You are on page 1of 18

The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence, Transformational Leadership and Organizational Culture Jocelyn Lee Ker Sin 1 Center

of Southern New Hampshire University (SNHU) Of Help College of Arts and Technology, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Email: jobozxx@yahoo.com Rashad Yazdanifard 2 Center of Southern New Hampshire University (SNHU) Of Help College of Arts and Technology, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Email: rashadyazdanifard@yahoo.com

for . Introduction In the business world. The effectiveness of an organization has been brought into another level whenever emotional intelligence was considered as an important factor. Transformational Leadership and Organizational Culture 1. especially in the area of culture. Keywords : Emotional Intelligence. 2006). this paper addresses this issue and presents a comprehensive literature review in order to solidify and explain the relationship between emotional intelligence and transformational leadership and their effect on organizational culture. 2010). many organizations view their people as the greatest asset. Hence. Since transformational leadership is viewed as an effective and positive leadership behavior in encouraging and motivating the followers towards a common pursuit of an organization’s goals. many workplaces have stressed on the importance of emotional intelligence (Lindebaum & Cartwright. As leaders are the main figure in organizations. but it is the employees’ ability and performance that can make a large impact (Butler & Chinowsky.Abstract The importance of emotional intelligence in the organizations has emerged in recent years. transformational leaders with emotional intelligence would be an added advantage for the organizations to pave the way for the development of organizational culture that stresses on the importance of emotional intelligence and transformational qualities. the leadership styles and the level of emotional intelligence will surely influence the organizations. Many authors indicate that emotional skills are needed for the utility of organizations. In recent years. Organizations recognize that technology or tools alone will not enable them to progress.

2006). & Sivasubramaniam. Kroek. Emotional intelligence has been considered to contribute to certain extend to effective leadership on specific competencies. including the organizational culture (Harrison & Clough. and emotional regulation (Goleman. 1985). the transformational leadership theory was chosen in this study because many researches on the topic have been conducted in the past 20 years (Bass.instance. 1996). Thus. this article explores the . sensitivity towards others. satisfaction. Although there are many leadership theories available. the leader. Many suggest that emotional Intelligence could be one of the factors that influence a leader’s behavior and impact the rest of the organization. Besides that. extensive research has also shown that transformational leaders who exhibit positive leadership behaviours accomplish better employee performance. 2002). 2000). effort. the group and the larger organization (Bass & Riggio. and organizational effectiveness (Lowe. Gabriel and Griffiths. empathy. and emotional intelligence has been suggested as the foundational theory for transformational leadership (Brown and Moshavi. empowering them and aligning the objectives and goals of the individual. 2000). 2005). namely generating and maintaining positive moods in subordinates and establishing and maintaining a meaningful identity for an organization (George. Both emotional intelligence and transformational leadership are emotion-laden constructs (George. 2006). This means that the characteristics of the leaders are important in order to shape a culture that promotes realization of a company’s goals and objectives. Transformational leaders help the subordinates to grow and develop by responding to their individual needs. 2005). 1998. Leaders’ emotional skills are important due to the fact that leaders are the main pillars in the organizations that play the role in communicating the company’s vision to their subordinates and make sure that the vision is being fulfilled (Alon & Higgins.

Since then. there were three alternative models were proposed such as the ability model ( Mayer and Salovey 1997). in order to differentiate between them. The four branches are: “the ability to perceive accurately. Besides that. 1993). 1990. 2. appraise. International journals were collected through well-recognized international databases such as the Emerald. The research strategy is literature review by using secondary data. Science Direct. 3. Emotional Intelligence In 1990. Proquest. Mayer and Salovey. library and databases was utilized. the non-cognitive model (Bar-On. and use the knowledge to direct one’s thinking and actions (Salovey and Mayer.relationship between emotional intelligence and transformational leadership and their effect on organizational culture. To collect the literature of this research. Papers were collected over a two week period and the topic was discussed with the supervisor in charge in order to determine the theoretical framework of the research. books that were related to the topic were reviewed. Methodology In this study. Ebsco. The ability model consisted of four branches of interrelated cognitive abilities associated with the processing of emotional information. the relationship between emotional intelligence and transformational leadership and their effect on organizational culture is described and studied. and express emotion.1997). the ability to access and/or generate feelings when they facilitate thought.2000). and the competency-based model (Goleman. the ability to understand . The method used to conduct this research is descriptive-analytic method. emotional intelligence was conceptualized as a division of social intelligence that related to the ability to assess emotions of inner self and others. Springerlink and JSTOR.

