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Mind-Reading Computer

Definition of Mind-Reading Computer Drawing inspiration from psychology, computer vision and machine learning, the team in the Computer Laboratory at the niversity of Cambridge has developed mind-reading machines computers that implement a computational model of mind-reading to infer mental states of people from their facial signals. !he goal is to enhance human-computer interaction through empathic responses, to improve the productivity of the user and to enable applications to initiate interactions with and on behalf of the user, without waiting for e"plicit input from that user. !here are difficult challenges# sing a digital video camera, the mind-reading computer ppt system analy$es a person%s facial e"pressions in real time and infers that person%s underlying mental state, such as whether he or she is agreeing or disagreeing, interested or bored, thin&ing or confused. 'rior &nowledge of how particular mental states are e"pressed in the face is combined with analysis of facial e"pressions and head gestures occurring in real time. !he model represents these at different granularities, starting with face and head movements and building those in time and in space to form a clearer model of what mental state is being represented. (oftware from )evenvision identifies *+ feature points on the face and trac&s them in real time. Movement, shape and colour are then analy$ed to identify gestures li&e a smile or eyebrows being raised. Combinations of these occurring over time indicate mental states. ,or e"ample, a combination of a head nod, with a smile and eyebrows raised might mean interest. !he relationship between observable head and facial displays and the corresponding hidden mental states over time is modeled using Dynamic -ayesian )etwor&s. Why mind reading? !he mind-reading computer system presents information about your mental state as easily as a &eyboard and mouse present te"t and commands. .magine a future where we are surrounded with mobile phones, cars and online services that can read our minds and react to our moods. /ow would that change our use of technology and our lives0 1e are wor&ing with a ma2or car manufacturer to implement this system in cars to detect driver mental states such as drowsiness, distraction and anger. Current pro2ects in Cambridge are considering further inputs such as body posture and gestures to improve the inference. 1e can then use the same models to control the animation of cartoon avatars. 1e are also loo&ing at the use of mind-reading to support on-line shopping and learning systems. !he mind-reading computer system may also be used to monitor and suggest improvements in human- human interaction. !he 3ffective Computing 4roup at the M.! Media Laboratory is developing an emotional-social intelligence prosthesis that e"plores new technologies to augment and improve people%s social interactions and communication s&ills. /ow does it wor&0 Futuristic headband

!he mind reading actually involves measuring the volume and o"ygen level of the blood around the sub2ect%s brain, using technology called functional near-infrared spectroscopy 5f).R(6.

!wo companies are carrying our pioneering wor&s in the field of development of electronic in& and both have developed ingenious methods to produce electronic in&. . letting the computer gauge the metabolic demands that the brain is ma&ing. !he results are often compared to an MR. !he headband then measures how much light was not absorbed.3.R( system up to 89 percent of the time. 1ithin five years.. !hese displays ma&e the beginning of a new area for battery power information applications such as cell phones. electronic displays. !hey deliver the readability of paper under b virtually any condition. -oth technologies being developed commercially for electronically configurable paper li&e displays rely on microscopic beads that change color in response to the charges on nearby electrodes. a company based at Cambridge. Research found that in 2ust few years this technology could replace paper in many situations and leading us in& a truly paperless world.t is portable reusable storage and display medium that loo& li&e paper but can be repeatedly written one thousands of times. 3nd electronic in& displays are persistent without power. in . E-Paper Technology !eminar Report and PPT 3bstract o" E-Paper Technology :-paper is a revolutionary material that can be used to ma&e ne"t generation . pagers. !he technology has been identified and developed is well under way. 2. fle"ible.. :-paper or electronic paper is sometimes called radio paper or smart paper. !he sub2ects were then as&ed to rate the difficulty of the tas&s. non-invasive e7uipment .!he user wears a sort of futuristic headband that sends light in that spectrum into the tissues of the head where it is absorbed by active. drawing current only when they change. glare free and low cost. without bac&lighting. Li&e traditional paper. which means batteries can be smaller and last longer. and their ratings agreed with the wor& intensity detected by the f). . :lectronic in& is a pioneering invention that combines all the desired features of a modern electronic display and the sheer convenience and physical versatility of sheet of paper. e"perimental sub2ects were as&ed to count the number of s7uares on a rotating onscreen cube and to perform other tas&s. 1earing the f).ne is :in&. blood-filled tissues. but can be gathered with lightweight. . :-paper must be lightweight. watches and hand-held computers etc. 'aper would be perfect e"cept for one obvious thing# printed words can%t change. it is envisioned electronic boo&s that can display volumes of information as easily as flipping a page and permanent newspapers that update themselves daily via wireless broadcast. !he effort is to create a dynamic highresolution electronic display that%s thin and fle"ible enough to become the ne"t generation of paper.R( sensor.(. !he other company is <ero" doing research wor& at the <ero"%s 'alo 3lto Research Centre.

