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A Constraint Equation Primer

:
How to Tie Degrees of Freedom Together

Eric Miller
Co-Owner Principal, Simulation and Business Technologies
04/26/2012 PADT, Inc.

DX R13: 02/17/2011 1

Agenda
• Note: This presentation is being recorded • • • • • Introductions Theory and Basic Info The CP and CE Commands Internal CE’s (MPC) CE’s in Workbench

DX R13: 02/17/2011 2

Introductions

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Upcoming Webinars
• Upcoming Webinars
– – – – Feb 9, 2012 - 12:00 MST Working Directly with Nodes and Elements in ANSYS Mechanical Feb 23, 2012 - 12:00 MST Assembly Meshing in ANSYS R14 CANCELED March 8, 2012 - 12:00 MST Intro to Workbench Framework Scripting - Controlling projects, materials, and solution execution with python March 22, 2012 - 12:00 MST Mastering the Remote Solver Manager (RSM) at R14

– – – – –

April 12, 2012 – 12:00 MST A POST26 Primer: Post Processing over Multiple Time/Load Steps in Mechanical APDL April 27, 2012 – 12:00 MST A Constraint Equation Primer: How to Tie Degrees of Freedom Together May 10, 2012 – 12:00 MST Optimization with ANSYS DesignXplorer at R14 May 24, 2012 – 12:00 MST Modeling Moisture Diffusion in ANSYS Summer Break: June & July (maybe August)

Primers are new:
– Oriented towards newer users or Workbench users who may not have experience with some of the fundamentals in the ANSYS Mechanical APDL solver

See upcoming and past webinars at:
– padtincevents.webex.com
• Click on ANSYS Webinar Series
DX R13: 02/17/2011 4

Training. Support – Product Development – Rapid Prototyping & Manufacturing • Learn More: www.PADTINC.About PADT • PADT is an Engineering Services Company – Mechanical Engineering – 18 Years of Growth and Happy customers – 70’ish Employees • 3 Business Areas – CAE Sales & Services • Consulting.com We Make Innovation Work DX R13: 02/17/2011 5 . Sales.

com DX R13: 02/17/2011 6 .900 – Compute Server 32 Cores / 256 GB RAM / 3 TB Disk $14.250 – Simulation Workstation (Intel) 12 Cores / 96 GB RAM / 3 TB Disk $11.750 – Simulation Workstation (AMD) 12 Cores / 64 GB RAM / 3 TB Disk $6.Cube HVPC Systems • Balance between speed and cost – Mini-Cluster 96 Cores / 512 GB RAM / 6 TB Disk Mobile Rack / UPS / Monitor / Keyboard $34.300 • www.CUBE-HVPC.

Search ANSYS help phrases and keywords. APDL Command argument hints while typing commands. Full syntax highlighting for ANSYS v12 Mechanical APDL. Full capability web browser built in allows for rich web experience and web searches. Instant help on any documented APDL command by pressing F1. Multiple tabs for the editor and html viewer. DX R13: 02/17/2011 7 . Auto-complete drop downs for APDL Commands.PeDAL – The APDL Editor • • • • • • • • Side-by-side editor and help viewer layout.

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Theory and Basic Info DX R13: 02/17/2011 9 .

[K] and (u) change. But (u) is still a DOF • Constraint equations are equations that tie the value of one DOF to the value of one or more DOF’s • Added into set of linear equations before solve • We will call them CE’s most of the time DX R13: 02/17/2011 10 . – You are solving for (F) and (u) – The deflections are called the Degrees of Freedom or DOF • Generalized to solve many types of physics. the meaning of (F).What is a Constraint Equation • Remember you are solving a series of linear equations: • Structural: (F) = [K](u) – Every node has a force (F) in each direction and a deflection (u).

created at runtime in the matrix DX R13: 02/17/2011 11 .There are Really 3 Types • Constraint Equations (CE) – Equations fed to the solver that describe relations between DOF’s – (what we will mostly talk about) • Couples (CP) – All DOF’s are equal • Multipoint Constraint (MPC) – Actually internal MPC – No equations are written by the users.

