. these. and when thou keepest silence. traveling. and despising all things bodily and unbodily. when thou speakest. before his spectacular quarrel with him as editor of the works Plotinos also came from Alexandria. in comparison of their works. and view by the eyes of thy mind. bequeathing his copy of Numenius's works to his adopted son Gentilianus Hesychius. Lifting themselves so high. proper to the Good. it holds fast. which are in heaven. and draws unto it.

rather than by any external indications. As probably Platonic we may mention the the (general) view that evils cannot be destroyed. UNCERTAIN INDEBTEDNESS OF PLOTINOS. we must be prepared to dis- As Plotinos was his name cover Numenian passages by their than The soul is a number. Plotinos was chiefly indebted to Numenian inspiration. inconstant.i2 as Numenius had done. As Plotinos does not give exact quotations and references."^Among doctrines said to be handed down from the ancient philosophers^ are the ascents and descents of souls» and the migrations of souls into bodies other human. in the habit of not even putting to his own notes." The first class of passages will be such as bear explicit reference to quotation from an ancient source. including the term "Father."i6 This similarity is so striking that it had already been observed and noted by Bouillet. "1^ ible. "^ "Let us examine Z DIRECT INDEBTEDNESS OF PLOTINOS TO NUMENIUS. and as Porphyry acknowledges his writings contained many Aristotelian and Stoic principles and quotations. we may never hope to arrive at a final solution of the matter. and we shall have to restrict ourselves to that which. and will lead to a perspective.^i Moreover.' which name means a denial of manifoldness. there evidently need of a principle that would lead them. and that not a single one of them is simple " with "Numenius. who believes that everything is thoroughly mingled together." and on the ^'Immateriality of the Soul. The latter study will of course include the common use of extraneous philosophical terms and positions. but are necessary. especially in his Amelian period. We may principle in a symbolic manner. in which their true general relation will appear with some certainty of outline. whose chief work was "On the Good. in Plotinos. Compare "We consider that all things called essences are composite. and bind them fast together. As the great majority of Numenius's works are irretrievably lost. Plotinos wrote a book on the Incorruptibility of the soul.i8 and both authors discuss the incorporeity of qualities. Of such we have five: 'That is why the Pythagoreans were. and this we name soul. What little we can thus trace definitely will give us a right to draw the conclusion to much more." "Because bodies according to their own nature. "« "The Divinity is above being. among each other. "How manifoldness is derived from the 124 hirst A seventh case is the whole passage on the triunity of the divinity. "That is why the ancients said that Ideas are essences and beings."^ "That is the reason of the saying. The Ideas and numbers are born from the indefinite doubleness.164 NUMENIUS. and the One-' for "4 this is intelligence. are changeable. "^ A sixth case is.^* Besides these passages where there is a definite expression of dependence on earlier sources. and to the opinion that. and infinitely divis- . and that nothing is ^ simple. it is difficult always to give their undoubted source. accustomed to refer to this and nothing unchangeable remains in them. as even in the times of Porphyry the actual authorship of much that he wrote was already disputed. actual borrowings from such manuscripts as have come down to us. and then a comparison of their attitudes toward historic philosophical problems. gather them. IS 3. calling him 'A-pollo. may be identified by what Numenian fragments remain. WORKS AND MESSAGE AS SOURCE OF PLOTINOS 165 study the relations between Numenius and Plotinos from two standpoints. there are two in which the verbal similarity's is striking enough to justify their being considered references: "Besides no body could subsist without the power of the universal soul. We can consider^ the mention of Pythagoreans who had treated of the intelligible as applying to Numenius.

and the soul. but might be Numenian." "That the Good is One. even prudence. inasmuch as the creator's passing through the heavens must have followed their circular course. With this perfect motion is connected the peculiar Numenian doctrine of inexhaustible giving. are immortal. supreme king.^^ it is implied. "46 Moreover.i8 and "When one has arrived at individuals.?^^tter. WORKS AND MESSAGE AS SOURCE OF PLOTINOS in the Ideas. are but purifications."28 We turn now to thoughts found identically in Plotinos and Numenius. In this connection it might not be uninteresting to note passages in Numenius which are attributed to Plato. The soul is indissolubly but with Numenius it is impulsive passion. temperance.131 remains incorporeal. but to its source. but before this Mind is another one. although no textual identity is to be noted. as Numenius puts it. hicji the uniting princinle We Snf-'nf "''"il"^ process invades even thf divinUy 3^ produces a "^T^"*^ Sre 'Courage. The great evolution or world-process is by Plotinos called the "eternal procession. This comparison of philosophy would have been much stronger had we added thereto the following points in which we find similar terms and ideas but which are applied differently. may group these according to the subject.''T' to its T ^" "^^^^^^^^^ ^ ^'"^'"'^^ by over-attention charges. The chief effort of Numenius is a polemic against the materialism of the Stoics.26 Nevertheless.' " "That is the reason that it is right to say that 'the soul's welfare and beauty lie In assimilating herself to the divinity."i33 another.^^ This explains the report that Numenius taught not various parts of the soul. however. ^^ or a "common part. or guardian divinity. but soul. or.^® Also other quotations. though both insist on the need of a savior." while with Numenius it is prog- united to intelligence according to Plotinos. therefore guch divisibility is Numenius does not specify 5.^^ The We 4. who^e'all fs IS split En - ""^. even the lowest. Thus intelligence is lt\ age). the Mind which you dimly perceive is not the First Mind.i25 Jr that holds together the bodies whose tendfnSTs to ^\^.32 167 passage about the universal Soul taking care of all that is inanimate .27 taught in indeed implied in the formation of presentation as a by-product. is divisible. with Plotinos ^^ .3« All souls. SIMILARITIES APPLIED DIFFERENTLY.^i The soul. PARTICULAR SIMILARITIES. but which are not to be identified: "O Men.^s The king in heaven is surrounded by leisure.33 (making a leakage or^ wast^ iF. while with Numenius it is its cause ^2 Guilt is the cause of the fall of souls.' " This sounds Platonic. which is older and diviner.2o The line. according to the ancient maxim.s^ Even qualities are incorporeal.^^o This leads us over to consideration of the soul.31 This process consists of the descent of the intelligible into the material. all the virtues.^i Plotinos makes discord the result of their fall. that both the intelligible and the perceptible participate in erses the heavens. the inferior divinity travis God a circular motion.4« but not in Plotinos. with Numenius. which would be opposed^4 by Plotinos in one place. but neither past nor future.^^ Salvation as a goal appears in Numenius. 21 might be Aristotelian.43 but two souls.^^ which gave a philosophical basis for the old simile of radiation of light.f 166 NUMENIUS. the soul has to choose its own demon. and to it Plotinos devotes a whole book.^s while this motion as circular. also find:22 *Thus.^^ Memory is actualization of the soul. they must be abandoned to infinity.24 Eternity is now. 50 In ^he highest ecstasy the soul ^^ is ^'^^-^ ^"^ ^^"* ^ ''alone with the aIone. the universe. "It might be said that virtues are actualizations.

PYTHAGOREAN SIMILARITIES. or at least was known as such. out of the few fragments of the latter that have come down to It would therefore be reasonable to suppose that us. is. as "being and essence. and indeed. as a landmark. while Numenius applies it to the third divinity. predicated of the sun and stars.^^ There Doubleness is practically no difference here. ^2 ^^ich.®^ and in connection with this we find the Pythagorean sacred "tetraktys. he conceived of himself as a restorer of true Platonism. or creator in the universe. applied to intelligence. a common-place that Numenius was a Pythagorean. ''® So we must not be surprised if He is constituted by a trinity.7i still. m importance. including everything. and states that the multiplicity of the divinity is not attained by division . even the Supreme is double.8o and of the soul^i which be invisible82 ^^^ possess no extension. While with bears in each a different significance.168 NUMENIUS. he had borrowed from them many terms." or sense-presen- .®® Numbers actually split the unity of the divinity. the Dominican scribe at the Escoreal who inserted the name of Numenius in the place of that of Plotinos in the heading of^^ the fragment about matter. WORKS AND MESSAGE Next AS SOURCE OF PLOTINOS 169 Numenius's ress. it is pretty sure they will not be materialist. «^ Connected with this is the idea that essence IS chief secret. set forth elsewhere. such as "pneuma.7o though it is no more than fair to add that elsewhere Plotinos contradicts this. though it appears in the works of both. though present in intelligence. who made no special claim to be a Pythagorean disIt is ciple. we find that numbers and the divine Ideas are closely related. for though he reverenced Pythagoras. they will believe in the incorporeality of the divinity."'^ still. if Numenius's complete works had survived we could make out a still far stronger case for Plotinos's dependence on Numenius. therefore be all the more interesting to observe what part numbers play in their system.^s A result of this will be that the soul will not be located in will or form of inor- ganic objects. thus find a tolerably complete body of philosophy shared by Plotinos and Numenius. was the term tation. by Plotinos. and not the second. AND PLOTINOS.^® The Philonic term "legislator" is. of the demiurge himself.^^ If then both Numenius and Plotinos are really under the spell of Pythagoras. Notable.®^ The soul also is considered as a number. it refers to the logos. be a doubleness. this is not the only case in which we will be forced to array Plotinos against himself.^^.^^ in connection with which the Supreme appears as grandfather. It will.^^ Plotinos extends immortality to animals. The will first effect of the splitting influence of numbers To begin with. but by Numenius."®^ Thus numbers split up the divinity.®^ 7. but Numenius even to the inorganic realm. while with Numenius. however. the name intelligence. Numenius it absorbed his chief controversial efforts." habituation. especially in that of Plotinos. is of the divinity.79 of qualities . ^^ with Plotinos^^ it occupied only one of his many spheres of interest. we have the controversy with the Stoics." The simile of the pilot is by Plotinos applied to the soul within the body. must have felt a strong confusion between the two authors. and others." which reappears in Plotinos in numberless places. PHILOSOPHICAL RELATIONS BETWEEN NUMENIUS First. We ^ 6. however.®^ and the "phantasia. "^^ nevertheless chiefly appears in matter 7* as the Pythagorean "indefinite dyad. which. At any rate. by Plotinos." the spiritual body.®* *'hexis.

we are not tasks.^^ there is only a short step to unchangeable existence. and.113 j^ ^ny case. but that is only because we have divorced philosophy from theology. matter as a substrate of the world. being fixed once for all. deceiving ourselves. every philosophical speculation was a genuine adventure in the spiritual world.^° There are still other Pythagorean traces in common between Numenius and Plotinos.^o^ The same goal is reached psychologically.112 Qr it is like a line and its divergence. and in the case of Plotinos at least may have been used as a practical experience chiefly to explain his epileptic attacks. which prays for their blessing at the inception of in these latter days. in other words. and this would be all the more likely as this disease was generally called the "sacred disease.170 NUMENIUS. all other technical Platonic terms there are quite a few.^^ or eternity.!^^ or. it is the extent or relation of circumference to circle.io5 ^g abstract everythmgioe till we reach the thing-in-itself. but it will be noticed that they are far less numerous than the To begin with.^^ To the universe.^8 -pj^g j^^^g ^^^ -^^ ^ ^.^^ one theory of which is reincarnation.^^ then that which is opposed to good. Numenius seems to claim no personal ecstastic experiences such as those of Plotinos. however m the ecstasy. WORKS AND MESSAGE Of AS SOURCE OF PLOTINOS 171 the body. in those days.^^ Everything outside of gvil is the divinity is in a continual state of flux. Wise.^* world stands thus as an inseparable combination of intelligence and necessity." rashness. this means harmony. PLATONIC TRACES. ^^^ There is a divinity higher than the one generally known. therefore. was he who told. spirit towards the divinities.^^ It also is therefore unavoidable. to the soul. also called "bastard reasoning. but rather the body in the soul. began it by prayer. No body could subsist without the soul to keep it together.m Various attempts are made to describe the nature of the soul. g^ dialectics. because our theology has left the realm of living thought. it is more likely he took the idea from Philo or Philo's oriental sources. The lower is always the image of the higher ^^ So the world might be considered the statue of the Divinity. have entered the realm of psychology. or boldness.^^j^^ above the world. however.^^ To us who live such a prayer seems out of place in philosophy. indeed.^^i The divmity is in a stability resultant of firmness and perfect motion. Platonic traces." Whether Numenius also was an epileptic. inasmuch as suppression of its cosThe mic function would entail cosmic collapse.102 xhe perfect movement. 103 xhis inter-communion of the universe therefore results in matter appearing in the intelligible "lo^ world as ^'intelligible matter.^* From this incorporeal existence. there would naturally be.^^ The soul here below is as in a prison.^'' This. the divinity and the soul move around the heavens. or in space.!!^ and this may explain the We . and this teaches us that that in which Numenius and Plotinos differ from Plato and Philo is chiefly their psychological or experimental application of pure philosophy. ^^ 8.^^^^ ji^ug ^^ metaphysically reach ineffable solitude. therefore. we are allowed to pursue any theory of existence we please as if it had nothing whatever to do with any reality. or chance. in other words. The cause that the indeterminate dyad split off from the divinity is **tol- ma. in other words.iio This idea occurred in Plato only as a poetic expression of metaphysical attainment. we find the reverent Pythagorean. means immortality. a magical operation that might unexpectedly lead to the threshhold of the cosmic sanctuary. we are On the contrary. is circular. at least.