L:D fabrication facilities. !he spheres are embedded in a transparent silicone sheet.!-LCD processing plants. consisted of polyethylene spheres between >@ and 1?A micrometers across. Electronics on Plastic by $aser Release %EP$aR& :lectronics on 'lastic by Laser Release 5:'LaR6 is a method for manufacturing fle"ible electrophoretic display using conventional 3M-LCD manufacturing e7uipment avoiding the need to build new factories.f the rear electrode is divided into a number of small picture elements 5pi"els6. . conductive plates separated by a gap of 1? to 1?? micrometers. because of their paperli&e appearance and low power consumption. which can then be removed using a laser to finish the display and the glass reused thus lowering the total cost of manufacture. .t is coated with a layer of polyimide using a standard spin-coating procedure used in the production of 3M-LCD displays.#yricon :lectronic paper was first developed in the 1=>?s by )ic& (heridon at <ero"%s 'alo 3lto Research Center.L:D 5.! processing plant to form the plastic display. along with surfactants and charging agents that cause the particles to ta&e on an electric charge. !his mi"ture is placed between two parallel.! matri" formed on top of it in a standard !. !his polymide coating can now have a regular !. titanium dio"ide particles appro"imately one micrometer in diameter are dispersed in a hydrocarbon oil. then an image can be formed by applying the appropriate voltage to each region of the display to create a pattern of reflecting and absorbing regions. !he polarity of the voltage applied to each pair of electrodes then determines whether the white or blac& side is face-up. 1hen a voltage is applied across the two plates. :lectrophoretic displays are considered prime e"amples of the electronic paper category.inde" titanium particles. :ach sphere is a Banus particle composed of negatively charged blac& plastic on one side and positively charged white plastic on the other5each bead is thus a dipole6. thus giving the pi"el a white or blac& appearance. Bapanese company (o&en has demonstrated a wall with electronic wall-paper using this technology :lectrophoretic 3n electrophoretic display forms visible images by rearranging charged pigment particles using an applied electric field. 1hen the particles are located at the rear side of the display.rganic L:D6 displays using standard .n the simplest implementation of an electrophoretic display. !he technology can also be used to manufacture fle"ible . because light is scattered bac& to the viewer by the high. 1hen the particles are located at the front 5viewing6 side of the display. . 3 dar&-colored dye is also added to the oil.'D *??8 e"hibition. :lectrophoretic displays can be manufactured using the :lectronics on 'lastic by Laser Release 5:'LaR6 process developed by 'hilips Research to enable e"isting 3M-LCD 53ctive matri" li7uid crystal display6 manufacturing plants to create fle"ible plastic displays. it appears white. !he first electronic paper. because the incident light is absorbed by the colored dye. it appears dar&. . the particles will migrate electrophoretically to the plate bearing the opposite charge from that on the particles. 3t the . !he technology was developed by 'hilips Research and uses standard display glass as used in !. with each sphere suspended in a bubble of oil so that they can rotate freely. called 4yricon.

