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How to Tie Degrees of Freedom Together
Co-Owner Principal, Simulation and Business Technologies
04/26/2012 PADT, Inc.
DX R13: 02/17/2011 1
• Note: This presentation is being recorded • • • • • Introductions Theory and Basic Info The CP and CE Commands Internal CE’s (MPC) CE’s in Workbench
DX R13: 02/17/2011 2
DX R13: 02/17/2011 3
• Upcoming Webinars
– – – – Feb 9, 2012 - 12:00 MST Working Directly with Nodes and Elements in ANSYS Mechanical Feb 23, 2012 - 12:00 MST Assembly Meshing in ANSYS R14 CANCELED March 8, 2012 - 12:00 MST Intro to Workbench Framework Scripting - Controlling projects, materials, and solution execution with python March 22, 2012 - 12:00 MST Mastering the Remote Solver Manager (RSM) at R14
– – – – –
April 12, 2012 – 12:00 MST A POST26 Primer: Post Processing over Multiple Time/Load Steps in Mechanical APDL April 27, 2012 – 12:00 MST A Constraint Equation Primer: How to Tie Degrees of Freedom Together May 10, 2012 – 12:00 MST Optimization with ANSYS DesignXplorer at R14 May 24, 2012 – 12:00 MST Modeling Moisture Diffusion in ANSYS Summer Break: June & July (maybe August)
Primers are new:
– Oriented towards newer users or Workbench users who may not have experience with some of the fundamentals in the ANSYS Mechanical APDL solver
See upcoming and past webinars at:
• Click on ANSYS Webinar Series
DX R13: 02/17/2011 4
com We Make Innovation Work DX R13: 02/17/2011 5 . Sales. Training.PADTINC.About PADT • PADT is an Engineering Services Company – Mechanical Engineering – 18 Years of Growth and Happy customers – 70’ish Employees • 3 Business Areas – CAE Sales & Services • Consulting. Support – Product Development – Rapid Prototyping & Manufacturing • Learn More: www.
300 • www.CUBE-HVPC.750 – Simulation Workstation (AMD) 12 Cores / 64 GB RAM / 3 TB Disk $6.900 – Compute Server 32 Cores / 256 GB RAM / 3 TB Disk $14.com DX R13: 02/17/2011 6 .250 – Simulation Workstation (Intel) 12 Cores / 96 GB RAM / 3 TB Disk $11.Cube HVPC Systems • Balance between speed and cost – Mini-Cluster 96 Cores / 512 GB RAM / 6 TB Disk Mobile Rack / UPS / Monitor / Keyboard $34.
DX R13: 02/17/2011 7 . Auto-complete drop downs for APDL Commands.PeDAL – The APDL Editor • • • • • • • • Side-by-side editor and help viewer layout. Search ANSYS help phrases and keywords. Instant help on any documented APDL command by pressing F1. Multiple tabs for the editor and html viewer. Full capability web browser built in allows for rich web experience and web searches. Full syntax highlighting for ANSYS v12 Mechanical APDL. APDL Command argument hints while typing commands.
com/padtinc Email Subscriptions: www.Connect with PADT Facebook: facebook.PADTINC. Inc.padtinc. ANSYS User Blog: padtinc.com/focus DX R13: 02/17/2011 8 .com LinkedIn: Search on PADT.com/epubs Twitter: #padtinc Web: www.
Theory and Basic Info DX R13: 02/17/2011 9 .
What is a Constraint Equation • Remember you are solving a series of linear equations: • Structural: (F) = [K](u) – Every node has a force (F) in each direction and a deflection (u). – You are solving for (F) and (u) – The deflections are called the Degrees of Freedom or DOF • Generalized to solve many types of physics. But (u) is still a DOF • Constraint equations are equations that tie the value of one DOF to the value of one or more DOF’s • Added into set of linear equations before solve • We will call them CE’s most of the time DX R13: 02/17/2011 10 . the meaning of (F). [K] and (u) change.
There are Really 3 Types • Constraint Equations (CE) – Equations fed to the solver that describe relations between DOF’s – (what we will mostly talk about) • Couples (CP) – All DOF’s are equal • Multipoint Constraint (MPC) – Actually internal MPC – No equations are written by the users. created at runtime in the matrix DX R13: 02/17/2011 11 .
