You are on page 1of 30

Mathematics in Ancient Bhārata

-Arun Kumar Upadhyay, 9437034172/958349238,
1. Western definitions-Ancient-(1) Aristotle defined mathematics as: The science of quantity.
In Aristotle's classification of the sciences, discrete quantities were studied by arithmetic,
continuous quantities by geometry. (2) Auguste Comte's definition tried to explain the role of
mathematics in coordinating phenomena in all other fields: The science of indirect
measurement. The "indirectness" in Comte's definition refers to determining quantities that
cannot be measured directly, such as the distance to planets or the size of atoms, by means
of their relations to quantities that can be measured directly.
Modern Definitions-(1) Mathematics is the science that draws necessary conclusionsBenjamin Peirce 1870. (2) All Mathematics is Symbolic Logic-Bertrand Russell 1903.
Peirce did not think that mathematics is the same as logic, since he thought mathematics
makes only hypothetical assertions, not categorical ones. Russell's definition, on the other
hand, expresses the logicist philosophy of mathematics without reservation. Competing
philosophies of mathematics put forth different definitions.
(3) An intuitionist definition: Mathematics is mental activity which consists in carrying out,
one after the other, those mental constructions which are inductive and effective-meaning
that by combining fundamental ideas, one reaches a definite result.
(4) A formalist definition: Mathematics is the manipulation of the meaningless symbols of a
first-order language according to explicit, syntactical rules.
(5) Mathematics is the classification and study of all possible patterns. Walter Warwick
Sawyer, 1955.
(6) Mathematics is a broad-ranging field of study in which the properties and interactions of
idealized objects are examined. Wolfram Math World.
(7) The abstract science which investigates deductively the conclusions implicit in the
elementary conceptions of spatial and numerical relations, and which includes as its main
divisions geometry, arithmetic, and algebra. Oxford English Dictionary, 1933
(8) The study of the measurement, properties, and relationships of quantities and sets, using
numbers and symbols. American Heritage Dictionary, 2000
(9) The science of structure, order, and relation that has evolved from elemental practices of
counting, measuring, and describing the shapes of objects- Encyclopedia Britannica
(10) Mathematics is about making up rules and seeing what happens-Vi Hart
(11) A mathematician, like a painter or poet, is a maker of patterns. If his patterns are more
permanent than theirs, it is because they are made with ideas. G. H. Hardy, 1940
(12) Mathematics is the art of giving the same name to different things.-Henri Poincaré

(13) Mathematics is the science of skilful operations with concepts and rules invented just for
this purpose. (this purpose being the skilful operation ...)-Eugene Wigner
2. Indian Definitions-Gaṇeśa Daivajña in Buddhi-vilāsinīगण्यते संख्यायते तद्गिणतम् । तत्प्रितपादकत्प्वेन तत्प्संज्ञं शास्त्रं उच्यते।
= Method to count & calculate and its science is called Gaṇita (mathematics).
Vedānga Jyotiṣa tells importance of Mathematics asवेदा िह यज्ञाथथमिभरवृत्ााः, कालानुपूर्व्ाथ िविहताश्च यज्ञााः।
तस्मादददं कालिवधानशास्त्रं, यो ज्योितषं वेद स वेद यज्ञान्॥ (ऋक् ज्योितष ३६, याजुष ज्योितष ३)
=Vedas are for performing Yajñas and Yajñas are as per time, so this (Jyotiṣa) is science of
time. Only knower of Jyotiṣa can know Yajña.
Thus Gaṇita is foundation of creation itself and its sciences. Creation sequence isकालाः कलयतामहम् । (गीता १०/३०)
Kalā = parts, different shapes, Grades, Creating power of Brahma
Kalana = Creation, decay, Calculation, Holding
Kāla = Time of 4 types (Bhāgavata 3/11). Perception of change.
With creation, there is differentiation in different parts.
There is continuous change in each object-perception is Kāla
Measures of parts and their changes in many ways is Kalana.
Kalā is of 4 types for 4 perceptions of change(1) Nitya Kāla (Eternal time)-steady irreversible change. Once an object or its state is gone,
it never comes back. So this is called death also (Kāla = time, death). Due to continuous
decay, we know increase of time from state of decay.
कालोऽिस्म लोक क्षयकृ त्प्रवृद्धो । (गीता ११/३२)= I am that time which increases in direction of decay.
लोकानामन्तकृ त् काल: कालोऽन्य: कलनात्प्मक:। स ििधा स्थूल सूक्ष्मत्प्वान्मूतथश्चामूतथ उच्यते। (सूयथ िसद्धान्त १/१०)
= One Kāla destroys world and the other can be calculated which is of 2 types-Mūrta can be
perceived (sthūla=gross) and Amūrta = beyond perception, being Sūkṣma (micro).
(2) Janya Kāla (Creative time)कालाः कलयतामहम् । (गीता १०/३०)
The 45th verse of Bhāṣāpariccheda reads as follows:
इिन्ियं तु भवेच्रोत्रमेकाः सन्नप्युपािधताः।
जन्यानां जनकाः कालो जगतामाश्रयो मताः॥४५॥
On this the auto-commentary, Siddhāntamuktāvalī says:
“कालं िनरूपयित - जन्यानािमित। तत्र रमाणं दशथियतुमाह - जगतामाश्रय इित। तथािह इदानीं घट इत्प्याददरतीिताः
सूयथपररस्पन्दाददकं यदा िवषयीकरोित तदा सूयथपररस्पन्दाददना घटादेाः सम्बन्धो वाच्याः। स च सम्बन्धाः संयोगाददनथ
सम्भवित इित काल एव तत्प्सम्बन्धघटकाः कल्पप्यते। इत्प्थञ्च तस्याश्रयत्प्वमेव सम्यक् ।”
“कालाः सृजित भूतािन कालाः संहरते रजााः | (महाभारत, आददपवथ १/२४८)
(3) Akṣaya Kāla (Conserved time)-अहमेवाक्षयाः कालो धाताहं िवश्वतोमुखाः (गीता १०/३३)
यथा िशखा मयूराणां नागानां मणयो यथा । तिद् वेदांगशास्त्राणां गिणतं मूर्ध्नि संिस्थतम् ।। ( वेदांग ज्योितष - ५)

= Gaṇita is at top of all limbs of Vedas as crown on head of pea-cock or Jewel on heads of
Jyotiṣa includes all aspects of Mathematics and is eyes of Vedaछन्दाः पादौ शब्दशास्त्रं च वक्त्त्रं, कल्पपाः पाणौ ज्योितषं लोचने च।
िशक्षा घ्राणं श्रोत्रमुक्तं िनरुक्तं , वेदास्याङ्गान्याहुरे तािन षट् च॥१॥
वेदस्य चक्षुाः दकलशास्त्रमेतत्, रधानताङ्गेषु ततोऽथथजाता।
अङ्गैयुथतोऽन्यैाः पररपूणथमूर्ध्नत्ाः, चक्षुर्ध्नवहीनाः पुरुषो न किश्चत्॥२॥
(वृद्धविसष्टिसद्धान्त १/७-८, िसद्धान्तशेखर १/५-६)
=Chhanda (meter) is feet, śabda (grammer) is mouth, Kalpa (action) is hands, Jyotiṣa eyes,
śikṣā (pronunciation) nose, Nirukta (definitions) is ears-these are 6 limbs of Vedas (1). As
eyes of Vedas, this (Jyotiṣa) is the main limb. A man may have all other limbs, but without
eyes, he is nothing.
Mahāvīrāchārya tells in Gaṇita-sāra-samgrahaबहुिभरथलापैाः दकम् , त्रयलोके सचराचरे । यद् ककिचद् वस्तु तत्प्सवथम् , गिणतेन् िबना न िह ॥
=There is no point in too much words, without mathematics nothing can be known in 3
In Chhāndogya Upaniṣad, Nārada approaches Sanat-kumāra for higher studies, then he
counts mathematics as one of the subjects studied by him so far.
स होवाच—ऋग्वेदं भगवोऽध्येिम यजुवेदं सामवेदमाथथणं चतुथथिमितहासपुराणं पञ्चमं वेदानां वेदं िपत्र्यं राशश दैवं
िनशध वाकोवाक्त्यमेकायनं देविवद्ां ब्रह्मिवद्ां भूतिवद्ां क्षत्रिवद्ां नक्षत्रिवद्ां सपथदेवजनिवद्ामेतद् भगवोऽध्येिम।
(छान्दोग्य उपिनषद् 7.1.2)
-Here, Rāśi has been explained by Śankarāchārya as Rāśi-gaṇita = Algebra, analysis etc.
dealing with numbers.
In Vedānta, there is rule of Adhyāropa. We first attribute some qualities, then examine the
consequence. That is building up superstructure in logic after some assumptions. If result
tallies with observation, then it is accepted, otherwise discarded. ‘तदिभन्नािभन्नस्य
तदिभन्नत्प्विनयमाः’ That is same as logical proof in geometry etc. It also means superimposing
one figure on another and show their equality or forming an expression of algebra and
equating with results
Anumāna of Nyāya philosophy is same as rules of mathematical logic.
In Āyurveda, 56 varieties of prepared food are calculated from different combinations of 6
‘rasa’ (taste). Total combinations will be 26 = 64. One nil and 6 single combinations are not
counted leaving 56 varieties-इित ित्रषिष्टिथर्व्ाणां िनर्ददष्टा रससंख्यया (Charaka samhitā, Sūtra
sthāna, chapter 26) = Thus, 36 objects are indicated from 6 numbers of Rasa.

In decimal system of numbers, number 9 is the largest digits and after any multiplcation sum
of digits always remains a multiple of 9. Similarly, great men do not change under any
difficulty like number 9 whose shape is like 9th vowel lṛमहतां रकृ िताः सैव वर्ध्नधतानां परै रिप। न जहाित िनजं भावम् अंकेषु लाकृ ितयथथा।।
9+9 = 18 is Indian classification of sciences. Thus, pair of ear-rings in shape of 9
or lṛ is like 18 vidyās in brainअस्या यदष्टादश संिवभज्य िवद्ााः श्रुतीाः दध्रतुरधथमधथम्। कणाथन्तरुत्प्कीणथगभीररे खाः कक तस्य संख्यैव नवा नवांकाः।।
(नैषध, 7.63)
All operations on

(Infinity) yield

only. This concept is indicated by saying that from

complete, if complete is taken away, complete remains.
ॎपूणथमद: पूणथिमदं पूणाथत् पूणम
थ ुदच्यते।
पूणथस्य पूणथमादाय पूणथमेवाविशष्यते।।
3. Scope of Mathematics-It is not easy to classify mathematics as it is most fundamental
concept. Modern Mathematics is foundation of every branch of KnowledgeBiggest application in Physics including astronomy.
Day to day use of arithmatics and estimates.
Many parts of Physical Chemistry, Biology, Geology.
Quantitaive study of Economics, psychology, sociology, language.
Classification-Felix Klein classified Mathematics as per geometrical projections. This was
called Erlangen Program, 1872. From then onwards, it has been a guide to development of
Common Branches-There is a detailed decimal classification. But broadly, we talk about 2
streams of modern mathematics-Pure and applied. Their subjects are(1) Pure Mathematics-Arithmetic, Algebra, Geometry , Generalized Geometry (Topology),
Algebraic Topology, Analysis-differential & Integral Calculus, Differential & Integral Equation,
Real & Complex Analysis, Numerical Analysis, Set Theories, Algebras & Topologies, Graph
theory, Combinatorial math, Logic etc.
(2) Applied Mathematics-Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics, Astronomy, Electromagnetic Theory,
Statistics, Econometrics, Quantum Mechanics, Relativity Theory, Elasticity, Solid State
Physics (Crystals), Chemical Dynamics, Math or statistics applied to social sciences,
4. Indian classification-Bhāskarāchārya-1 in his commentary on Āryabhaṭīya has given most
fundamental classification concept of mathematics. He has stated on commentary of first
verse that 4 main texts of mathematics survived after Mahābhārataआयथभटीय, भास्कर र्व्ाख्या (१/१)- इित र्व्वहार गिणतस्याष्टािभधाियनश्चत्प्वारर बीजािन रथमिितीयचतुथाथिन
यावत्ाविगाथवगथघनाघनिवषमािण। एतदेकैकस्य ग्रन्थलक्षणलक्ष्यं मस्करर-पूरण-मुद्गल-रभृितिभराचायैर्ध्ननबद्धं कृ तं, स
कथमनेनाचायेणाल्पपेन ग्रन्थेन शक्त्यते वक्तु म्।
गिणतपाद (२/९)-यस्माद् गिणतिवदो मस्करर-पूरण-पूतनादयाः सवेषां क्षेत्राणां फलमायतचतुरश्रक्षेत्रे रत्प्याययिन्त।