who later cofounded the : . !he particles are slightly negatively charged. or. :ach capsule contains an oily solution containing blac& dye 5the electronic in&6. !his was essentially a reintroduction of the well&nown electrophoretic display technology. causing the water to move the oil aside. With no voltage applied. . green and blue (*+$) filters or alternating segments of the three primary colours. #he switching between white and coloured reflection is fast enough to display video content. #he reflectivity and contrast are better or e'ual to those of other reflective display types and are approaching those of paper.n *??@. &nstead of using red. or twice that of ordinary paper. When a voltage is applied between the electrode and the water. which means that a high-brightness. with numerous white titanium dio"ide particles suspended within. !he microcapsules are held in a layer of li7uid polymer. Reversing the voltage has the opposite effect .nternational.Development in :lectrophoretic Display# . a white pi el. electrowetting allows for a system in which one sub-pi el is able to switch two different colours independently. . and each one is naturally white.n the 1==?s another type of electronic paper was invented by Boseph Bacobson. which turns the electronic in& %on% and %off% at specific pi"els by applying a voltage to specific pairs of electrodes.n& Corporation which formed a partnership with 'hilips Components two years later to develop and mar&et the technology. !he two arrays are aligned so that the sheet is divided into pi"els.the particles are forced from the surface. . $ecause of the small si%e of the p i el. &n addition. :lectrowetting Electro-wetting display (EWD) is based on controlling the shape of a confined water/oil interface by an applied voltage. resulting in a coloured pi el. which each pi"el corresponding to a pair of electrodes situated either side of the sheet. !he sheet is laminated with transparent plastic for protection. in case a reflective white surface is used under the switchable element. each about +? micrometers across. 'hilips sold the electronic paper business as well as its related patents to 'rime Ciew . #his results in the availability of two thirds of the display . leading to displays that are four times brighter than reflective ()Ds and twice as bright as other emerging technologies. !he networ& of electrodes is connected to display circuitry. the user only e periences the average reflection. 3 more recent incarnation of this concept re7uires only one layer of electrodes beneath the microcapsules. sandwiched between two arrays of electrodes. resulting in an overall thic&ness of 8? micrometers. but the use of microcapsules allowed the display to be used on fle"ible plastic sheets instead of glass. forcing the blac& dye to the surface and giving the pi"el a blac& appearance. which effectively result in only one third of the display reflecting light in the desired colour. the interfacial tension between the water and the coating changes. 3pplying a negative charge to the surface electrode repels the particles to the bottom of local capsules. high-contrast switchable element is obtained. #his results in a partly transparent pi el. and displays based on the effect can be made flat and thin. the (coloured) oil forms a flat film between the water and a hydrophobic (water-repellent). !s a result the stac"ed state is no longer stable. !his used tiny microcapsules filled with electrically charged white particles suspended in colored oil. the upper of which is made transparent. the underlying circuitry controlled whether the white particles were at the top of the capsule 5so it loo&ed white to the viewer6 or at the bottom of the capsule 5so the viewer saw the color of the oil6. Displays based on electrowetting have several attractive features. giving the pi"el a white appearance.ne early version of electronic paper consists of a sheet of very small transparent capsules. which forms the basis of the reflective display.n early versions. &t is a low-power and low-voltage technology. insulating coating of an electrode. the technology offers a uni'ue path toward high-brightness full-colour displays.

