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TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT:-

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PROCEDURE FOR DESIGN OF WET SCRUBBER.................................................................................13
BOOTH CHAMBER ...................................................................................................................................13
AIR FILTER.................................................................................................................................................14
AIR HUMIDIFIER.......................................................................................................................................15
Specification of humidifier pump.......................................................................15

FORCED DRAFT BLOWER.......................................................................................................................16
WATER WASHER (SCRUBBER)..............................................................................................................17
The Specification of pump................................................................................. 18

INDUCED DRAFT BLOWER.....................................................................................................................18
HEAD OF BLOWER............................................................................................. 18

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ABSTRACT
Wet scrubber is a technological device to control pollution. The term describes a variety of
devices that remove pollutants mainly volatile organic compounds from a spray painting booth or from other
gas streams. In a wet scrubber, the polluted gas stream is brought into contact with the scrubbing liquid, by
spraying it with the liquid, by forcing it through a pool of liquid, or by some other contact method, so as to
remove the pollutants.The design of wet scrubbers or any air pollution control device depends on the
industrial process conditions and the nature of the air pollutants involved. There are numerous configurations
of scrubbers and scrubbing systems, all designed to provide good contact between the liquid and polluted gas
stream.A wet scrubber's ability to collect small particles is often directly proportional to the power input into
the scrubber. Low energy devices such as spray towers are used to collect particles larger than 5 microns. To
obtain high efficiency removal of smaller particles of less than 1 microns generally requires high energy
devices such as liquid-gas interface scrubbers or augmented devices such as condensation scrubbers.
This paper will talk in a detailed manner about Cloud Computing and describe the following points:
1. Components
2. Types of wet scrubber
3. Working of wet scrubber
4. Design of wet scrubber
5. Methodology

6. Advantages

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OCCUPATIONAL & ENVIRONMENTAL HYGIENE
AND DESIGN OF WET SCRUBBER
INTRODUCTION
Wet scrubber is used to control air pollution. Workers who spray paint apply a clear coat which contain
polyols and hardeners that are pre-polymerized forms of di-iso-cyanides (HDI). Exposure to these polyisocyanides can cause the following ill-effects to the workers.

Skin and eye irritation

Respiratory sensitization

Asthma

Reduced lung function
During spray painting, workers are exposed to all of the paint components which are atomized. In

addition to poly-isocyanides, these constituents include organic solvents, metals such as lead and chromium
and trace quantities of HDI monomer. A study of control measures for paint overspray in shops found that
the type of spray painting booth and the choice of spray painting gun can be used to minimize exposure of
worker to paint overspray. During spray painting, painters are frequently exposed to excessive polyisocyanides concentrations. In addition, respirator usage in this industry is largely inappropriate. Due to this
pollution and human’s ill effects, we use wet scrubber. Wet scrubbers remove dust particles by capturing

them in liquid droplets. Wet scrubbers remove pollutant gases by dissolving or absorbing them into the
liquid.

TYPES OF SPRAY PAINTING BOOTHS
Three types of spray painting booths are used in the painting industry.
They are

Downdraft booths

Semi-downdraft booths

Cross draft booths.

The three types of spray painting booths are described by the figure shown below

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Figure 1. The three different styles of spray painting booths in the coach body painting industry.

Figure 2. A downdraft spray painting booth with cornices. Eddies from under the cornice in this booth.

Figure 3. Orient parts so that paint overspray is directed at the front side of the booth. If the paint overspray
is directed at the space under the cornice, an eddy with transport noticeable quantities of overspray into an
eddy which will transport the overspray into the incoming fresh air.
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BENEFITS OF SPRAY BOOTH

Smoothness of Coating Film is achieved by blow system for constant car body temperature, air flow
control on car body, control of temperature and relative humidity, multi spray system (by dual spray
booth), prevention of paint residue deposits, air balance, turbulent flow prevention compressed air curtain,
curtain nozzle.