Names of the branches with their literal meaning are given below(1) Maskari-algorithms (both mean rod-holder)
(2) Pūtana-Rectification (simplify, show by graph)
(3) Pūrana-Integration, combining equations /theories)
(4) Mudgala-Discrete mathematics
Here Bhāskarāchārya-1 classification of mathematics is more complete that Erlangen
Program of 1872. That program is based on geometrical projections only, so it will not
include discrete mathematics. Arithmetic, theory of numbers, statistics or numerical analysis
for approximate solutions will be difficult to define through geometric structures. Relation of
geometry & numerical math is well identified by Bhāskara who states pairs of branches in
many waysVyakta (discrete)-avyakta (abstract)
Rāśi (numbers, symbols)-kṣetra (area, geometry).
Sakṛta (exact solution)-Asakṛta (successive approximation)
Anka (Pāṭī-known number)-Bīja (unknown-gulika, dependant).
Bhāva (unknown quantity-Bhāvita (function)
Bhāskara-1 commentary-Āryabhaṭīya chapter 2-Introduction-गिणतं तद् िििवधं चतुषुथ सिन्निवष्टम्।
वृिद्धर्ह्थपचयश्चेित िििवधम्। वृिद्धाः संयोगाः, अपचयो ह्रासाः। एताभयां भेदाभयामशेष गिणतंर्व्ाप्तम्। आह च-संयोगभेदा
गुणनागतािन शुद्धश्च
े भागो गतमूलयुक्ताः। र्व्ाप्तं समीक्ष्योपचयक्षयाभयां िवद्ादददं द्व्यात्प्मकमेव शास्त्रम्॥
गिणतं ििरकारम्-रािशगिणतं क्षेत्रगिणतं। अनुपातकु ट्टाकारादयोगिणतिवशेषााः रािशगिणतेऽिभिहतााः। श्रेढीच्छायादयाः
क्षेत्रगिणते। तदेव राश्यािश्रतं क्षेत्रािश्रतं वा अशेषगिणतम्। यदेतत् करणी पररकमथ तत् क्षेत्रगिणत एव।
Numerical methods are in 2 broad classes-Pāṭī-gaṇita, Bīja-gaṇita
Bīja of 4 types-prathamā = Yāvat-tāvat (simple equations)
Unknown or uncertain number is Gulika (dice) indicated by Ka. Value depending on Gulika is
Yāvat-tāvat (Ya), Yāvat (as is Ka) tāvat (so is Ya). Ka, Ya are now written as X, Y-called
independent and Dependeant variable expressed as y = f(x) = function of x. एत एव गुिलका
अज्ञातरमाणा यावत्ावन्त उच्यन्ते। (Bhāskara-1 commentary on Āryabhaṭīya 2/30)
Dvitīya bīja-varga-avarga (Quadratic equations)
Tṛtīya bīja-Ghana-Aghana (Cubic equations)
Chaturtha bīja-Viṣama (Equations in more than one unknown, more difficult or approximate
8 types of Vyavahāra gaṇita-(1) Kṣetra = area, (2) Khāta = volume of pit,
(3) Chiti (arrangement, design)-measure of brick structures (Chiti = city, design of houses,
streets etc.)
(4) Krakacha-Volume and surface of sawn wood
(5) Rāśi-measures of grain particles or similar count.
(6) Chhāyā (shadow)-latitude, time calculation from shadow of a pillar (Śanku = cone).

(7) Śreḍhī (series)-sum of various series-progression.
(8) Kuṭṭaka-kāra-indeterminate equations, approximate solutions.
Some original quotes from Brahmagupta and Āryabhaṭa-2 are given belowब्राह्मस्फु टिसद्धान्त-गिणताध्यायपररकमथशवशशत सङ्किलताद्ां पृथिग्वजानाित। अष्टौ च र्व्वहारान् छायान्तान् भवित गणकाः साः॥१॥
आयथभट-२-महािसद्धान्त-पाटीगिणतरश्ााःसङ्किलतं र्व्वकिलतं गुणनं भागं कृ शत घनं त्प्वघनयोाः। मूले िभन्नािभन्नाङ्कानां शीघ्रं सखे कथय॥१॥
िविन्! सवणथनं वद रूपाग्राणां तथांशकाग्राणाम्। सदृशच्छेदिवधानं रभागवल्पल्पयों सवणथनं च कथम्॥२॥
वद भागभागकिवशध नानाजात्प्युद्भवािन च फलािन। अनुपातािन्मश्राणां िवत्ौघानां पृथक्करणम्॥३॥
काञ्चनवणोत्प्पशत् रससंयोगोद्भवान् िवभेदांश्च। श्रेढ़ीगिणतं वक्त्त्रादीनां ज्ञानं गुणोत्रं चैव॥४॥
भुजकोट्योवथद कणथ कणाथत्प्कोटट भुजं यिा। कोट्याददिययोगे िववरे दृष्टऽे थवा पृथङ्माने॥५॥
ित्रभुजचतुभुथजवतुथलमदथलका दण्डकमलरूपाणाम्। क्षेत्राणां वद गिणतं लम्बं लम्बाच्ुशत श्रुते लम्बम्॥६॥
वापीसमखातानां िवषमाणां वा वदाशु गिणतं दकम्। कू पानां च घनाख्यं पाषाणफलं त्प्वनेकदृषदां च॥७॥
संख्या िचतीष्टकानािमत्प्युच्रायस्तरूणां च। कमथकराणां देयं वद यदद गिणतं िवजानािस॥८॥
मागैर्ध्निित्रचतुर्ध्नभभेदो दीघैाः फलं ब्रूिह। खददराम्रसरलजम्बूशाल्पमिलकाबीजकादीनाम्॥९॥
समभूिभत्त्याश्रयगतस्य राशेश्च खाररकामानम्। द्ुगतं नरभाज्ञानाद् द्ुगताद्भां वावदाशु गिणतज्ञ॥१०॥
Varga of Ya is Yāva and squiring is Yāva-karaṇa.
5. Applied Mathematics- Jyotiṣa is mostly branches of Applied mathematics, viz.(1) Cosmology,
(2) Planetary orbits-These 2 are Siddhānta Jyotiṣa.
(3) Cosmic effect on earth are called Samhitā part of Jyotiṣa and includes(a) Rains, (b) Earthquake, (c) Auspicious times
(4) Effect on man-Horoscope prediction by 8 methods called Phalita or Horā.
(5) Mathematical methods-calculus, algebra, trigonometry & spherical trigonometry (Gola),
numerical analysis, approximate solutions, infinite series for successive approximation etc.
(6) Use in mapping- Details in next section.
(7) Obervatories-Its observations are called Vedha. Vedha = to pierce. The line of sight
pierces the star, then direction of line with reference to ecliptic is position of star (in polar
coordinates). In Horā & Samhitā, one effect obstructs the other when they occur at same
time and it is mostly negative obstruction. There were 4 types of measurements by
telescope, so it was called Turīya (4 or fourth) or Turīya yantra mentioned in Ṛgveda.
Tāṇḍya mahābrāhmaṇa names 4 colours of Avi = sunrays which always move straight like
Avi (ram). Thus, it could mean telescope using 4 aspects of light coming from stars-intensity,
frequency spectrum, polarization, coding or Doppler shift. The heavy instrument and its
foundation are called Grāvaṇa (heavy machine, grinder).
ऋग्वेद (५/४०)-यत्त्वा सूयथ स्वभाथनुस्तमसािवध्यदासुराः। अक्षेत्रिवद् यथा मुग्धो भुवनान्यदीधयुाः॥५॥
स्वभाथनोरध यददन्ि माया अवो ददवो वतथमाना अवाहन्। गूळ्हं सूयथ तमसाऽपव्रतेन तुरीयेण ब्रह्मणाऽिवन्दद् अित्राः॥६॥
ग्राव्णो ब्रह्मा युयुजानाः सपयथन् कीररणा देवान् नमसोपिशक्षन्।
अित्राः सूयथस्य ददिव चक्षुराधात्, स्वभाथनोरप माया अधुक्षत्॥८॥

ताण्य महाब्राह्मण (६/६/८)-स्वभाथनुव्वाथ आसुर आददत्प्यं तमसाऽऽिवध्यत्। तं देवा न र्व्जानन्। ते अित्रमुपधावन्।
तस्य अित्रभाथसेन तमोऽपाहन्यत्। रथममपाहन् सा कृ ष्णािवरभवत्। िितीयं सा रजता, यत् तृतीयं सा लोिहती यथा
वणथमभयतृणत् सा शुक्त्लासीत्।
By observing distance from Viṣuva (equator) we measure seasons, months etc.
आत्प्मा वै संवत्प्सरस्य िवषुवान् अङ्गािन मासााः। (शतपथ ब्राह्मण १२/२/३/६)
अथ यद् िवषुवम् उपयिन्त। आददत्प्यमेव देवतां यजन्ते। (शतपथ ब्राह्मण १२/१/३/१४)
All texts of astronomy give importance to Dṛg-gaṇita-aikya = unity of observation &
calculation. This is method of science. We start with observation & measurement, then
generalize the results with a mathematical model. Based on that, we calculate position of
planets. It is checked with future observations. In case f error model or formula is revised.
Importance of vedha = observation is indicated by Venkaresh Bapuji Ketkar in his
Jyotirgaṇitam, chapter 2/6)ज्योितगथिणतम्-रकरण २, अध्याय ६-इदानीं वेध दियाया गौरवमावश्यकतोपयोगश्चोच्यतेिवद्धध्वा ग्रहान् सन्ततमाद् धीरास्तत् स्थान-पंशक्त च िवचायथ तेषाम्।
पातोच्च-के न्ि-च्युित-मध्यभोगान् शरांस्तथा मध्यगतीरवापुाः॥२८॥
वेधाद्ताः िसिद्धरभूत् पुराऽस्य शास्त्रस्य तच्छु िद्ध परीक्षणं च।
वेधाििना कतुथमशक्त्यमस्मािेधदिया भूपवरै ाः सुरक्ष्या॥२९॥
सिेधशालां िनजराजधान्यां नभश्चराणामवलोकनाथथम्।
संस्थाप्य तस्यां च िनयोजनीया ज्योितर्ध्नवदो वेधिविधरवीणााः॥३०॥
यन्त्रैरमूल्पयैर्ध्ननिश वा ददवा वा िवलोक्त्य याम्योत्रलङ्घनािन।
नभाःसदां दृग्गिणतैक्त्यभेदान् पटे िलिखत्प्वा िनदधीत िनत्प्यम्॥३१॥
अग्रे यदा दृग्गिणतान्तरं स्याच्छनैाः शनैश्चोपिचतं तदा वै।
तत् कारणािन िमशो िवचायथ ग्रन्थान् परटष्ााः पररशोधयेयुाः॥३२॥
(8) Cosmology- Science of creation from largest to smallest structures, chain of creation,
field theories.
6. Mapping-Mapping needs measure of 3 quantity (Tri-praśna) at key points on globeLongitude, (b) Latitude, (c) Direction (marking north).
These need observing Nakṣatra in space in Spherical polar coordinates.
Parilekha is a measure (Māpa), so it is Map. Uses Nakṣatra, so Nakshā.
Measurement of latitude is considered easiest, but that needs accurate southern declination
of sun or any reference star. Longitude needs accurate measurement of time hence its
method was not known in Europe till 1480. Only after it was learnt from India via Turkey
navy, Columbus could plan his America visit. Actually, an old map was stolen from Turkey
from Admiral Piri Reis, which showed Americas and Antarctica. Provisions were kept only for
visit to America about 2500 kms away, visit to India would have needed journey of 18000
kms. Maps of India by Europeans till 1780 showed India as rectangular. See link below

All Greek-Roman writers since Herodotus stated India as rectangular whereas all Purāṇas
tell it as inverted triangle which gave the name Kumārikā Khaṇḍa as viewed from south
ocean. Inverted triangle is called Śakti-trikoṇa and Kumārī is root form of Śakti.
मत्प्स्य पुराण, अध्याय ११४-अयं तु नवमस्तेषं िीपाः सागरसंवत
ृ ाः। योजनानां सहस्रं तु िीपोऽयं दिक्षणोत्राः।९।
आयतसु कु मारीतो गङायााः रवहाविधाः।ितयथगूध्वं तु िवस्तीणथाः सहस्रािण दशैव तु।१०।
Megasthenes: Indika
(35.) India, which is in shape quadrilateral, has its eastern as well as its western side
bounded by the great sea, but on the northern side it is divided by Mount Hemodos from that
part of Skythia which is inhabited by those Skythians who are called the Sakai, while the
fourth or western side is bounded by the river called the Indus, which is perhaps the largest
of all rivers in the world after the Nile. The extent of the whole country from east to west is
said to be 28,000 stadia, and from north to south 32,000.
7. Map references-Quadrant points-Marking 4 points separated by ¼ of circle(1) Brahmā system (29102 BC) in purāṇas.
(2) Vaivasvata Manu system (13902 BC) in Sūrya-siddhānta by Vivasvān (Sun).