nstead electronic in& will initially co-e"ist with traditional paper and other display technologies.n the long run. !he appeal of 9D worlds to consumers and vendors lies in the level of immersion that the programs offer. combined with the falling costs of producing 9D environments. as we &now it. which would allow users to alternate between up to 1? boo&s stored on the device.ar.t could very well bring an end to newspaper delivery. a new high.nstead of delivery people tossing the paper from their bi&e or out their car window.ersities+ including . <ero" had introduced plants to insert a memory device into the spine of the boo&. #his is achieved by building up a pi el with a stac" of two independently controllable coloured oil films plus a colour filter. . (uch a boo& could be programmed to display the te"t from a literary wor& and once you%ve finished that tale. bringing information out of the confines of traditional devices and into the world around us. :lectrofluidic :lectrofluidic displays are a variation of an electrowetting display. 3s reported in the May *??= . Bust as electronic in& could radically change the way we read boo&s. the display ta&es on color and brightness similar to that of conventional pigments printed on paper. . !hey include technology leaders such as )*M+ Microso"t+ and Cisco+ companies such as *MW+ Toyota + Circuit City + Coca Cola+ and Cal. . :lectronic in& is not intended to diminish or do away with traditional displays. '. and students. . Cirtual worlds provide immersive 9D e"periences that replicate 5and in some cases e"ceed6 real life.ard+ !tan"ord and Penn !tate .nternet.ssue of )ature 'hotonics. diverse businesses and organi$ations have claimed an early sta&e in this fast-growing mar&et. (ure. the '( )nternet is a powerful new way for you to reach consumers. the technology can potentially provide F8@E white state reflectance for electronic paper. partners. )ntroduction o" '( )nternet !he success of 9D communities and mapping applications.area to reflect light in any desired colour.tech breed of paper deliverers who simply press a button on their computer that would simultaneously update thousands of electronic newspapers each morning. :lectrofluidic displays place an a7ueous pigment dispersion inside a tiny reservoir. . business customers.n& will be developing a mar&etable electronic display screen for cell phones. are leading some analysts to predict that a dramatic shift is ta&ing place in the way people see and navigate the . 'rior to developing digital boo&s and newspapers :-. but you wouldn%t have to worry about the newsprint getting smudged on your fingers. 1hen voltage is removed li7uid surface tension causes the pigment dispersion to rapidly recoil into the reservoir. pagers and digital watches. !he reservoir comprises D@-1?E of the viewable pi"el area and therefore the pigment is substantially hidden from view. 'eople who ta&e part in virtual worlds stay online longer with a heightened level of interest. . !o ta&e advantage of that interest. the versatile content of the 1eb. and the relationship-building strengths of social networ&ing sites li&e Face book . it would loo& and feel li&e your old paper. the '( )nternet is inherently interactive and engaging. electronic in& may have a multibillion-dollar impact on the publishing industry. and it would also eliminate the piles of old newspapers that need recycling. you could automatically replace it by wirelessly downloading the latest boo& from a computer database.t combines the immediacy of television. 3s a result. co-wor&ers. ltimately electronic in& will permit almost any surface to become a display.'( )nternet !eminar Report and PPT 3bstract o" '( )nternet 3lso &nown as virtual worlds. Get unli&e the passive e"perience of television. Coltage is used to electromechanically pull the pigment out of the reservoir and spread it as a film directly behind the viewing substrate. Conclusion !he /oly 4rail of electronic in& technology is a digital boo& that can typeset itself and that readers could leaf through 2ust as if it were made of regular paper.in -lein+ and scores o" uni. it could change the way you receive your daily newspaper. 'D3%s.

4oogle will open the 'andia 1eb site within the frame of a virtual painting hanging on the wall in the virtual library.irtual reality nyone putting on Hthe 4oogglesH . !he 9D mouse is a virtual e"tension of your body . !he (pace )avigator is designed for precise control over 9D ob2ects in virtual worlds. :ach boo& presents a &nowledge resource within 9dLife or on the regular 1orld 1ide 1eb. .nternet content in three dimensions. Move. 3pparently 4oogle is preparing a new revolutionary product called 4oogle 4oggles. /owever.nternet content in three dimensions.will be immersed in a three dimensional Hstereo-visionH virtual reality called 9dLife. blending in with the application%s urban landscapes. an interactive visor that will present . a virtual room with virtual boo&s categori$ed according to the Dewey system. as opposed to a screen name or a flat image.nternet. 9dLife is a pun referring to the three dimensional nature of the interface. .and the ideal way to navigate virtual worlds li&e (econd Life. 3 9D mouse lets you move effortlessly in all dimensions.as the insiders call them . adds new appeal to the act of sociali$ing on the . 9D worlds also hold benefits beyond simple social interactions. will be able to offer customi$ed models through users% homePCs . #oogle/s ne0 three dimensional . 4oogle representatives report that the company 4oogle is preparing a new revolutionary product called 4oogle 4oggles. 4oogle admits that many users may find this too complicated. 3dvertisements in Microsoft%s Cirtual :arth 3D mapping application are placed as billboards and signs on top of buildings. which ma&es the e"perience more lifeli&e. 3pparently the recent rumors of a 4oogle phone refers to a product that is much more innovative than the recent 3pple i'hone. pan and rotate simultaneously. fly and build effortlessly without having to thin& about &eyboard commands.f you pic& the boo& for 'andia. Companies that speciali$e in interior design or furniture showrooms. an interactive visor which will display .!he e"perience of interacting with another character in a 9D environment. where users want to view entire rooms from a variety of angles and perspectives. but also a reference to the increasingly popular (econd Life virtual reality. !he Hhome pageH of 9dLife is called Hthe LibraryH. Move the 9D mouse controller cap to $oom.