Prevention of Dust and Dirt Contamination is ensured by no exterior dust infiltration(by filtration,
air balance, curtain nozzle, entrance and exit air shower), no dust adhesion to car body(structure of ceiling
filter, contour design of spray booth), dust prevention(by control of temperature and relative humidity, air
supply unit blow-down system, materials and workmanship of air supply unit and filter frame)

Energy Conservation and Pollution Control is achieved by design to minimize need for air supply
(zoning system), reduced air supply during line stoppages, recycling of exhaust air, low-energy air supply

system ( by direct heating method, temperature control system with heat exchanger), minimal wash water
volume (circula spray booth),stable and high paint mist removal efficiency.

CONTROL MATRIX FOR PAINTING IN AUTO BODY REPAIR SHOPS
Condition
painting

Type of booth
car

in downdraft with an average air flow

booth

Gun

Respirator

hvlp

APF> 10 (e.g. half face piece air

around car of 80 fpm and no point

purifying or better)

with an air flow less than 60 fpm.
painting car parts semi downdraft; cross draft

hvlp,

of painting car in

conventional

APF>

25

(e.g.

supplied

air

continuous

flow,

powered

air

purifying, etc.)
booth
painting car parts downdraft, paint overspray directed Hvlp

APF> 10 (e.g. half face piece air

that

purifying or better)

are

not at front or back of booth.

attached to car
hvlp = high volume low pressure spray painting gun.

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PHYSICAL DIMENSIONS TO ENSURE ADEQUACY OF MATRIX
Dimension

Specification

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paint application rate

under 150 g/min of paint with a solids content of 50%

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Polyisocyante content of applied paint Under 33%
solids

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number of painters

4

minimum

distance

one painter
between

painted 2 feet

surface and workers chin
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booth flow rate

10,000 - 14,000 cfm

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booth size

approximately 12' × 25' × 8' ft high

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cornice for illuminating parts

no more than 1 foot on each side of the booth

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criteria for air velocity around a car in a The air velocity around the perimeter of a car is to be measured
downdraft booth (INRS):

at 10 points. Three points are on the side of each car and two are
next to the front and rear of the car. These measurements are
taken 0.5 meters (m) from the side of the car and 0.9 m above
the booths floor. The mean value of these points is to be greater
than 0.4 m/sec and no point is to have a velSocity less than 0.3
m/sec. These measurements are based upon integrated 60 second
samples.

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Criteria for cross draft and semi- 100 cfm/ft2 of cross sectional area. When width times height is
downdraft spray painting booth flow rate greater than 150 ft2, the criteria is 50 ft/ft2.

10 HDI monomer content of paint

HDI monomer content of the sprayed liquid shall be less than
0.2% of the poly-iso-cyanate. If the monomer content is greater
than 0.2%, the shop must either show the workers exposure to
HDI monomer remains below the NIOSH REL or have the
workers use supplied air respirators in the spray painting booth.

WET SCRUUBER SYSTENM
COMPONENTS
Wet scrubber systems for a painting booth generally consist of the following components:

Fan system

Air filter

Air humidifier

Scrubbing area(painting booth)

Sludge separator

Mist separator or Mist eliminator

Pumping(possible recycle system)

An exhaust fan

Exhaust stack

WORKING OF WET SCRUBBER
Wet scrubber is mainly used to remove pollutants and to control air pollution. It consists of many
nozzles fixed at the top of the closed area . The paint is sprayed in the booth chamber. Where it is atomized,
most of paint adhered over the coach surface. Some of the paint particles escaped and form a paint mist
.these paint particles cause harm to the operator. Hence it has to be removed from the booth atmosphere.
These objectionable paint particles can be removed or scrubbed by an heavy fluid, we prefer humidified air
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which is heavier than the paint particle. So we employ a humidifier. To suck or to supply air, we need a
blower. It has to suck air from atmosphere through humidifier and discharge to the booth chamber. Before
humidifying, the air has to be filtered. Hence one air filter has to be incorporated.