Defined In Terms of a Sum • Constant = 𝑁 𝐼=1(𝑐𝑜𝑒𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝐼 ∗ 𝑈 𝐼 ) – N = number of terms in the equation – U(I) = the DOF solution for term I • You write equations that relate one or more DOF in linear way: – After a solve. the sum of the user defined coefficients times their deflection equals some constant DX R13: 02/17/2011 12 .

– 𝑅𝑂𝑇𝑍2 = 𝑈𝑌3−𝑈𝑌1 10 – 0 = UY3 – UY1 – 10*ROTZ2 DX R13: 02/17/2011 13 . – So if it was one node.Example: Beam to Plane Stress Elements • (from MAPDL help) • If you have a beam attached to a block. the ROTZ DOF is free. one up and one down. we know for small deflections and a rigid connection. that ROTZ in radians is equal to the distance from the connection to the corner nodes times the rotation in radians. but because there are two sharing the deflection. and it can spin like a hinge • So. it is 10 and the coefficients on the UY direction are 1 and -1. it would be a multiplier of 5.

0 = Uhoop129 + Uhoop363 0.0 = Uradial129 + Uradial363 DX R13: 02/17/2011 14 .0 = Uaxial129 + Uaxial363 0. • The DOF solution at the boundary of the repeatable chunk are identical • Enforced with CE’s – In a cylindrical coordinate system – Uaxial129 = -1*Uaxial363 Uhoop129 = -1*Uhoop363 Uradial129 = -1*Uradial363 – 0.Example: Cyclic Symmetry • Assumption when a disk shape is made up of a repeated chunk of geometry.

All Sorts of Uses • There are many situations where you want to relate DOF’s: – Coupling: Setting one DOF equal to Another – Cyclic Symmetry: forcing cyclic (and anti-cyclic) behavior at the repeatable boundary – Contact: contacts are CE’s that turn on and off based on proximity – Joints: Constrain some DOF’s and leave other free • Pin type stuff that NASTRAN users do all the time – – – – Gears and linkages: relate rotational DOF’s or rotation to displacment Connect mesh regions with more DOF’s to regions with less Connect Dissimilar Meshes Represent behavior of rigid elements DX R13: 02/17/2011 15 .

master DOF. or couples. DX R13: 02/17/2011 16 .DOF Elimination • One of the DOF’s in the equation needs to be “set free” and solved for: eliminated from the equation • It can not have any DOF value imposed on it with a displacement.

or spherical coordinate system – Very important if you are using Mechanical. radial. • Critical for cyclic symmetry DX R13: 02/17/2011 17 .Coordinate Systems • The DOF’s on a node are defined in that nodes coordinate system – Each node in an ANSYS model has a unique rotation defined relative to the global coordinate system • Make sure that when you define a CP or CE that the nodes are all rotated in the same Cartesian. you may not know what coordinate system nodes are in.

Creation • MAPDL – Several commands to define by hand – you enter the equation – More commands to automatically generate between specified nodes – Automatically created as part of contacts • Mechanical – – – – Created automatically with contacts Created automatically with remote points Created automatically as part of repeatable boundary Defined by hand between points DX R13: 02/17/2011 18 .

Viewing • Using the /PBC.ce.1 command turn on CE’s • Any plots show the CE’s • Little arrows show DOF at each node – Way to check the nodal rotation • Lines connect all the DOF’s in a CE • Unselected nodes are not shown • If Mechanical is making CE’s. DX R13: 02/17/2011 19 . put a CE plot into your snippets to check them.

The CP and CE Commands DX R13: 02/17/2011 20 .

modify it. delete it. add to it • All Holds true for CP’s as well DX R13: 02/17/2011 21 .Some Background • Most CE related commands start with CE • Each CE in a model has a unique number – You define the number when you create the CE – You refer to the CE number when you want to look at it.