Defined In Terms of a Sum • Constant = 𝑁 𝐼=1(𝑐𝑜𝑒𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝐼 ∗ 𝑈 𝐼 ) – N = number of terms in the equation – U(I) = the DOF solution for term I • You write equations that relate one or more DOF in linear way: – After a solve. the sum of the user defined coefficients times their deflection equals some constant DX R13: 02/17/2011 12 .
but because there are two sharing the deflection. we know for small deflections and a rigid connection.Example: Beam to Plane Stress Elements • (from MAPDL help) • If you have a beam attached to a block. – 𝑅𝑂𝑇𝑍2 = 𝑈𝑌3−𝑈𝑌1 10 – 0 = UY3 – UY1 – 10*ROTZ2 DX R13: 02/17/2011 13 . that ROTZ in radians is equal to the distance from the connection to the corner nodes times the rotation in radians. one up and one down. and it can spin like a hinge • So. it would be a multiplier of 5. it is 10 and the coefficients on the UY direction are 1 and -1. the ROTZ DOF is free. – So if it was one node.
0 = Uaxial129 + Uaxial363 0.0 = Uhoop129 + Uhoop363 0. • The DOF solution at the boundary of the repeatable chunk are identical • Enforced with CE’s – In a cylindrical coordinate system – Uaxial129 = -1*Uaxial363 Uhoop129 = -1*Uhoop363 Uradial129 = -1*Uradial363 – 0.0 = Uradial129 + Uradial363 DX R13: 02/17/2011 14 .Example: Cyclic Symmetry • Assumption when a disk shape is made up of a repeated chunk of geometry.
All Sorts of Uses • There are many situations where you want to relate DOF’s: – Coupling: Setting one DOF equal to Another – Cyclic Symmetry: forcing cyclic (and anti-cyclic) behavior at the repeatable boundary – Contact: contacts are CE’s that turn on and off based on proximity – Joints: Constrain some DOF’s and leave other free • Pin type stuff that NASTRAN users do all the time – – – – Gears and linkages: relate rotational DOF’s or rotation to displacment Connect mesh regions with more DOF’s to regions with less Connect Dissimilar Meshes Represent behavior of rigid elements DX R13: 02/17/2011 15 .
DX R13: 02/17/2011 16 .DOF Elimination • One of the DOF’s in the equation needs to be “set free” and solved for: eliminated from the equation • It can not have any DOF value imposed on it with a displacement. master DOF. or couples.
you may not know what coordinate system nodes are in. • Critical for cyclic symmetry DX R13: 02/17/2011 17 . or spherical coordinate system – Very important if you are using Mechanical. radial.Coordinate Systems • The DOF’s on a node are defined in that nodes coordinate system – Each node in an ANSYS model has a unique rotation defined relative to the global coordinate system • Make sure that when you define a CP or CE that the nodes are all rotated in the same Cartesian.
Creation • MAPDL – Several commands to define by hand – you enter the equation – More commands to automatically generate between specified nodes – Automatically created as part of contacts • Mechanical – – – – Created automatically with contacts Created automatically with remote points Created automatically as part of repeatable boundary Defined by hand between points DX R13: 02/17/2011 18 .
ce. DX R13: 02/17/2011 19 .Viewing • Using the /PBC. put a CE plot into your snippets to check them.1 command turn on CE’s • Any plots show the CE’s • Little arrows show DOF at each node – Way to check the nodal rotation • Lines connect all the DOF’s in a CE • Unselected nodes are not shown • If Mechanical is making CE’s.
The CP and CE Commands DX R13: 02/17/2011 20 .
Some Background • Most CE related commands start with CE • Each CE in a model has a unique number – You define the number when you create the CE – You refer to the CE number when you want to look at it. delete it. modify it. add to it • All Holds true for CP’s as well DX R13: 02/17/2011 21 .