Plato had. "» who PSYCHOLOGY. a reaffirmation of the ancient Greek connection between generation." Plotinos. it is said to be the highest good of the soul. and by Vacherot and Chaignet. among French philosophical writers. rigid sys- tematization. God. The irrational is located in the body. Vacherot explains that. This capital error was noticed by Numenius. as insight. in Plotinos. the principle of the intelligible world. Numenius pro. and then there were. Plotinos.i2o the Philonic distinction between "the" God as supreme. course. that knowledge may be imparted without diminution. Other less important points of contact are: the Egyptian ship of souls . Speaking of number. according to Numenius. fertility or birth of souls and wetness. namely. appropriated this. sketched out a whole organic system of divine creation and administration of this world. OF NUMENIUS 173 VARIOUS SIMILARITIES. later denies this. with his winning way of dispensing with quotation-marks.^2i ^he hoary equivocation on "kosmos." ''Like Plato.^^^ which is later reaffirmed by Porphyry in his ''Cave of the Nymphs. however. is unknowable by reason. Zeller also notices in Numenius this higher faculty of cognition. and "god" as subordinate. It is a gift of God.^^'' Then we come to a genuine innovation of Numenius's: his theory of divine or intelligible giving. There are many other unclassifiable Numenian traces Two of them. who sought to supply it by a psychological observation.^23 .172 NUMENIUS. so that he never noticed that the hinge on which all was supposed to turn was merely the makeshift of an assumption.i^^ 9. WORKS AND MESSAGE CRITICISM otherwise problematical progress or evolution ("prosodos" or "stolos") of ours. when the Divinity turns away His ^ glance. in his genial. Numenius has been studied by Ritter. is important. and achieves ecstasy only in his doctrine of ecstasy appear Oriental ideas. as that of Ritter^ accuses Numenius^ of a return of the divinity into itself from a translation questioned already by Zeller. The conceptions he needed he had cheerfully borrowed Criticism of Numenius. CHAPTER XV. Zeller.^ by which we participate in the divinity. however. which is the source of all evils. and as quickly leaves it. Their opinions could not be very well founded. as they from earlier Greek philosophy without any were forced to advance them before the fragments were all gathered together. of course. .ii8 as also the idea that life streams out upon the world in the glance of the divinity. of defective interpretations. Sensual cognition is the result of reason. Ueberweg and Moeller among the Germans. "His psychology transcends Plato's. are comparatively First. ."i22 and the illustration of the divine Logos as the pilot of " ^ the world. casual way. and operates like a flash of lightning. Zeller* also points out the distinction between the rational and irrational souls.

But Zeller himself acknowledges that Numenius had followed the traces of Philo. On the contrary. and as such an error on the part of Numenius. Numenius introduces therein intelbeings that participate in the Ideas. the intelligible world. and permitting a return upwards thereafter. But he rethis intelligible knowing to an extraordinary and faculty of which Plato never spoke. and the revealed divinity that seeks immanence. after all. Vacherot also sees a development in this formal and systematic distinction of the two divine principles. Maximus of Tyre. Ueberweg believes that the greatest innovation introduced by Numenius into Platonic doctrine was his considering the second principle to be a second divinity. especially. it amounts to no more than that Numenius had introduced into Greek philosophy the Oriental ecstasy. or soul. Ritter well says that the chief goal of the phil- terrelated the whole universe Besides. and Proclus® THE SPLITTING UP OF THE Ritter divinity. and of Valentinus. WORKS AND MESSAGE CRITICISM OF NUMENIUS 175 the impotence of reason to know this God who principle of the intelligible world. denying that we should read participation in the intelligible into fragments 37 or 31. In his Letters. or intelligence. Plato (?) had already spoken of three spheres of the divinity. but they do not bring out that Numenius derived it from Egyptian Hermetism. Vacherot finds the prototype of Numenius's second divinity in Plato's demiurge. Moeller^ considers this a deviation from Neoplatonism. the second. complains that Numenius had supposed that images existed among intelligibles. respectively surrounding the First. emanationism which demanded a mean between the two extremes. "The second principle of Numenius contains both what Neoplatonism distinguishes as the second divinity. either personified. with his demiurge. this is no more than our modern evolutionary stand-point. and nothing was needed but the public recognition of a mediating term." But. Summing up None of these critics seems to think of Plutarch. On ligible the contrary. But the participation itself was genuinely Platonic. and Numenius did no more than to introduce it into Greek philosophy. This same idea expressed in philosophic terms is that Plato held no more than two orders of substances: the Ideas. who had already or in- by a hierarchical system. After all.^ finding in it a fourfold division. of reappear Neoplatonism. with his Logos. it was the Egyptian THE SECOND DIVINITY. Here Zeller opposes Vacherot. and which in Moeller finds in it the distinction between the transcendent divinity. in his study of Plato. The very name of the demiurge suggests to us not only direction towards divine unity that is. and Zeller praises Numenius for having introduced this second principle. but also the other direc- . and the third."^ this criticism.174 claims is the serves mystic will 1^ NUMENIUS. and Vacherot mention this doctrine of the Chaignet speaks of a fragment. and the third principles. Numenius probably owed this conception to his studies of the works of Philo. and the sense-objects that participated therein. or merely a "hypostasis. osophy of Numenius was to find some means of passing from the superior sphere down into that of the senses.*^ DIVINITY. although the words seem to imply a fivefold one. thus constituting a triad. although Zeller had already. shown that Plato had already employed theoretical expressions which easily lent themselves to this practical interpretation.

organizes matter. is reserved for the soul. down." That is how he establishes the identity of the two supreme concepts. for vaingloriousness. into the sphere of the senses. on the contrary. Ritteri2 5^0^!^ therefore not blame Numenius for it. On the other hand. the Stoics had confact he And all he had to INCORPOREITY OF QUALITIES. which." As a result. and divinity. At first he finds fault with him for lack- NAME AND NATURE OF THE DIVINITY." instead of the m But it is to Vacherot that we owe a debt of gratitude for havingis grasped the intimate relation between this ment. in times almost contemporary with those of the activity of Numenius Alcinoous also has read this doctrine into Plato's works. and supporting two opinions were by tainer relations with the body. His is indeed . its purpose is very clear." ceived of the soul as in and contained. and we may be allowed to observe that Numenius introduced this process of splitting up as a result of having made use of the Pythagorean term of "duality. Ritter is the only one who permits himself to blame Numenius. sider this an element in the struggle also Numenius combined' into one system that later was to become Neoplatonism. chaining the parts of the body. The first accusation falls before a reading of the fragments of the .^o None of these criticisms stand. Numenius therefore no more than repeats the ancient Platonic doctrine of an innate movement that is simultaneous with absence of movement. if it is absolute. since Galen had written a treatise on the subject.treatise on the Good. as to the History of the Platonic Succession. for vanity. this was all the easier for Numenius as do was to adopt the Egyptian divisions. the which. as a fault. These we may well con- and the Stoics. as conthe soul enveloping. Numenius teaches the incorporeity of qualities.^i This was nothing original with Numenius. which thus produces "innate motion. therefore. 13 But Ritter did not have before him ments^^ where Numenius speaks of an innate move- inactive frag- ing philosophical studies. by Plotinos. therefore we must seek Being in the incorporeal. Ritter blames Numenius for teaching an divinity. at once everything became double: world. and the divinity's name which Numenius thought had invented. This Plato illustrates for us by a spinning top. that moves so fast and smoothly that it remains standing. the Idea and the soul. "Plato had often demonstrated that the instable and degenerating body did not possess true being. The Pilot steers by contemplatmg the stars or Ideas which are above him so certamly that he is compelled to look up to them. instead of in the third Moeller probably committed this error as a result of not reading correctly the illustration of the Pilot who surely is the third divinity. and is of so great an importance as to merit for Numenius the title of Father of Neo-Platonism. That is why he tells us that the true name of the incorporeal is "Being and Essence. as energy. would have no motion. Being. and that the sole true being was the intelligible and the incorporeal. and on the Incorruptibility of the Soul. WORKS AND MESSAGE CRITICISM OF NUMENIUS \n Platonic ''manifoldness.lill If ii 176 NUMENIUS. who insisted were corporeal. we locate the world of Ideas the second divinity. soul. between Numenius that magnitude and quality CRITICISMS DIRECTED AGAINST NUMENIUS." This criticism falls flat the moment that accordmg to his own foot-note. by vivifying Being. tion downwards and outwards.

5. We have also seen that Zeller rejects the idea of Ritter of an emanation from and a return to the divinity. But after all it is very interesting. if fault there be. Soul-excursion. Numenius had established cosmic communication. It is he who points out to us the most original contribution of Numenius. though devotmg considerable space to the subject. therefore. 1. Further. Ueberweg limits himself In the following table reflections of each one we may SCOPE OF NUMENIAN CRITICISM Ritter. it would seem very unjust to blame the author for having omitted any subject. It is Vacherot who most distinguishes himself by relating together the new name of the divinity. advance but trifhng original contributions. and by the conflicting criticism of Vacherot. to discredit the incomprehensibility of presentation. Ueberweg makes a definite error in stating that the second divinity derives . Ueberweg. Zeller. it is repeated also by Diogenes Laertes. one important. and divinity. We On the whole the criticism is thin. see the scope of the of those who have studied Numenius. which might have been studied in some lost work. while forming opinions that have sustained themselves. God. Psychology. In respect to the scope of their studies. Soul-guilt. and its object. establish the transcendence of the First Principle. just as he had done with the world-Soul. first WORKS AND MESSAGE to CRITICISM OF NUMENIUS two subjects. Soul-union. Splitting 1. Moeller's and Vacherot's accusations that Numenius had not reached the transcendence of the Supreme has also been annulled by the words of Numenius.178 the NUMENIUS. and Eusebius. Inactivity of God. the conception of the undiminished divine giving. Second God. unimportant. Soul-union. Psychology. as resting on an error of translation. 6. . out of its Hermetic source. Emanation. 4. indeed. tion VALUE OF THE CRITICISMS OF NUMENIUS. Chaignet and Ritter are the most original thinkers. could not. To begin with. Further. and for the first time in Greek philosophy. in spite of its having been based on fragments that had not yet been gathered together. and not well founded. 2. and as to matter. presenting to us subjects not advanced by others. Struggle. Vacherot. 3. and by the pointing. but also those whose conclusions are the least satisfactory. as we possess no more than fragments. following Plutarch's distinction between original and created matter. was also attempted in a story about a certain Sphairos at Alexandria by Atheneus. 2. Ritter finds fault with Numenius for not having studied thoroughly the two extremes between which according to Ritter. whereas the text suggests judiciousness. Incorporeity of Qualities.4. the other Ritter's observation that Numenius had (179 II philosophical study of the method of mysticism. Moeller and Chaignet. have expected much more from him. As to the comic story of Lacydes. and the simultaneity of His innate moand repose.knowledge from his contemplation of the intelligible. Zeller seems the most judicious. Numenius divides it in two. Numenius is not worse than either of these writers. Second God. On the whole. 2. left the supreme Divinity inactive has been annulled by the very words of Numenius. the human soul. 3. Numenius does indeed. 1. 7. .