Figure 1:Layout of wet scrubber

Humidifier
Filter
To
Booth

Water
pump

Figure2: Producing Air flow to nozzle
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This paint particles mixed with recycling water and the high density of air gets purified using filter
and the air is sucked by centrifugal blower and allowed to the atmosphere .The diagram above shows the
schematic arrangement of filter, humidifier and blower. The devices are collectively called as Air Supply
device.This air will scrub the over sprayed paint particles and go to the bottom level, at the bottom level
there is a water recycling passage. When the air with the paint particles contact the water, the paint particles
will be scrubbed by the water from the air. Thus paint particle shall form paint sludge leaving the air
pollutant free.The un-polluted air can now be discharged into atmosphere without any objection.To discharge
the air, we need induced draft blower, ducts and stack.The mechanism works by moving the spray head in a
gantry motion and reciprocating motion.The works taken place in the paint booth is done automatic or where
ever needed.The forced draft at the top of the booth works according to the location of the compartment.The
height of the stack shall be provided as per the pollution control board norms.An paint sludge is sent to the
effluent treatment plant.

CATEGORIZATION OF WET SCRUBBERS
Since wet scrubbers vary greatly in complexity and method of operation, devising categories into
which all of them neatly fit is extremely difficult. Scrubbers for particle collection are usually categorized by
the gas-side pressure drop of the system. Gas-side pressure drop refers to the pressure difference, or pressure
drop, that occurs as the exhaust gas is pushed or pulled through the scrubber, disregarding the pressure that
would be used for pumping or spraying the liquid into the scrubber.
Scrubbers may be classified by pressure drop as follows:

Low-energy scrubbers have pressure drops of less than 12.7 cm (5 in) of water.

Medium-energy scrubbers have pressure drops between 12.7 and 38.1 cm (5 and 15 in) of water.

High-energy scrubbers have pressure drops greater than 38.1 cm (15 in) of water.
However, most scrubbers operate over a wide range of pressure drops, depending on their specific

application, thereby making this type of categorization difficult. Another way to classify wet scrubbers is by
their use - to primarily collect either particulates or gaseous pollutants. Again, this distinction is not always
clear since scrubbers can often be used to remove both types of pollutants.
Wet scrubbers can also be categorized by the manner in which the gas and liquid phases are brought
into contact. Scrubbers are designed to use power, or energy, from the gas stream or the liquid stream, or
some other method to bring the pollutant gas stream into contact with the liquid. These categories are given
in Table below.
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Categories of wet collectors by energy source used for contact
Wet collector

Energy source used for gas-liquid contact

Gas-phase contacting

Gas stream

Liquid-phase contacting

Liquid stream

Wet film

Liquid and gas streams

Combination

Energy source:

Liquid phase and gas phase

Liquid and gas streams

Mechanically aided

Mechanically driven rotor

MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION AND DESIGN

Corrosion can be a prime problem associated with scrubbing systems. Fiber-reinforced plastic
and dual laminates are often used as most dependable materials of construction. But because of cost
implication, we may select galvanized sheet ducting and concrete construction for paint booth application.
So far we have discussed about the paints, its ingredients, painting methods, ill effects of paintings, exposure
of operators to painting mist, health and other problems to operators, its controlling methods, uses of wet
scrubber, etc. The sheen and smoothness of a paint finish are determined by the paint and the paint finishing
equipment. A properly designed Wet Scrubber guarantees that the equipment constituent of this equation is
optimized by controlling not only air temperature, humidity and circulation within the booth, but all other
factors that affect paint finish quality. Examples of this thoroughness include control of the surface
temperature of coach bodies, paint temperature and even the atomizing air. Dirt and dust are shut out by
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sophisticated air cleaning equipment and the careful control of air circulation. In the elimination and disposal
of paint over spray mist, circular spray booth respond flexibly to different paint mist densities to meet all
requirement of the environmental protection regulations of global standards.

REQUIREMENTS OF WET SCRUBBER
By analyzing about each of the below requirements, it is used to design the items.

Air Supply Device
o Air pre-filter
o Air Humidifier
o Forced Draft Blower
o Ducting

Booth and scrubbing

Water washer
o Trays
o Pumps
o Pipeline

Induced Draft
o Exhaust blower
o Stack

AIR SUPPLY DEVICE
NEED OF AIR HUMIDIFIER
The over sprayed paint particles have to be suppressed by a heavier fluid from top to ground or lower
area. Air is easily available and can be used to suppress the particles. But the air is not heavier than the paint
particle. Hence, the density of air is to be increased. The chief and cheap method of increasing the density of
the air is humidifying. Humidifying means increasing the water content of air. Water can be added to the air
by atomizing and spraying the water into the air medium. Thus water can be mixed with the air thoroughly
and homogeneously. Hence we need humidifier.