NODE14. Fluid labels: PRES (pressure). TE3. Electric labels: VOLT (voltage). or UZ (displacements). NODE15. UY. NODE7. Lab. NSET. CURR (current). NODE12. or ROTZ (rotations) (in radians). or AZ (vector magnetic potentials). . TBOT. NODE9. ROTX. NODE11. but not treated as one DOF1 = DOF2 Can be a CE: 0 = DOF1 – DOF2 But more efficient to substitute DOF2 every place DOF1 was used Command: – CP.Couples • • • • • A constraint equation. . VY. NODE16. TE2.. HDSP (hydrostatic pressure). TTOP (temperature). NODE4. Diffusion label: CONC (concentration). . ROTY. or UZ (displacements). DX R13: 02/17/2011 22 . UY. NODE3. or VZ (velocities). Explicit analysis labels: UX. NODE1. NODE17 – Every node in the list will have the same value for whatever DOF you specify in Lab – Repeat with same NSET to add even more nodes – Supports picking (NODE1= p) and components – Use –NODEx to remove a node from the set • Valid Lab: – – – – – – – Structural labels: UX. Magnetic labels: MAG (scalar magnetic potential). NODE6. NODE2. NODE13. NODE8. Thermal labels: TEMP. AX. NODE5. CURR (current). AY. VX. NODE10. EMF (electromotive force drop).
Nsel – Delete a CP set – If Nsel = ALL. NODE2. Lab4. Nsel – Lists out coupled sets – Use this in a Mechanical APDL snippet to set what CP’s were made by workbench • • CPNGEN. NSET1. only delete if all nodes are selected • CPINTF. ITIME. TOLER – Puts all the nodes below a certain distance (Toler) from each other in a CP set with DOF = LAB – Best used for coincident. NINC DX R13: 02/17/2011 23 . NSET2. NSET1. INC. NSET2. NINC. Lab. Lab1. incrementing the nodes by INC CPSGEN.Couple Related Commands • CPDELE. NSETF. NINC. NSET. NSET1. Lab3. NINC – – Like CP but uses node range to specify nodes Makes ITIME copies of existing CP sets. Lab. NODE1. NSET2. Lab2. Lab5 – Makes copies of an existing couple set (NSETF) using 1 or more new DOF labels CPLIST. or very close to coincident nodes • • CPLGEN.
• A DOF should never appear in more than one CP • The set number in the CP command can be: – – – – n: the set number HIGH: use the highest number currently defined NEXT: use the highest number + 1 (new) NOTE: The default is not NEXT!. will induce moments. DX R13: 02/17/2011 24 . it is HIGH.Couple Issues • Only the first DOF value in the set is used in the matrix. all others are replaced by it – Called the prime DOF – Don’t put displacements (D) on DOF’s that are coupled out • CP’s on Non coincident nodes. or nodes who do not lie on the DOF that is coupled.
C2. the DOF. NODE2. CONST. C3 – NEQN can be: n. next.Making CE’s: The CE Command • CE. C1. Lab3.uy. 3.1. 1.10 DX R13: 02/17/2011 25 . 2. NODE3. or NEXT (HIGH is default!) – CONST = the constant for the equation – NODEn.-1. HIGH. NODE1.rotz. and the multiplier. • So.uy.Labn. NEQN. our early example: – 𝑅𝑂𝑇𝑍2 = 𝑈𝑌3−𝑈𝑌1 10 −−→ 0 = UY3 – UY1 – 10*ROTZ2 – CE.C1 = the node. 0. Lab1. Lab2.
they are almost always made for you DX R13: 02/17/2011 26 .Making CE’s: The CE Command • Most hand CE’s are pretty simple – – – – – Often an anti-symmetry Connecting a remote mass point to your model Doing your own cyclicsymmetry constraints Connecting rotation DOF’s to axial based on distances Defining a joint or “gear” • Use APDL macro to generate • Or use Excel for fancy ones (make sure your math is right) • These days.
Highname. Lowname. Kmove. Kpairs – – – – Lowname. Highname are the component names of each side of your “wedge” Nsector is the number of times the sector gets repeated Hindex is the harmonic index… no time to explain Tolerance specifies how close in the axial/radial/tangential+sector angle nodes need to be to be coupled – Kmove = 1 says you can move the high nodes to match the low (don’t use!) – Kpairs = 1 prints out a list of pairs when it executes • It rotates the nodes into CSYS = 1 !!!!!!!!!! – This may not be the same axis as your model.Making Cyclic Symmetry Boundaries • Back in “the day” you had to make your own CE’s for this… – Kids today have it too easy • CECYC. Tolerance. Nsector. check – Do your won CE’s if that is true DX R13: 02/17/2011 27 . HIndex.