TE2. TE3. DX R13: 02/17/2011 22 .Couples • • • • • A constraint equation. AY. NODE1. NODE10. NODE9. NODE6. . NODE11. NODE13. UY. or VZ (velocities). or UZ (displacements). NODE7. CURR (current). NODE14. TBOT. NODE5. NODE2. NSET. NODE15. NODE12. or ROTZ (rotations) (in radians). NODE3. or AZ (vector magnetic potentials). Lab. NODE8. VY. EMF (electromotive force drop). Explicit analysis labels: UX. NODE17 – Every node in the list will have the same value for whatever DOF you specify in Lab – Repeat with same NSET to add even more nodes – Supports picking (NODE1= p) and components – Use –NODEx to remove a node from the set • Valid Lab: – – – – – – – Structural labels: UX. UY. AX. Thermal labels: TEMP. HDSP (hydrostatic pressure). ROTY. . but not treated as one DOF1 = DOF2 Can be a CE: 0 = DOF1 – DOF2 But more efficient to substitute DOF2 every place DOF1 was used Command: – CP. NODE4. Magnetic labels: MAG (scalar magnetic potential). or UZ (displacements). TTOP (temperature). . NODE16.. Electric labels: VOLT (voltage). ROTX. CURR (current). VX. Fluid labels: PRES (pressure). Diffusion label: CONC (concentration).

Lab3. Lab1. NINC DX R13: 02/17/2011 23 . NSETF. INC. NSET. ITIME. NODE1. NSET1. NSET2. Lab5 – Makes copies of an existing couple set (NSETF) using 1 or more new DOF labels CPLIST. only delete if all nodes are selected • CPINTF.Couple Related Commands • CPDELE. NINC – – Like CP but uses node range to specify nodes Makes ITIME copies of existing CP sets. Lab4. NINC. incrementing the nodes by INC CPSGEN. Lab. Nsel – Lists out coupled sets – Use this in a Mechanical APDL snippet to set what CP’s were made by workbench • • CPNGEN. NSET2. NSET2. NSET1. NSET1. NODE2. NINC. TOLER – Puts all the nodes below a certain distance (Toler) from each other in a CP set with DOF = LAB – Best used for coincident. or very close to coincident nodes • • CPLGEN. Lab2. Lab. Nsel – Delete a CP set – If Nsel = ALL.

will induce moments.Couple Issues • Only the first DOF value in the set is used in the matrix. it is HIGH. • A DOF should never appear in more than one CP • The set number in the CP command can be: – – – – n: the set number HIGH: use the highest number currently defined NEXT: use the highest number + 1 (new) NOTE: The default is not NEXT!. DX R13: 02/17/2011 24 . or nodes who do not lie on the DOF that is coupled. all others are replaced by it – Called the prime DOF – Don’t put displacements (D) on DOF’s that are coupled out • CP’s on Non coincident nodes.

NODE1.1. and the multiplier. 1.Making CE’s: The CE Command • CE. Lab1. Lab3.C1 = the node. our early example: – 𝑅𝑂𝑇𝑍2 = 𝑈𝑌3−𝑈𝑌1 10 −−→ 0 = UY3 – UY1 – 10*ROTZ2 – CE.Labn. NODE2. 2. HIGH. • So. CONST. the DOF.uy. C1.10 DX R13: 02/17/2011 25 . C3 – NEQN can be: n. 0. C2. NEQN. next. 3.uy. NODE3.rotz.-1. Lab2. or NEXT (HIGH is default!) – CONST = the constant for the equation – NODEn.

they are almost always made for you DX R13: 02/17/2011 26 .Making CE’s: The CE Command • Most hand CE’s are pretty simple – – – – – Often an anti-symmetry Connecting a remote mass point to your model Doing your own cyclicsymmetry constraints Connecting rotation DOF’s to axial based on distances Defining a joint or “gear” • Use APDL macro to generate • Or use Excel for fancy ones (make sure your math is right) • These days.

check – Do your won CE’s if that is true DX R13: 02/17/2011 27 . Lowname. Highname. Nsector.Making Cyclic Symmetry Boundaries • Back in “the day” you had to make your own CE’s for this… – Kids today have it too easy • CECYC. HIndex. Kmove. Kpairs – – – – Lowname. Highname are the component names of each side of your “wedge” Nsector is the number of times the sector gets repeated Hindex is the harmonic index… no time to explain Tolerance specifies how close in the axial/radial/tangential+sector angle nodes need to be to be coupled – Kmove = 1 says you can move the high nodes to match the low (don’t use!) – Kpairs = 1 prints out a list of pairs when it executes • It rotates the nodes into CSYS = 1 !!!!!!!!!! – This may not be the same axis as your model. Tolerance.