East (+900)

West (-900)

2. Ujjain (Lankā) Yamakoṭipattan Romakapattana



Opposite (+1800, or-)

िवष्णु पुराण (२/८)-मानसोत्रशैलस्य पूवथतो वासवी पुरी।
दिक्षणे तु यमस्यान्या रतीच्यां वारुणस्य च। उत्रे ण च सोमस्य तासां नामािन मे शृणु॥८॥
वस्वौकसारा शिस्य याम्या संयमनी तथा। पुरी सुखा जलेशस्य सोमस्य च िवभावरी।९।
शिादीनां पुरे ितष्न् स्पृशत्प्येष पुरत्रयम्। िवकोणौ िौ िवकोणस्थस्त्रीन् कोणान्िे पुरे तथा।॥१६॥
उददतो वद्धथमानािभरामध्याह्नात्पन् रिवाः। तताः परं ह्रसन्तीिभगोिभरस्तं िनयच्छित॥१७॥
(सूयथ िसद्धान्त १२/३८-४२)-भूवृत्पादे पूवथस्यां यमकोटीित िवश्रुता। भिाश्ववषे नगरी स्वणथराकारतोरणा॥३८॥
याम्यायां भारते वषे लङ्का तिन् महापुरी। पिश्चमे के तुमालाख्ये रोमकाख्या रकीर्ध्नतता॥३९॥
उदक् िसद्धपुरी नाम कु रुवषे रकीर्ध्नतता (४०) भूवृत्पादिववरास्ताश्चान्योन्यं रितिष्ता (४१)
तासामुपररगो याित िवषुवस्थो ददवाकराः। न तासु िवषुवच्छाया नाक्षस्योन्नितररष्यते ॥४२॥
These quadrants are 4 petals of Earth-lotus, Bhārata covers 1.
(िवष्णु पुराण २/२)-भिाश्वं पूवथतो मेरोाः के तुमालं च पिश्चमे। वषे िे तु मुिनश्रेष् तयोमथध्यिमलावृताः।२४।
भारतााः के तुमालाश्च भिाश्वााः कु रवस्तथा। पत्रािण लोकपद्मस्य मयाथदाशैलबार्ह्ताः।४०।
Rotation axis is Meru, north pole = Sumeru, South pole = Kumeru.
(आयथभटीय ४/११-१४)-मेरुयोजनमात्राः रभाकरो िहमवता पररिक्षप्ताः। नन्दनवनस्य मध्ये रत्नमयाः सवथतो वृत्ाः॥११॥
स्वमेरु स्थलमध्ये नरको बडवामुखं च जलमध्ये। अमरमरा मन्यन्ते परस्परमधाः िस्थतान् िनयतान् ॥१२॥

Local references in each continent, countries-local Merus,
North Hemisphere-4 quadrants in 4 colours = 4 colours of Sumeru faces.
Similarly, 4 quadrants in south= Total 8 petals of earth,
Bhārata petal in north-divided into 3 or 7 lokas like lokas in space.
ब्रह्माण्ड पुराण उपसंहार पाद, अध्याय २ (३/४/२)लोकाख्यािन तु यािन स्युयेषां ितष्िन्त मानवााः॥८॥ भूरादयस्तु सत्प्यान्तााः सप्तलोकााः कृ तािस्त्प्वह॥९॥
पृिथवीचान्तररक्षं च ददर्व्ं यच्च महत् स्मृतम्। स्थानान्येतािन चत्प्वारर स्मृतान्यावणथकािन च॥११॥
जनस्तपश्च सत्प्यं च स्थान्यान्येतािन त्रीिण तु। एकािन्तकािन तािन स्युिस्तष्ंतीहारसंयमात्॥१३॥
भूलोकाः रथमस्तेषां िितीयस्तु भुवाः स्मृताः।१४॥
स्वस्तृतीयस्तु िवज्ञेयश्चतुथो वै महाः स्मृताः जनस्तु पञ्चमो लोकस्तपाः षष्ो िवभार्व्ते॥१५॥
सत्प्यस्तु सप्तमो लोको िनरालोकस्तताः परम्।१६। महेित र्व्ाहृतेनैव महलोकस्ततोऽभवत्॥२१॥
यामादयो गणााः सवे महलोक िनवािसनाः।५१॥
(वायु पुराण, अध्याय १०१)-महेित र्व्ाहृतेनैवं महलोकस्ततोऽभवत्।
िविनवृत्ािधकाराणां देवानां तत्र वै क्षयाः॥२३॥ यामादयो गणााः सवे महलोकिनवािसनाः॥५२॥
Trilokī of Indra-(1) Bhārata, (2) Chīna, (2) Ṛṣīka (Russia) with Śivira (Siberia), Nivātakavacha (very cold region needing wind-cheaters).
Each are divided into 3 parts, middle parts come in parts of both sides, so there are 7 lokas
in Deva-part (Bārata petal of north hemisphere)(1) Bhū-Equator to Vindhya
(2) Bhuvah-Vindhya to Himālaya-called Madhyadeśa (Madhes in Nepal, Medes in Bible,
another Medes north-west of Iran)-King of Ayodhyā has been called king of middle lokaअन्वग्ययौ मध्यम लोकपालाः (रघुवंश २/१६)
(3) Svah (Svarga)-Himālaya region in Bhārata is divided into 3 Viṣṭapa or Viṭapa (Tree,
catchment area of river)-(a) Viṣṇu-viṭapa in west is drained by Sindhu river system-place of
Vaiṣṇo Devī. Lakṣmī is daughter of Sindhu & wife of Viṣṇu. This region Kashmir is heaven
on earth. (b) Śiva-viṭapa is region around Kailāsa-Mānasarovara drained by Gangā systemfrom hairs of Śiva. (c) Brahma-viṭapa is drained by Brahmaputra and land east of that is
Brahma-desha (now Myammar = Mahā + Amara, or head among Devas). 3 Vitapas
combined are Triviṣṭapa = svarga (Tibet).
(4) Mahar-China is next part called Mahar as its people were called Mahā (Han) by Brahmā.
(5) Jana-Mangolia is Janah loka-In space Janah loka is galaxy which is final destination of
soul-ध्रुवादूध्वं महलोको यत्र ते कल्पपिव्सनाः। एकयोजनकोरटस्तु यत्र ते कल्पपवािसनाः॥१२॥
िे कोटी तु जनो लोको यत्र ते ब्रह्मणाः सुतााः। सनन्दनाद्ााः रिथता मैत्रेयामलचेतसाः॥१३॥(िवष्णु पुराण २/७)
In Arabic, mukul = preta = pra +itah (soul which has departed from body). Parallel to place of
Mukul on earth is Mukul = Mangolia.
(6) Tapah loka-Ṛṣīka deśa where Arjun had stopped his northward conquest. Śivira (Siberiatemporary tents in snow), Nivāta-kavacha (very cold place, wind cheaters used). Tapas has
become Steppes.

(7) Satya loka-Polar circle-north boundary of Jambū-dvīpa is bow shaped like north
boundary of Bhārata, which is Himālayaभारतं रथमं वषं तताः दकम्पुरुषं स्मृतम्।.. उत्रााः कु रवश्चैव यथा वै भारतं तथा॥(िवष्णु पुराण २/२/१३-१४)
In space, average energy or temperature oh higher (bigger) lokas is successively lower. In
Indra region also, lokas to north are colder.
Other 7 petals (3 in north, 4 in south) are 7 Tala (or Pātāla), named differently in purāṇasViṣṇu-Atala, Vitala, Nitala, Gabhastimat, Mahātala, Sutala, Pātāla.
Brahmāṇḍa-Tatvala, Sutala, Talātala, Atala, Tala, Rasātala, Pātāla.
Bhāgavata-Atala, Vitala, Sutala, Talātala, Mahātala, Rasātala, Pātāla.
िवष्णु पुराण (२/५)-दशसाहस्रमेकैकं पातालं मुिनसत्म।
अतलं िवतलं चैव िनतलं च गभिस्तमत्। महाख्यं सुतलं चाग्र्यं पातालं चािप सप्तमम्॥२॥
Plane projection of earth map will have infinite scale in polar region. That is not a problem for
north hemisphere where north pole is in water. But south pole is land mass, whose scale will
be infinite, so it is called Ananta and its map has to be made separately.
िवष्णु पुराण (२/५)-पातालानामधश्चास्ते िवष्णोयाथ तामसी तनुाः। शेषाख्या यद्धगुणान्वक्तुं न शक्ता दैत्प्यदानवााः॥१३॥
योऽनन्ताः पठ्यते िसद्धैदेवो देवर्ध्नष पूिजताः। स सहस्रिशरा र्व्क्तस्विस्तकामलभूषणाः॥१४॥
7 Dvīpas & oceans are actual land masses & political divisions. Dvīpas are divided into
Varṣa which are zones of Varṣā (rains).
8. Lokas in space-Major division is in 3 Dhāmas-Universe, Galaxy & Solar system, called
higher, middle & lower (uttama, madhyama, Avara). Abstract source is Parama-dhāma.
1. Parama (Highest)



Whole Universe


2. Uttama (Upper)

1011 galaxies

Sarir or Salila

3. Madhyama (middle)

1011 stars of galaxy

Ap or Ambha

4. Avama (Lower)

Solar system


या ते धामािन परमािण यावमा या मध्यमा िवश्वकमथन्नत
ु ेमा । (ऋग्वेद १०/८१/४)
These dhāma have a compact base called earth or mother and sky around them called
father. Thus, there are 3 mothers and 3 fathers, or 3 earths (bhūmi) and 3 skies (dyu).
ितस्रो मातॄस्त्रीन् िपतॄन् िबभ्रदेक ऊध्वथतस्थौ नेमवग्लापयिन्त ।
मन्त्रयन्ते ददवो अमुष्य पृष्े िवश्विमदं वाचमिवश्विमन्वाम् ॥ (ऋग्वेद १/१६४/१०)
ितस्रो भूमीधाथरयन् त्रीरुत द्ून्त्रीिण व्रता िवदथे अन्तरे षाम् ।
ऋतेनाददत्प्या मिह वो मिहत्प्वं तदयथमन् वरुण िमत्र चारु ॥ (ऋग्वेद २/२७/८)
यिै तत्प्सुकृतं रसो वै साः । रसं र्ह्ेवायं लब्ध्वाऽऽनन्दी भवित। (तैित्रीय उपिनषद् २/७)
समुिाय त्प्वा वाताय स्वाहा, सररराय त्प्वा वाताय स्वाहा । (वा॰ यजुवेद ३८/७)
अयं वै सरररो योऽयं वायुाः पवत एतस्मािै सरररात् सवे देवााः सवाथिण भूतािन सहेरते (शतपथ ब्राह्मण १४/२/२/३)
वातस्य जूशत वरुणस्य नािभमश्वं जज्ञानं सरररस्य मध्ये। (वा॰ यजुवेद १३/४२)
आपो ह वाऽ इदमग्रे सिललमेवास। (शतपथ ब्राह्मण ११/१/६/१)
स इमााँल्पलोकनसृजत । अम्भो मरीचीमथरमापोऽदोऽम्भाः परे ण ददवं द्ौाः रितष्ान्तररक्षं मरीचयाः पृिथवी मरो या
अधस्तात्ा आपाः । (ऐतरे य उपिनषद् १/१/२)
The 3 earths have been defined as the zone lighted by rays of sun and moon-

(1) Earth planet is lighted by both sun and moon. It has oceans, rivers, mountains all. (2)
Earth of solar system is exclusive zone lighted by sun. Its planetary system has been called
wheel shaped earth of 100 crore yojanas (1 yojana = 1000 parts of earth’s equatorial
diameter)-up to orbit of Neptune. Its half part up to Uranus is Loka (bright) and outer part is
Aloka (darker) part (Bhāgavata purāņa, skandha 5). The regions formed by apparent rotation
of planets of Loka part has been called Dvīpa (continents) and intervening zones as oceans
with same names as on earth planet.
(3) The last limit of sun’s rays where it is seen as a point is the third and biggest earth called
Parameşţhī maņɖala (largest sphere). As an egg of the Brahma, it is Brahmāņɖa. As last
reach of sun rays (Sūrya siddhānta 12/82), it is called Parama-pada (extreme step) of Vişņu
(Sun). The central rotating disc is called a river (Ākāśa-gangā).
Next verse of Vişņu purāņa tells that starting from each earth, its sky has same diameter or
circumference, which is of earth planet (starting from man). Thus, man, earth planet, planet
of solar system (in gravitational field of sun) and galaxy-all are successively 107 times
रिव चन्िमसोयाथवन्मयूखैरवभास्यते । स समुि सररच्छै ला पृिथवी तावती स्मृता ॥
यावत्प्रमाणा पृिथवी िवस्तार पररमण्डलात् ।
नभस्तावत्प्रमाणं वै र्व्ास मण्डलतो ििज ॥ (िवष्णु पुराण २/७/३-४)
Original stage of each of 3 dhāma (except parama) is Āditya-i.e. it was the beginning (ādi)
stage. Āditya of Universe, galaxy and solar system are Aryamā, Varuņa and Mitra. These
stages are approximately seen now in intermediate spaces (antarikśa)-Ref. Ŗgveda (2/27/8).
Each Dhāma is divided into 3 lokas-Bhū, Bhuvah, Svah. Svah of lower dhāma is same as
Bhū of next higher dhāma. Thus, there are 7 lokas in space.
(1) Bhū-earth planet. 1000 part of diameter is 1 yojana.
(2) Bhuvah-Planetary system, Sahasrākṣa (1000 x Sun diameter, Sun = akṣa =eyes). 22
Ahargaṇa = earth x 219.
(3) Svah is Solar system-Here, Bhūmi is defined as the zone in which an object will move in
gravitational orbit of sun. It is 107 times earth, or 105 times sun. It is Gāyatrī (chhanda of 24
letters) times earth, i.e. 224 x earth. All these are almost equal. Sky (dyu) of sun is defined as
the zone in which light of sun is more than background (of galaxy). This is 30 dhāma
(smaller zones) starting from earth which are successively of double size. Thus, it is 230 x
earth, 157 lakh x sun diameter or sphere of 1 light year.
शत्रॐशद्धामॐ िव राॏजितॐ वाक् पॏतॐङ्गायॏ धीयते । रितॐ वस्तोॐरहॐ द्ुिभाःॏ ॥
(ऋक् १०/१८९/३, साम ६३२, १३७८, अथवथ ६/३१/३, २०/४८/६, वा. यजु ३/८, तैित्रीय सं १/५/३/१)
...िाित्रংशतं वै देवरथाह्न्यन्ययं लोकस्तং समन्तं पृिथवी ििस्तावत्प्पयेित ताং समन्तं पृिथवीं ििस्तावत्प्समुिाः
पयेित..... (बृहदारण्यक उपिनषद् ३/३/२) भूमेयोजन लक्षे तु सौरं मैत्रेय मण्डलम् । (िवष्णु पुराण २/७/५)
There are 3 zones within earth also-