of . as development of thought. 3. SUMMARY. CHAPTER Chaignet Splitting God." it is evident that the Platonic sources will be the most important subject of consideration. Ecstasy-psychology (Hermetic).180 NUMENIUS. (Empedocles). 3. the title of ''Father of Neoplatonism. of Numenius's conception of the divinity) he had begun to petrify. of God a contradiction of the criticism on the incompleteness. Emanation (Hermetics). Progress of Platonism. God (Philo). Vacherot. Soul-union. Neoplatonically. will have to begin with an 1 his appreciation of the significance of Plato himself. Light-kindling. Splitting God Incomplete 4. Transcendence (this is Empedocles). 8. 2. We must therefore preface any detailed study of the Platonic origin and Platonic consequence of the chief doctrines of Numenius by a sketch of the rise and progress of Platonism. Noted OnlyOnce Numenius as Vulgarizer. Light-kindling. 3. for Numenius. Incorporeity of Qualities. or. 1. 2. 2. God God. unless each other. 4. 6. Life as Struggle litus. Platonism and NeoPiatonism. 2. Life as a Struggle 2. Psychology of Ecstasy. Parmenides and . 1. the Hermetics). Inactivity of Incomplete. for it is generally accepted that Plato's views underwent a development from the time of the "Republic" to that of the "Laws-" and just as Schelling and Plotinos also underwent developments. Excursion of Souls (EmQualities pedocles). PLATO MAKES A SUMMARY OF GREEK PHILOSOPHY. (Herac2. and bound them all together in one higher principle (or system) What Socrates had taught with regard to the concept of knowledge. and Zeller's estimate. Splitting God. 1. 7. Number of Critics Noting Splitting Second God. Divinity Incomplete (Neoplatonically). no really active thinker would ever be able to hold unmoved to any one position. 3. XVI. Quality-incorporeity (Galen. (Neoplatonically). Soul-guilt. Soul union (Philo).i with the addition of the parenthesis. God. PLATONISM AND NEOPLATONISM 181 1. 3. Second God. But here we are met with the difficulty of defining what is really Platonic. 5. Transcendence of God. Second God. WORKS AND MESSAGE Moeller. may represent "Plato is the first of the Greek philosophers who not merely knew and made use of his predecessors but consciously completed their principles by means this: In vindicating.

and more distantly the Atomistic and older Ionic natural philosophers find their echoes. That is why we cannot break with Platonism. all this he built up into a developed theory of knowledge. Thus Plato has accomplished one of the greatest intellectual creations known. his sympathy with the Pythagorean ^ quite as tiplicity of things. for in doing so we are losing one of the great constructive processes of our Aryan civilization. may say more truly that this blending of the rays of hitherto isolated genius into one focus is the work of his originality. by the faults he finds with Gnostics: introducing manifold generations. the Megaro-Socratic conception of the Good. and now another. is mistaken by a one-sided apprehension for the whole to the reduction of the multiplicity of experience to its permanent base. the intelligible world. and the Flight out of the region of Becoming into that of Being. and the fruit What IS Plato We The Socratic conceptual of his philosophic principle.182 NUMENIUS. The cosmological part of the Pythagorean system is repeated in Plato's conception of the universe: while in his theory of the elements and of the physics proper Empedocles and Anaxagoras. much blended is the estimate resulting from this? "Yet neither the envious imitator that calumny has called him. Zeno. why Neoplatonism arose. and combined with the Heracleitan view of the sensible world. That is why Platonism survived. held absolutely. while at the same time he has perfected both by means of the Anaxagorean conception of spirit. and the Pythagorean idealized numbers. when properly understood. the Socratic basis can as little be mistaken as." Plotinos continues the definition negatively. perfecting ethics by natural philosophy and natural philosophy by ethics. nor the irresolute eclectic." It may be interesting to add to this an incidental description of Platonism by Plotinos:^ "The immortality of the soul. and indefinite duality. but faithfulness to sources. just as that of every other writer: not originality. the concept of the Unlimited. and the Heracleitian of Becoming. and the mathematical Laws. identifying the World-creator with the Soul. its discerption therefrom. The Eleatic principle of Being. who only owed It to favoring circumstances that what was scattered about in earlier systems united in him to form a harmonious whole. In other words. finding fault with the Guide or Leader of this universe. and the Sophists on the subjectivity of sense-perception. Heraclitus. and entire destruction. why it reappeared in the Middle . matter.^ and in attributing to him the same affections as manifest themselves in individuals. WORKS AND MESSAGE PLATONISM AND NEOPLATONISM 183 Heraclitus. the dialectical combination of these various definitions of which now one. finding fault with the All. the First God. Plato's scientific principles required that he should fuse them all into a higher and more comprehensive theory of the world. in his doctrine of Ideas. blaming the soul for its association with the body on the score of guilt. gives the Platonic definition of Matter. His psychology is deeply colored with the teaching of Anaxagoras on the immaterial nature of mind and with that of Pythagoras on immortality. In his ethics. These numbers." he has. That is the reason of his importance. as opposed. on the difference between knowledge and opinion. Plato conveniently sums up earlier Greek thought.'* "These are clear Platonic thoughts. the doctrine of the unity and mul- aristocracy. in his politics. as the mediatmg element between the Idea and the world of sense Their one element. or Universal Soul. appear in the theory of the World-soul. the Megarians and Cynics. the soul's obligation to flee association with the body. While those assumptions had related entirely and exclusively to one another. well adapted. philosophy is from the outset directed to the contemplation of things in all their aspects.

a thinking one. and altogether in disorder. as against his rival Xenophon. this uncertainty allows anybody and everybody to appeal to Plato. Besides. affect both noble and dishonorable ones. literary man would call his defects. and another worse. . by way of reproach or blame. that the person thus affected is inferior to himself." 1.? for he who is superior to himself must somehow also be inferior to himself. why it interests the world still to-day. and when the good one prevails.184 NUMENIUS. and the inferior be superior. because of what a This is are now ready to scrutinize more minutely the several steps of the development of Platonic speculation. which ever leaves it uncertain what he himself really intended. and thus put himself in touch with the ideals and poetry of a whole era of humanity. it is a sort of philosophical gymnasium. but it is plain that there are two souls. that is why reading Plato will never entirely pass out of fashion. among whom is Numenius. This is. and that is why Numenius demands reverence for him. We The trine is . and that the later Numenius is entitled to seek to reconstruct a Platonic school of thought. his dialogue-form. as regards his soul. and after the Republic. owing to bad education or associations. **Is not the expression 'superior to oneself ridiculous. which the world has passed by. but when. there is one part better. Is it any wonder. DEVELOPMENT OF PLATO IN HIS EARLIER STAGE. found in Rep. Thus Plato stimulates thought in his readers. that he himself progressed in his views. with the Cyropedia. or whether these are merely symbolic suggestions." Numenius himself^ did not hesitate to use the same expression: "Others. whether the statement is to be credited to the characters. any appeal to Plato in the following pages is not to vindicate the copyright of Plato on certain ideas and statements. and does not impose his views on them. that better and smaller part is swayed by the greater power of the worse part then one says. It is not the personality of Plato that kept him alive for modern life. but they think we have two souls. or at least two parts of the soul as the thinking and irrational part. iv. in which the higher. why we have not a Neo-Xenophontianism instead of a Neoplatonism. that in the same man. which is practically a parallel work:* "A single soul cannot be bad and good at the same time. and expresses a commendation. Consequently. first stage in the progress of Platonic docthe familiar experience of conscience. then." find the same in Xenophon's Cyropedia. but merely to show that such a view is in harmony with the general Platonic sphere is pronounced menius felt this uncertainty of justified in magnifying — . 9. Timaeus. . the Republic. The expression seems to denote. when the evil one prevails. or better self struggles with the lower or worse self. WORKS AND MESSAGE PLATONISM AND NEOPLATONISM 18S Ages. and indeed why we do reverence him still to-day. 2. noble actions are performed. of thought. just as it has passed by the much more historical Socrates of the Memorabilia. for instance. matching his Socratic dialogues with the Memorabilia. The world could not pass by Plato. dishonorable actions are attempted. Xenophon was an active rival of Plato's. but his personality has been a convenient rallying-point. or wish and not wish the same things simultaneously. or Parmenides. this is what is termed being superior to himself. and that when the better part of his nature governs the inferior. and an irrational one. But Xenophon was a literary man who wrote out his own system or views. his failure to come to conclusions. gave us the Laws? So — We statement that Nuit into a purposive reserve of expression of secret mystery-doctrines. do not hold three. the very reason why the world decided for Plato. Socrates.

so long as its original cause subsists. step in the evolution of Platonism was eflogical grounds. DEVELOPMENT OF XENOCRATES. in the sphere of cosmology logic demands the Pythagorean indefinite Duality as principle opposing the Unity of goodness. .186 NUMENIUS. . not in existence." We mieht here refer to the two-fold aspiration of the soul. in the later Laws. Let us not then lay down less than two.'^ The creator is not satisfied DEVELOPMENT OF PLATO IN LATER STAGE." Plotinos^^ insists that pure souls lay aside as soon as possible the forms with which thev have been endued with at birth and that the worse part. 2. "Is it not necessary to assert that which administers and dwells in all things that in every way. a composite being. and is defective.. and the downward tendency. however. but there are some of the opposite kind. then it seems but natural to conclude that evil actions will likewise be administered by a complementary hierarchy of evil demons.^* Here there are two World-souls. and therefore difficult atonement. If the good and evil in this world are respectively the results of the good and bad World-souls. Right.. but demands an image. The next step in the development of Platonism was the application of this doubleness of psychology to cosmology. He also taught that the soul fed on intelligible sciences. the good acts are administered by the agency of a hierarchy of The next fected by Xenocrates. and if. even when laid aside at death. on .— But if it proceeds in a mad and disordered manner. for I will answer you.f n! f '"xl"'^!?^^?^'*' doubleness appears also in Numenius 25 a d 36 . the majority. while that of the more materially-minded is again duplex: one still has participation with the Good by memory at least. or many? Many. these two wish to become one. the third world. good demons.*. and it of many good things. administers likewise the heaven? How not? One soul.^^ in addition to this result in anthropology." Psychologically even^o the "thinking faculty thinks of itself. and an evil one to which are attributable all earthly disorders. Reason discovers the doubleness. mentioned elsewhere. with its feet in a bath-tub ^'^^ ^ ^^^^' transcends the fTr.® ^}}^ ^^^'^^^ conception of the doubleness /r/"L"^." IS along a path of that very kind. "« The soul IS never without form. does not immediately evanesce. The most excellent soul takes care of the whole world. while the common crowd. on the other hand. "^3 -possesses a capacity facing the body. WORKS AND MESSAGE 3. a good one that steers the world in cir- cular motion. continually analyses the world into two parts: "Every person is something duplex. PLATONISM AND NEOPLATONISM 187 with the intelligible world. namely. And this too is correct. besides.? of life :» Life here is ever duplex one for the virtuous. on the contrary is composed of tools for the needs of the better element of society. "We" are the "other" soul. the upward flight. are solved — — effect things of the contrary kind. one the beneficient. is of those that are not. That of the virtuous is directed upwards and above. and then himself. as well as a higher one trending towards reason. the other for the rest of the human crowd. and their grief lies in that the means of unification is an external. for its excellence lies in thinking. Here we might add the passages describing the soul as an amphibian." ^'Heaven — leads — full 4. Every soul. Plotinos. and the other able to soul. then the evil (soul leads it).