1al& or fly spontaneously. . doesn%t seem so lively6. nli&e real life. (trangely. you can hit a button to magically transform the site into a 9D environment that you can wal& around in and virtually sociali$e with other users visiting the same site. you won%t get tired running around a mall loo&ing for that perfect giftJ you won%t have to worry about your &ids getting lost in the crowdJ and you can finally say goodbye to waiting in long lines to chec& out. :"it Reality is designed to offer different &inds of 9D environments that center around spacious rooms that users can e"plore and customi$e. with ease.nternet dedicated years of research and development and has developed the worlds% first fully functional. 3fter adding the button manually and repeatedly being told our current version was out of date. but it can also turn some sites li&e . though :"itReality is admittedly attempting a few other tric&s. we were ready to 9D-ify some websites and see 2ust how much of reality we could leave in two-dimensional dust.nternet%s /yper-Reality technology to navigate and immerse themselves in a Cirtual (hopping :nvironment. it%s treating 3rs !echnical as an image gallery and presenting it as a malformed 3D gallery . interactive and collaborative shopping mall where online users can use our 9D.Controlling your avatar with this 9D mouse is fluid and effortless. 9D. hanging photos on virtual walls and halls. . . so far.nstallation is performed via an e"ecutable file which places :"itReality shortcuts in Iuic& Launch and on the des&top.ands on E1it Reality !he idea behind :"itReality is that when browsing the web in the old-n-busted *D version you%re undoubtedly using now. !his shares many of the same goals as 4oogle%s Lively 5which.lic&r into virtual museums.n fly cam mode you 2ust move the cap in all directions to fly over the landscape and through the virtual world . but somehow forgets to add the necessary :"itReality button to Firefox's toolbar . '( !hopping is the most effective way to shop online.

and save things online. stored in read-only memory.H without downloading traditional software applications li&e i!unes and Microsoft . :very time you turn it on. means never having to wait for the web.(. should you lose the device. !he user interface ta&es a minimalist approach. *??= and made it an open source pro2ect.( with only one installed program .( is a Linu" operating system designed by 4oogle to wor& e"clusively with web applications. sers would wor&. users have a lot to say about e"periencing %waitlessness%. where most programs are installed locally on the computer%s hard drive Design goals for 4oogle Chrome . that )ovember.(.(%s user interface include using minimal screen space by combining applications and standard 1eb pages into a single tab strip. ser data is limited to items such as user preferences. and will run on hardware incorporating an "8A or 3RM-based processor.( will only ship on specific hardware from 4oogle%s manufacturing partners.ffice 1eb 3pps . based off 4oogle%s e"isting Chrome browser.( as a HhardenedH operating system featuring auto-updating and sandbo" features that will reduce malware e"posure. you would merely log in from another one and your data and preferences should be there. . #oogle Chrome 2! !eminar Report and PPT Definition o" #oogle Chrome 2! 4oogle Chrome . it upgrades itself with the latest features and fi"es.(. is encrypted. so li&e any thin client. li&e the browser. Devices running Chrome will receive continuous software updates.( will follow the Chrome browser%s practice of leveraging /!ML@ %s offline modes. using 4oogle%s own cloud computing services and other similar utilities.lash. which is minimal. -ecause 4oogle Chrome . chec&s for system compromises )ntroduction o" #oogle Chrome 2! (peed is an unsaid feature of the 4oogle Chrome . 1ebsites load 7uic&ly and run smoothly. (plit screens are also under consideration for viewing two pieces of content side-by-side. !he web evolves rapidly. with full support for the latest web standards and 3dobe . nli&e Chromium . Chrome . 