पृिथर्व्ािममे लोकााः (पृथ्वी, अन्तररक्ष, द्ौ) रितिष्तााः। (जैिमनीय ब्राह्मण उपिनषद् १/१०/२)
साधथकोरटस्तथा सप्तिनयुतान्यिधकािन वै। योजनानां तु तस्याक्षस्तत्र चिं रितिष्तम्॥३॥ (िवष्णु पुराण २/८)
स याः सम्वत्प्सरो असौ स आददत्प्याः। (शतपथ ब्राह्मण १०/२/४/३)
एष वै सम्वत्प्सरो य एष (आददत्प्याः) तपित। (शतपथ ब्राह्मण १४/१/१/२७)
(4) Mahar-Spiral arm of galaxy is Śeṣanāga or Ahirbudhnya. It is called air, being motion
centre of galaxy. Its head is sphere of diameter equal to width of arm enclosing solar system.
It is measured by Triṣṭup chhanda (44 letters + or - 2). But there are 43 letters in Māheśvara
sutra or triangles in Śrī-yantra. So, its measure is taken as 43 ahargaṇa = earth x 240.
ित्रष्टु बसौ (द्ौाः)-शतपथ ब्राह्मण (१/७/२/१५)
असावुत्मं (लोकाः = द्ुलोकाः) ित्रष्टु प् (ताण्य महाब्राह्मण ७/३/९)
त्रैष्टुभो वा एष य एष (सूयथाः) तपित (कौषीतदक ब्राह्मण २५/४)
रुिािस्त्रष्टु भं समभरन् (जैिमनीय उपिनषद् ब्राह्मण १/१८/५)
अब्जामुक्त्थैरिह गृणीषे बुिे नदीनां रजाःसु षीदन्। (ऋग्वेद ७/३४/१६)
तताः देवााः सगन्धवाथाः िसद्धााः च परमषथयाः।
अब्रुवन् सूयथ सङ्काशाम् सुरसान् नागमातरम्॥ (वाल्पमीदक रामायण, ६/१/१३९)
It is also measured in units of Yojana = 500 sun diameters (In Jaina jyotiṣa, Pramāṇa yojana
= 500 x Ātmā yojana, sun = ātmā of universe). In that unit,it is 1crore yojanas. Itlooks smaller
than the Ratha (body) of solar system which is 1.57 crore yojanas (in sun diameters).
ध्रुवादूध्वं महलोको यत्र ते कल्पपिव्सनाः। एकयोजनकोरटस्तु यत्र ते कल्पपवािसनाः॥१२॥
िे कोटी तु जनो लोको यत्र ते ब्रह्मणाः सुतााः। सनन्दनाद्ााः रिथता मैत्रेयामलचेतसाः॥१३॥(िवष्णु पुराण २/७)
(5) Janah-Similarly, janah loka is 2 crore yojanas in unit still bigger 500 times. In Ahargaṇa
units it is measured by Jagatī chhanda (being measure of Jagat = moving world). This
chhanda has 48 letters, upto 2 more or less. It is largest moving object, called Marut which is
49. So, galaxy is 246 x earth. Sūrya-siddhānta defines it of size 1.87 x1017 yojanas (Bhayojana = 214 Km) where sun will look just like a point star. In same sense, Ṛgveda has
called it Parama-pada of Viṣṇu, being collection of suns. 3 steps are zones of heat,
brightness & light within solar system.
शत योजने ह वा एष (आददत्प्याः) इतस्तपित । (कौषीतदक ब्राह्मण ८/३)
सहस्रं हैत आददत्प्यस्य रश्मयाः। (जैिमनीय ब्राह्मण उपिनषद् १/४४/५)
इदं िवष्णुर्ध्नवचिमे त्रेधा िनदधे पदम् । (ऋक् १/२२/१७)
तििष्णोाः परमं पदं सदा पश्यिन्त सूरयाः। (ऋक् १/२२/२०)
सूयथ िसद्धान्त (१२)-ख-र्व्ोम-खत्रय-ख-सागर-षट्क-नाग-र्व्ोमा-ष्ट-शून्य-यम-रूप-नगा-ष्ट-चन्िााः।
ब्रह्माण्ड संपुटपररभ्रमणं समन्तादभयन्तरा ददनकरस्य कररसारााः॥९०॥
(6) Tapah loka-This is the zone from where light can reach us. This is called visible universe
in modern astrophysics. Its radius is same as day-night of Brahmā in light years (LY) = 8.64
billion LY. In ahargaṇa units, it is earth x 264 (more correctly, power is 63.5). So, Brāhmī
script has 63 or 64 letters. Tapa/galaxy = earth orbit/earth.
तेजोऽिस तपिस िश्रतम्। समुिस्य रितष्ा। (तैित्रीय ब्राह्मण ३/११/१/३)
ब्रह्मा तपिस (रितिष्तम्)।-ऐतरे य ब्राह्मण ३/६, गोपथ ब्राह्मण (उत्रभाग ३/२)
तपोऽिस लोके िश्रतम्। तेजसाः रितष्ा। (तैित्रीय ब्राह्मण ३/११/१/२)
ित्रषिष्टवाथ चतुाःषिष्ट वणाथाः शम्भुमते मतााः। (पािणनीय िशक्षा ३)

(7) Satya loka-is theoretical infinite space which is tri-satya, i.e. same in every direction,
point and time (PCP= perfect cosmological principle. It is 272 x earth (3 multiplications by
Gāyatrī). Man x Gāyatrī = earth, earth x Gāyatrī = Solar system (earth) = Sāvitrī, Solar earth
x Gāyatrī = Galaxy (Sarasvatī), Galaxy x Gāyatrī = Samyatī (Universe field).
तद् यत् सत्प्यम्। त्रयी सा िवद्ा। (शतपथ ब्राह्मण ९/५/१/१८)
तदेतत् त्र्यक्षरं सत्प्यिमित... रथमोत्मे अक्षरे सत्प्यं मध्यतो ऽनृतम्। (शतपथ ब्राह्मण १४/८/६/२, बृहदारण्यक उपिनषद्
५/५/१) तिै तदेतदेव तदास सत्प्यमेव स यो हैतं मघद्क्षं रथमजं वेद सत्प्यं ब्रह्मेित। (बृहदारण्यक उपिनषद् ५/४/१)
सत्प्यव्रतं सत्प्यपरं ित्रसत्प्यं सत्प्यस्य योशन िनिहतं च सत्प्ये।
सत्प्यस्य सत्प्यं ऋतसत्प्यनेत्रं सत्प्यात्प्मकं त्प्वां शरणं रपद्े। (भागवत पुराण १०/२/२६)
इयमेव (पृिथवी) गायत्री-जैिमनीय उपिनषद् ब्राह्मण, १/५५/३, शतपथ ब्राह्मण, १/४/१/३४, ताण्य महा ब्राह्मण,
७/३/११) रजापितवै सोमाय राज्ञे दुिहतरं रयचत् सूयां सािवत्रीम्। ऐतरे य ब्राह्मण ४/७)
अमावास्या (ब्रह्माण्ड रकाश) वै सरस्वती। (गोपथ ब्राह्मण उत्र १/१२)
मनो वै सरस्वान्। शतपथ बाह्मण ७/५/१/३१, ११/२/४/९)-Components of Mana are its cells called
Neurons whose number is same as numbers of stars in galaxy = 1011. Both are equal to
number of Lomagartta ( an unit of time equal to 15-7 of 1 muhūrta of 48 minutes) in 1 year
(Śatapatha brāhmaṇa 12/3/2/5, read with 10/4/42). Since the galaxy elements are Manu (like
mana), its axial rotation period is Manvantara = 30.68 crore years.
यं िन्दसी संयती िवह्वयेते परे ऽवर उभया अिमत्रााः। (ऋग्वेद २/१२/८) पुष्यात्प्क्षेमे अिभ योगे भवात्प्युभे वृतौ संयती
सं जयाित। िरयाः सूये िरयो अग्ना भवाित य इन्िाय सुतसोमो ददाशत्॥ (ऋग्वेद ५/३७/५)
Samyati is first (agra) creation, its creation-creator are same, so it is sam-jayāti.
9. Minor references-There are Merus at each level of world-(1) Hiraṇyagarbha Meru
(primordial fire ball), called Ulba (umbilical cord) of worldिहरण्यगभथाः समवतथताग्रे भूतस्य जाताः पितरे क आसीत्। स दाधार पृिथवीमुत द्ां कस्मै देवाय हिवषा िवधेम॥
यं िन्दसी अवतश्चस्कभाने िभयसाने रोदसी अह्वयेथाम्। यस्यासौ पन्था रजसो िवमानाः कस्मै देवाय हिवषा
यस्य द्ौरुवी पृिथवी च मही यस्याद उवथऽन्तररक्षम्। यस्यासौ सूरो िवततो मिहत्प्वा कस्मै देवाय हिवषा िवधेम॥
यस्य िवश्वे िहमवन्तो मिहत्प्वा समुिे यस्य रसािमदाहुाः। इमाश्च रददशो यस्य बाहू कस्मै देवाय हिवषा िवधेम॥
(अथवथ ४/२/३-५, ७, रायाः ऋक् १०/१२१/१,४-६)
कू मथ पुराण (१/४)-यमाहुाः पुरुषं हंसं रधानात् परताः िस्थतम्। िहरण्यगभं किपलं छन्दोमूर्तत सनातनम्॥३९॥
मेरुरुल्पबमभूत् तस्य जरायुश्चािप पवथतााः। गभोदकं समुिाश्च तस्यास परमात्प्मनाः॥४०॥
(2) Kūrma Meru-Creaive field of galaxy, called Goloka in Brahma-vaivartta Purāṇa, Prakṛti
Khaṇḍa, chapter 3 It is measured in Śakvarī chhanda ( 4 x14 letters), i.e. earth x 253. It is 10
times bigger than galaxy of 1017 yojanas.
शङ्कु भवत्प्यह्नो धृत्प्यै यिा अधृताँ शङ्कु ना तद्दाधार। (ताण्य महाब्राह्मण ११/१०/११)
तद् (शङ्कु साम) उ सीदन्तीयिमत्प्याहुाः॥१२॥
सप्तपदा वै तेषां (छन्दसां) पराध्याथ शक्वरी। (शतपथ ब्राह्मण ३/९/२/१७)
यददमााँल्पलोकान् रजापिताः सृष्ट्वेदं सवथमशक्नोद्दददं दकञ्च तच्छक्वयोऽभवंस्तच्छक्वरीणां शक्वरीत्प्वम्॥ (ऐतरे य ब्राह्मण
५/७) स यत् कू मो नाम। एतिै रूपं कृ त्प्वा रजापत्ाः रजा असृजत यदसृजताकरोत्द्दकरोत्स्मात् कू मथाः कश्यपो वै
कू मथस्तस्मादाहुाः सवाथाः रजााः काश्यप्य इित। (शतपथ ब्राह्मण ७/५/१/५)
मानेन तस्य कू मथस्य कथयािम रयत्नताः।
शङ्कोाः शतसहस्रािण योजनािन वपुाः िस्थतम्॥ (नरपित जयचयाथ, स्वरोदय, कू मथ चि)