MoveTol – Toler: fraction of element size. find all nodes within that fraction from element – DOF1 – DOF6: DOF’s to write CE’s for – MoveTo1: if not 0. DOF5. DOF4. DOF2. TOLER. DOF1. DOF3. Value is fraction of element size • Hints – – – – Use components to set up Nodes should be smaller and denser of the two sides Don’t use to attach 6DOF elements to 3DOF elements Use CPEINTF if the nodes line up DX R13: 02/17/2011 28 . move the nodes onto the surface of the elements if they don’t sit exactly on. DOF6.Join Interfaces with CEINTF • Use this to tie two meshes together at an interface • Uses weighted averages of distance to smear the constraint equations • Connects the nodes on the first surface to all the nodes on the surface elements on the second surface • CEINTF.
.2 blc4.s allsel /pnum.1 eplot DX R13: 02/17/2011 29 .ce.4.0 esln.184.108.40.206 nslv.-1.r.s.z /triad.-3.185 esize.1 /view.z.1 nsel...-1..1 /vup.CEINTF Example: Joining Two Blocks finish /clear /prep7 blc220.127.116.11 vsel.-2.s..all vsel.uy.2 nslv.r.loc.2 vatt.loc.2.1.z.1 eplot ceintf.a /pbc.s.1 nsel.5.1.ux.uz nsle.s.-2 et.9 vmesh.1 /number.lbot.mat.
000000 NODE= 2 DIR= NODE= 141 DIR= NODE= 145 DIR= NODE= 146 DIR= NODE= 142 DIR= NO. • Coefficients are distance to node 2 divided by sum of all the distances.8333333E-01 0.2500000 0. UX UX UX UX UX 1 HAS COEFFICIENT= COEFFICIENT= COEFFICIENT= COEFFICIENT= COEFFICIENT= 5 TERMS. -1.1666667 • Connects node 2 to all the corner nodes of the element it sits on. DX R13: 02/17/2011 30 .5000000 0.000000 0.Looking at one CE in our CEITNF CONSTRAINT EQUATION CONSTANT= 0.
All nodes will move like MASTE – SLAVE is the node(s) that will be linked to MASTE. RXYZ.ROTX. SLAVE.ROTZ • Assumes that the master node is a 6DOF node – Otherwise. Ldof5 – MASTE is the node that drives the motion. Ldof4.UY. • Use ALL to slave all selected nodes – LDOF-LDOF5 are the degrees of freedom to fix • ALL. it assigns the next number • Mostly replaced by contact elements DX R13: 02/17/2011 31 .Create Rigid Regions CERIG • Make a bunch of nodes all have the same DOF response for connecting 6DOF nodes • CERIG. Ldof3.ROTY. UX. just use a CP • No CE number. Ldof2.UZ. UXYZ. MASTE. Ldof.
000000 COEFFICIENT= -3..s.000000 DX R13: 02/17/2011 32 .000000 NODE= 113 DIR= UZ NODE= 1000 DIR= UZ NODE= 1000 DIR= ROTX NODE= 1000 DIR= ROTY 1 HAS 4 TERMS.uz CONSTRAINT EQUATION NO.nb1 cerig.CERIG Example nsel.all. 0.. CONSTANT= COEFFICIENT= 1.1000 cmsel.000000 COEFFICIENT= 2.1000.a.000000 COEFFICIENT= -1.
NASTRAN Connections: RBE3 • Added for NASTRAN users who wanted their RBE3 • The motion of the master is the average of the motion of the slaves • RBE3. Distributes forces and moments DX R13: 02/17/2011 33 . Slaves. • Does average (1/num_nodes) for translational • Does distance average for rotational (distn/total_dist) • Not rigid. DOF. Wtfact – – – – Master is your 6 DOF node DOF is what DOF’s you want to connect (usually all) Slaves is ALL or an array with node numbers (?!?!) Wtfact is a weighting factor you can apply to any slave node to “lesson” the effect of that node. Master.