3nnoying update prompts not included. in which the initial boot code. 1aitlessness.ffice. (econdary tas&s would be handled with HpanelsH# floating windows that doc& to the bottom of the screen for tas&s li&e chat and music players. not as a user%s primary 'C. Designers are considering a reduced window management scheme that would operate only in full-screen mode.( can run multiple 1eb applications in multiple tabs and each one is loc&ed down from all others. live. and most user data will reside on 4oogle%s servers.+.nternet. 1ith 4oogle Chrome%s tremendous booting speed and more. 4oogle Chrome . Chrome . and . so vulnerability in one 1eb app can%t lead to e"posure in another 3se o" Cloud# sers of devices running Chrome will have to perform all their computing online or Hin the cloud. 4oogle claimed that Chrome . Chrome . is designed to be a very fast. rather than separating the two. bac&ground processing. lightweight flavor of Linu" that will be available on some netboo&s and other 'Cs by the end of the year. 4oogle%s Chrome . ser preferences will also be synched to a cloud account. !he rest of the operating system is integrated with the Chrome browser and. which can be compiled from the downloaded source code.(. !his is of course a shift from today%s computing environment.t is intended to focus on 1eb applications while running a fast and simple interface. 4oogle Chrome . Gour Chrome noteboo& evolves with it. ser data stored on the device. providing added security. Chrome noteboo&s boot in about 1? seconds and resume from sleep instantly. in 4oogle%s terms. 4oogle announced the operating system on Buly >.( is initially intended for secondary devices li&e netboo&s. the only application on the device will be a browser incorporating a media player. 3ll other data will be stored in the cloud. !he portion of the operating system needed to operate the device will reside in a read-only section of memory. called Chromium .their own Chrome browser. resembling that of the Chrome web browser. or storing files on hard drives.( is aimed at users who spend most of their computer time on the . 4oogle hopes to achieve this small footprint and high performance by shipping an .( would be the most secure consumer operating system due in part to a verified boot capability. security updates re7uire nothing more than a reboot. li&e Microsoft%s .

Designers propose using search and pinned tabs as a way to 7uic&ly locate and access applications .notifications.

ystem / . . @4 !echnology stands for @th 4eneration Mobile technology . Currently. 1iM3< . (uch choice will be based on open intelligent middleware in the mobile phone. !he development is seen towards the user terminals as a focus of the @4 mobile networ&s. May be in coming days @4 technology ta&es over the world mar&et. @4 technology has changed the means to use cell phones within very high bandwidth..eminar *eport and 00# 3bstract of @g 1ireless (ystem @4 5 4th generation mobile net0or5s or 4th generation 0ireless systems 6 is a name used in some research papers and pro2ects to denote the ne"t ma2or phase of mobile telecommunications standards beyond the upcoming +4 standards 5e"pected to be finali$ed between appro"imately *?11 and *?196.orum or . ser never e"perienced ever before such a high value technology. while the terminal will ma&e the final choice among different wirelessKmobile access networ& providers for a given service. 1ith the coming out of cell phone ali&e to 'D3 now your whole office in your finger tips or in your phone. each networ& will be responsible for handling user-mobility. !he vertical handovers should be avoided. )owadays mobile users have much awareness of the cell phone 5mobile6 technology.nternet.! -R. !he terminals will have access to different wireless technologies at the same time and the terminal should be able to combine different flows from different technologies. !he implementation of standards under a @4 umbrella would li&ely be around the year of *?