but it must also be it leads over to it. and he tried to rescue Platonism from them. in which he would naturally take a living interest. but the achievements of Plutarch were too convenient to be entirely ignored. Plutarch took The earlier Plotinos. He was drawn to Xenocrates by two powerful interests: the Egyptian.188 NUMENIUS. 5. who represented the popular. or historical event. and its moving principle. and Pythagoreanism." were really period Plotinos Apamea. His History of the Platonic Succession was therefore not a delusion. he really did sum up the progress of Neoplatonism. the most considerable intermediary. In their place. and even Platonic. in connection with the indefinite Duality. as a constructive sect. "Being and Essence. relapsing into provincialism. inasmuch as Posidonius. DEVELOPMENT OF THE YOUNGER PLOTINOS. Tyre's plain that tail Numenian. Serapistic." He ceased the traditional Stoic feud. evidently stand to matter in the relation of soul to body. Numenius was split into two. . not omitting Maximus of philosophical explanation of the emanative. and. and continued the traditional Academic-Stoic feud. re-connected it with all current mystery-rites. but Plotinos had no constructive world-mission. Plotinos was troubled by the Gnostics. as we have seen. Numenius had sung their swan-song. Numenius was chiefly a restorer.^^ also hailed from his home town movement which was he is to eventuate in Neoplatonism. and the Pythagorean. however. as well as the splitting of the Second God. But Numenius did more: he made a religion of this philosophy. he was no student of comparative religion. trying to go back to original Platonism. with some scorn: 'The gods must come to me. participative streaming forth of the Divine. Numenius remains the immediate forerunner of Neoplatonism. He therefore went back to the later Platonic stage. like Pythagoras originally. Hermetic. 189 DEVELOPMENT OF PLUTARCH. His interest lay in comparative practical religion." and he considers in desuch advances of Neoplatonism as the denying of thought to the Supreme. not I to them. he said. Original matter. in Stoic dialect called physical. In other words. continued Numenius's direction. For those modern students who consider Neoplatonism to begin with the practically mythical Ammonius Sakkas. the ordering of the cosmos. When Amelius invited to the New Moon festivals. the last great light of Stoicism. was two-fold: matter itself. DEVELOPMENT OF NUMENIUS. WORKS AND MESSAGE PLATONISM AND NEOPLATONISM 7. for Stoics were of the past. and was identified with the worse World-soul by a development. or creation. He was a pure Greek philosopher. under the influence of Amelius. therefore. These demons. So Vacherot: ''In the philosophic him 6. which. in connection with evil demons. the next step. practical aspect of Numenius. for there were none left great enough to hold together both the practical and theoretical aspects of life." Zeller^^ thinks Numenius should be considered the immediate forerunner of Neoplatonism. the soul of matter. and Numenius still speaks of the Soul of matter. approving of the evil World-soul. So also Moeller:^^ "It will have become clear that Numenius's philosophy is by no means the Neoplatonic one. In this early still used Numenius's name for the Supreme.

who had had a long controversy with Amelius took his place. 1. INTO GREEK parative. This is indeed found in Philo Judaeus. that is.190 NUMENIUS. whose chief activity lay in biography. rather than practical leader of religion. what philosophthoughts he himself seems to have developed. and as a human experience. logically implies that of a psychological faculty which would make such an experience possible. which must have been a natural result of his living so abstemious a Stoic life. Jinally. as the crown of ethical development. which however we must recognize as being com- have now a perspective sufficient to ask ourselves the supreme question of this work What is the message of Numenius to us. as did Numenius in his History of the Platonic Succession. and this was unquestionably due to Philo Judaeus.? What did he really accomplish? An answer to this would fall under three heads: what : We he introduced into Greek philosophy. WHAT NUMENIUS INTRODUCED PHILOSOPHY. including the contributions by Xenocrates and Speusippus. with a new method of comparative philosophy. and the Alexandrian Gnostic controversy faded away. we may group together general traits that go to form his character. But we demur to this. what is original with him. WORKS AND MESSAGE MESSAGE OF NUMENIUS 'i9i a DEVELOPMENT OF THE PORPHYRIAN PLOTINOS. Last. 9. When. ical 2. however. DEVELOPMENT OF PROCLUS DIADOCHUS. and Amelius the Numenian left him. Proclus Diadochus. because Plutarch made no open effort at restoration of Platonism. then Plotinos passed over from Platonic dualism to Stoic monism. he preferred Plutarch to Numenius. CHAPTER XVIL Conclusion. begin with. is the ecstasy. became the first genuine commentator. as well as taking the results of Plutarch. and did not hesitate to attribute the whole Neoplatonic movement to Plutarch. however. the home of ethical Stoicism (Cicero. however. As philosopher. Plotinos settled in Rome. Actually the most important. and the Gnostics may have been deciding factors in its adoption. Seneca). and because we saw that Numenius summed up the whole movement. and this indeed seems to have been derived will To we seemed the most important to . and Porphyry. This teaching. THE MESSAGE OF NUMENIUS. but is also due to Hermetic writings.? What do we owe to him. mention the point that Ueberweg: the definite assertion of the divinity of the second principle.

The latter implied various corollaries: splitting of the divinity into various principles (from Pythagoras and Hermetism). but only as an alternative explanation of the world-process. what a step backward do we observe in Plotinos! . as the philosophical or psychological foundation therefor. GENERAL STANDPOINT OF NUMENIUS. it would have saved the Christian Church much of the Arian controversy. but only with its energies.3 This cosmological foundation is supplemented by the psychological one. he was not afraid to be counted a dualist. that must have come from Philo Judaeus. he was one of the first pragmatists. From a philosophical stand-point. resulting in the universally attainable reward of the ecstasy. or allegorical interpretation.192 NUMENIUS.! that there are forms in the intelligible . So we Numenius name considered it the chief duty of a philosopher to interpret the best result of philosophy to the common people. Numenius is no stranger to the noblest impulses of our own modern times whose scientific methods he anticipated in attempting to quote his authorities for any statement he made. and as the leader of comparative 3. as Vacherot points out. among which is the Lawgiver (from Marcion) the ''material demons" (from the Stoics and Valentinus) **from the West" (from Egyptian religion). not so much the divinization of the second Deity.2 and that existence is not mingled with matter. in his conception of a cosmic hierarchy of divine principles. Another achievement of Numenius's seems to have been. which mainly rested on a more or less scientific analysis of the light and ray simile. asserting a presentation of the actual facts of life. above all. and gives us the first philosophical study of mysticism. He was the first explicit champion of a return to Plato. In these his general efforts. he bound them together as moments of an emanative world-process. showing the limitations of logic. at least seemed to believe that the double of the divinity. strange fate for the best and still valid foundation for a spiritual monism. Underlying this attempt at a unification of dualism. he thus was a prophet. might have done no more than follow in the footsteps of Maximus of Tyre. such as Galen. WORKS AND MESSAGE MESSAGE OF NUMENIUS 193 While Numenius. Plotinos did indeed reproduce it. As result of his polemic against the Stoics may have come his teaching of the incorporeity of qualities. a virile moral achievement. that presentation is a by-product of the synthetic power of the souL^ 4. which takes nothing from the giver. In this respect at least. and after him it seems to have been overlooked. . learn that there are intelligibles that participate in the Ideas. Last. as the precursor of psychical rescientific Numenius stands search. but he really sought a spiritual monism that would not close its eyes to the sanities of the situation. in the best sense of the word. properly subordinating the effect to the cause. shared by contemporaries of his. if necessary. "Being and Essence" was a secret teaching of his own. ^ religion. he interpreted life as. WHAT WAS ORIGINAL WITH NUMENIUS. suggested ^y the Hermetic writings. from Hermetic sources. was his characteristic theory of divine giving. Had this theory of Numenius's been reproduced after Plotinos. for which he properly supplied the He necessary psychological foundation.

This he based on Greek philosophy exclusively. He was the first philosopher to teach both the unity of God (14). Elsewhere (p. vi. on an equality with the Brahmins.194 NUMENIUS. and besides. vi. and three Gods in the divinity (39. . 36). the Magi. all. we cannot trace positively. as well as of atonement. the prophets. and his ''eternal generation" (Enn. outside of Clement of Alexandria and Origen. with definite names. 8. 103) we have referred to his expressions reminding us of an arisen or standing philosopher Numenius who TOPICAL INDEX divinity. his reference to the ^'Lawgiver" is very suggestive.20). Whatever influence he may have had on Christian thought. these fragments form the earliest philosophical system of theology. and the Egyptians." of the "all in and of predestination. vi. approximating the Christian formulations (36).7). 7. Next was to come Plotinos with his illustration of the three faces around the same head (Enn. Even as they stand. and immortality. 5. of salvation. being "consubstantial" (25). drawing much from Philo. a sower-parable. WORKS AND MESSAGE CONTACT WITH THEOLOGY. 5. That references so rich occur in mere fragments of his works makes us all the more regret the loss of their bulk. But we may unhesitatingly point out certain definite doctrines of his. although he did so in a strictly comparative spirit. which will speak for themselves. and the life of Jesus. His mention of Jamnes and Jambres by name seems to imply some special knowledge.3. is perhaps the only recognized Greek explicitly studied Moses.

1. . Third Aeon.12 12 .9 Apollo referred to Arcesilaos Aristander Aristippus Athenian goddess of wisdom Audacity of matter. .5 47 17 our life is a. 64 Moses and the Prophets. Numenius willing to use the term Agathocles of Syracuse interpretation interpretation interpretation interpretation interpretation Allegory of Cave of the All in all. Nymphs 24 58 54 48 10 Amelius Antiochus of Ascalon Antipater Antisthenes Aristotle 37.57 8. 64 2.6 2.3 2. 13 Academy Academy. 54.TOPICAL INDEX 197 TOPICAL INDEX Abrogation of all things Academicians could easily have been routed 5.5 1.5 20.63.3 8. 14.2 2. Fourth Academy.10. and needs incorporeal cohering principle 49a 25. real.8 8.^ Being of first God and of second Being.6 35a 22.8.2 19. is supersensual God Bion Birth as witness Body has not much stability and never actually existed. 2. Body has splitting tendency.3 46 3.8 1.. God is Alone with the alone Allegorical Allegorical Allegorical Allegorical Allegorical of of of of of Apollo Atlanteans 42.3 5. Pythagorean doctrine Battle.4 1. 69 47 Homer Jesus 35b.5.

.*.198 BoethuS TOPICAL INDEX .5 30.* 22 12 Concatenation is the law of life 40 Co-ordination of universe explains relation of first to second God 0^ 1 Crantor ''.3 26..'. . splits itself. vitalizing influence of Divisible is the soul (rational...'. the Soul. irrational and vegetative) Divisible.*.'!*"* Cclsus....v.'. aa 32 34 26 ? 25 12 matter itself Epicureans..'i i! i.. Egyptian opponents of Moses.v.V. Second.4.. discussed comparatively Evil. Divinity.'.*. see Principles of existence. Categories.! 199 12 36c 14 14 Brahmans appealed to by Numenius is By-product of presentation.*.*. is related to First.*. allegory of .'.*.'.. Desire for matter splits Second and Third Divinity '* Development of divinity..'!!! * Demiurge as Logos Demiurge as Pilot of the universe *.. . relation towards one Eleusynian mysteries revealed Elimination of evils of nature impossible Energies of matter.**. intermediary 9 23.....'..3 O Chimera '** 917 39 chryses Chrysippus of Soloi '.*.'..*.'.*..*.1.'!!.*'.'. of Eleusynian divintty 59 10 10 10 goal of Ecstasy. not Demiurge .'...*. Evil. . Carneades 54 26.. Dependent on the Idea of good is the creator.V. theology of Development of world needs a Savior.2 16 16 49I3 .V.36c 14 Dream Ecstasy.* 9 52 Disorder hinders permanence or comprehension Distinction between First and Second divinities Divinity called unity by Pythagoras Divinity is equieval with ungenerated matter Divinity is not divisible Divinity needed by body..!!!*/. form one Divinity.2 12 4 Creator good only participation of first and only 34 Creator saves matter from injury by Harmony ^2 Critical power of demiurge derived from contemplation of divine ^2 ^^°"^"s v.3 12 . 36.:: Compromise of existence ^5 9a 27b 56 26 .*.'..*.*.3 14 1.'.*!!!. his Entertainments '.* p /: 2U 50 19.*.'..*.*..'!!!!!..*. eternal ..*!.' is Demmrge is double Demons delight in sacrificial smoke Demons.v . is related to human thinking Divinity.v.*.\\\ .V. streams from the Standing God Eutyphro. TOPICAL INDEX em '. mingled with by existence.**.'..*.. elimination of..*... (16) 25."." i.* Diodes of Cnidos...*. Cave of the Nymphs.: A 39 26.*. of Plato..*. Capricorn 59 .... Jamnes and Jambre. the.3.'.V. Egyptian. Pythagorean name of matter • 14 26.3 39 Comparative religion . not as impartial as Numenius Characteristic of the First God is thought \ 4 5 * ' 6.*. Third.:::::.*. 7 25 54 26.'. split by matter Divinity.*.*.' Demiurge has critical power and impulsive desire for matter Z2 Z2 ^2 Egyptians appealed to by Numenius. physical western demons Egyptian Ship of Souls Elements.!. because interested in matter..'. the good !'. *..*. but created out of desire for the Third Divinity.. of Theodorus of Asine Cancer.*.. Egyptian. four Elements..*' Dependent on the Idea of good is everything. hold to their tradition Equieval with divinity is ungenerated matter Eretrians Eternity.'.54 * Ecstasy..*. to cohere Divinity.. Existence.'. Second and Third..50. the divinity is not ...*. physical consubstantial with being! !!!!!!!! .V.'.. Second. are all incarnations 38 1. impulsion towards ::37. two. Demons evoked 62a 62a 61 in Serapistic mysteries Demons.* m Doubleness does not arise from singlenessDoubleness of Creator 14..*. 21 41. as external accretion Evil.34 62a 35a 11 11 11 Elements.*. Doubleness..! Piodorus '. Cabalism. Heraclitus teaches impossibility of Evil.**.*.'.*.*.'. simile of watch-tower Dacians and Getes Definitions made by contrasts 7 ir) !..*.'. is boastful prototype of Athenians.V.'..* ' 25 25 4 59 16 V.