DOF3. DOF2.Join Interfaces with CEINTF • Use this to tie two meshes together at an interface • Uses weighted averages of distance to smear the constraint equations • Connects the nodes on the first surface to all the nodes on the surface elements on the second surface • CEINTF. DOF4. MoveTol – Toler: fraction of element size. find all nodes within that fraction from element – DOF1 – DOF6: DOF’s to write CE’s for – MoveTo1: if not 0. DOF6. Value is fraction of element size • Hints – – – – Use components to set up Nodes should be smaller and denser of the two sides Don’t use to attach 6DOF elements to 3DOF elements Use CPEINTF if the nodes line up DX R13: 02/17/2011 28 . TOLER. DOF5. move the nodes onto the surface of the elements if they don’t sit exactly on. DOF1.

1.2 nslv.9 vmesh.1.0 vsel.ce.z /triad.ux.-2 et..z.s.all vsel.-1.loc.-1.s.lbot.6..1 nslv.r.1 /view.2 blc4..4.1.0 esln.1.1 nsel.1.1 eplot DX R13: 02/17/2011 29 .r.185 esize.5.1 /vup.2.2 vatt..1 eplot ceintf.CEINTF Example: Joining Two Blocks finish /clear /prep7 blc4.uz nsle.2.-2.s.z.1 nsel.s.1 /number.a /pbc.uy.s allsel /pnum.-3.loc..mat.

1666667 • Connects node 2 to all the corner nodes of the element it sits on. • Coefficients are distance to node 2 divided by sum of all the distances. -1.000000 0. DX R13: 02/17/2011 30 .000000 NODE= 2 DIR= NODE= 141 DIR= NODE= 145 DIR= NODE= 146 DIR= NODE= 142 DIR= NO.2500000 0.5000000 0.Looking at one CE in our CEITNF CONSTRAINT EQUATION CONSTANT= 0. UX UX UX UX UX 1 HAS COEFFICIENT= COEFFICIENT= COEFFICIENT= COEFFICIENT= COEFFICIENT= 5 TERMS.8333333E-01 0.

• Use ALL to slave all selected nodes – LDOF-LDOF5 are the degrees of freedom to fix • ALL. just use a CP • No CE number.Create Rigid Regions CERIG • Make a bunch of nodes all have the same DOF response for connecting 6DOF nodes • CERIG. RXYZ. it assigns the next number • Mostly replaced by contact elements DX R13: 02/17/2011 31 .ROTZ • Assumes that the master node is a 6DOF node – Otherwise. Ldof4. SLAVE. All nodes will move like MASTE – SLAVE is the node(s) that will be linked to MASTE. Ldof5 – MASTE is the node that drives the motion. UX. MASTE.UZ.ROTX. Ldof2. Ldof3.ROTY. UXYZ.UY. Ldof.

000000 COEFFICIENT= -3. CONSTANT= COEFFICIENT= 1..000000 NODE= 113 DIR= UZ NODE= 1000 DIR= UZ NODE= 1000 DIR= ROTX NODE= 1000 DIR= ROTY 1 HAS 4 TERMS.000000 COEFFICIENT= 2.s.1000..CERIG Example nsel.all.nb1 cerig. 0.uz CONSTRAINT EQUATION NO.000000 DX R13: 02/17/2011 32 .a.000000 COEFFICIENT= -1.1000 cmsel.

• Does average (1/num_nodes) for translational • Does distance average for rotational (distn/total_dist) • Not rigid. Distributes forces and moments DX R13: 02/17/2011 33 . Wtfact – – – – Master is your 6 DOF node DOF is what DOF’s you want to connect (usually all) Slaves is ALL or an array with node numbers (?!?!) Wtfact is a weighting factor you can apply to any slave node to “lesson” the effect of that node. DOF.NASTRAN Connections: RBE3 • Added for NASTRAN users who wanted their RBE3 • The motion of the master is the average of the motion of the slaves • RBE3. Master. Slaves.