*? . !he Router and switch technology used in @4 networ& providing high connectivity. but not considered as new mobile generations. !hrough @4 technology now you can use worldwide cellular phones and this technology also stri&e the china mobile mar&et and a user being proficient to get access to 4ermany phone as a local phone. !he @4 terminals will have software defined radios and modulation schemes as well as new error-control schemes that can be downloaded from the . @4 technology has a bright future because it can handle best technologies and offer priceless handset to their customers. because they are not feasible in a case when there are many technologies and many operators and service providers. @4 is not a term officially used for any particular specification or in any official document yet made public by telecommunication companies or standardi$ation bodies such as 94''. )ew 94'' standard releases beyond +4 and L!: 3dvanced are in progress. !he current trend of @4 technology has a glowing future. . !he @4 technology distributes internet access to nodes within the building and can be deployed with union of wired or wireless networ& connections. -g Wireless .n @4.. @4 !echnologies have an e"traordinary capability to support (oftware and Consultancy. @4 technology has e"traordinary data capabilities and has ability to tie together unrestricted call volumes and infinite data broadcast within latest mobile operating system. !he @4 technologies include all type of advanced features which ma&es @4 technology most powerful and in huge demand in near future )ntroduction o" 4g Wireless !ystem @4 technology going to be a new mobile revolution in mobile mar&et.

L !hrough remote management offered by @4 technology a user can get better and fast solution. L @4 technology offer high resolution for cra$y cell phone user and bi.'vA address and Co3 address for the current wireless networ&. Features . and each mobile terminal will be . L !he @4 technology also support virtual private networ&.# Lower networ& layer 5for each interface6 and pper networ& layer 5for the mobile terminal6.'vA6 to different Lower networ& .'v+ or . 3ll mobile networ&s will use Mobile .' addresses for each of the radio interfaces.directional large bandwidth shaping. L !he @4 technology is providing up to *@ Mbps connectivity speed.' standard on one side as well as many micro-mobility solutions 5e.'vA will be implemented in the mobile phone by @4 phone manufactures. L @4 technology is providing large broadcasting of data in 4igabit which supporting almost A@. because there is no competition today on this level..3 placed in the mobile 'hone.3 5.oreign 3gent6.' addresses 5. !here is Mobile . 96 shall maintain address translation from pper networ& address 5.' addresses which should be different in each .ig.ig.'v+ 5version +6 is worldwide spread and it has several problems such as limited address space and has no real possibility for Io( support per flow. &eeping the Co3 5Care of 3ddress6 mapping between its fi"ed .nternet 'rotocol6.n such case. /owever.' in @4. L !he new @4 technology will ta&e all delivery service out of business prospect L !he uploading and downloading speed of @4 technology touching the pea&.' addresses will be Co3 address for the . L @4 technology offer transporter class gateway with unparalleled consistency.. etc.' 5. !he @4 mobile phone shall maintain virtual multi-wireless networ& environment.g. while each of these . L !he traffic statistics by @4 technology ma&es it more accurate. !he fi"ed . and vice versa.??? connections.6. a mobile can be attached to several mobile or wireless networ&s at the same time. it will maintain different . L !he remote diagnostics also a great feature of @4 technology. L !he high 7uality services of @4 technology based on 'olicy to avoid error. !hen. /313. mobility still remains a problem.'. L @4 technology also providing subscriber supervision tools for fast action. where all the routing is based on .nternet. . but traded with significantly bigger pac&et header. !his is due to the initial design of the .'vA6. !he @4 technology networ& offering enhanced and available connectivity 2ust about the world . !he . Cellular .'vA. . !he middleware between the pper and Lower networ& layers 5.6et0or5 $ayer !he networ& layer will be . !hese issues are solved in . L !he advanced billing interfaces of @4 technology ma&es it more attractive and effective.' networ& world wide.e.or this purpose there should be separation of networ& layer into two sub-layers in @4 mobiles 5. 6 i.