4. 3. Interpersonal emotional intelligence-refers to the ability to interact with others or involves relations between individuals.1997. 14). and the ability to regulate emotions to promote emotional and intellectual growth” ( Mayer and Salovey 1997. General mood emotional intelligence-refers to the skills of enjoying life and sustaining a positive temperament. transform all the way through life. capabilities. The components of this model develop overtime. This model was generally known as an emotional and social intelligence model (Bar-On. The non-cognitive model defined emotional intelligence as “an array of non-cognitive capabilities. 2. p. . Bar-On (2006) proposed the five specific dimensional of emotional and social intelligence: 1. p. and it relates to the underlying potential of the performance rather than the performance itself (Gardner. can be enhanced through training and development programs. competencies and skills that concern to the inner self. 2006). 5. Stress management emotional intelligence – refers to the skills of handling and dealing with stress effectively.emotion and emotional knowledge. & Stough. Intrapersonal emotional intelligence – refers to the abilities. 2002). Adaptability emotional intelligence – refers to the ability to deal with environmental demands by evaluate and cope with problematic situations effectively. competencies and skills that influence one’s ability to succeed in coping with environmental demands and pressures” (Bar-On. 10).

Bass then extended this work and conceptualized transformational leadership as a type of leadership that has feature behaviors such as encouraging and inspiring followers . 4. Transformational Leadership Bums (1978) found distinctive differences between transformational and transactional leadership styles when he studied political leaders. both in one’s inner self and others’ as well.refers to the competency of understanding people and groups accurately.refers to the competency of stimulating people’s desirable responses. Relationship management. desires and resources. 2000).refers to the competency of understanding own feelings and evaluate self accurately. In 1985. 2.management. and this could be cultivated through learning. Self. Basically. Goleman (2000) characterized emotional intelligence as the competency to identify and regulate the feelings. Social awareness. 4.The competency based model is a theory of performance that based on emotional intelligence that has been designed specifically for workplace applications (Goleman. Goleman (2000) proposed four general competencies that function differentiate an individual’s performance in the workplace: 1. 3.refers to the competency of managing inner state. Self-awareness.

4. beliefs. motivating them to self-actualize. Idealized influence (attributed) . stimulate them to think creatively. Individualized consideration – refers to the degree to which the leader attends to each follower's needs and concerns. A study which aimed to . Intellectual stimulation . 2. or ideals by the leader 3. and empowering them. Bass & Riggio (2006) proposed that transformational leadership includes five elements (Harms & Credé2010): 1. keeping a regular contact. Idealized influence (behavioural)-refers to charismatic actions that based on values. Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence And Transformational Leadership The positive relationship of emotional intelligence and transformational leadership is supported by many leadership literatures. take risks. confidence and high order ideals of the leader. 5. Inspirational motivation. 5. acts as a mentor or coach to the follower and listens to the follower's concerns and needs by providing socioemotional support which includes guiding and advising the followers.represents the socialized charisma.refers to the extent to which leaders encourage and motivate the followers by setting challenging goals and conveying optimism that related to goal accomplishment.refers to the degree to which leaders challenge followers’ assumptions.central to head for shared organizational goals. and participate intellectually.