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NEED OF AIR PRE-FILTER
When we decided to use the air for this purpose, we should aim clean air. If the air contains dust and
impurities it shall reflect on the quality of paint coat. Thus the air is to be cleaned before taking for use.
Hence we need air filter.
NEED OF FORCED DRAFT BLOWER & DUCTING
To suck the air from out side/ atmosphere and force it to the painting chamber of booth, a forced draft
is to be created for which a blower of sufficient capacity has to be installed.
Thus we need an air supply device which comprises of air filter, humidifier, blower and ducts.

BOOTH AND SCRUBBER
The paint is sprayed in the booth chamber only where the organic matters of volatile nature shall get
liberated and spreaded and fill the chamber. This chamber is a place where human being working. As we
know these matters are highly poisonous and when human beings are exposed to these poisonous substance
they will be subjected to respiratory ailments and hence these substances are need to be removed from the
chamber by the humidified air.Hence the volume of the booth/ spraying chamber must so spacious and
adequate as to accommodate and enable circulation of humidified air supplied by the air supplying device to
disperse the over sprayed paint particles and the evaporated volatile organic compound and to suppress to the
bottom of the booth.

WATER WASHER
The air dispersed with the above said particles shall not be discharged to the atmosphere. Hence these
pollutants have to be removed from the air by suitable liquid. We prefer water as it is easily available in
Chennai without much cost or investment.Here the water shall be made to circulate and to fall like a cascade.
The polluted air shall be made to pass through the cascade thus the pollutants shall be scrubbed by the
cascading water and carried away by the circulating water. The air shall be free from any pollutants or
organic compounds which can be discharged into atmosphere.

INDUCED DRAFT
The pollutant free air has to be sucked from the water washer chamber for which we need a induced
draft blower and discharged into atmosphere above the shed at an elevated height through stack.
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PROCEDURE FOR DESIGN OF WET SCRUBBER
BOOTH CHAMBER
The booth shall have enough space to accommodate air and to allow it to circulate.

The size of the coach shall be 3.5 m (B) x 23 m (L) x 3.5 m (H)

For free flow of air the space requirement on each side shall be 0.75 m

The sprayed paint particles shall escape vertically and surrounds at top side. Hence large space
must be designed to allow enough space and time for the air to swallow the paint particles.
Minimum of 1m distance above the coach is essential. But to have complete mixing and removal
of organic compounds and other pollutants, we decide 1.5 m distance.

The reciprocator and the paint applicators have to travel beyond the length of coach. As per the
requirement of booth, 3.5 m distance is allowed on either side of coach

Hence we conclude the dimensions of the booth as follows:
o

o

Breadth

Length

=

Width of coach + space required on each side

=

3.5m + 2 x 0.75 m

=

5m

=

Length of coach + space required on each end

=

23m + 2 x 3.5m

=

30 m

o

Height

=

Height of coach + space required above coach

=

3.5m + 1.5 m

=

5m

Thus dimension of the booth is concluded as 5m (B) x 30m (L) x 5m (H)
o

Volume of booth

=

5 x 30 x 5

=

750 m3

AIR FILTER
When Volume of air has been decided, size of filter to be decided/ designed

The purpose of the filter is to separate the dust from the air.

It shall have excellent performance

It has to withstand high abrasion resistance due high velocity flow of air by the blower. Hence, the
filter shall be mechanical and structurally strong and robust.

Requires high dust holding capacity

Longer life

By considering these requirement we shall suggest and select synthetic fibers with a thin layer of high

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strength spun bond bag filter to increase filter stability, holding capacity and prevent particle/ dust
migration.