(3) Galaxy Meru-Rotation axis, 30000 LY from galactic center to sun. This is Ananta or Śeṣa,
whose 1000 heads is Maharloka having 1000 suns.
भागवत पुराण (५/२५)- अस्य मूलदेशे शत्रशद् योजन सहस्रान्तर आस्ते या वै कला भगवतस्तामसी समाख्यातानन्त
इित सात्प्वतीया िष्टृ दृश्ययोाः सङ्कषथणमहिमत्प्यिभमान लक्षणं यं सङ्कषथणिमत्प्याचक्ष्यते॥१॥ यस्येदं िक्षितमण्डलं
भगवतोऽनन्तमूतेाः सहस्रिशरस एकिस्मन्नेव शीषाथिण िध्रयमाणं िसद्धाथथ इव लक्ष्यते॥२॥
(4) Solar system-Axis of ecliptic (earth orbit) in north is Kadamba, south pole is Kalamba. 240
circle round Kadamba is Nāka Svarga and rotation of earth axis in that is Śiśumāra-chakra.
This rotation in 26,000 years is called historic Manvantara in Brahmāṇḍa purāṇa
तम् (त्रयशस्त्रशं स्तोमं) उ नाक इत्प्याहुनथ िह रजापिताः कस्मै च नाकम् । (ताण्य महाब्राह्मण १०/१/१८)
िवश्वा रूपािण रित मुञ्चते किवाः ग्रासावीद् भिं ििपदे चतुष्पदे। िव नाकमख्यत् सिवता वरे ण्योऽनु रयाणमुषसो िव
राजित॥ (वाजसनेयी संिहता १२/३) स्वगो वै लोको नाकाः (शतपथ ब्राह्मण ६/३/३/१४, ६/७/२/४)
नागवीथ्युत्रं यच्च सप्तर्ध्नषभयश्च दिक्षणम्। उत्राः सिवतुाः पन्था देवयानश्च स स्मृताः। (िवष्णु पुराण २/८/९०)
ऊध्वोत्रमृिषभयस्तु ध्रुवो यत्र र्व्विस्थताः। एतििष्णुपदं ददर्व्ं तृतीयं र्व्ोिि भासुरम्॥९८॥
तारामयं भगवताः िशशुमाराकृ ित रभोाः। ददिव रूपं हरे यथत्ु तस्य पुच्छे िस्थतो ध्रुवाः॥(२/९/१)
सैष भ्रमन् भ्रामयित चन्िाददत्प्याददकान् ग्रहान्। भ्रमन्तमनु तं यािन्त नक्षत्रािण च चिवत्॥२॥
सूयाथचन्िमसौ तारा नक्षत्रािण ग्रहैाः सह।वातानीकमयैबथन्हैध्रुथवे बद्धािन तािन वै॥३॥
िशशुमाराकृ ित रोक्तं यिूपं ज्योितषां ददिव। नारायणोऽयनं धािां तस्याधाराः स्वयं हृदद॥४॥
उत्ानपादपुत्रस्तु तमाराध्य जगत्प्पितम्। स तारा िशशुमारस्य ध्रुवाः पुच्छे र्व्विस्थताः॥५॥
आधाराः िशशुमारस्य सवाथध्यक्षो जनादथनाः। ध्रुवस्य िशशुमारस्तु ध्रुवे भानुर्व्थविस्थताः॥६॥
(5) Earth rotation axis is Meru of 1 lakh yojanas (earth diameter = 1000 yojanas). This is
gravitational zone of earth. Its intersection by ecliptic is Jambū-dvīpa of Sun.
कू मथ पुराण (१/४३)-जम्बूिीपाः समस्तानां िीपानां मध्यताः शुभाः। तस्य मध्ये महामेरुर्ध्नवश्रुताः कनकरभाः॥६॥
चतुरशीित साहस्रो योजनैस्तस्य चोच्रयाः। रिवष्टाः षोडषाधस्ताद् िाशत्रशन्मूर्ध्नि िवस्तृताः॥७॥
मूले षोडषसाहस्रो िवस्तारस्तस्य सवथताः। भूपद्मस्यास्य शैलोऽसौ कर्ध्नणकात्प्वेन संिस्थताः॥८॥
(6) Cardinal Merus on earth surface-North & south poles are Sumeru & Kumeru. Merus on
equator is in Kenya near Jambeji river (Jāmbū nada) which was famous source of gold (King
Soloman mines, Jāmbū nada-svarṇa of purāṇas. That is largest land mass on equator.
Opposite to that is lagest ocean Pacific having water Meru, which determines rain cycle.
Largest land is Jambū-dvīpa whose mountain junction is Meru of east (Prāṅ-meru = Pamir).
This had Puṣkara town (Bukhara of Uzbekistan), place of Brahmā. Opposite to that is
Puṣkara-dvīpa (sout America) having west-Meru (Apara-meru = Peru). Puṣkara & Peru-both
were centers of highways extending in 4 directions like 4 heads of Brahmā.
मेरुयोजनमात्राः रभाकरो िहमवता पररिक्षप्ताः। नन्दनवनस्य मध्ये रत्नमयाः सवथतो वृत्ाः॥११॥
स्वमेरु स्थलमध्ये नरको बडवामुखं च जलमध्ये। अमरमरा मन्यन्ते परस्परमधाः िस्थतान् िनयतान् ॥१२॥
(आयथभटीय ४/११-१४)
मेरोरुभयतो मध्ये ध्रुवतारे नभाः िस्थते। िनरक्षदेशसंस्थानामुभये िक्षितजािश्रये॥४३।
अतो नाक्षोच्रयस्तासु ध्रुवयोाः िक्षितजस्थयोाः। नितलथम्बकांशास्तु मेरावक्त्शांशकास्तथा॥४४॥
मेषादौ देवभागस्थे देवानां याित दशथनम्। असुराणां तुलादौ तु सूयथस्तद्भागसञ्चराः॥४५॥
(सूयथ िसद्धान्त १२/३८-४५)
अिग्न पुराण, अध्याय १०८- जम्बूिीपेित संज्ञास्यात् फलं जम्ब्वा गजोपमम्॥१३॥
जम्बूनदी रसेनास्यािस्त्प्वदं जाम्बूनदं परम्।

(7) Meru of world map in 4 colours-Each quadrant of world was mapped in different colours.
4 colour system still continues. There is a 4-colour theorem in Topology. Each quadrant has
a Meru like Jambū dvīpa has in Ilāvṛtta varṣaमत्प्स्य पुराण ११३-चातुवथण्यथस्तु सौवणो मेरुश्चोल्पबमयाः स्मृताः।१२।
नाभीबन्धनसम्भूतो ब्रह्मणोऽर्व्क्तजन्मनाः।पूवथताः श्वेतवणथस्तु ब्राह्मण्यं तस्य तेन वै।१४।
पीतश्च दिक्षणेनासौ तेन वैश्यत्प्विमष्यते।भृिङ्गपत्रिनभश्चैव पिश्चमेन समिन्वताः।
पाश्वथमुत्रतस्तस्य रक्तवणं स्वभावताः। तेनास्य क्षत्रभावाः स्याददित वणाथाः रकीर्ध्नततााः।१६।
मध्ये ित्प्वलावृतं नाम महामेरोाः समन्तताः।१९।
मध्ये तस्य महामेरुर्ध्नवधूम इव पावकाः। वेद्थं दिक्षणं मेरोरुत्राधं तथोत्रम्।२०।
(8) Meru for each continent & local maps-Jaina Harivamśa purāṇa specifically indicates
separate Merus for each continent-जैन हररवंश पुराण (पञ्चम सगथ)पूवाथपरौ महामेरोिौ मेरू भवतोऽस्य च। इष्वाकारौ िवभक्तारौ पवथतौ दिक्षणोत्रौ॥४९४॥
अशीितश्च सहस्रािण चत्प्वारर च समुच्रयाः। चतुणाथमिप मेरूणां परयोिीपयोभथवेत्॥५१३॥ (धातकी खण्ड, पुष्कर िीप)
पुष्कररण्याः िशलाकू ट रासादाश्चैत्प्य चूिलकााः। समानााः पञ्चमेरूपां र्व्ासादवगाहनोच्रयैाः॥५३०॥
तत्त्वाथथ वृित्, तृतीय अध्याय-तन्मध्ये मेरुनािभवृथत्ो योजनशतसहस्रिवष्कम्भो जम्बूिीपाः॥९॥
Even local map references of each major country have been called Meru1. Meru, Tanzania, a village in northern Tanzania (Arumeru District). It is inhabited by the
Meru people of Tanzania, known as the "Wameru" in Bantu. Mount Meru is a volcano near
Arusha in northern Tanzania 3°14′ S, 36°45′ E
2. Nearby Mount Kilimanjaro

at 3°4′33″S, 37°21′12″E is in Kenya. Mount Kenya is at

0°9′00″S 37°18′00″E with nearby Meru Town at 0°03′N 37°39′E. There are Meru central and
north districts, Maara district. Its people are called Ameru, their language is Kimiiru. The
forest region is Meru National Park.
3. Meru, Hazaribagh, a small town in Jharkhand, India, 24°1′46″ N, 85°27′26″ E. This is
almost at old Karka rekhā and about 100 east of Ujjain, thus a local reference.
4. Meru, Malaysia, a town in Klang, located in Selangor, 308’ N, 101027’ E
5. Meru, Western Australia, a locality near Geraldton, 28°48′11″S 114°41′10″E
6. Méru, a commune of the Oise département in France 490 14’N, 20 8’ E- about 73045’ west
of Ujjain or 12 time zone west. Place of Time zones are places of Śiva called Mahākāla at
Ujjain at central longitude. Similarly, town near Greenwich longitude here is called Lourdes
(Rudreśa) at 4306’ N and 003’ E.
7. Meru Peak, a mountain in the Indian Himalayas 30°52′5″N, 79°1′56″E
8. Phra Sumeru Temple, Bangkok, Thailand,13°45'N 100°35'E
9. Sumeru mountain, Java, 806’S, 120035’E
10. Mount Sumeru of China at 36°01′N 106°15′E is of red sandstone like colours of Meru in
purāṇs. It is full of minerals
10. Minor references-Like present time-zones at interval of 30 minutes, ancient time zones of
world were at intervals of 60 or 24 minutes (=1 daṇḍa). These were places of sun, Lankā, of

places of time (Kāla). Central place of time was Mahā-kāla (Great time) in Ujjain, whose
central point appears to be point on prime meridian. Kālahastī in Andhra pradesh is 60 east
of Ujjain. Koṇārka at east coast in Orissa is 120 east of Ujjain. Kālapriya (Kālapī in Uttar
pradesh) and Mūlasthāna (Multan in west Punjab) are at 00 and 60 west. Lolārka in Vārāṇasī
and Puṇyārka (Punarakh near Patna, Bihar) are also 60 and 90 east of Ujjain. Thaneswar is
at 00 long. Puṣkara (present Bukhara in Ujbekistan) was 120 west of Ujjain as per Viṣṇu
purāṇa (2/8/26). Kyoto (old capital of Japan, 600 east), Pyramid of Ezypt (450 west), Ancient
capital of Inkā (Ina = sun in Sūrya-siddhānta) in Peru is 1500 west-all were places of kings of
sun race. Stonehenge in England was 780 west (13 time zones). It was place of observatory
and its region is called Lancashire, Lancaster. Lourdes (= Rudreśa) in France on its east
border is old holy place and is 720 west (12 time zones). Hellespont (helios = sun) is narrow
sea between old south Greece and Turkey, now called Dardanelles. This and places in
Turkey-Izmir (Meru) and Canakkate (Koṇārka = place of arka = sun) are 420 west.
Survey centres-(a) Guntur-Guṇṭha = small area, measure rods linked together.
Ur (Uru) = town, Centre of Survey is Guntur. Gunter chain = 100 links = 22 m
(b) Ranchi-Zero ref point (RD)-town measures from this place.
Indra (Achyuta-chyuta) ref-Chutiya in Ranchi,
Dhruva (fixed pole) measuring rod. Dhurva region, Dhura = 99” rod, its squire land
(c) Karachi-RD point for ocean distances (Ka = water).
(d) Other RD points-Kumbhakoṇam-Kaveri Delta is Kumbha (water pot), Its mouth is
Kumbhakoṇam (koṇa = angle).
Konkaṇa or Koṇagaḍha (like Koṇārka)-Reference of map or time zone.
Kanyākumārī-End point of Kumārikā Khaṇḍa (Bhārata as inverted triangle). Kumārikā in
ocean in south hemisphere (now called Indian ocean in same sense).
4. Road-sea routes, maps-Fahien had expressed surprise that the Indian ship from
Tamralipti to China carried 1500 persons and did not follow coast line. It could navigate in
deep sea and new locations of turning points like Andaman & Singapore.
5. Town designs (a) Uru, (b) Pura, (c) Meru, (d) Vajra, (3) Śrī (Trikoṇa -Thiru)-All these
provide for drainage of water. Uru is like Urvī (earth sphere) whose central point is topmost
(Bangaluru, Mangalore, Nellor,Chittur of AP,Chittor of Rajsthan). Pura is rectangular matrix
of roads. Drainage from one side of rectangle to opposite side. Meru has shape like 4 faced
pyramid of Meru mountain, but very gentle slopes (Ajayameru = Ajmer, Jaisalmer). Vajra is
on both sides of a river. Triangles on both sides join to form a rectangle with river as
diagonal. Old Vajra town is Basra of Iraq. Śrī is in shape of Śrī-yantra = nine concentric
circles with central point at top sloping down outwards-Srinagar in Kashmir, Garhwal,
Srividyanagara (Vijayanagara), Tiru-anantapuram. Tiruchirapalli.