•*/.*. 45 is dependent thereon. .. 19 1 Existence.. . the Image of matter unveiled....* 32 50 57 9 9a g g^ Q» ' .. ....*..200 TOPICAL INDEX first • TOPICAL INDEX 201 to it discussed Experiences.*.... * * .*... 35b.10 27a-8 8. everything dependent upon Ideas. 55. stoic 43 10 10 10 er Judgment...!. is Harmony. * 20 11 * * divinity is 27a.6 12 12 21. simile of universe-evolution Logos as mediator of Divinity Lotus.. nothing to Divinity ace..*. by Pythagoras.. Second . Jannes and Jambres.1 2. the first God Kleitomachus Krates 24 Jesus.*..21 51 37.*.*.'.'!... opponents of Moses 23...2 2.. Idea. .. 10 49a 26 29. 45 Fall into generation by wetness First God deals with intelligible only First God is king *.* 63 2... '..*.' ' .*. 58 Getes and Dacians Giving without loss by the divine Glance of divinity gives or takes God as seed and sower of himself God is incorporeal reason God. considered evil ['[[ . unusual.*.!!!!!!!! 11 20 8 Existence not mingled with matter.*. . is unborn .* 63 16 16 .'. events in his life interpreted allegorically 1.....*...9 44 44 42. aloofness Goodness. concatenation of laws of Hfe--or taken by glance of divinity Life given Life.. 3.!*.'.4.* the work of Numenius Innate motion.*. •/••.'.'..21.. .*. Flaw. reserve of Kephisodorus King.*. passim 2. to Pythogoras 14 Impulsive desire of Demiurge derived from matter. united with superexistence 36b Existent.*.. of men.'. because alive. as illustration is • Lacydes Law-giver 3 28 40 27b.'. is the soul Intelligibles participate in Ideas Isocrates God 30.. forced to live with Soul Matter..*' *.*. such must be the saving principle Incorporeal reason.*.. 8. symbolized by stars Idea-world found in God .* . but only with its energies -jg Existence only in the present !!!.. belongs to the Standing Inseparable.". 3. body's discerption implies Incorporeal. ours is a battle Life-process of divinity Light.8.. 14.4.9 Good is not impulsive passion !!!!!!. Existent. 32 62a Incarnation is preceded by soul-struggle power nearest .6.....1 14 30.. one with God. 20. attempted by Numenius 18 Immortality of souls 53.'..!.. 56 Impossible. 35a.*!! .'.*..* * * * life .1.. radiation of.' .'. liable to injure Harpocrates Hebrew references Hebrews appealed to by Numenius.. of sensible..*.*.11 it.9. .*.'.•.'.*..* Magians appealed to by Numenius Manifold could not have sprung out of unity Marvelous statements about divinity Matter. .. 63 2.*.*.!...** ...4.. Existence is dependent on ordering 12 Existence is incorporeal .*. 50 57 . 3..'...'*'** ..*. .*.*.*.' term matter .'. uneliminable of world 35a 30 20 27a-8 jg Forms Fu'-'es exist in the intelligible also . cattle and horse Idea of the good..'.. 13 Incorporeal's name is existence Incorporeal enduring principle. studied by Numenius . Idea of the good..2 3 7 29 27a 10 28 21 9 25 5 Incarnations.. .. . God is Incorporeality of qualities Indestructibility of Soul Initiate. <Jleraclitian problem solved 14 Heraclitus on wetness of Soul 35a 2 11 Heraclitus teaches impossibility of eliminationof 'evi'ls 16 ' ' u^"" the bird of divination Hoopoe. are of evil Incarnations depend on what the Soul has assimilated herself to Incomprehensibility of presentation..*.'. even the creator •:.'.'.. [ [ ' 19 . . . 64 42 34 10 34 32 37 63 'on the Third God Life. 18 26 35a 9... Idle.**.24 Goodness.'.!. participated in by the intelligible Ideas... Hebrews teach God is incorporeal u bi . 2. .*...:::: * * * * . . as the Supreme Goodness is not tendency towards Habit.•:••••. * * ' * ....*.

* Mysteries.*.* 41 41 Name Name of incorporeal is existence Plato*.*.2. according to Pythagoras. '46. 1 . 56 Plato speaks in riddles to save himself 1.* Matter. !.11.7 33.* . foreign.]!! Mingling of Existence with energies of matter. irrational.63 27a. one bad 16 Pleasure.* I3 Participation even for Participation Participation Participation Participation and only.2.. his opponents.. Successors of. Greek.*.*.*..* Matter.'.!!.*!. is source of goodness.7 32 37 37.*. does the Creator . considered neutral Matter.*.13 Plato..*.*. Mediation of nature . affirmed by Stoics.*. Menedemos Mentor '. Passing through the heavens. Numenius appeals to nations of reputation Numenius bears reputation of being a learned man Numenius follows Pythagoras (see Pythagorean) Nurse of the world is matter 203 58 Matter. impulsive. the creator in first explains good in second in God is good of everything in perceptible only (Porphyry) '.. by Stoics..8 12 16... 35b.* .*... according to Stoics.7 Porphyry. 54.*. according to Pythagoras * Matter is a flowing stream Matter is boundless.'!! **/. Mystic.. 30.' .!*. good is one is example of an orator 2. 8 32 1. maxim 26.['.' U 15 12 14 Order promotes comprehension and permanence of anything Organization of world streams from Standing God Orphic.*. Matter is doubleness. according to Plato ..14 41 .1 Plotinos 57 Polemo 1.*!.. teaching of Plato .'..' Mixed.!.'! of things given ace. follows teachings of Numenius 62b Porphyry 49a Prayers. attempted by Numenius. 9.*!.'. equieval with divinity Matter with characteristics.21 IS in first 40b 17 26 3 18 14 IS .* 2 13 6 Passion. teaching truth secretly ..!. everything is Mixture of Providence and chance is the Pythagorean Pentheus is dependent on rational order Perversity of germs.202 TOPICAL INDEX 16 TOPICAL INDEX Numbers. V.21. appealed to by Numenius.[' Motion.'!.*. 43. and unknown *. 3g 40 17 17 World 8. not by existence but by 9 13 Moses / its energy Moses.'. answered by demons 64 Plato. Theologian.. innate.*...'.' ^Z !!!!!!!!!!!! 38 32^ 5g 13 23 24 30' 21 19 4 59 9 64 7.*. indicates generation Numbers. and follows Pythagoras. '. '. concerning Numenius abandons Plato. to quality by Neptune. ungenerated.. '.*. according to Stoics Matter.*.8 2. one good.. Jannes and Jambres /. Stoic origin of Evils Philo of Larissa Pilot. world comes out of Providence in necessity 12 30.!. 34.. .. simile of the Demiurge Plato abandoned by Numenius Plato as Greek Moses Plato attacked by mistake Plato follows Pythagoras Permanence 34 33. n 12 hensible..*.*.'. 26 of intelligible and perceptible in Ideas.*. turning to ashes.'.*!. Eleusynian revealed !..*.. ! Matter's unveiled image.7. indeterminate.. history of 1 Plato teaches everything is immortal 56 Plato teaches two world souls.* Mediator of Divinity is Logos . nurse of the world Matter. makes evil as external accretion .9 1. retains soul and body *.*" Motions.2 32 Mixture with matter..') 20 6 20 8 47 58 60 mystery-teaching of > Platonic teachings as models of other things Plato referred to. 42. 7... Plato...* Mysteries of Serapis vulgarized by Numenius.*!!". of the standing God . six Platonic Mysteries.1. *.*. 25. Plato. because incomprehensible Matter limited.' Matter infinite.58 17 .. Matter is non-existent.!.*!!!!!!!!!!.!!. . ***** Mysteries. 44. incompre* 3g 16 14 9 9 9 9.* . Matter is intermediate nature. splits Second and Third divinity [..*.*.*.1. book on (See 10. is Plato Moses. existence does not mingle with it but only with its energies Matter formlessi and gualityless.'*.." not matter itself !.

*.. interpreted literally Relation mutual of First two divinities. explained mathematically 46 Soul.*. sacrificial. 14 Qualities. by passing through heaven's..11 1. .. simile of divine manner of' giving'*" Providence as cure of dualism Providence heals the repugnance of the worid.' Relation of First and Second god through co-ord'ina'ti'on of universe Repugnance of world healed by 'Prov'iden'ce " Reserve of judgment V V 2 k' V 4 Rule.. ' - 17 00 27. into rational.8 Soul.8 are in discord consider matter neutral consider matter self limited explain evil by perversity of germs 2. . 40 41 Smoke. incorporeal because fed by sciences 44 Soul. see 11 ' * !?! Radiation of light explains universal process.:::.20 Serapis— mysteries vulgarized 61 Severus 4^ Ship of souls Egyptian 35a Simile of higher things is everything. incorporcity of aa Socrates.*. 56 Soul enters into a body such as she has assimilated herself to 57 Soul. two..24.'. is enfeeblement Stilpo Stoics Stoics Stoics Stoics 11 30. Savior needed by body to cohere 12 .'.. * Simile of sailor in skiff Simple. is the divinity Simple.' .".5 ^.. ." 205 pas'sim:::. before studying divinity Presentation a casual consequence of the' s:^thetic* power of the soul incomprehejisibiiity pllnr?^^}i''!^f l^nnciples of existence. is real being Simple.'. 1 .*. not soul-functions 53 Sower.. delights demon spirits 64 14 o ..' '' according to 'n^^^ menius 14 iq ^1 in A't. 'not' soul' function.. followed by Numenius..0 17 15 18 17 A^ Jo j o 17 . soul of matter is not unsubstantial Pythagoreans wrong in deducing doubleness from si'n'ff'leness ^ '. ' * *.. is inseparably one with God 51 Soul is the principle that holds the body together 44 Souls.'.*. ' Psychology Numenius.'.' .' . death of 41 Socrates is the origin of all other Greek philosophy.'.21 .8. God does.*. deals with intelligible and perceptible. Pythagoras. 16 14 16 !l . 2. parable of the divine 28 Space. 58 *. incorporeal because moved from within 44 Soul.3.* 1. audacity of matter Pythagorean.. salvation streams from him Stars. explained as point in divergence * 46 Soul..'.204 TOPICAL INDEX 26 2 C2 TOPICAL INDEX Salvation streams Praying.*. interpreted by Numenius '. 53 i^un.. '.4 Pythagoras agrees 'with '* Plato. Pythagorean.'. from a Standing God H . on wet and living ^r Pyrrho 2.5 Socrates teaches three gods 1 .3 19^4 30 32 ^ 1^ n 2. is immaterial and incorporeal 44 Soul.^^ 57 27a « Speusippus Splitting of divinity by matter Standing Divinity Standing God.'54. 65.*. there is nothing in the world Sincerity.". Pythagoras calls divinity unity Pythagoras calls matter doubleness 14 Pythagoras considers matter evil \1 * * 30 Saturn 54 Saving principle must be incorporeal 12 Savior as leader of world '.'.'..6. divisible.7... irrational. . not less than Plato Pythagoras's world is mixture of Provi'denc'e 'and 'chance Pythagoras teaches existence of evil Pythagoras teaches melioration and m'i'x't'u're of world" 1 ythagorean doctrine. 30.^^.'* 29 18 15 I6 15 Oo It Ve Psychical research I Pythagoras considers matter unlimited Pythagoras.^i.'.::.58. Numenius called one.^y^ 271^ Progress of humanity Prometheus's fire. Plato really is . concerning ..'/.'.*. 26.' " " rrovidence imphes existence of evil Prophetic utterances interpreted allegoric'aliy Prophets. and vegetative.* "Sea" and "salt" imply generation 35b Second God 25 Second God. problem of 10 20. 20 18 ^X.'. .iu '.!*.'.. four "of.'.6 26.13.2.'. abiding.. teaches soul". Pythagorean.'.4 .**.'. symbolized by Ideas Stillness.'. Real being is simple Reincarnation.