Emotional intelligence and inspirational motivation had the highest correlation in this study (Barling. Walls. A strong correlation between transformational leadership and overall emotional intelligence was found in this study (Gardner. Palmer. & Stough. 2010). found that there was a positive relationship between emotional intelligence and the three components of transformational leadership. Slater & Kelloway. Burgess and Stough (2001) found a number of significant correlations between transformational leadership and emotional intelligence by using a customized edition of the Trait Meta Mood Scale to measure emotional intelligence. and the capability to handle emotions. The fourth study reviewed was conducted to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence and transformational leadership using 103 participants from a national Hispanic American business organization. The fifth study reviewed was conducted to examine the relationships between emotional intelligence and transformational leadership by recruited 80 elected community leaders and 388 staffers as participants in the Midwest of the United . The third study reviewed was conducted to examine the relationship between leadership and emotional intelligence in 110 senior level managers by using the Swinburne University Emotional Intelligence Test to measure emotional intelligence. 2002). 2000). There was a significant positive correlation between emotional intelligence and transformational leadership in this study (Corona. The correlations found in this study defined two effective leadership competencies: the capability to assess emotions of inner self and others.examine the leadership styles and emotional intelligence of 49 managers by using the Bar-On’s Emotional Quotient Inventory in order to measure emotional intelligence.

perceptions. Barbuto & Burbach. 2000. The study showed several correlations that strengthen the function of emotional intelligence in leadership. 2006). Organizational culture provides basic values. 2002): . and self-management is related to inspirational motivation and individualized consideration which are elements of transformational leadership (Barling et al. In addition to that. the studies indicate that leaders with emotional intelligence are able to recognize follower expectations and therefore are better in responding to follower requirements (Barling et al. & Stough. and feel the same way when they encounter those problems (Tolmats and Reino. researchers have discovered that emotional management and empathy are correlated to idealized influence. as well as to the management practices and behaviours that both demonstrate and strengthen those fundamental principles which determine both individual and group actions. Gardner. Schein defined organizational culture as a pattern of basic assumptions which is learned by a group after going through the external adaptation and internal integration of a problem. 2006). beliefs and principles which function as the foundation for an organisation’s management system. where the technique is considered valid and worked good enough to be taught to new comers in order to perceive.States. 2011). 2006). Results show that emotional intelligence had positive relationships with each components of transformational leadership (Barbuto & Burbach. An organisation’s culture generally includes the following four major dimensions (Eskildsen & Dahlgaard. thinking and values (Martins & Coetzee. think. Organizational Culture In 1997. 6. 2000. Aydogdu & Asikgil. 2007. 2000. 2002). Martins & Martins. Overall.

diversity and interdepartmental relations.The integration of the employees’ requests and needs with those of the organisation such as the balancing of work and life. leaders are “definers” and “givers” of culture as they construct and instil the principles. Bass and . 7. goal setting. People . values. mission and values of the organisation and the methods of transforming them into assessable goals of the groups. innovations and communication.The perception of employees on strengthening the leadership on specific areas. Policy and strategy – refers to the policies that determine staffs’ understanding of the vision. managing and organizing changes. 2003. especially in managing the conflict.1. and attitudes that they consider as essential and important for the organization (Jaskyte. 2. administrative. Management processes – The management processes in an organization which take account of human resources. Since the people and leadership aspects are considered as the foundations of an informal organization that put forth a considerable influence on employee behaviour. Martins & Coetzee. good physical work environment and interpersonal interaction between managers and employees. 4. 2004). Leadership . thus the way which an employee prefers to be managed and their experiences of the main leadership style also leads to the way a culture develops (McMurray. Relationship Between Transformational Leadership And Organizational Culture Leader plays an important role on the development of a culture when an organization has just formed. At that time. 2007). 3.