These type of filters are available on standard frame sizes 610x610, 305x610, 508x610 mm. we
recommend and select 610x610 mm size

The capacity of one filter shall be 20 m3/sec

The capacity of filter at chocked condition

= 12.5 m3/sec

Volume of air to be filtered

= 300 m3/sec

No. of filters required

= 300 / 12.5
= 24

Specification of Air filter

Filter frame size

: 610 mm x 610 mm

Filter medium

: Micro fine synthetic fiber

Fluid to be handled

: Atmospheric air

Articles to be filtered

: Dust and other impurities present in the air

Special requirements

: The filters shall have reliability in high air flow and high dust holding
condition. The frames shall be mechanically strong with high
abrasion resistance.Excellent performance in high moisture condition
To withstand air velocity of 3 m/sec Max. resistance 450 Pa

No. of filters

: 24

AIR HUMIDIFIER
When we decided the volume of air to be supplied to the painting chamber, volume of water required to
humidify the air to 75%RH is to be calculated
After this pump to be selected and number of nozzles to be decided from the varieties available in the market
based on their capacity.
Volume of air to be handled

= 30 m3/s

Mass of water to be added

= 0.02g/m3of air
= 0.02g x 30 per sec
= 0.6 g/s

To add 0.6grams of water particles, 1000 times of water has to be sprayed
Hence, quantity of water to be pumped

= 0.6 x 1000 g/s = 600 LPS or = 0.6 m3/s
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NOZZLES
To spray the water, we need nozzles which is supplied with water at high pressure. The pressure
energy of water shall be converted in to kinetic energy and thus the water shall be thrown out of nozzle at a
very high velocity in the form of atomized jet.From the nozzles available in the market, we select a nozzle
with capacity of handling 60 liters of water per second.
No. of nozzles

= Quantity of water/ Capacity of one nozzle
= 600 / 60
= 10

To atomize the water, the nozzle requires water at a minimum pressure of 5 bar. We have to add 0.5
bar for head loss due to friction, pipe joints, nozzles, etc.
Hence, Head to be developed

= 5.5 bar

Specification of humidifier pump
Description

: Humidification Pump

Type

: Centrifugal ; Closed impeller

Fluid to be handled

: Water

Capacity

: 600 Lps

Head

: 5.5 bar

FORCED DRAFT BLOWER

Location of blower is to be decided

Distance between the fan and the painting chamber is to be calculated

Length of duct to be decided

Based on the volume of air cross sectional area of duct to be decided

Frictional head loss due to length of duct and cross section of duct to be decided or fixed as 25% of
length of duct

Capacity and other spec like head of blower to be decided

Volume of air in the painting chamber

= 750 m3

Velocity of air in the painting chamber

= 0.2 m/s [Allowed, to ensure comfort of operator]

Height of the painting chamber

= 5m

Time taken by the air to travel in the chamber

= 5 / 0.2 = 25 sec

This means 7500m3 of air has to be replaced in every 25 seconds
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Volume of air to be handled by the blower

= 750/25
= 30 m3/s

Head of blower
Delivery side

= Duct length + frictional loss at duct+ mean length of painting chamber
= 2m + 20% of 2 m + 30/2 m
= 2 + 0.4 + 15 m
= 17.4 m

Duct length = Distance between blower and painting booth
Suction side

= Length of filter & humidifier area + loss at filter + loss at humidifier
= ~3m + 4.5m + 0.5m
=8m

The resistance to the flow of air through the synthetic fiber filter is taken as 4.5m of air

The loss of head at humidifier is taken as minor loss and as 0.5m of air
Total head

= Suction head + Delivery head
= 8 + 17.4
= 25.4 m

The specification of blower

Description

: Heavy duty Blower [Centrifugal]

Fluid to be handled

: Air at atmospheric pressure and temperature

Volume to be handled

: 30 m3/s

Head to be developed

: 25.4 m with suction head of ~10m

WATER WASHER (SCRUBBER)
The design of water washer depends upon the amount of over sprayed paint particles.
Quantity of paint sprayed

= qty of [paint + hardener + thinner]
= 16 + 4 + 1 liters per coach
= 21 liters

Time taken to paint a coach

= 30 minutes [painting time]
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Quantity of paint over sprayed