s.2909739 NODE= 150 DIR= UY COEFFICIENT=-0.2500000 COEFFICIENT=-0.000000 NODE= 1000 DIR= NODE= 146 DIR= NODE= 147 DIR= NODE= 150 DIR= NODE= 151 DIR= CONSTRAINT EQUATION CONSTANT= 0.5833333 COEFFICIENT= 0.2500000 COEFFICIENT=-0.000000 COEFFICIENT=-0. COEFFICIENT= 1.3117577 NODE= 150 DIR= UX COEFFICIENT=-0.000000 COEFFICIENT=-0.3117577 NODE= 151 DIR= UX COEFFICIENT= 0.6250000 5 HAS 5 TERMS.5833333 CONSTRAINT EQUATION NO.6250000 COEFFICIENT=-0.all. COEFFICIENT= 1.2909739 NODE= 151 DIR= UY COEFFICIENT=-0.3117577 NODE= 147 DIR= UX COEFFICIENT= 0. COEFFICIENT= 1.000000 NODE= 1000 DIR= NODE= 146 DIR= NODE= 147 DIR= NODE= 150 DIR= NODE= 151 DIR= CONSTRAINT EQUATION CONSTANT= 0.000000 NODE= 1000 DIR= NODE= 146 DIR= NODE= 147 DIR= NODE= 150 DIR= NODE= 151 DIR= CONSTRAINT EQUATION CONSTANT= 0. COEFFICIENT= 1.000000 COEFFICIENT=-0.5833333 COEFFICIENT= 0.5833333 COEFFICIENT=-0.2909739 NODE= 147 DIR= UY COEFFICIENT= 0.2500000 COEFFICIENT=-0.2909739 NODE= 146 DIR= UY COEFFICIENT= 0.2500000 COEFFICIENT=-0. UZ UZ UZ UZ UZ NO.RBE3 Example • Connect a beam to 4 nodes nsel.6250000 COEFFICIENT=-0. ROTX UZ UZ UZ UZ NO.1000 cmsel.2500000 COEFFICIENT=-0.3117577 DX R13: 02/17/2011 MAXIMUM CONSTRAINT EQUATION NUMBER= 6 34 .2500000 COEFFICIENT=-0.2500000 4 HAS 5 TERMS.2500000 COEFFICIENT=-0.2500000 2 HAS 5 TERMS. ROTY UZ UZ UZ UZ 1 HAS 5 TERMS.2500000 COEFFICIENT=-0.000000 COEFFICIENT=-0..2500000 3 HAS 5 TERMS.000000 NODE= 146 DIR= UX COEFFICIENT=-0. UX UX UX UX UX NO.000000 NODE= 1000 DIR= NODE= 146 DIR= NODE= 147 DIR= NODE= 150 DIR= NODE= 151 DIR= CONSTRAINT EQUATION CONSTANT= 0. 6 HAS 9 TERMS.a.nn1 rbe3.2500000 COEFFICIENT=-0. UY UY UY UY UY NO..all LIST ALL SETS FOR CONSTRAINT EQUATIONS WITH ANY NODES SELECTED CONSTRAINT EQUATION CONSTANT= 0.000000 NODE= 1000 DIR= NODE= 146 DIR= NODE= 147 DIR= NODE= 150 DIR= NODE= 151 DIR= NO.000000 NODE= 1000 DIR= ROTZ COEFFICIENT= 1.6250000 COEFFICIENT= 0.000000 COEFFICIENT= 0. COEFFICIENT= 1.1000. CONSTANT= 0.

NINC – Generates CE’s from a previous set – Increments node numbers – (used before automatic meshing…) DX R13: 02/17/2011 35 . NSET2. INC. Option – Lists the CE’s – Option is: • • • • ANY – list if any of the nodes in the CE are selected ALL – list of all of the nodes in the CE are selected INTE – List internal CE’s created as MPC’s (solu only) CONV – conert internal to external (solu only) • CEDELE.CE Utility Commands • CELIST. NSET1. NINC. NINC. NEQN1. NEQN2. NEQN2. NEQN1. Nsel – Deletes CE’s – Nsel is ANY or ALL • CESGEN. ITIME.

Internal CE’s: MPC’s DX R13: 02/17/2011 36 .

more accurate Uses less memory than CE’s • Does Rigid or Force Distributed • Very detailed info in – Mechanical APDL // Contact Technology Guide // 9. Multipoint Constraints and Assemblies DX R13: 02/17/2011 37 .Bonded Contact • Use with CONTA171/172/173/174/175/176/177 • Advantages – – – – – No elimination of DOF’s Works with large deflection Automatically generates equations at solve Does force distribution based on shape functions.