2006). the importance of emotional intelligence brought forward to enable the . Transformational leaders have a high responsibility on forming the organizational culture as the values that transformational leader adopted will easily be adopted by the employees (Aydogdu & Asikgil. a transformational leader promotes a working environment or an organizational culture which is characterized by the accomplishment of high goals. Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence And Organizational Culture Organizational culture is a social phenomenon which is structured consequently by the interaction between individual and an organization and cannot be present without individuals and characteristics such as subjectivity. Transformational leaders are usually portrayed as individuals who motivate their followers to take on objectives and beliefs that are in line with the leader’s mission and to encourage their followers to give a higher priority for group and the larger organization than their own interest (Xenikou & Simosi. According to Bass (1985). Bass and Avolio (1993) also proposed that transformational leaders move their organizations towards organizations that adopt more transformational qualities such as accomplishment. as leadership and culture are so well-connected.Avolio (1993) have argued that an organizational culture can be characterized with transformational qualities. irrationality and emotionality which could be used to explain it (Tolmats and Reino. intellectual stimulation. and personal growth. and individual consideration in their cultures. 8. incorporating. involving. Block (2003) found in the situations that that employees view their organizational culture as culture which possess adaptive. In addition to that. and with a comprehensible mission are usually rated their direct manager as high in transformational leadership. 2011). 2006). At such. self-actualisation.

Though the studies on the topic of emotional intelligence in the work-related setting are inadequate. Another study conducted by Danaeefard. and high performance(Parker & Bradley. & Roberts. results obtained indicated that emotional intelligence . leadership and morale are in the focus whereas Open System type of organizational culture promotes innovation. and willingness to transform and the Rational Goal type of organizational culture concentrates on achieving productivity. thus forming the hypothesis that by increasing employees’ emotional intelligence it is possible to develop the organizational culture of the company (Tolmats and Reino. Dastmalchian. According to the results of the study.organization to shape the organizational culture and the activities of all level in the organization (Langhorn. efficiency. One such study was conducted by Tolmats and Reino to find the interconnections of emotional intelligence competences and types of organizational culture which taken from The Competing Values Framework which conceptualized by Quinn and Rohrbaugh (1983) in two business sectors in Estonia (Tolmats and Reino. Salehi. Zeidner. Open System and Rational Goal types of organizational culture. Hasiri and Noruzi (2012) to which aimed to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence. organizational culture and organizational learning in the service providing organizations of Kermanshah. emotional intelligence is usually positively related to Human Relations. growth. dynamics. 2004). The results of the investigation show that participants with a higher emotional intelligence level gave higher estimates to organizational culture than participants with lower emotional intelligence. imagination. Lee & Ng. 2000). 2006). 2006). In The Human Relations type of organizational culture. 2004). it is agreed that emotional intelligence has a crucial importance in occupational settings (Matthews. 2000.

2000). This study shows a direct relation between of the relationship between the factors of emotional intelligence and organizational culture where the relationship between self-stimulation and organizational culture show the strongest value. The social awareness of the transformational leaders is also important in order to be able to read the followers and the groups accurately and to inspire them to achieve the goals of . 2010). 2006. Hasiri. Gardner. Barbuto & Burbach. At such the creation of emotional intelligence could pave the way for the development of organizational culture in the organization (Danaeefard. 2006. their emotional skills are extremely important. Butler & Chinowsky. there are many leadership literature that supported the positive relationship between emotional intelligence and transformational leadership (Barling et al. Transformational leaders need to have the ability to monitor their own emotions. & Stough. Salehi. cope with the demands of the environmental and problematic situations and deal with daily stress effectively before they could help their subordinates to grow and develop. Transformational leaders also need to have good interpersonal emotional skills so as to communicate and interact with the followers to further attend to the needs and concerns of the followers and provide socio-emotional support. As transformational leaders need to encourage and motivate the followers in heading to a shared organizational goal. 2012). Corona. Discussion Given the widespread interest surrounding the importance of emotional intelligence in the workplace and leadership in particular. 9. & Noruzi.has a direct impacts on organizational culture. the relationship between emotional intelligence and transformational leadership. As both the emotional intelligence and transformational leadership are emotion-laden constructs (George. along with their effect on organizational culture was examined. 2002. 2000.