= 30 % of sprayed
= 0.3 x 21 liters
= 0.63 liters per coach

Quantity of water required

= 1000 times of over sprayed paint particle
= 0.63 x 1000 liters
= 630 liters per coach
= 630/30 minutes
= 210 liters per minute

Head to be developed
Length of pipe [ one side]

= length of booth + additional piping
= 30 m + 5 m = 35 m

Head for 35m horizontal pipe

= ~1m (Delivery side)

Depth of sump

=4m

Total head to be developed

=1+4=5m

We shall suggest 2 no. of pump, one for each side of coach
The Specification of pump
Description

: Circulation Pump

Type

: Centrifugal; Closed impeller

Fluid to be handled

: Water

Capacity

: 105 Lpm

Head

: 5 bar

No. of pumps

:2

INDUCED DRAFT BLOWER

Location of blower is to be decided

Distance between the fan and the painting chamber is to be calculated

Length of ducting and stack to be decided

Based on the volume of air cross sectional area of duct to be decided

Frictional head loss due to length of duct and cross section of duct to be decided or fixed as 25% of
length of duct

Capacity and other spec like head of blower to be decided
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Volume of air to be handled by the blower

= 750/25
= 30 m3/s

Select 6 no. of blowers and install 3 numbers on each side of booth
Volume of air by each blower

= 30 / 6
= 5 m3/s

HEAD OF BLOWER
Suction side

= Distance between blower and spray chamber
= ~1m

Delivery side

= Duct length*

+ frictional loss at duct+ Stack height

= 14m + 25% of 14 m + 3 m
= 14 + 3.5 + 3 m

= 20.5 m
Duct length

= height of shed

= 5 + 5/2 + 7 = 14 m

The resistance to the flow of air through the synthetic fiber filter is taken as 4.5m of air
The loss of head at humidifier is taken as minor loss and as 0.5m of air
Total head

= Suction head + Delivery head
= 1 + 20.5
= 21.5 m

The specification of blower
Description

: Heavy duty Blower [Centrifugal]

Fluid to be handled

: Air

Volume to be handled

: 5 m3/s

Head to be developed

: 20.5 m with suction head of ~1m

No. of blowers

: Six

DUCT

Cross-sectional area of blower

Velocity of air in duct is limited to 75 m/s

Volume of air

= 5 m3/s

Sectional area of duct

= volume/ velocity
= 5 / 75
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= 0.066 m2

Dimension of duct

= 1 m x 0.06m
= 0.06m^2

ADVANTAGES
For particulate control, wet scrubbers (also referred to as wet collectors) are evaluated against
fabric filters and Electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). Some advantages of wet scrubbers over these devices are
as follows:

Wet scrubbers have the ability to handle high temperatures and moisture

In wet scrubbers, the inlet gases are cooled, resulting in smaller overall size of equipment.

Wet scrubbers can remove both gases and particulate matter

Wet scrubbers can neutralize corrosive gases.

Small space requirements : Scrubbers reduce the temperature and volume of the unsaturated exhaust
stream. Therefore, vessel sizes, including fans and ducts downstream, are smaller than those of other
control devices. Smaller sizes result in lower capital costs and more flexibility in site location of the
scrubber.

No secondary dust sources : Once particulate matter is collected, it cannot escape from hoppers or
during transport.

Handles high-temperature, high-humidity gas streams : No temperature limits or condensation
problems can occur as in bag houses or ESPs.

Minimal fire and explosion hazards : Various dry dusts are flammable. Using water eliminates the
possibility of explosions.

Ability to collect both gases and particulate matter

CONCLUSION
It is one of the best control strategy for protecting coach body painters from poly-isocyanides
exposure A combination of a downdraft spray painting booth and an air purifying respirator can be an
effective means of controlling the exposures of worker to poly-isocyanides.It is very much useful to avoid
the air pollution and human affects, which take in the place during the work at the paint shop industries.
During spray painting, workers are exposed to all of the paint components which are atomized. In addition to
poly-isocyanides, these constituents include organic solvents, metals such as lead and chromium and trace
quantities of HDI monomer. So, our Wet scrubber will solve that problem.
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