Just Like any Contact Definition • First. all that make sense – 1 is no rotational – 2 is all 6 DOF’s • Handles connecting Beams/Shells/Solids to each other DX R13: 02/17/2011 38 . you tell it your want MPC: KEYOPT(2) = 2 • Usually you also want bonded always: KEYOPT(12) = 5 – But works with no separation (4) or bonded. initial contact (6) – So much more flexible then CE’s • Use KEYOPT(4) to control what DOF’s to use – 0 is typical.

0 Esurf allsel DX R13: 02/17/2011 39 .175 r.11 real.170 et.s.s.nt1 type.2.11.12.12.12 esln.11 esln.s.Example: Block on Block et.12.2 ! MPC keyopt.nb1 type.5 ! Bonded cmsel.0 Esurf cmsel.s.12.11 keyopt.

8333333E-01 COEFFICIENT=-0. UZ UZ UZ UZ UZ NODES SELECTED 0. CONSTANT= COEFFICIENT= 1.5000000 0.000000 COEFFICIENT=-0.000000 DX R13: 02/17/2011 40 .CELIST.2500000 COEFFICIENT=-0.8333333E-01 COEFFICIENT=-0.5000000 3 HAS 5 TERMS.all. CONSTANT= COEFFICIENT= 1.2500000 COEFFICIENT=-0.000000 COEFFICIENT=-0.000000 0.1666667 COEFFICIENT=-0.conv LIST ALL SETS FOR CONSTRAINT EQUATIONS WITH ANY CONSTRAINT EQUATION NODE= 1 DIR= NODE= 463 DIR= NODE= 467 DIR= NODE= 468 DIR= NODE= 464 DIR= CONSTRAINT EQUATION NODE= 1 DIR= NODE= 463 DIR= NODE= 467 DIR= NODE= 468 DIR= NODE= 464 DIR= CONSTRAINT EQUATION NODE= 1 DIR= NODE= 463 DIR= NODE= 467 DIR= NODE= 468 DIR= NODE= 464 DIR= NO.000000 1 HAS 5 TERMS. CONSTANT= COEFFICIENT= 1. UX UX UX UX UX NO. UY UY UY UY UY NO.1666667 COEFFICIENT=-0..1666667 COEFFICIENT=-0.8333333E-01 COEFFICIENT=-0.2500000 COEFFICIENT=-0..5000000 2 HAS 5 TERMS.000000 COEFFICIENT=-0.

Why Use CE’s? • For most cases where you are gluing meshes together. symmetry. use MPC’s • Use CE’s: – – – – – If you need to control the equations Joints. etc… You want to view the connections Where nodal rotations play a role You are working with DOF’s other than UXYZ/ROTXYZ DX R13: 02/17/2011 41 . gears.

CE’s In Workbench DX R13: 02/17/2011 42 .

inp file to see what it does – But dominant method is with MPC’s DX R13: 02/17/2011 43 .Mostly Hidden from User • When you make MPC bonded contact. it does internal CE’s • Some commands make CE’s or CP’s – View the *.

Two Ways to Make Your Own • APDL Commands in Code Snippet – Use named selections to grab the nodes you need – You need to know how CE’s work and the APDL commands • Insert into your model tree – Considered Loads – CP’s only available in modal analysis • Between geometry – CE’s available between remote points and/or joints DX R13: 02/17/2011 44 .

CE’s in Workbench • First. make your remote points • Then RMB on environment object and select Constraint Equation • You get a Worksheet – Define your constant – Then add lines for each remote point in the equation DX R13: 02/17/2011 45 .

or that Workbench made • Click on the Solution Information Object • Set the FE Connection Visibility to show CE’s • Also shows beams and springs DX R13: 02/17/2011 46 .Displaying CE’s in Workbench • After you solve you can see an CE’s you made.

Thoughts DX R13: 02/17/2011 47 .

then move up to the whole model. walk.Understand CE’s • As time goes by. DX R13: 02/17/2011 48 . read the help! • If you need to do your own. run – Do a single CE. the need to create your own CE’s goes down – That is good • But you need to understand what the program is doing – Under/over constraint can screw things up • As always. crawl.

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