Map of country-names on map shapeKumārikā Khaṇḍa (Inverted triangle, Śakti-trikoṇa)
Lankā-long in north south on Ujjain longitude-Lanka = chilly in Bengal, Odisha.
वाल्पमीदक रामायण, उत्रकाण्ड –
शत्रशद् योजन िवस्तीणाथ शतयोजनमायता। (५/२५) मया लङ्के ित नगरी शिाज्ञप्तेन िनर्ध्नमता॥ (५/२६)
All astronomy texts tell it on same longitude as of Ujjain. Present Srilanka was Simhal,
politically part of Lanka in time of Ravana.
Kerala= Chera (at root of country)-name of a kingdom, vegetable of this shape = Karela.
Jambū-dvīpa-Relief map of Manipur region = head of elephant
Śuṇḍā (elephant trunk)-shape of Indonesia-Greater & smaller Shunda groups
Himalaya in crescent shape, so Bhārata is Indu = Inde (India)-Huensang.
North boundary of Jambū-dvīpa also like that.
Krauñcha (Heron) dvīpa-Shape of north America. This has been called west of Meru and in
north (Mahābhārata 12/14/21-25, 16/25). Bṛhat samhitā and Rāmāyaṇa locate it in north.
Thus it is north America which has Rockies mountain in same shape of a flying bird
11. Survey & Astronomy-These are dependent on each other. Survey needs determination
of longitude, latitude, direction-all of which are with reference to zodiac marked by
Nakṣatras. Similarly, distance of cosmic bodies starts with earth survey. First cardinal points
on globe are marked and their distances are measured accurately. Then only distance of
moon can be measured. This is by measuring direction of moon from 2 far off places at
same time and by difference of angle (called parallax) we calculate distance with reference
to baseline (joining 2 cities). There are 3 major problems which could not be tackled with
knowledge of medieval era after Mahābhārata-(1) Mapping & finding accurate linear distance
(less than 1% error)-Location of Americas was not known.
(2) Matching of time-universal not local (1 second accuracy)-No phone or matching of
standard or local times by TV signals. It can be by observing lunar eclipse at same time. But
calculation of eclipse is again based on accurate position & orbit of sun & moon
(3) Angle measure -1 second of angle.
These accuracy gives more than 5% error in moon distance.
Measure of Sun & Planets is next step. It starts with comparison of moon-sun distance by
Indirect observation of Sun. Then apparent orbits of sun & planets is compared which is
indicated by measures of Śīghra Paridhi in Sūrya-siddhānta.
Eccentricity of orbits, inclination to ecliptic need very accurate & long term observations.
Sizes of planets indicates observation by telescopes. Apogee is interpolated from daily
speed of planets, it is place of minimum speed.

Rotation of apogee-Saturn apogee rotates 39 times in 4320m years. This has not been
estimated theoretically or by measurements in modern astronomy
60,000 Bālakhilyas of 135 kms (Anguṣṭha size = earth /96). Bālakhilyas are Nakṣatra kakṣā
of sun at average distance of 60 AU, rotating in 360 years. NASA figure after Cassini probe
to Uranus (2008) 70,000 of 100+km at 45-65 AU
िवष्णु पुराण (१/१०/११)-ितोश्च सन्तितभाथयाथ वालिखल्पयानसूयत। (Sons of Kratu are at end of Kratu
zone, which is extent of solar wind, called Īṣā-daṇḍa = axis rod)
षिष्टपुत्रसहस्रािण मुनीनामूध्वथरेतसाम्। अंगष्
ु पवथमात्राणां ज्वलद् भास्करतेजसाम्।
भागवत पुराण (५/२१/१७)-तथा बालिखल्पयानां ऋषयोऽङ्गुष्पवथमात्रााः षिष्ट सहस्रािण पुरताः सूयथ सूक्त वाकाय
िनयुक्तााः संस्तुविन्त।
(8) Solar wind till 30 AU (known after 2008). यजुवेद (१/१)-ईषे त्प्वा ऊजे त्प्वा वायवस्थाः = Energy in
flow (vāyu) is called īśā.
िवष्णु पुराण (२/८/२)-योजनानां सहस्रािण भास्करस्य रथो नव। ईषादण्डस्तथैवास्य ििगुणो मुिनसत्म॥
= In Ratha (body or extent) of solar system, Īṣā-daṇḍa is 18000 yojanas, radius is 3000.
(9) Limits of solar system-Gravitational-1 lakh sun-dia radius
Brightness- 230 x Earth or 157 lakh times Sun, or 1 LY radius.
(10) 6 zones (Vaṣaṭkāras), 30 Dhāma-their size & properties.
These are at Ahargaṇas of 3, 9, 15, 21, 27, 33. Midpoint of 33 zones is at 17 which is
distance of sun from earth. As there are 3 zones within earth, power of 2 is 3 less with earth
= 1. Thus, 3rd zone is earth surface itself.
9 Ahar = Earth x 26, 64 earth radius (r) away. Moon is at 61r. Jambū dvīpa is gravitational
zone taken up to 100r.
15 Ahar = 212 r = Bhū-varāha = zone whose material condensed to form earth up to 60%
distance of venus orbit. (Between 100-110 Sun diameters from Sun-Vāyu purāṇa 6/12).
21 Ahar = 218r = about 1000 sun-diameters away (Saharākṣa). Wheel of Solar ratha, grand
rotation of planets up to Saturn is Yuga.
27 A = 224r = Gāyatrī x sun, Bhūmi of solar system called Sāvitri. Gravitational zone of sun.
33A = 230r = sky or dyu of sun, light of sun more than galaxy. 157 lakh x sun.
17A = 214r = about 980 million Kms. Sun at 150 Mkms is at next Ahar. Similarly, after limit of
sun, is 34th Ahar. So, Prajāpati is stated both at 17 and at 34 Ahargaṇa
सप्तदशो वै रजापिताः। (ऐतरे य ब्राह्मण १/१६, ४/२६, कौषीतदक बाह्मण ८/२, १०/६, १६/४, शतपथ ब्राह्मण
१/५/२/१७, ५/१/२/११, गोपथ ब्राह्मण उत्र १/१९)
उद्द् ब्रघ्नस्य िवष्टपम् गृहिमन्िस्य गन्विह। (ऋग्वेद ८/६९/७) स्वगो वै लोको ब्रघ्नस्य िवष्टपम्। (ऐतरे य ब्राह्मण ४/४)
स्वाराज्यं वै ब्रघ्नस्य िवष्टपं स्वाराज्यं चतुशस्त्रशाः। (शतपथ ब्राह्मण ८/४/१/२३)
अष्टौ वसवाः। एकादश रुिा िादशाददत्प्या, इमेऽएव द्ावा-पृिथवी त्रयशस्त्रश्यौ, त्रयशस्त्रशिै देवााः रजापितश्चतुशस्त्रशाः।
(शतपथ ब्राह्मण ४/५/७/२)

3 zones in solar system are 3 Vikrama or steps of Viṣṇu = sun. These are zones of heat,
brightness (solar wind at 3000), light at 100, 1000, 107 Sun diameters.
4 zones are Bṛhaspati at centre of planetary system, Indra = radiation zone after planets.
शं नो िमत्राः शं वरुणाः शं नो भवत्प्ययथमा। शं नो इन्िो बृहस्पिताः शं नो िवष्णुरुरुिमाः (ऋग् वेद १/९१/९)
12. Śvetāśvatara measures-Radiation (white, śveta) of sun is driving force (aśva) of life, Sun
= Śvetāśva. Rohitāśva = Kumāra, creation on earth. Structures beyond sun = Śvetāśvatara.
Field beyond solar system is feminine-Aśvatarī.
अथ योऽसौ (सूयथाः) तपतीं एषो ऽश्वाः श्वेतो रूपं कृ त्प्वा ऽश्वािभधान्यिपिहतेनात्प्मना रितचिाम। (ऐतरे य ब्राह्मण ६/३५)
अिग्नवाथ अश्वाः श्वेताः। (शतपथ ब्राह्मण ३/६/२/५)
अद्भ्यो ह वा अग्रेऽश्वाः सम्बभूव। (शतपथ ब्राह्मण ५/१/४/५)
असौ वाऽआददत्प्य एषो (षुक्त्लाः) ऽश्वाः। (शतपथ ब्राह्मण ७/३/२/१०)
अश्वतरी रहेनािग्नरािजमधावत्ासां राजमानो। (ऐतरे य ब्राह्मण ४/९)
ददशश्चतस्रोऽश्वतयो (अथवथ ८/८/२२)
तानीमािन भूतािन च भूतानां च पिताः सम्वत्प्सर ऽउषिस रे तो ऽिसञ्चन्त्प्स सम्वत्प्सरे कु मारो ऽजायत। (शतपथ ब्राह्मण
तस्य अश्वस्य श्वेतस्य) रुक्त्माः पुरस्ताद् भवित। तदेतस्य रूपं दियते य एष (आददत्प्याः) तपित। (शतपथ ब्राह्मण
स्वगोवै लोको रोहाः। (शतपथ ब्राह्मण ७/५/२/३६, यजुवेद १३/५१)
सा (िवराट् ) तत ऊध्वाथरोहत्। सा रोिहण्यभव। तद् रोिहण्यै रोिहिणत्प्वम्। (तैित्रीय ब्राह्मण १/१/१०/६)
या (रजापतेदिथु हता) रोिहत् (= रक्तवणाथ मृगी) सा रोिहणी (अभूत्) (ऐतरे य ब्राह्मण ३/३३)
Galactic centre = Mūla-barhaṇi (Mūla nakṣatra)
मूलमेषामवृक्षामेित। तन्मूलबहथणी। (तैित्रीय ब्राह्मण १/५/२/८)
Spiral arms-Ahirbudhnya (Vedic term), Śeṣa-nāga (Purāṇa).
Sphere around sun of width equal to spiral arm = Mahar-loka
1000 stars in Mahar-loka = 1000 heads of Śeṣa-nāga.
Measure of these star distances-Parallax from earth orbit ends
Measure of 1/10,000 deg for accuracy of 10%.
Farther stars by relation of distance and radiance, which depends on spectral type.
Errors by inter-stellar dust, air fluctuations, gravitational lense, spectral theory.
Galactic centre-Size & Distance- How?
Size of galaxy, Corona (Goloka , Kūrma)-how?
1017 Yojanas, Goloka 10 times bigger (Śanku = 1013 x 105)
Count of Nakṣatras = 1011 (how?)
Man is image as he has same number of neurons in brain.
Higher structures-Dhṛti (earth x 2(64-3)), Ati-dhṛti (earth x 2(68-3)).
Tapah, Satya lokas.
13. Vedic Cosmology- In modern science, quest for unified theory started with Einstein and
attempted by many till today, including Maharṣi Maheśa Yogī. This was despite the fact that
in 1931, Kurt Godel gave an Incompleteness theorem, stating that no system can be

complete and consistent. This was improved by Paul Cohen in 1961. But still, search for
single theory continues. This has given rise to more than 22 types of Cosmic theoriestheories of 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 11 dimensions, string theories of 5 types and an M-string theory.
Thus, a complete cosmology theory indicated in Veda is a harmonious construction of 3
theories-(a) Puruṣa (discrete structures), (b) Śrī (field)-both having separate sūktas. (c)
Yajña (transformation by recombination of parts). It is possible that the third theory is
derivable from first two. Madhusudan Ojha has interpreted Nāsadīya-sūkta (Ṛgveda
10/129/1-7) as combination of 10 theories for creation of world in his book Daśavādarahasya and 10 separate books on each theory. He supplemented them with 2 more-Vijñāna
and Brahma.
Higher Viśvas (world levels) are successively 107 times biggerMan-earth-solar system-galaxy-Universe = 5 levels. Sphere of moon orbit is another viśva as
it affects us due to proximity.
Lower worlds are successively 105 times smaller(1) Cell- (2) atom- (3) nucleus- (4) particles-(5) Deva-dānava, (6) Pitara (7) Ŗşi
There is a cross symmetry-when levels are 5, internal ratio is 7, when levels are 7, ratio is 5Levels
5 Gross
7 Micro

Inner Ratio
7 (power of 10)
5 (power of 10)

Since it is with base 10, Universe should be of 10 dimensions.
(A) Puruṣa theory-Only one description is quotedरिवचन्िमसोयाथवन्मयूखैरवभास्यते ।स समुि सररच्छैला पृिथवी तावती स्मृता ।३।
यावत्प्रमाणा पृिथवी िवस्तार पररमण्डलात् । नभस्तावत्प्रमाणं वै र्व्ास मण्डलतो ििज ।४। (िवष्णु पुराण, २/७/३,४)
= The zone lighted by sun and moon is Pŗthivī (earth) and in all the earths-ocean, rivers and
mountains are stated as on planet earth-(a) Planet earth-It is lighted by sun and moon both
and it has all-ocean, rivers and mountains. (b) Maitreya-maņḍala-It is the zone exclusively
lighted by sun. Zones formed by planetary orbits are described as continents and oceans of
same name as on earth. (c) Galaxy-This is the last limit up to which sun can be seen as a
point- Definition of Brahmāņḍa in Sūrya-siddhānta (12/90). In this earth also, central rotating
disc is called a river-Ākāśa-gangā. (3) Whatever is the size of earth by diameter and
circumference, the same is diameter and circumference of its sky, starting from earth..
Stated by Maitreya to Parāśara, addressed as Dvija (Brāhmaņa)-(4).
Thus, higher worlds are(a) Planet earth-Its measure should start from human size, which is implied but not stated.
Earth is limit (Koţi) of world for man and its size is 107 times, so Koţi = 107 . For earth also, its
Koţi of world is solar system which is its sky and is 107 times bigger.