000000 NODE= 1000 DIR= NODE= 146 DIR= NODE= 147 DIR= NODE= 150 DIR= NODE= 151 DIR= NO. UZ UZ UZ UZ UZ NO.2500000 COEFFICIENT=-0. COEFFICIENT= 1. UY UY UY UY UY NO.2500000 COEFFICIENT=-0.6250000 COEFFICIENT=-0.2909739 NODE= 146 DIR= UY COEFFICIENT= 0.2500000 4 HAS 5 TERMS.2500000 COEFFICIENT=-0.all LIST ALL SETS FOR CONSTRAINT EQUATIONS WITH ANY NODES SELECTED CONSTRAINT EQUATION CONSTANT= 0.3117577 DX R13: 02/17/2011 MAXIMUM CONSTRAINT EQUATION NUMBER= 6 34 .nn1 rbe3.000000 NODE= 1000 DIR= NODE= 146 DIR= NODE= 147 DIR= NODE= 150 DIR= NODE= 151 DIR= CONSTRAINT EQUATION CONSTANT= 0. COEFFICIENT= 1.3117577 NODE= 147 DIR= UX COEFFICIENT= 0.2909739 NODE= 151 DIR= UY COEFFICIENT=-0.000000 NODE= 1000 DIR= NODE= 146 DIR= NODE= 147 DIR= NODE= 150 DIR= NODE= 151 DIR= CONSTRAINT EQUATION CONSTANT= 0.5833333 COEFFICIENT=-0. COEFFICIENT= 1.2500000 COEFFICIENT=-0..5833333 CONSTRAINT EQUATION NO.2500000 3 HAS 5 TERMS.1000.3117577 NODE= 150 DIR= UX COEFFICIENT=-0.6250000 COEFFICIENT=-0.000000 COEFFICIENT=-0.all.000000 COEFFICIENT= 0.a.1000 cmsel. ROTX UZ UZ UZ UZ NO. ROTY UZ UZ UZ UZ 1 HAS 5 TERMS.2909739 NODE= 150 DIR= UY COEFFICIENT=-0.000000 COEFFICIENT=-0.6250000 COEFFICIENT= 0.2909739 NODE= 147 DIR= UY COEFFICIENT= 0.2500000 2 HAS 5 TERMS.5833333 COEFFICIENT= 0.000000 NODE= 1000 DIR= NODE= 146 DIR= NODE= 147 DIR= NODE= 150 DIR= NODE= 151 DIR= CONSTRAINT EQUATION CONSTANT= 0.000000 COEFFICIENT=-0.2500000 COEFFICIENT=-0.s.000000 NODE= 1000 DIR= NODE= 146 DIR= NODE= 147 DIR= NODE= 150 DIR= NODE= 151 DIR= CONSTRAINT EQUATION CONSTANT= 0. 6 HAS 9 TERMS.000000 NODE= 1000 DIR= ROTZ COEFFICIENT= 1. COEFFICIENT= 1.2500000 COEFFICIENT=-0.5833333 COEFFICIENT= 0. UX UX UX UX UX NO. CONSTANT= 0.3117577 NODE= 151 DIR= UX COEFFICIENT= 0.2500000 COEFFICIENT=-0..2500000 COEFFICIENT=-0.RBE3 Example • Connect a beam to 4 nodes nsel.6250000 5 HAS 5 TERMS. COEFFICIENT= 1.2500000 COEFFICIENT=-0.000000 COEFFICIENT=-0.000000 NODE= 146 DIR= UX COEFFICIENT=-0.
NINC. NEQN2. INC.CE Utility Commands • CELIST. NEQN1. Nsel – Deletes CE’s – Nsel is ANY or ALL • CESGEN. NSET1. ITIME. NSET2. NINC – Generates CE’s from a previous set – Increments node numbers – (used before automatic meshing…) DX R13: 02/17/2011 35 . NEQN2. NEQN1. Option – Lists the CE’s – Option is: • • • • ANY – list if any of the nodes in the CE are selected ALL – list of all of the nodes in the CE are selected INTE – List internal CE’s created as MPC’s (solu only) CONV – conert internal to external (solu only) • CEDELE. NINC.
Internal CE’s: MPC’s DX R13: 02/17/2011 36 .
Bonded Contact • Use with CONTA171/172/173/174/175/176/177 • Advantages – – – – – No elimination of DOF’s Works with large deflection Automatically generates equations at solve Does force distribution based on shape functions. more accurate Uses less memory than CE’s • Does Rigid or Force Distributed • Very detailed info in – Mechanical APDL // Contact Technology Guide // 9. Multipoint Constraints and Assemblies DX R13: 02/17/2011 37 .
all that make sense – 1 is no rotational – 2 is all 6 DOF’s • Handles connecting Beams/Shells/Solids to each other DX R13: 02/17/2011 38 .Just Like any Contact Definition • First. initial contact (6) – So much more flexible then CE’s • Use KEYOPT(4) to control what DOF’s to use – 0 is typical. you tell it your want MPC: KEYOPT(2) = 2 • Usually you also want bonded always: KEYOPT(12) = 5 – But works with no separation (4) or bonded.