10. As leaders have a major impact on an organizational cultures. self actualisation.the organizations and to provide accurate guidance to let them think creatively about the situation. Transformational leaders with a high emotional intelligence will surely encourage and motivate their followers to achieve a high emotional intelligence as dominant leadership style in an organization will influence the employee behaviour and the way the organizational culture develops (McMurray. personal growth and organization development on emotional intelligence. transformation leaders with emotional intelligence will promote a working environment or organizational culture which characterised by the accomplishment of high goals. Conclusion This paper is a conceptual research that utilizes literature survey and descriptive-analysis approach to review and interpret the relationship between emotional intelligence and transformational leadership and their effect on organizational culture. Current leaders should evaluate their personal leadership behaviors to find out if transformational leadership . 2007). objectives and goals of the organizations. Transformational leaders have a high responsibility on creating an emotional intelligent organizational culture as the values accepted by a leader will be easily accepted by the followers. Summed up. Martins & Coetzee. this will eventually boost the organization capability to change and thus improve the prospects for the organization to remain competitive. organizational culture which is formed by a transformational leader with emotional intelligence will surely bring the organization to the next level by using the competencies and skills they acquire in order to encourage and motivate the followers to achieve the visions. 2003. Given the positive relationship between emotional intelligence and transformational leadership and their effect on organizational culture.

13-25.J. References Alon. & Kelloway. 18. Global leadership success through emotional and cultural intelligences. 21(3). M. Multi. M. (2000). K. The emotional intelligence of transformational leaders: A field study of elected officials. Block.On Emotional Quotient Inventory: User’s Manual. B. J. Business Horizons. NY. & Burbach. 51-64. Bar-On..). Aydogdu. 17 (1). Transformational leadership and emotional intelligence: An exploratory study. J..M. The Effect of Transformational Leadership Behavior on Organizational Culture: An Application in Pharmaceutical Industry. B. (1993). B. E. Higgins. 24 (6). NY: Free Press. thus enhancing the achievement. (2006). (2006). E.. J. Bar-On. 1 (4). 146 (1). B.. 65-73. International Review of Management and Marketing .M.Mahwah. 157. (2011). Transformational leadership and organizational culture. B. & Asikgil. M. Barbuto. . 112-21. New York. (1997). R. I. R. Leadership and Organization Development Journal. (2005). Transformational leader who has a high emotional intelligence would create an organizational culture with high emotional intelligence and transformational qualities by making it firm until a point where each and every one of the organization share the common norms and values.Transformational Leadership (2nd Ed. (2006). New York. F. Leadership & Organization Development Journal. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. & Avolio. Bass.. 318-34. Psicothema. Bass. E.Health Systems.. 501 – 512. E. Slater. The leadership-culture connection: an exploratory investigation. 48 (6). L. The Bar-On model of emotional-social intelligence (ESI). & Riggio.components and emotional intelligence are being adopted. The Journal of Social Psychology . endurance and competing power of the organization. (1985). Bass. R. (2003). S. Barling. Bar. Public Administration Quarterly. Leadership and Performance Beyond Expectations.