(b) For Maitreya-maņḍala, its sky or Koţi is galaxy and is 107 times bigger.
(c) For the largest earth galaxy, its sky is universe. This is infinite, but is taken in same ratio
of Koţi = 107 .
Thus, the 5 levels of Viśva starting with man are successively 107 times bigger. 107 = 224 and
24 is number of letters in Gāyatrī chhanda, so it is said that is measure of all the Lokas.
इयमेव (पृिथवी) गायत्री-जैिमनीय उपिनषद् ब्राह्मण, १/५५/३, शतपथ ब्राह्मण, १/४/१/३४, ताण्य महा ब्राह्मण,
७/३/११) गायत्र्या वै देवा इमान् लोकान् र्व्ाप्नुवन् (ताण्य महा ब्राह्मण, १६/१४/४)
Lower worlds are 7(1) Cell = किलल-सवथ धातुं कलनीकृ ताः, अर्व्क्त िवग्रहाः (तस्मात् किलल) चरक संिहता, शरीरस्थान (४/९)
In womb, cell starts collecting all materials, so it is called kalila.
वालाग्रमात्रं हृदयस्य मध्ये िवश्वं देवं जातरूपं वरे ण्यं (अथवथिशर उपिनषद् ५)
अनाद्नन्तं किललस्य मध्ये िवश्वस्य स्रष्टारमनेकरूपम् ।
िवश्वस्यैकं पररवेिष्टतारं ज्ञात्प्वा देवं मुच्यते सवथ पाशैाः ॥ (श्वेताश्वतर उपिनषद्, ५/१३)
A cell also is a Viśva, which is enclosed (pariveşţita).
(2) Sequence from man- वालाग्र शत साहस्रं तस्य भागस्य भािगनाः।
तस्य भागस्य भागाधं तत्प्क्षये तु िनरञ्जनम् ॥ (ध्यानिवन्दु उपिनषद् , ४)
Starting from man, hair-end is first smaller Viśva 100 thousand times smaller. There are 6
more levels smaller by same ratio. Smallest is Nirañjana (not perceived by any instrument,
or mind)
(3) Sequence from lower endऋिषभयाः िपतरो जातााः िपतॄभयो देव दानवााः । देवेभयश्च जगत्प्सवं चरं स्थाण्वनुपूवथशाः॥ (मनुस्मृित, ३/२०१)
From Ŗşis, pitars were born; then Deva-dānava. All jagat was from Deva only. Devas are 33,
Asuras are 99, so created universe is one-fourth only (Puruşa-sūkta 3,4). Jagat = moving
particles are of 3 types-Chara = lepton, Sthāņu = Baryon, Anu-pūrva = Mesonic link
(4) Size & nature of atom- वालाग्र शत भागस्य शतधा किल्पपतस्य च ॥
भागो जीवाः स िवज्ञेयाः स चानन्त्प्याय कल्पपते ॥ (श्वेताश्वतर उपिनषद्, ५/९)
Assume 100 parts of 100th part of hair end (micron size) = 10-10 Meter. That is Jīva, not
destroyed in any chemical change-all Kalpa = or creation is recombination of atoms only.
(5) Nucleus-षट्चि िनरूपण, ७-एतस्या मध्यदेशे िवलसित परमाऽपूवाथ िनवाथण शिक्ताः कोट्याददत्प्य रकाशां
ित्रभुवन-जननी कोरटभागैकरूपा । के शाग्राितगुर्ह्ा िनरविध िवलसत .. ।९। अत्रास्ते िशशु-सूयथकला चन्िस्य षोडशी
शुद्धा नीरज सूक्ष्म-तन्तु शतधा भागैक रूपा परा ।७।
Central nerve is 107 parts of hair-end. Kuņḍalinī is still 100 times smaller, equal to nucleus of
atom = 10-15 meters
(7) Smallest level Ṛṣi is Asat = beyond perceptionअसिा ऽइदमग्र ऽआसीत् । तदाहाः – कक तदासीददित । ऋषयो वाव तेऽग्रेऽसदासीत् । तदाहुाः-के ते ऋषय इित। ते
यत्प्पुराऽऽस्मात् सवथस्मादददिमच्छन्ताः श्रमेण तपसाररषन्-तस्मादृषयाः (शतपथ ब्राह्मण, ६/१/१/१)

In beginning, it was Asat (invisible, beyond perception) only. That was Ŗşi. They pulled with
force and energy, so they were called Ŗşi = Rassi in Hindi (String).
(B) Śrī Theory-It was evident from Puruşa theory itself that Universe should be of 10
dimensions. That is indicated by 10 Mahāvidyā, 10 Gurus (Sikh religion), 10 commandments
(Bible) and same words for number 10, State and directions-Daśa, Daśā, Diśā. Śānti-pāţha
also is 10 foldद्ौाः शािन्तरन्तररक्षं शािन्ताः पृिथवी शािन्तरापाः शािन्तरोषधयाः शािन्ताः । वनस्पतयाः शािन्तर्ध्नवश्वेदेवााः
शािन्तब्रथह्म शािन्ताः सवं शािन्ताः शािन्तरे व शािन्ताः सामा शािन्तरे िध ॥ (वा.यजुवेद ३६/१७)
10 dimensions are in many ways-(a) Combination of 3 Guŋas, say-a,b,c, in 10 ways-a, b, c,
ab, ac, bc, abc. (b) 5 tanmātrā (mātrā = measures) of Prakŗti in distinct (countable = Gaṇeśa)
and 5 in indistinct ways (abstract, non-countable = Sarasvatī). (c) 3 Steps of Vişṇu in 3
ways-(i) Linear measure (pada) of space, (ii) Boundary of space, (iii) Field of Influence
(Vikrama), and (iv) Undisturbed original-Rasa.
Nature and names of dimensions are- (1) 0 dimension is point space called Chit. In every
such space, something can be felt which is sat, and universal ānanda. This is same as
dimension 10 called Rasa or Ānanda. (2) Dimension 1 is line-pada, rekhā, measured in
yojana, ahargaṇa. (3) 2-Surface-Pŗşţha, (4) 3-Volume-Stoma, āyatana, āyu. (5) 4-MatterAnna, Brahmā, measured in Aśīti chhandas. (6) 5-Kāla-Perception of change is Śiva. It is 3
types-Nitya-steady decay, janya-cyclic change, Akśaya-conserved. (7) 6- Chayana-ordering
in space-Vişṇu, (8) 7-Ŗşi-it is link between any 2 objects by 4 basic forces, (9) 8-Nāga-It is
limiting an object in curved surface. (10) 9-Randhra-Deficit of any matter or energy at a place
is cause of change.
For different purposes, 5 to 10 dimensions are sufficient, so there are 6 Darśana
(Philosophy) and 6 Darśa-Vāk (scripts). Mechanical world described by Physics is 5
dimensional in the sense that 5 basic units are needed for measurement (5 Mā chhandas).
Next are 6 levels of consciousness. It is called Chetanā as it does Chayana = ordering.
Ordering in space is dimension 6, Link among them is 7, curved boundary is 8, and
difference of density is 9. Finally, unique original source is dimension 10.
6 scripts are-(1) 5x5-elements of Sānkhya-Roman script, Avakahaḍā chakra,
(2) 6x6 elements of Śaiva-Latin, Arabic, Russian, Gurumukhi.
(3) 7x7 Maruts-Devanāgarī, (4) 8x8-Kalā-Brāhmī,
(5) (8+9)2 letters in Vijñāna-vāk of Vedas-36x3 vowels, 36x5 consonants and one
unclassified ॎ. (6) 103 to 104 letters in Chinese beyond Vyoma =Tibet. These divisions of
Vāk are indicated in Ŗgveda (1/164/25)गौरीर्ध्नममाय सिललािन तक्षत्प्येकपदी सा ििपदी चतुष्पदी अष्टापदी नवपदी सा बुभूवुषी सहस्राक्षरा परमे र्व्ोमन् ॥
(c) Yajña Theory- Gītā, chapter 8 lists 3 complete systems-Brahma, Karma, Yajña. Brahma
is whole universe-each point has micro fluctuation. Visible motion or its attempt is Karma,

called work in Physics = force x displacement. Force not effective in motion is akarma. Any
karma creating useful product in cycles is called Yajña. Useful product is that which
continues functioning of a system-Akṣara-puruṣa. These are parallel to 4 Puruṣa and 4 Kāla
(Parāpara is beyond distinction and description in each)


Nitya (thermodynamic)


Janya (creative, yajña cycle)


Akṣaya (conserved, foundation) Avyaya


कालोऽिस्म लोकक्षयकृ त्प्रवृद्धो (गीता ११/३२)
सहयज्ञााः रजााः सृष्ट्वा पुरोवाच रजापिताः । अनेन रसिवष्यध्वमेषवोऽिस्त्प्वष्ट कामधुक् ॥१०॥
एवं रवर्ध्नततं चिं नानुवतथयतीह याः ….॥१६॥ (गीता, ३) कालाः कलयतामहम् ॥(गीता, १०/३०)
अहमेवाक्षयाः कालो (गीता, १०/३३)
अर्व्क्ताद्व्यक्तयाः सवे रभवन्त्प्यहरागमे । रात्र्यागमे रलीयन्ते तत्रैवार्व्क्त संज्ञके ॥ (गीता, ८/१८)
Time (kāla) is perception of change. These are of 3 types-(1) Irreversible change-once a
state goes, it never comes back. Child grows as young man, then old and finally dies-old
never becomes young or child. Smoke spreads into air, it cannot come back to its source.
Wood burns into coal/ash, coal cannot be converted to wood. This kāla is death (mṛtyu) and
related to kṣara puruṣa, which always decays. (2) Periodic change-There are some natural
cycles of day, month and year and most activities on earth follow them. Most of our creative
activities (yajña) are in these natural cycles-5 mahā-yajñas as daily routine, monthly cycle of
menses in women. Majority of production is in annual cycle, so yajña has been called
samvatsara. Farming is in proper seasons coming in annual cycle, education, commerce etc
follow annual cycle, called financial year, academic session. This is functional aspect of
puruṣa, called akṣara. (3) Each system has inbuilt capacity to last-capacity of volume is
āyatana, lasting period is āyu. As time, it is akṣaya-kāla. This is related to avyaya puruṣa-as
part of surrounding, there is conservation of mass, energy etc-so it is avyaya. As opposite to
vyaya (expenditure), it is āya (income) and related to āyu. By following yajña, created by
Prajāpati for making desired objects, we can increase our āyu as stated while putting on
yajñopavītaयज्ञोपवीतं परमं पिवत्रं रजापतेयथत् सहजाः पुरस्तात्। आयुष्यमग्र्यं रितमुञ्च शुभ्रं यज्ञोपवीतं बलमस्तु तेजाः।
(नारद पररव्राजकोपिनषद् ४/४६, ब्रह्मोपिनषद् ५, पारस्कर गृर्ह्सूत्र २/२/१०)
(D) Link between 3 theories-One theory cannot be complete, so we should have at least 2. It
can be argued that Yajña theory can be derived from the other two-Puruṣa & Śrī. It may or
may not be possible. But we conceive of 3 Vedas, harmonized by the root Atharvaत्रैगुण्य िवषया वेदा, िनस्त्रैगण्ु यो भवाजुथन (गीता २/४५)

Asymmetric worlds bigger & smaller than man give 10 dimensions of field theory. 2 of the
dimensions are different types of time-One is Nitya kāla-steady decay. Janya kāla is change
due to energy difference-called Randhra, 9 dimension. This is related to cycle of Yajña as
shown above.
14. Zero & Infinity-These concepts are at least as advanced as in modern mathematics
Zero has 2 meanings-Algebra-non-existent, 2-2 = 0. In Analysis, it is Limit (1/x) = 0, when x
→∞; Smaller than any smallest number.
Infinity-Larger than any large number in Algebra. In analysis, it is Limit (1/x) = ∞, when x →0.
The same definition is given in Upaniṣadअणोरणीयान्, महतो महीयान्, आत्प्मास्य जन्तोर्ध्ननिहतो गुहायाम्।
(कठोपिनषद् १/२/२०, श्वेताश्वतर उपिनषद् ३/२०)
Cantor Set Theory-grades of infinity
Natural numbers are first order of infinity named ‫( א‬countable), Real numbers are of 2 typesAlgebraic, Transcendental. These are equal to 2 ‫א‬. There can be still higher order of infinity
which is set of all subsets of real number set.
Viṣṇu purāṇa termsAnanta = ∞, Asankhyeya-Beyond natural numbers
Aparimeya =Transcendental, अपररिमतं रमाणाद् भूयाः (कात्प्यायन शुल्पब सूत्र १/२३)
World Infinities-Ṛk = Mūrti (form) Countable infinity = N
Yaju = motion-Real numbers equal to line (motion).= R = 2N.
Sāma-field, R3, Atharva = Foundation, Transcendental
ऋग्भयो जातां सवथशो मूर्ध्नत्माहुाः, सवाथ गितयाथजुषी हैव शश्वत्।
सवं तेजं सामरूप्यं ह शश्वत्, सवं हेदं ब्रह्मणा हैव सृष्टम्॥ (तैित्रीय ब्राह्मण ३/१२/८/१)
Sankhyeya (countable ∞)-letter/words/sentense=Gaṇeśa.
Asankhyeya = real number = Interlink (Subrahmaṇya)
Aparimeya-Thoughts, Rasa = Sarasvatī.
15. Nature of Proof-4 types of Nyāya = Logic
(a) Vyākaraṇa-words into letters/syllables.Meanings modified by suffix/prefix.
(b) Gautama-Link between Gau= 3 parts of Vāk in mind with ‘Tama’ = expressed.
Tama is dark as some content is missing in expressed word.
(c) Mīmānsā (Pūrva)-Jaimini-Joining of words into sentences-types of meanings.
(d) Brahma-sūtra (uttara) of Vyāsa-Unification of thought.
2. Establishing a fact/theorem = Pramāṇa
Pratyakṣa = observation (2) Anumāna (inference + Upamāna = induction),
(c) Śabda (Link of 3 worlds, holistic)
ज्ञानं ज्ञेयं पररज्ञाता ित्रिवधा कमथचोदना। करणं कमथ कतेित ित्रिवधाः कमथसंग्रहाः॥१८॥

