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Bibliography

1. "New Yorkers Remember the 2003 Blacko `QAut, 10 Years Later Some 50 million people lost power throughout the Northeast." NBC News. NBC New York: 14 Aug 2013. Radio. <http://www.nbcnewyork.com/news/local/2003-Blackout-Anniversary-NYC-NortheastOhio-219618231.html>. This is the NBC New York’s broadcasted news about the 2003 Blackout happened in U.S.A. In the first video, the time period is the date that blackout happened, and the reporter is interviewing some citizens and get each of their opinions. For example, one lady said “The city became very unorganized”, and in the end of the video they asked what they are going to do next.

2. "The Economic Impacts of the August 2003 Blackout ." . Electricity Consumers Resource Council (ELCON) , 9 Feb 2004. Web. 23 Oct 2013. <http://www.elcon.org/Documents/EconomicImpactsOfAugust2003Blackout.pdf>. The document is based on the Economic Impacts of the August 2003 Blackout written by ELCON. The document is have extremely detailed information linked with money problems. Many private companies and public associations got damaged and they gave examples about vehicle companies.

3. "Major power outage hits New York, other large cities."CNN [NEW YORK] 15 8 2003, 0345 GMT (11:45 AM HKT n. pag. Web. 23 Oct. 2013. <http://edition.cnn.com/2003/US/08/15/power.outage/>. From the News from CNN[NEW YORK], the article is specifically talking about what kind of things happened during the Blackout. There are information with specific time or amount of people or money numbers.

4. United States. U.S. Department of Transportation .Executive Summary of the August 2003 Northeast Blackout Great Lakes and New York City . NEW YORK: , 2004. Web. <http://ntl.bts.gov/lib/jpodocs/repts_te/14022_files/14022.pdf>. The government information, about the blackout in Great Lakes and New York City in August 2003 was talking about the link between the transportation and blackout. The information is divided to each of public transportation such as bus, subway, train and others.

5. Reuters, . "Spike in deaths blamed on 2003 NYC power outage." Fox news 27 1 2012, n. pag.

Web. 23 Oct. 2013. <http://www.foxnews.com/health/2012/01/27/spike-in-deaths-blamed-on2003-nyc-power-outage/>. From the Blackout happened in 2003 in America caused totally 90 people died because of the immediate accidents or the disease because of the Blackout.

6. Sarah, Fenwick. "Electricity Is A Human Right, Not a Luxury." legacy. n.d. n. page. Web. 23 Oct. 2013. <http://legacy-magazine.eu/electricity-is-a-human-right-not-a-luxury/>. The writer of the source is saying that nowadays the electricity is a human right, not a luxury. We, human are not able to live without electricity nowadays. So, it should be a human right to use them.

7. Laura, Gabbert, dir. No Impact Man. Dir. Schein Justin. Oscilloscope Pictures, 2009. Film. 20 Oct 2013. This Film is about one family is trying to live very environmentally to make our earth to not be polluted. They even tried to not use electricity or use as less as they could and they keep doing this concept for a year. It shows how we should act to out nature.

8. "Earth Hour 2013 energy savings increase across B.C.."Bchydro. Bchydro, 24 3 2013. Web. 23 Oct 2013. <http://www.bchydro.com/news/press_centre/news_releases/2013/earth-hour2013-energy-savings.html>. Earth Hour is a global project that all the people around the world might pick specific day and turn off their electricity for whole 1 hour to make our earth rest about an hour. They support how much energy was saved. If all the Korean turn off their lights it will save about 266,472KWh.

9. "The 2003 Northeast Blackout." Area-alliance. Area-alliance. Web. 23 Oct 2013. <http://www.area-alliance.org/NY AREA 2013 Issue Brief.pdf>. It is about the New York the difference of using electricity after 10 years, the period when the blackout happened. It still increased about 7.3% now in 2013, and also in other things people still use much than before.

10. David, Koepp, dir. The Trigger Effect. Amblin Entertainment, Universal Pictures, 1996. Film. 23 Oct 2013. One day suddenly, the city’s electricity is whole gone and nothing left over, so people are not able use any electronic materials and by living this world people started to be crazy. Kill each other or commit robbery.

11. The area of the US Blackout(modified satellite photo). 2003. Map. siemensWeb. 25 Nov 2013. <http://www.ptd.siemens.de/artikel1003.html>. The satellite photo of the area of the US Blackout, taken in 23:15 EST 14 Aug. 2003

12. U.S, Canada. U.S. Department of energy. Nuclear working Group. Causes and Recommendations, 2004. Web. <http://emp.lbl.gov/sites/all/files/2003-blackout-USCanada.pdf>.("Nuclear working Group" 53-80) How and Why the Blackout Began in Ohio : major changes within the FirstEnergy system and the surrounding area in the hours leading up to the cascade 1. A normal afternoon degrades 2. FE’s computer failures 3. Three FE 345-kV transmission line failures and many phone calls 4. The collapse of the FE 138-kV system and the loss of the Sammis-Star line

13. U.S, Canada. U.S. Department of energy. Nuclear working Group. Causes and Recommendations, 2004. Web. <http://emp.lbl.gov/sites/all/files/2003-blackout-USCanada.pdf>.("Nuclear working Group" 147-181) Recommendations to Prevent or Minimize the Scope of Future Blackouts : Governmental effort to prevent other Blackouts might happen in the future or minimize the Scope. - Recommendations to Prevent or Minimize The U.S Congress - Reliability standards are to be mandatory and enforceable, with penalties for noncompliance. Joint Actions by U.S. and Canadian Governments International coordination mechanisms should be developed between the governments in Canada and the United States to provide for government oversight of NERC or the ERO, and approval and enforcement of reliability standards.

14. Michael, Bruch. "Power Blackout Risks Risk Management Options Emerging Risk Initiative – Position Paper.". Ed. Power Blackout Risks. Munich: Germany, 2011. 9-10. Web. 26 Nov. 2013.

<https://www.allianz.com/v_1339677769000/media/responsibility/documents/position_paper _power_blackout_risks.pdf>. What are the causes of blackouts? Basic cause : High grid utilisation or high power demand, High power plant utilization, Defects due to material ageing • Power plant shutdown for revision or due to supply failures (e.g. cooling water shortage during heat waves) Unforeseen simultaneous interruptions of several power plants Human failure during maintenance work or switching operations Simultaneous grid interruption e.g. short circuit caused by tree contact, excavation work, balloons drifting into power lines, cars hitting utility poles, provisional shutdown due to electrical overloading risk Sudden simultaneous high power demand, e.g. simultaneous usage of air conditions during hot summers Power line collapse or electrical equipment breakdown due to natural hazards Insufficient communication between transmission/distribution system operators

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(TSO/DSO) and power suppliers • Cyber attacks

15. Sean, Rosner . "10 Easy Ways to Save on Energy at Home." Mother Earth News. Mother Earth News,
21 July 2009. Web. 26 Nov 2013. <http://www.motherearthnews.com/renewable-energy/save-moneyon-energy.aspx

1. Minimize Phantom Loads 3. Change Your Light Bulbs 5. Use Fans for Cooling 7. Make Windows More Efficient 9. Conserve Water

2. Use More Energy-efficient Appliances 4. Install a Programmable Thermostat 6. Seal Air Leaks 8. Improve Insulation 10. Plant Trees and Shrubs