W.Brown.. H. International Journal of Human Resource Management. F. Human Relations. S.. 11(2). 6 (5). Gabriel. 1027-1055. D. 23 (2). 867– 71. Working with Emotional Intelligence.. 214–21. The Emotionally Intelligent Workplace: How to Select for. Journal of Management in Engneering . The interplay between organizational and national cultures: a comparison of organizational practices in Canada and South Korea using the Competing Values Framework. A. & C. George. 388−410. 26 (7). J. An EI-based theory of performance. African Journal of Business Management . A. J.M. S. NY: Harper & Row. & Stough. learning and organizing. (1978). D. Emotions and leadership: The role of emotional intelligence. Lee. M. (1998).K.. Emotional intelligence and leadership behavior in construction executives. (2002). Burns. Dastmalchian. 4 (1). (2000). Total Quality Management. (2006). Goleman. C. Goleman. (2012). Salehi. P. London: Bloomsbury Publishing. The Business Journal of Hispanic Research .. & Chinowsky. 5-17. 22-34.). M. Emotional intelligence and transformational and transactional leadership: A meta-analysis.. . Butler. & Credé . San Francisco. 22 (3). Goleman. M. A.J. Transformational leadership and emotional intelligence: a potential pathway for an increased understanding of interpersonal influence. Journal of Organizational Behavior. Measure. L. A. Leadership. Danaeefard. Y. P. (2010). Emotion. D. & Noruzi. J. & Ng. Leadership and Organization Development Journal . A causal model for employee satisfaction. 17 (5). Eskildsen.. Groups. Harms. M. Examining the relationship between leadership and emotional intelligence in senior level managers. 11(8). Corona. 1081-1094. S. Cherniss (eds. R. In D. 53 (8). J. C. How emotional intelligence and organizational culture contribute to shaping learning organization in public service organizations. and Organizations. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies . and Griffiths. 68-78.. and Improve Emotional Intelligence in Individuals. (2002). New York. 119-125. Hasiri. 9 (5). J. (2010). (2000). & Dahlgaard. Gardner. (2005). D. CA: Jossey-Bass. (2000). The Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence and Transformational Leadership: A Hispanic American Examination. and Moshavi. D. I. (2000). 1921-1931. The Learning Organization.

. McMurray. S. 43 (2). Organisational culture.W. (1997). 54-65. Sluyter (Eds). The relationship between organizational climate and organizational culture. Mayer. B. J. 15 (2). Walls. Palmer. 5 (2). How emotional intelligence can improve management performance. (1996). The social science Journal. 287-292. Organizational culture in the public sector: evidence from six organizations. Matthews. 47 (7). An organisational culture model to promote creativity and innovation. Jaskyte. 13 (2). Salovey & D. Clough. Kroek. & Salovey. 220−230. Burgess..K. B. Martins. Parker.. employee satisfaction. (2007). Martins. 3(1). 28(4). A critical examination of the relationship between emotional intelligence and transformational leadership. M. J. K.J. 20-32. A. & Coetzee.. D. G. The International Journal of Public Sector Management. K. New York: Basic Books.. The Journal of American Academy of Business. South African Journal of Human Resource Management . The intelligence of emotional intelligence.organizational culture. (2006). Cambridge: The MIT Press. & Martins. & Cartwright. Leadership & Organization Development Journal . (2003). C. Journal of Management Studies . 17 (4). & Bradley. N.Harrison. Transformational leadership: A meta-analytic review of the MLQ literature. Langhorn. Intelligence. (2001). (2004). 125−141.. (1993). (2004). M. 433-442. D. P. K. South African Journal of Industrial Psychology. R. Lowe. 1-8. G. E. 5-10. J. Emotional intelligence and effective leadership. and innovativeness in nonprofit organizations. 16 (4). Characteristics of “state of the art” leaders: Productive narcissism versus emotional intelligence and level 5 capabilities. (2010). 1317-1342. Mayer. Transformational leadership.. (2004). P. perceived leader emotional competency and personality type: An exploratory study in a South African engineering company. L. N. Nonprofit Management & Leadership .Emotional development and emotional intelligence: Implications for educators (3-31). M. 22 (1). & Salovey. 153-168. Lindebaum.. Leadership Quarterly 7 (5). What is emotional intelligence? In P. N. (2000). & Roberts. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. & Sivasubramaniam. Zeidner. D. Z. ... S. M. 385-425. (2002). & Stough.. R. Emotional Intelligence: Science and Myth.

121-146. & Mayer. J. A.. & Reino. Organizational culture and transformational leadership as predictors of business unit performance.Faculty of Economics and Business Administration. & Simosi. Interconnections of emotional intelligence and organizational culture: based on the example of two business sectors in Estonia. and Personality. D. (1990). M. . chapter 5. 9.. 21 (6). Tolmats. E. Journal of Managerial Psychology . Imagination. 24. University of Tartu (Estonia) . Emotional intelligence. 185-211. (2006). Cognition. 566-579. P. (2006).Salovey. in: National and international aspects of organizational culture. A. Xenikou.