. . 9b. 582. 8. 28M.21. 11.. Num.6.'.*. 2. 4111.. 11.2 with 28. 24. is world . '. 8 9b Trojans Tydides . 13.1.'. 36. 69.iion**aV'byl Theodorus of Asine Theognis TheC^ h^ra °^ "^^""^^opmeni 'of biVinity ! * . 42. 35a. cosmic 1 1 ' c'l ^ f? -. 14. 64.*." soDemi- Scolastique. 25N. 3741. Eccl. 32. Xenocrates I ^ 2-211 10. 1824. Zeno N.7. 3335a. 5 21. 39.[['" Vitalizing influence of divinity 36b CHAPTER 1160-181 A. 35a. 28. 26N. vi.:.8. 12 2.13. 5362b. 4. -io Compare Num.'. as birth Wise-man.*. 59.21. 46. Tradition.. 32 to Ap. 57.11. in Tim. 2 2paric. 58.6. 6. 122.2. 3 I.'. E. 14 Jan8. Ueb.'.2.10. Streaming from a Standing God Stream towards God. 81 "ousias arche. urge.'.*. 6527. 125. 6748. 3Bigg. Plot. 37. 9 nj'} Num.. 19. 35a. 4757. v. 9. ^lyit..' ! . 27N. 4937.2. 2180-200 A. 328. 10 54 to Strom. 29.' . ^3 2. 6827..*. to the Orphic theologians World is stream towards God World's development needs a Savior. Platonic Triad.^ . . 4. 12 Num. ^447. 3. 18. 4.'. 621. 31 22 27b . 6 fin. dria 46. 3942. 6412.1 .*. 62a 62I t^k ^. united with existence „ 49a.*' P.'[ Vn Strife content of life *.D. 575.*. 10.. of Alexan^Num. 25 CHAPTER 112 7 2 19. . 1918 205.'.' ^ Y^ . v. 5627 7. 45. I 14. Union of superexistence united with """^ ^^""^ 12 existence.!'. 7155.4 i2 i? . Plat.* '. 3. 10 Num. vi. 63.. disproved.. v.* Wetness.) Supreme Divinity product^"^^"" is ""^ unknown """"^ '''^^^'' present. 6326. 112 81 In initiations.*.* !. 4860.. 17. one bad . 61. 4650.'.'.'... Understanding promoted by rational order. 13 14 . 35b. 57. 72«symphyton te 57. 81. 36. 1016. ^c 29 M. N(umenius). 4044_57. 43.7. God Moics tension. soproclus.10. 935a." 7 3 25. 19. phyry's Biography. S^. 226B. '^ 1. 77"epekeina tes ousias. 23.8.! °Ht of Providence necessaril'y. 46. 6930. 14 11 Hist. 9. 592. .2. 26.2. 13. 4. 611.::.1.'.. 1911.'.8. nes and Jambres. ssphaedo 38.'. 48 '^018.*.4. * Por10. M. 7 4 28... 27. Worlds repugnance healed by Providence. ideal of the Epicureans i!. 9b. 58. 79"epekeina noeseos.' '. Num... 27.7. 4362b. 54. 9 16 to Strom.*. 369-40 601. Seel9. 49. Christ. 10.'. 44. Num. . 23M(orel). mutual relation of Trinity Trinity. 509. 2. 17." 7 8Rep. Wor d souls are two.^06 TOPICAL INDEX and matter."accordi'ng f^fhl^n „. 4537. 17 24M 12. 6628. 112. ^ZZ .* NOTES TO NUMENIUS . 32Revu€ Neo- 56. 2. 13 60. to Exh. 57 to Strom.'.. . 7%. *i*s* sanation .5. one good. 47. p.3 n.. 52ib 2.. 47.D. ^^^"" ^''•th to manif oldness YlnW^ u Unity. 5. 349a. M {j 23. 1^57. 1628. 26. Colin.D. 359b.. 54. 27. ! i\ .217. [ '.8.9. 207 Stoics opposed by Numenius Moics teach two origins.8. 59.4a. Enn. Struggle of souls before incarnation Superexistence. to Strom.'."^5 NOTES TO NUMENIUS WORKS AND MESSAGE (Numbers alone refer to fragments of Numenius.8. . 75 10. 14. 'S" Pythagorean name of divinity. 542:10. 9a. 61.c ••? «2. ousia. i4 ifi 35a. 30 M. 65. 24. 17136-140 A.9.*. 35a.* . 310. 128.. 4210. 57. 301. note 2. 13. «9b. vi. 55. 555. Unknown Supreme Divinity '. Num. 50. 761245.

see Ueberweg. 16 46. i6 47. 2047. 3349.N. 2618. 232. 2950. 1850. 2230. 12 57. 3644.4a. 8 25.4. 11. 327. 615. 2517. 4 17. 116. 26. 24 "Episteme r 27 17. 10. Rel. 25 34. 20 21 N. 12 2. 1217.10. 1844. Met. 1032 716. 2.10. 40.4b. 18 31. 7.10. 327. H. 34. H(eracl. 4 "Plato. 10110. 12 38. 7 1. 245.2. 1 33.3. 4 55. 2 X. ii. 6 16.E.4a. 3232. Stob.3. 18. 10 60. H. 13 27. sspythagore »158. 0045. 22 Which. Chaignet. 2243 23 27 17.3." "ho demiourgos theos. 2 34. 21 25. 12 20. 25. Gr. 5. 813. 29. 80 52. 1817.5. 6. 8 Num.^. Diels.P. Heracl. 120. 14 25. d. 24M. Harpocrates. 81 54. 8 36. 28 55.7. 6 According to . Ueberweg ii. 27 30. CHAPTER III.36. 1739. 8 26. 3532.10 83 33. 1713.22. 2127. 8 Diels. 4110. 6 32. de Anima.8.8. 5Doct. 56. 10. 174b. Chaignet. . 8 28.22." 10. 1127a. 2134b. Crat. 16 47. ^^"ho deuteros xi. 2110. 8244. 1617. 2Eus. 1125. VII. 26«niigma. xi. 31 38. 49. n 18 17. 587. IX. 9. 4. Ar<. 23 25. 28. 4232. 1. 18 CHAPTER 1 « i. C. 5 17." ^^''pappos. Fr. theos. XI. Ps. 18 2155. 249. 2443." "ekgonos. Placit. » 3. 18 16. d. 7 43. 26.. 818. 24 83. 40.20. 18. 14 28. 2917. 30 16. 1452. 3218.23. was ond oZeller. 3117. 32Purif. 317. 782.22. 38. 33 10. 2244. 56 8 54." s^ i. Chaignet. »26. 16 10.8. 18 27. 6. 84 44. 12 27. Pyth. 1011. 12. allotted to the SecDivinity. 35Ritter. 34 32. 1547. 21. 94.7. 26 18. Pyth. 509 b. 18. 2749a. Diels 2. 16 19 1744. N.). 2 3 The inorganic Pythagoras 518. Plat. 22. 14 N. 25 18.3. 36b. N. 817 see 55.20. P. v. Prof." 8*"metousia tou protou. * 32. 5 33. H. 22. 14. 17. 17.4a. Philolaos.9. in Tim.3. 2534. 10 27. 26 25. 28 39. 18 25. 14 16. H. 2. 1440. CHAPTER 19b. 11. 35a. as we have seen in 25. 543." 22 29. 29 10. 38. 150. 125. 8 39. 17. 26 63. 7 39. 1127. 15 48. 3017. i7Enn. 8. 42. 8856. 403. 1516. 3712. 10018. 2058.9. 47. »6 26. 28. 4. 43 See 44 27. 13. 1152. 7. 28 57. 81 53.8.21. 2 25. 1115. 3516. ^6 Ritiv. ei8. 10 25. CHAPTER IV. E. 18 17 N. 29a. 8 1. 8. see Plot. 23 37. 8. 24 32. 9342. 8 36. Symbol. 18. 451. 66. 99 24 sqq. 226. 18. 9 48. Philos. 87 35a. 16 36. 36. 377. 27 25. Chaignet. 33 115. 8 38. 22. 87 10. 12. 3917. 2718. ^26. 8. 18 35a. 8 50. 19 16. 15 vi. "apogonos. 32. i8Are of spirits guardian these the 10 14 52. Hesiod? 18 1. 40f 32.2." Arist. Vorsok. i8Eus. Plin.208 NOTES TO NUMENIUS NOTES TO NUMENIUS 8958. 34. 2044. 26.4a. 5 28. 35b. 74-76. 25 48. VIII.6 287. 6 31. M7. 753. 18. 3416. 1. 48. 820b. 28 32. 2617. 43. VI. 7 20. 1051. i3N(um). p. 26 30. 58.314. (Continued). 14. 15 N. 29 17. i»17. 36.9. 835. 30. 21 De Err." ^5 "geneseos arche.4. 2012." N. 58. 8 30. 2618. Plato.xi. 69. 1. 30. 8 14 32 33 34 . 1 1 48. body as dominated by a habit. ^27. 16. 49a. 7. 245. Plut. 41. 38 41. iii. 62a. 15 49a. 225.20.22. 14. iii. 28 48. 8 25. 369. 175b. H. Eel. d. 30 46. 1818. 717. V. CHAPTER 130. 6. 17. 11. 17 Num. 20 Eus. 44. N. 26 19. 33. 56. 1112.7. 11. 62a. 45. 3. CHAPTER 214. 18 12. Philolaos. 7. 8 54. 7 14. 2818.5. 816. 34 N. 43.7. 11. M6. CHAPTER 114-18.6. 2816. 116. 18 In Tim. 33. 94 1." ®* "episteme. P. 1. 12 17.13.6. 17 48.21. 17 28. 28 16. Met.10. 2412. 14 28. 62a. 8 56. 23 "Mathemata. 10 35a.3. 3. H. 49. 30. 32. 82 47. 18. 18. 209 CHAPTER II. 2912. 31 Comm. . Fragm. 8 26.8. 36 45 40 33^6. -* 27. 16 30. E. 22 n. 16 N. 48. 22A Stoic term CHAPTER 2 25. 1128. 40. 54. 32 29. 7 28. Diels. 3944. 1039. « 31. 62a. 2030. «51. 39. 8854. CHAPTER 155. 44. 12. . iii. i.17.2. 1412. 12. 15 38. 25. 17. 2714. 39. 41. 316. 14. Fr. 4. 18 52. 2434. Diels.20. 2M8. 13 10. Pythag. 114. 17. 30 60. 62a. 27. 50. 1218. 1339. 5 10. n. 2028. 8526.9: 58. 65. 23 H. 131.