ज्ञानं कमथ च कताथ च ित्रधैव गुणभेदताः। (गीता-अध्याय १८)
Source of work (Karma-chodanā)
Jñāna = Knowledge (information, perception)
Jñeya = Object of knowledge/study
Jñātā = Knower, observer.
Process of work-1. Jñāna = Knowledge, methods.
2. Karma-Actual work. 3. Kartā = Doer (man, cause).
3 Guṇas-(a) Satva = Creative part of source, (b) Raja = Creation, inner/outer motion. (c)
Tama Dormant matter/energy.
Mathematical Proof-1. Numerical, 2. Logical, 3. Geometrical.
Stages-1. Mā = to measure, Mā Chhanda- 5 types of measuresMā, Pramā, Pratimā, Upamā, Samā
2. Māyā-cover or boundary, Measure, illusion (both by cover).
3. Pramā-Measured or proof.
4. Prameya-Point to be proved, measured.
5. Pramātā-Person/agency which proves.
Stages of Science -1. Vidyā = Unification of knowledge
2. Avidya = Aparā Vidyā-Classification, science
Methods of ScienceAvidyā-classification
Asmitā-definition of each class
Rāga-Links with other classes.
Dveṣa-Differences from others
Abhiniveśa-Making a theory.
Chain of Observation-theory-revision
Jñāna (theory) & Karma (observation, measure) correct each other.
16. Chronology1. After Mahābhārata, America/poles were not known. Sūrya-siddhānta when
4 quadrant points on globe + planetary distances were known.
2. Purāṇa cardinal towns are earlier.
3. Year started with Māgha. Vivasvān (Sūrya) started with Chaitra.
4. Lokas or galactic structures known before Maghā year.
5. Minerals located in time of Brahmā.
6. Luni-solar months named by Brahmā-star of full moon time.
7. Brahmā started Veda after glacial floods of 31000 BC.
8. Kārttikeya time-north pole away from Abhijit-15800 BC-Māgha at start of rains.

9. Vaivasvata Manu after him in 13902 BC.
10. Second glacial floods (10000 BC) in time of Vaivasvata Yama (Jamshed).
11. After floods Matsya in 9533 BC, Ṛṣabha Deva, Maya revision 9323 BC,
12. Ikṣvāku-8576 BC.
13. Dionysus-Bāhu of Sūrya-vamśa in 6777 BC (Megasthenes)
14. Paraśurāma death in 6177 BC (Kalamba = Kollam samvat)
15. Rāma-4433-4382 BC (Prabhava in both Jupiter cycles-Matsya & Rāma)
16. Yudhiṣṭhira-King (Śaka) 17-12-3139 BC,Kali Samvat 17-2-3102 BC Ujjain midnight
Jayābhyudaya śaka 25-8-3102 BC, Laukika era 3067 BC.
Two systems after Mahābhārata- (1) Ārya (Pitāmaha, Brahmā)
(2) Parāśara (Sūrya-siddhānta, Viṣṇu purāṇa)
17. Types of TextsNo text book available-only calculation manuals
Description of Instruments missing.
Ṛgveda (5/40-Atri), Tāṇḍya mahābrāhmaṇa (6/6/8)
Turīya (4th) yantra-Telescope using 4 aspects of light-ray
Intensity, spectrum, polarization, Doppler Shift, Coding
Grāvāṇa (gravel) –Heavy machine, grinder
Avi-Linear path of ray (like motion of Avi = ram)
4 colurs of Avi-4 aspects of light ray analysed by telescope
Svarbhānu, Rāhu, Asura –Node of moon orbit causing eclipse
Viśuvat (Viṣuva) upāyan = measured with ref. to equator/zodiac
Drapsa (drops)-Galaxy in space, stars in galaxy, planets in solar-system
Nakṣatra-100 billion galaxies, 100 billion stars in galaxy, Pultonic bodies
= number of Lomagarta (75000 parts of second) in year
-(Śatapatha brāhmaṇa 12/3/2/5, 10/4/4/2)
Zones of solar system-Indra-Bṛhaspati, 3 Vikrama of Viṣṇu, 6 Vaṣaṭkāra,
30 Dhāma, (3 within earth)-33 Devas as Prāṇa of these zones
Classification of time, sects arbitraryUnits of measure cannot be different in same country in same era.
Measures of earth, moon, planets will not differ for sects/persons
Measures of length, time linked with other countries-trade, world map.
World map, measure of moon, planets, solar syatem/galaxy in ancient era.
Copy in later periods
Confusion by similar names of solar/galactic zones as on earth surface.
Different texts for different purposes

Slight change with time, text books in languages of region/time
Indian Texts
Vedic texts-Unity or mutual image of cosmic/physical/inner systems
Vedānga jyotiṣa-luni-solar tropical calender
Siddhānta jyotiṣa-Cosmology, galaxy, planetary system.
Jaina jyotiṣa-Local language, knowledge, errors in translation
-Map of 3 dimensional space on paper-2 suns, moons.
-Projection of motion on earth surface
-Different measures of Yojana etc.
18. Brahmā’s CalendarBoth tropical/sidereal
Different starts of years in different ages
Sidereal months named after moon star on full moon day
Tropical year star with either solstice
Regular revision-last by Kārttikeya in 15800 BC-Year started with Dhaniṣṭhā star after
previous reference star Abhijt fell, i.e north pole direction shifted away from that in about
16,000 BC. Then rains (varṣā) started with entry of sun in Dhaniṣṭhā, so year was called
Varṣa. (Mahābhārata, vana parva 230/8-10)
Aayanāmśa limited within Ŧ 270 (Sūrya siddhānta 3/9-10)
Month started with new moon at start of Kali in 3102 BC. It started with full moon at start of
Vikrama Samvat in 57 BC as seasons shifted backwards by 1.5 signs in about 3000 years.
Change of month start could also have happened in time of Paraśurāma in 6177 BC
(Kalamba samvat) about 3000 years before Kali.
Tropical motion of sun on earth surface-Vīthi = lanes
(Ṛgveda 1/164/1-3,12-13, 1/115/3, Atharva 8/5/19-20,
Viṣṇu purāṇa 2/8-10, Vāyu chapter 2, Brahmāṇḍa chap. 1/22 etc)
Book of Enoch-Ethiopean old testament, chapter 4


Jagatī 12x4


Triṣṭup 11x4


Pankti 10x4
Bṛhatī 9x4



Anuṣṭup 8x4


Uṣṇik 7x4
Gāyatrī 6x4



Later Calenders
1. Kārttikeya –North Pole shifted away from Abhijit (Mahābhārata, vana (230/8-10)
Year start from Dhaniṣṭhā with rains (Varṣā), so year = Varṣa,
Asura system of year from winter solstice Contd-called Asura-dina (SS)
2. Vaivasvat Manu-Calender of Vivasvān (Sūrya), 13902 BC
Start of Brahmābda or Ayanābda yuga (12+12 thousand years), Brahmā in Ādya Tretā
Year from Equinox day, Chaitra month at start.
71 yugas of 360 years from Brahmā (29102 BC) to Vyāsa (3102 BC) = 26000 years
43 yugas till Vaivasvata Manu (Matsya Purāṇa 273/76, 77), then 28 yugas till Vyāsa
3. Revision by Maya at Romakapattana in 9223 BC (121 years before Satyayuga)
(a) Long period, (b) Slowing of day by glacial floods, (c) Other long term corrections.
4. Yuga parts-Asura supremacy for 10 yugas = 3600 years before Vaivasvata Manu.
Yuga count starts from 1 to 28-ending in 3102 BC
Dattātreya-10th, Māndhātā-15th, Parśurāma-19th, Rāma-24th (starting in 3102 + 4x360 BC)
5. Ikṣvāku-1-11-8576 BC-count of reignal period of Sūrya-vamśa kings
6. Paraśurāma-death 6177 BC-Kalamba samvat
7. Yudhiṣṭhira śaka 17-12-3139 BC, kali-17-2-3102, Jayābhyudaya-25-8-3102, Laukika 3076
8. Jaina Yudhiṣṭhira śaka-2634 BC-Sanyāsa of Pārśvanātha
9. Śiśunāga śaka-1954 BC (end of his reign) Kauzad era used in Burma.
10. Nanda śaka -1634 BC, 11. Śūdraka śaka-756 BC,
12. Chāhmāna śaka-rout of Nineve-612 BC (Varāhamihira, Bṛhat samhitā 13/3)
13. Śrīharṣa śaka-456 BC, 14. Vikramāditya Samvat-57 BC. 15. Sālivāhana śaka-78 AD.
Yuga Cycle-Historic cycle has been called Brahmābda of 24,000 years of 2 parts of 12,000
years each. First part is Avasarpiṇī whose sub-yugas start with Satya, Tretā, Dvāpara, Kali in

ration of 4, 3, 2, 1. Second part Utsarpiṇī has same parts in reverse order. Brahmagupta and
Bhāskara-2 have mentioned long term Bīja correction for 12,000 years as per tradition which
is based on this yuga only. (Siddhānta Darpaṇa, Bhūparidhi, 7-8, Brāhma-sphuṭa-siddhānta,
Madhyamādhikāra 60-61, Sudhakar Dwivedi edition, 1902). This is parallel to glacial cycle
which is major historic cycle. Milankowitch theory of 1923 calculates glacial cycle of 21600
years as joint effect of apogee cycle of 1,00,000 years and precession of 26000 years in
reverse direction-1/21600 = 1/100000 + 1/26000. But real glacial cycles have been of 24,000
years as per Indian historic cycle. This takes long term apogee (mandocca) cycle of 312,000
years-1/24000 = 1/312000 + 1/26000. Current cycle is the third one since Brahmā१/१-








Thus, the historic yuga-cycle is1. Day 1-Avasarpiṇī-61902 to 49902 BC (Satya to Kali)
Utsarpiṇī-49902 to 37902 BC (Kali to Satya)
2. Brahmābda 2- Avasarpiṇī-37902 to 25902 BC
Avasarpiṇī-25902 to 13902 BC-Vaivasvata Manu
3. Brahmābda 3- Avasarpiṇī-13902 to 1902 BC-Kali from 3102 to 1902 BC)
Utsarpiṇī-1902 BC to 702-Kali, 702 BC to 1699 AD-Dvāpara,1699-5299 AD-Tretā,
5299 to 10099 AD-Satya yuga.
It can be seen that all historic glacial floods have been in Avasarpiṇī Tretā and glacia ice age
in Utsarpiṇī Tretā. This yuga system appears to have started from Vaivasvata Manu, so
period of Brahmā falls in initial Tretā yuga।
॥४६॥ (





19. Astronomers1. Āryabhaṭa-360 Kali =2742 BC-His period just after Mahābhārata (Mahāsiddhānta 2/2)
No calendar after this period till Śālivāhana (78 AD), Chedi (219), Valabhī (319 AD).
18 digit system used like Maya astronomy as Galaxy is 1017 yojana (earth = 1000).
Long term constants of that period, not of 3600 kali.
Base of kali start for calculation, Kusumapura, not the later name Pāṭaliputra
No kingdom in 3600 kali at Patna to attract astronomer from Kerala (Aśmaka)/ support.
2. Varāhamihira-date given by himself-Yudhiṣṭhira śaka 3042, Chaitra śukla 8=6-3-95 BC

Death in 5 BC at age of 90 years (Utpala Bhaṭṭa), used Chahamāna śaka of 612 BC.
Could not have used Śālivāhana śaka of 78 AD, 83 years after his death.
Pañcha-siddhāntikā date tallies with Chahamāna śaka (427, Chaitra s1= saumya, budha)
3. Brahmagupta-Famous as son of Jiṣṇugupta (used by him, Vaṭeśvara etc)
Jiṣṇugupta contemporary of Varāhamihira (Bṛhat jātaka 7/7, Jyotirvidābharaṇa 22/8)
Jiṣṇugupta, son of Avantivarman (103-33 BC) of Nepal where Vikramāditya started samvat.
Brāhma-sphuṭa-siddhānta in 550 śaka (Chāhamāna) = 62 BC.
First inscription of Avantivarman in Chāhmāna śaka, rest 11 in Vikrama-samvat.
4. Sūrya-siddhānta-(a) 13902 BC, (b) Maya 9223 BC, used by Vālmīki, Kiṣkindhā (40/54)
(c) Parāśara (Viṣṇu purāṇa 3300 BC), (d) Lāṭa (Viṣṇudhvaja, 456 BC-Megasthenes)
(e) Smaller version by Varāhamihira (45 BC).