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Diploma Programme. We have all met problems in which we had the solution to a quadratic, but it was square root from a negative number.This type of problems are solved with the help of the complex numbers.

Definition

A complex number is usually noted with “z” (or sometimes“w”) and z=a+bi, where a and b are real numbers. This is called the algebraic form of a complex number. In some types of problems a complex number can have the value(x,0), but this only means that the respective complex number is equal to x. In particular, we have the indications (0,0)=0 and (1,0)=1. The complex number (0,1) is denoted by i and it is called imaginary unit, with i2=-1, so i2+1=0 and we can say now that the quadratic x2+1=0 has solutions in the set of complex numbers. The number a from the algebraic form is called the real part of z, while bi is called the imaginary part. Also, the notations a=Re(z) and b=Im(z) are also frequently used. As a fact, the notation z=a+bi was given by the mathematician Rond D’Alembert(1717-1783). Observation! ● If Re(z)=0 and Im(z)=0, then the complex number z=bi it is called pure imaginary complex number. The equality of two complex numbers Let z1, z2 be two complex numbers, z1=a+bi, z2=c+di. These two complex numbers are equal only if the real parts are equal as well: Therefore, a+bi=c+di ONLY if a=c and b=d. Example: Determine the real numbers x and y for which the following equality takes place: x+2y+(y3x)i=5-8i. Solution: After applying the property of two equal complex numbers, we obtain a system of two equations, x+2y=5 and y-3x=-8, with the answers being x=3 and y=1. Operations with complex numbers written in algebraic form Adding: z1+z2=a1+a2+i(b1+b2) Multiplying: z1 z2=(a1+b1i)(a2+b2i)=a1a2+a1b2i+a2b1i-b1b2 Observation! The number z’=-a-bi it is called the opposite of z, while the inverse of z=a+bi is z-1=(a/a2+b2)-i(b/a2+b2). The rules of calculations from the real number’s set are the same in the complex number’s set as well, the only difference being that i2=-1. Solved exercise: Calculate z1+z2 and z1 z2 if z1=1+i and z2=2-3i. z1+z2=1+i+2-3i=3-2i z1 z2=(1+i)(2-3i)=2-3i+2i-3i2=5-i. Natural exponents of i The natural powers of number i are: i4k=1, i4k+1=i, i4k+2=-1 and i4k+3=-i, where k is a natural number.

Conjugation

Let there be two complex numbers, z1=2+3i and z2=2-3i. We observe that Re(z1)=Re(z2) and Im(z1)=Im(z2). These characteristics are specific to a category of complex numbers called conjugated complex numbers. The conjugate of z1=a+bi is z1 =a-bi. Important note: a conjugated complex number have a horizontal line over it, not under, but the only way I could do it in Word was under. Properties of two conjugated complex numbers, z and w: 1. z1+w=2Re(z) 2. z w=Re2(z)+Im2(z) 3. z w=z+w 4. z w=z w 5. zn =(z)n, where n is a natural number 6. z w=z/w

**The absolute value of a complex number
**

The absolute number of a complex number z=a+bi is |z|=√a Properties of the absolute value: 1. |z|=0<=>z=0 2. |z1| z2|=|z1| z2| 3. |zn|=|z|n 4. |z1/z2|=|z1|/|z2| 5. |z1+z2| |z1|+|z2| 6. |z|=|z| 7. |z|=1<=>z=1/z 8. z z=|z|2 z1+z2=a+c+i(b+d) <=> √ a c b and d |z1+z2|= √a √ a b + √c b c b d b . Example: |3-4i|=√ 1 =5.

Let’s demonstrate property number 5. Let z1=a+bi and z2=c+di. So |z1|= √a . We obtain

b , |z2|= √c |z1+z2| b c

d , and |z1|+|z2| d .

d ⇔ (a+c)2+(b+d)2 c

a2+b2+c2+d2+2 √ a

So, we need to prove now that ac+bd √ a the inequality is demonstrated.

d ⇔ (ac+bd)2 (a2+b2)(c2+d2)<=>(ad-bc)2 0, so

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