12.s.5 ! Bonded cmsel.s.12.11 keyopt.nt1 type.11.12 esln.0 Esurf allsel DX R13: 02/17/2011 39 .175 r.170 et.11 esln.s.s.nb1 type.12.2.Example: Block on Block et.11 real.12.2 ! MPC keyopt.0 Esurf cmsel.
UY UY UY UY UY NO.000000 COEFFICIENT=-0. UZ UZ UZ UZ UZ NODES SELECTED 0.8333333E-01 COEFFICIENT=-0.5000000 0.CELIST.2500000 COEFFICIENT=-0.000000 COEFFICIENT=-0. UX UX UX UX UX NO. CONSTANT= COEFFICIENT= 1.8333333E-01 COEFFICIENT=-0.8333333E-01 COEFFICIENT=-0.2500000 COEFFICIENT=-0.000000 0.conv LIST ALL SETS FOR CONSTRAINT EQUATIONS WITH ANY CONSTRAINT EQUATION NODE= 1 DIR= NODE= 463 DIR= NODE= 467 DIR= NODE= 468 DIR= NODE= 464 DIR= CONSTRAINT EQUATION NODE= 1 DIR= NODE= 463 DIR= NODE= 467 DIR= NODE= 468 DIR= NODE= 464 DIR= CONSTRAINT EQUATION NODE= 1 DIR= NODE= 463 DIR= NODE= 467 DIR= NODE= 468 DIR= NODE= 464 DIR= NO.1666667 COEFFICIENT=-0..all.2500000 COEFFICIENT=-0.5000000 3 HAS 5 TERMS.. CONSTANT= COEFFICIENT= 1.000000 DX R13: 02/17/2011 40 .000000 COEFFICIENT=-0.000000 1 HAS 5 TERMS. CONSTANT= COEFFICIENT= 1.1666667 COEFFICIENT=-0.1666667 COEFFICIENT=-0.5000000 2 HAS 5 TERMS.
gears.Why Use CE’s? • For most cases where you are gluing meshes together. symmetry. use MPC’s • Use CE’s: – – – – – If you need to control the equations Joints. etc… You want to view the connections Where nodal rotations play a role You are working with DOF’s other than UXYZ/ROTXYZ DX R13: 02/17/2011 41 .
CE’s In Workbench DX R13: 02/17/2011 42 .
inp file to see what it does – But dominant method is with MPC’s DX R13: 02/17/2011 43 .Mostly Hidden from User • When you make MPC bonded contact. it does internal CE’s • Some commands make CE’s or CP’s – View the *.
Two Ways to Make Your Own • APDL Commands in Code Snippet – Use named selections to grab the nodes you need – You need to know how CE’s work and the APDL commands • Insert into your model tree – Considered Loads – CP’s only available in modal analysis • Between geometry – CE’s available between remote points and/or joints DX R13: 02/17/2011 44 .
make your remote points • Then RMB on environment object and select Constraint Equation • You get a Worksheet – Define your constant – Then add lines for each remote point in the equation DX R13: 02/17/2011 45 .CE’s in Workbench • First.
or that Workbench made • Click on the Solution Information Object • Set the FE Connection Visibility to show CE’s • Also shows beams and springs DX R13: 02/17/2011 46 .Displaying CE’s in Workbench • After you solve you can see an CE’s you made.
Thoughts DX R13: 02/17/2011 47 .
read the help! • If you need to do your own. run – Do a single CE.Understand CE’s • As time goes by. then move up to the whole model. the need to create your own CE’s goes down – That is good • But you need to understand what the program is doing – Under/over constraint can screw things up • As always. walk. DX R13: 02/17/2011 48 . crawl.
Soft Tooling.Thank You… • PADT Enjoys doing these webinars… • Please consider us as your partner • ANSYS Related – – – – Training. CO. Injection Molding • Help us by letting us Help you DX R13: 02/17/2011 49 . NM. UT. real world application • Rapid Prototyping – SLA. Mentoring Consulting Services Customization Sales (if in AZ. PolyJet. SLS. CNC. FDM. NV) • Stratasys 3D Printers and Systems • CUBE HVPC Systems • Product Development – High-end engineering with practical.
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