N. 68. Plut Stoic. xvii. 52. tinguish eight orders of beings. 426. 47. 362. 95. 811. 12. 35 i. p.7-9. 48. 121.7. i. 42 507. 20. xi. 48 6^6. 38. 16. 16-18. O. M. 26. 27a. 65 katathesis. Ps Gr.6. 20. 5160. 29. 23. 1. c. 13. ii." viii. to Cornutus. 11. 17. 29 iv. 18. 10. 12. 14.6. 17. iv. 25. 4i Rjtter. 18.10. Quest. De Sacr. 17. This is quite a 122. vii. N. M. 92. xiii. 68. iv. 63 And of the Gospels.11. 19 i. 27 p. Morel. 8. QOPL. though we could Ap. Plat. 396. 87. ii. 60. 11. 475. 2 5. 35a. 374. 36b. Plat. 43. 7. 349. N. 49a. 49. x. 222 or 227. 48.. 20. 1. 6. ii. 27. Heret. 41 Somn. 299. Gr. 210. vi. v. 586 M. ii. 15. 24. 1. ii. de Somn. 322. N.21. N. 49 n.411. 432. 11 31. 3. 28. 4 5 ph. 8-10. 2. Gr. 24 jij. 23. 46 Mansel. 62a. b. P. 24. 49b. Tim. Pulsis a Deo. page of Younge's i. 18.4. 25. 13. 27. i2De Somn. 64 Chaig14. Fr. de Dogm. 20. 8. iii. 960. 60 Matter. 481. 202. 20 p. 2. xi. Krit. p. Philo. 135. N. 235. . 31. 30. 353. iv. N. 84 50. N. 48. 1.. 10. 26. 1. in Tim. 50. 182. 7. heroes. 7 3 Moeller. 1. ler. p. 2I. 7. p. 26. 384. n 278. 33 CHAPTER 1 XII. Sacre. P.2. 228.9. vii. 154. n. 6. 37b. 325. 55 Alcinoous. 418. Mutat. 87 Moeller. 221 Tert. 7. 493 iii. so Diels. N. 19. 68 "phan 2. 129. 516. 25. Enn. 167. 1. 21 N. 518. 85 Moeller. 4 It does not appear in vol. 18 i. Deipno- 51 Daremberg. 9 SApud Eus. 278. 64. (Contineud). 67 Theodoret. 36 i. 137. d. 81 P. ii. 52 25. 318.. 28. 14. 12. 9351. 416. 40 14. 75. 12. Ps. 28 V. 33. 28. Plot. ii. 504.1. 25. the god of Pro-creation. 4 4Diels. 30. the World. iii. which is in a work which nearby contained also another allegorical interpretation. 88 Moeller. 29. 31 CHAPTER 1 18. 26 i. Mut. 86. 36. sqq. 186. 1. ii. 25.3. 6 62 phiio.70.. N. ii. N. 222. Gr. 54 Plat. Ev. ii. 59 26. 136. 625. 5844. 18. i7i. 8De 227. 57. 49. de Prescr. 28 134. 24. translation. 72 Moeller. 509. 62a. 54 58. 17 p. tasia kataleptike. 5344. 34. 50. 26. 216. i. 129. 25. 13. 26 V.7. 4a. 219. 186. P. 10. gods. 12. ii. • Daehne's Jud. 30. N. P. 208. 39 ii. 61. 5. Cain. 9144. P. iii. 24 p. 8. 44. Prep. ii. Ritter. 167. Hippol. like 8N. 16. 1. 33. 521. 62 Plant. Laert. 32 ii. 48. 5. 9 n. H. 391. 46ZelIer. 7 XIII. 115. xiii. 53 19. 10 Virgin. 459.-. 423. Rep. contrast to the later Platonic double world-soul. N. 5 23. v. 56 Tim. 86 Moeller.<?ophie. 115. Philos. 18. 340. 71 Moeller. 26. iii. iii. 90. Villoison.1. 40. Norn. Proclus. 301 sqq. iv. 108 E. Nat. 19. ii. net. 191. 10. p. iii. 50. 8. 117. c. 50 Iren. ter. 25 p. 824. d. 154 M.26. 29. 301.8. 14 Leg Alleg. ii. 27. 584. Noachi. 42. 338. 71. 77 15. . 43. 315. and double 13 N. H. 424. Allee. 19. 213. 10. Gigant. XII (Continued) p. 5. For 144. 37. 65 N. 97. the goddess of Wisdom. H. find no definite eight-fold dis- division. 32. 420. 15 P. 28. ii. 19. 137. 46. 23. iii. Plant. 43 Ritter. Z7. 105. 4 2 36a.3. 52Zeller. 263. 196. 89 "hegemonikon. 58. 219. 25ii. sub voce Tim. 4i i. vii. 14. 21 y. 93. ii. 382. Clem. 5 De Vita Mois. Al. 48.9. the Soul of matter. Num. ii. 349. 29. 13. vii. 26. d. 56 44. 30. Like Num. 2. 35a. N. 351. der Gr. 74]^ 4. N. Diet. Cain et Abel. 125. 35a. 232. 44 N. 3 7 . "phantastikon. 34 ii. Hom. de Agric. 22. p. 100. 5. 9455. Alex. 107. 49 60. 251. 13. Apul. 43. 184. 16 De Post. 15 These numbers are . 28. 421. 430." N. 79. Fugit. N. 18 . 334 n. Noe. 78 14. iSMundi Opif. 29 P. iii.. with Philo. 26. 23 p. 7. 27a. 76 Met. ii. 25. 7. 215. 27 j.. 309. 30 251. 7. 434. 10. N. » Chaignet.5.1. 134. ix. 22 p. 266. 10.5. 53. Noachi 17. 36. Migr. ii. 77. 3. . 437. 55. 39 n 373: 8: ssRitter. N. 7 { 16 i. iv. 347. xvi. ii. Strom. 47^ i. Num. 38. Dial. 4 7 Ritter.325. . World). and Ast*s Lexicon Platonicum. P(oem). xii. 297. A. p. 655 M. Post. 275. 57 19.7. 47 Ast. 11. X. 384. M. 27. i. 2225. 223. 23. 289. 47. iii. 6. Ps. 70c. 27. 385.7. 2 Clem. 1. 201. 514. de Nomin. ii. N. de 506. 22. the two World-souls. 63 15^ 17.210 NOTES TO NUMENIUS NOTES TO NUMENIUS 211 CHAPTER XI 87 Ritter. 28.1. 354. Mangan. Epiph. iv. 18. 338. on Cornutus. 289. vi. 289. . 6 N. 37. 283. Philo. 54. 9244. 45 Iren. Plato a. 40 i. . tion. 134.2. 221. 33. ii. i. Justin. 249. N. 26. 31 iv. 13. 27. ii. 59. N. 20. xii. 439. 80 V. Ev. xvii. 3. 37 j. 515. 24 E. 14 P. 308. In Numenius we 53. 202. 98. 33. i. ii. 16. 33. 82 V. 361. Abrah. V. d. Marc. V. Fab. 1. p." Moeller. i. see 24. 154. i. 36 . xviii. 327. Dei. 61 Tert. 55.1. 16. 26. iii. 4 35a. intoxica450. 60 DioR. 57 Villoison. N. 68. ii. 13 Leg. 81 82 83 15. iii. 4. de Fug. Sobriet. ii. 68 N. i. 105. 518.24. 30.2. 1." 67 52. 45. N. see N. 19 V. 240. E. 75. 22 ji.4 44 . i6V(irgin of the 39. 48. Heret. 68.411. 39. 55 2. 115. 12 P. matter. souls and demons. 58 47. 128. 67. sqq. de Die Nat. Plot.6. 70 Atheneus. 64 Hist. Valent. 57. Quod Mundus Sit Incor. 32. i. 392. ii. 75 n. 44.4. Cain..1. 47. 32.31: ii. Tert. 30. iii. 69 vii. 4 3 Philos. iv. adv. 219. 209. 61 Seneca. ii. 27. see 2 Timothy iii. iii. Fr. 106.21. Relipionsphilo. 259. 48 Diels. Somn. 6. 23 44.53 Abr. 66 Prep. Abel ett Cain. 96 Moelsophistae. 11. 374. 59. xii. 83. Nat. Stob. 10. 517. 110. i. N. 6. 38 ij. 59 Chaignet. Cornutus. Diels. 6. i. p. 20.14. Mang. CHAPTER «Sug6652. 120- 395. Censor. Abr. Lex. 60. ii. 79 15^ 80 Moeller. 28. Inalt.

4.9. 19. 134.4.34 . N.4. meaning 44. .1.20 N.N. 34.2. 133. 69.1. 18.8. N. 201. 3. 3. P. N. 124. 46. 46 V.2 .2.3. or 28 C. 49.9. 44. 26. 14. 31. N. 6. 16.1.D. 6.1. 15 In at least.6. 86 N.25. 15 j. 32. 69 6. 1. 5 N. 5. 80 2. 119.4. 51. 24 4. 36 5. 34. 6. 44.2I. 9 p. 6. 26. 43 p. N. 68 Of the world? That is.21.6. 5. 5 xii. 4. 8 6. 108 2.16. 17.7 .10. 19. 5. 27.4. 53 4.3. N. N. 27b.4.6. 81 4.17. 304.5. 55. P. 5. 116 5.2. 15-17. 27b.1. «o P. 26 5. 27. 20. 14. 6. 52. 114 3.4.8. 3. 12. 27a. 35a. N.10. N.9. 62a. (Continued). 36. 44. 25. 9. N. N. 37. xi.29.8. 5. this sounds very much like Plato. 5.2.8. 40. N. 27. 4. 51. 6. 24. 104.5. 11.4. N.33. 6.11. 52.7. 6.1. Plutarch. 15.6.6. 6.1. 87 3. 122 Creation or adornment.3.9. 6.1. N.3. 44.9.19. 46. 31. 48 p. 51.4. 27a. N. n. 29. N. 127 Numenius 20. 14 Laws.4.8. 2. 38. 27b. 85 3. 63. O. 29. N.1. 58. 20. 52.1. N. 14. 133. 39. 6014^ 15^ 16. 56. 106.3. 26.8. 8I 3.16.1. N.8.2. 83 4. 54 p.3 473. ix.10. 27.7.1. 94. N. A. 21. N.1 96 4. N.2.5 . M5. N.8. 36. 12.8. 17.3. 5. 665.3. N.9.18. N. 46. XIV. 79. 105 2. 3. 89 v.2. 50 p. 10.3.7. N.2. 221.3. 44 y.11.1. 32. 2. 4 542.6. 90.7. 60. N.9.3.7. 52 4.3. 84 xiii.4. N. 27b. 64. 21.212 NOTES TO NUMENIUS NOTES TO NUMENIUS 213 CHAPTER XIII (Continued). 3. N.7. 102 6. 42 p. isZeller. 8855. 51.13.10. 6.3. 17 Ph.3. 8. 44. 8. 10. N.8. 50.4. N.4. N. 17. 44. 30. 27a. N. N.7.6. 37.5. 62a. 53.5. 70 6. N. N. . 63 1. 51. 43.4. 7. N. 4. Also 6. 6. N. 8. 9. Plato and 3 Old Academy. 1.8. 65 10.3.3d.16.3.1. 67 6.6. 10. 4. 73 4. 59 3.9. N.4. N. 14 Iv. 56.4. 22.7. 54 4. 56. 13.2.5. 49 4. N.3. 5. 36. N. 100 5.6. 116. 62 2.21. 2. 4. 5. 44. 23 N. xiii. 16. 7.21 10. N. 93. N. 29 Still.5. 452.3. «3 p.7. 98 6.8. 51. N. 49a. 28. 36. 8. . 10. 3«V. i33 pi. N. xiii.5. 82(5.6. N.5.3. N. x. »N. 37.9. 6. N. 124 pi. 5. N. 5.18. 128 PI.10. 18. 12 26. ii. N.8. 1216.4. 106 2.8.5. 147. 29. ii.2.5.17. 4. 38. 32. xi. 33] N. 52 p. 5.8. CHAPTER XV.8. N. V. 5. 57. xi.16. 584.7. 4.15. 49a. 323.1. 2. N. 18 27. 7 26. 18. 67. 56. 16.7. N.6.17. 22. 93 5. iv. 59 V.7.6. Or. N. V. 6. 20.5.9. 110 7 One of form and matter.5.3. xi. Gr. 23.5. 53 v. xii. 4147. Num. 35a. 6. 32.7. N.5.7.16. 48 30. 37. 36. 30. 5.3. 4. N.2. N. 8. 5. 9. 61 6.4.5. 14. 27 5.3. 1 Page 318.6. 25. 19.6.9. 53. iv. isphilebus. 22.9. 132 PI. 3.1. 36c? 7 4 2. 84 V.16. X.9.1 n. 11 N. 30. N. 9.2. N.9.7. 5.5. 3. 147.13. 25. 2 5. CHAPTER IN. ii.8.6. and one of its sides. 123. N. ix.3.8. 30.3.3. N. N.4. 95 N. 39. 8 2. xiii.2. 26. 352. 1114. 2.6.2. 54. see 1.8. 29. 13 N.7. 3. vi. 82. Alexander Aphrodisia of taught the world was a mixture.7 . 27b. 1032.19.7. 453. 37. . 39. 52.4. 57 5. P. 57 v. 23. 3. 135-151. 20 12. N.11 are Enneads of Plotincs. 5.16.8. 6. 14. N. 21. 47. N. 44. N. 884. sphere. 6.85. n. 41 P.1.3. 2 63.7.9. 104 2. 27a. 55. N.4. 6. 23. 107. N. N.2.3. si p. 8 25.7. 5i. N.2. 6 2.3.31. 17.7. 1095. 18. N. 11. xii. 90 4. 12. 37. 28 106. 43.9.6. 4. N. 10. 564. 10.6. 11. quoting Empedocles. N.1. 39 87 p. 119 3. N. 9.4 N.5. N.8. 94 3. 44.7. 15. 39N. 20. 593. 17. is 106. N.6 to end.3.2. 27a. 81.7: 22. 134.1. of 5.2.9. 3. N. ii3 Might it mean an angle. 12.1 6.5. 1186. 39.1. 35 p. 4.21216. 10. 53.29. 7 7 3. 2.9. N.8. 85 N.6.26. 32 56 2. 5.15. 32. 44. 12.8. 40 2. 57.9. 55. 8.9.1. 129 pi. 36. 755.9. 56. 92 6. 42.217.5. 6.3. 37. CHAPTER Numbers without Numenius initials 1 ili.8. 9 2.3. 44. etc. 115 4. 25.7.3. 4 9 P.2. N. 32. 716. i^ 4. N. in 4.8.6: N. 99 Passim. 44. 38 p. 6. 53. 6. 112 ^oy. 51. V.5.8. 19 6. 48. 4. 120-122.8. i.9. N. 17. 20. N. 27. 83 4.9.2-5. N. 117S. 3. 32 915.2. 47 p.4. N. 22. P. 1033. 11. 2. Plato a. Tim.8. 15. 2. 6. xiii.9.24. 36b. 13. 11.3. n 44. CHAPTER 1 XVI. Ill.6. N.4. 57. 19.4. 66 v.2. N. 48..6. 33. Def.31. «2 P.6.4. 2. 57. 17.1. 18. 27a. 49b. P. 9 7 Plotinos passim. N. 22. and passim. 55 p. 123 4. 89 3. N. 10.4.11 .2. 19. i30 pi. 17. 107 2. 72.4. XVII.9. 43 Still.3. 16.3.4. 32.9. N. 26. N.6. N. 126 pi. 15.8.1. N. 6. 4.9. 17. N. ION.3. 82 3. 60. 16. 14. 6. N. 6. 20. 26. 2 N.8.5. 93. 17. 84 4. 76 2. 3.3. xi. I6A. 16.4.16. 6. degrading creation from the second to the third 63.4. d. 5i 4. n 14.2. 8. 5. 174.2. 12.4. 11. N.3.11. 140. 46 1. 511. 16.1. 30. N. 33.9. 4. 58 p. 444. 37 3. 1. 46. 61 P.9. 31. xi.9. 6. 5. 125 PI. 13.8.33. xiii.3 131 N. ii. N.2.6. xii. 7 6. 1203.4. N.9. N.7. 5.1. 101 3.4. N. 8 5.1 N. 10.9.41. 10.4. 29.10. N.22. 63.22. X. 10. 64 All 4.6. N.3. 127. ii.3.9. 33. N.3. 79 1. « 1. 4 2 2.10. N.6. 6 n.3.1. 69. N. .2. V. X. 4 6. 44.10. 10. 68. 26. 37. 16. 12. Also 78 5. 40. 103. 45 N. X. 14 2. 6. N. N. ix. CHAPTER XIV 59. N.3. L. 36. see 30. 20. 25 5. 15.4.2. b.2. 45 N.1.4.6. 325. 6. 16. 10. 6. N.10.10. 13.4. 61.2.31. 27.4. 4. 83 V. 139. 3.8. 7 22. 50 4.14.8. 3 N.6 to end. 5. 36. 38.14. 13.8. 46. 147. 24.

Diogenes Laertius. Macrobius. 265 Mang. 32. 69. p. 31. 10. 910. p. Euseb. 23. 41 1 Pott oder Euseb. c. 268. 64. 3. 34. P. 7. 22. 6. Orig. ib. 14. Proclus in Tim. 65.37. 9b. E. p. Euseb. IV. 538. 8. 411a. XI. 543. lb. p. 63. E. Euseb. Euseb. 4. 62. 9. p. 13. 24.Xm. 299. Cels. in Tim. 894. p. 45. p. Ib. 537. p. 24 D. p. 13H. Ib. 44. p. I. 55. 12. lamblichus apud Stob. 44. 56 loh. s.543b. I. 33. 25.. Syrian. p. lb. i. 23 Finck. V. 896. eel. 527a. IV. p. Origines c. Porphyrius. Meurs. 53. 'Nunc P. Olympiodorus. Porphyrius. 4. 52. Ib. 40. Aeneas Gazaeus. Philo s.1b. p. 51. 9 a. 9. 46. 249A. E. 57.Ib. VII. 34. Thedinga. 25.. p. 49.c. Macrob. p. quat. P. I. Origenes contra Celsum 15. cf. 51. p. irepi qpijceujc 21. 25. contra 2. 66. 2l5 1 Anima. 4 extr. 18. 51. in 1. contra Cels. E. in Ar. 8. 20. 526. Origenes p. 5. 24. 11. 28. p. eel. 204 sq. p. Saturn. Stob. 15. 22. 894b. ap. fr. 17. lb. in Tim. Phaed. 650c. P. 538. 34. 6. p. 527b. 29. de antro nymph. p. p. Philoponus in Arist. IX. 59. Olympiodorus 10 Finkh. Euseb. 7. p. H. E. Ib. 18. 27. Euseb. 6.* P. Euseb. 226 B. 18. I2. Chalcidius XV. XI. Cels. in Tim. ib.INDEX OF SOURCES 4^. 59. P. 38. in Phaedonem. IV. V (69 Matth). c. dv- 22. oder 16. s. 38. Proclus. Praeparatio evangelii. p. p. 1. Euseb. XI. Orig. Ib. Proclus in Tim. Euseb. P. 2. in Somn. 4. 7. 93. 58. Proclus 1. LXX (I. 8. 393 sqq. 32. ib. 21 4 Gnthrie: Numeidas von Apamea . 1.1b. P. 1 1. 293 bis 39. p. V. p. ib.525b.E. de 65. Origines. 51. c. sectio 2. r. 187. 48. fr. SS. Orig. 727a. 538. IX. 43. XI. re- Numenius eqs. 14 — 36.E. 22. 5446. 57. XIV. p. 40. Platonis Timaeum 297.219. s. 37. 10. 1066. 54. de antro nymph. epuuTTOU. 2. Eusebius. 3. 22 c. I. 35. Proclus. 21. JV. Cels. 98. IX. ib. A. Clemens Alexandrinus Stro. f. 1. XL 22. Euseb. Proclus. p. 61. P. Nemesius. Eusebius. 141. 538. 8. p. 35b. 30. Cels. Theophr. Ib. E. 29 Aut. 249. 6. Proclus in Tim. lb. 24. 536d. CeU. Origenes c. ib. Proclus. Euseb.3. lb. 50. 3rv. extr. p. 60.).iop. Met. Ib. Scip.1b. commentarii in cap. 24. Euseb. Euseb. 42. 3. p. p. 51. p. INDEX OF SOURCES 1. Boiss. ib. XIV. E. 26. E. Eusebius. IV. p. Cels. P. XI. p.P«34. 17. 20 C. mata i. Cap. 53 5. 41. 539. 836. 225 A. 41. 18. 13. 29. p. Venet. ib. iam Pythagoricum dogma censeatur 19. 26. Porphyrius. lb. p.

the book will be issued thus: happy phrasing of Platonic terms and his deep sympathy with Platonic . we have only had time to one or two of the more These are as accurate as anything in a didetailed cbapters gest can rightly be cxpeded to In addition to the on the seven realms of the Plotinic philosophy. and a full biography dealing with his supposed obligations to Chrisdanity.. and striking. it would be manifestly unwise for the translator. foundations for the promotion of research. says: but YOU MUST read Brotherhood. the T.MeaJ.31. Z). Bouillet's French version is unobtainable. Dr. and Emanationism. phy are by themselves worth the Dr tnd commendatory Review of it. They will be produced successively. Cimes and Pbilosopby W^t Complete Morfeg And for the first time hy Kenneth Sylvan Guthrie. This is a lucid. on the t>asls of a feirly vride knowledge of the subjed. GRANTWOOD.S. and on the relationship of Plotinos to Christianity and Paganism. scholarly iystemadzation of the views of Pli^ tinoi. We have recommended it.R.50 each. th^r compendium oi the works of so great a giant author must have spent much time in analysing the text and satisfying himself as to the meaning of absolute accuracy many obscure passages j to test his would require the verification of every reference among the hund- reds given in the tables at the verify end of the pamphlet. philosophers. rendered into modern English. A. that the summary of our anonymous author is the CLEAREST and MOST INTELLIGENT which has as yet appeared. Human atory review. Tenn. Net price.. Commissioner of Education has written about It in the highest terms. post-paid. Accurate references are given for every statement and quotation. Harris y U. ED upoo this scbolariy contribudon to Platonic literature.» Mcdico-Chirufgical. J. . Editor of the Open Court.S.. we have introdu^ory chapters on Platonism.P. and references on Hermetic philosoprice of the book. Stoicism. but it is undeniably THE BEST which has yet appeared. on the receipt by the publishers of a sufficient number of advance subscriptions. ethics. giving translation of important and useful passages.S. . by i&ennetJ) g>plban (Sutfirie. ^. Send in your entire subscription at once. Tulant. even at $50. Citcrature Press. Editor The Theosophical Review. on reincarnation.Plotino$»bi$£ife. The exposition of. public libraries. and aesthetics. Thomas Taylor's English version extends to no more than one fifth of the complete works. devoted half a page of the July 1 897 issue to an appreciative of jpiotinog Who Gathered AH that was Valuable in Greek Thought Prepared the Foundations for Christian Philosophy. after unselfishly devoting to this monumental work the best years of his life. to procure a •upply of this pamphlet. Nov.. universities. be. and Professor in Extension. at the reduced price of $2. Sample pages will be mailed on application. $1. Tulanc Univcrs. W^t Comparatibe Hiterature ^regi. The writer bases himself upon the original text. and his The importance of a translation of Plotinos may be gathered from the market value of the only other translations. BOX 75. N. Aristotelianism. Hafvardj Ph.. O. for to our Platonic friends and colleagues we say not only YOU SHOULD. Columbia? Ph. and is so antiquated as to be mostly incomprehensible. A.M. to add to this sacrifice financial involvment for the benefit of succeeding generations. N. Philadelphia. Pi&. 1897.M. It is preceded by a careful indication and exposition of his formative influences. University of the South. Among the many other strong commendations of the work are the following: From G.M. Sewanee. by getting it out without distributing the responsibility among those whose spiritual interests are thereby promoted.D. J.j M*D. at $3 each. London: It may be stated. O. BOX 75. while Carl Mueller's mostly incomprehensible German version is scarce at $28.D. the money not to be paid till delivery of the completed book. Paul Carus. GRANTWOOD. Harvard. Plan of Publication^ the public to which this classic can alone hope to appeal h composed of the more thoughtful classes of thinkers scattered all over the world. in a very extended and most commend- TOO GREAT PRAISE COULD HARDLY BE BESTOWcloth bound. Cbe Comparative p. The endowment of the English-speaking world of thought with this classic will depend on the practical interest displayed by independent thinkers. and philanthropists.. of La. of the temple of Greek than take this Those who desire to enter into the Plotinian precinds philoeophy by the moat expeditious path little CANNOT do BETTER pamphlet for their guidej it is of course not perfedt. To make of philosophy so lucid and capable a as Plotinos. thought proclaim the presence of a capable translator of Plotinos amongst us As . p. The complete work will extend to four volumes.

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