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CHAPTER-1

INTRODUCTION

Technology is the word coined for the practical application of scientific knowledge in the industry. The advancement in technology cannot be justified unless it is used for leveraging the user’s purpose. Technology, is today, imbibed for accomplishment of several tasks of varied complexity, in almost all walks of life. The society as a whole is exquisitely dependent on science and technology. Technology has played a very significant role in improving the quality of life. One way through which this is done is by automating several tasks using complex logic to simplify the work.

1.1 Introduction To The Project
In this project we are going to design a system which forms the prototype to sense the obstacle and alerts when an obstacle is detected and automatically changes its direction. This forms the prototype to alert the blind person. In this system, a stick is given to blind people. An obstacle sensor (ultrasonic) is placed in particular direction and according to the surroundings being sensed voice will be announced to change the direction like right or left. Like that obstacles in three directions will be known. This makes easy to blind people. So according to the announcements he must change the direction of stick and he can go easily. A speaker will be given to the blind people to hear the voice. In this system we have an obstacle sensor. Whenever the sensor observes an obstacle the announcement will be made using speaker to the blind person. This will be done with the help of voice processing section which stores and playbacks the voice. AT8051 micro controller is used to control the sections. Sensors output will be given to controller. According to the program written in the controller it will give instructions to the voice IC. Initially voice IC will be recorded with two different voice command and they will be play back with
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respect to micro controller instructions. In this project, ultrasonic sensor is also used to detect the distance at which the obstacle. An LCD is interfaced to a microcontroller (AT8051). The distance that is detected by the sensor will be displayed in the LCD.

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CHAPTER -2
EMBEDED SYSTEMS 2.1 Introduction
An embedded system is a specialized computer system that is housed in a large system in order to carry out certain specific applications. Some embedded systems include operating systems and most are so specialized such that the entire logic can be implemented as a single program.

2.2 Application of Embedded System
        Industrial machines Automobiles Medical equipment Cameras Household appliances Airplanes Vending machines Toys

2.3 Sensor
A sensor (also called detector) is a converter that measures a physical quantity and converts it into a signal which can be read by an observer or by an (today mostly electronic) instrument.

2.3.1 Different kinds of sensor
    Acoustic, sound, vibration Automotive, transportation Chemical Electric current, electric potential, magnetic, radio Environment, weather, moisture, humidity

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2.4 Ultrasonic sensor
It is also known as transrecevier when they both send and receive ,but More generally called as transducers)works on a priniciple similar to radar or sonar which evaluate attributes of a target by interpreting echoes.ultrasonic sensor generate high frequencysound waves and evaluate echo which is received back by sensor and it will calculate the time interval between sending the signal and receiving the echo to determine the distance to an object.

FIG 2.4 ULTRASONIC SENSOR

This technology can be used for measuring wind speed and direction (anemometer), tank or channel level, and speed through air or water. For measuring speed or direction a device uses multiple detectors and calculates the speed from the relative distances to particulates in the air or water

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CHAPTER-3
MICROCONTROLLER 3.1 Introduction
A microcontroller is a computer on a chip. It is an integrated chip that is usually a part of an embedded system. It is a microprocessor that is meant to be more self contained independent and yet function as a tiny, dedicated computer. It lays emphasis on high integration, low power consumption, self sufficiency and cost effectiveness. It is typically designed using the CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) technology and has the following features:a central processing unit        A central processing unit discrete input and output pins serial input/output ports(UARTs) peripherals such as timers, counters RAM,ROM,EPROM,Flash Memory(EEPROM) Clock generator May include analog to digital converters

Memory (RAM/ROM)

Micro controller

I/O ports

Peripherals

Fig: 3.1 MICROCONTROLLER
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3.2 Advantages
Design with microcontrollers has the following advantages:       It has low overall system cost as all the peripherals are integrated onto a single chip. The product size is small, therefore the product is handy. System design and troubleshooting is simple. Since the peripherals are integrated on the same chip, the system is reliable. Additional RAM and ROM can be easily interfaced as and when required. Microcontrollers with on-chip ROM provides a software security feature.

3.3 ATMEL 89S52
ATMEL 89C51 is a low power, high performance CMOS 8 bit microcomputer with 4K bytes of flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM).The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high density, nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with industry standard MCS51 instruction set. It provides highly flexible and cost effective solution to many embedded control applications.

3.4 Features of ATMEL 89S52
          It has 4K bytes of in-system reprogrammable flash memory (1000

write/erase cycles). Fully static operation: 0-24 MHz Three level program memory lock 128 bytes internal RAM 32 programmable I/O lines(4 ports) Two 16 bit timers/counters Six interrupt sources Programmable serial channel Low power idle and Power down modes 8 bit CPU optimized for controlled applications
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 

64 K of external program memory Full Duplex UART

3.5 Pin description of AT89S52

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VCC (PIN 40)
It will take +5v DC Supply voltage.

GND (PIN 20)
Ground

Port 0 (PIN 32-39)
Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain bidirectional I/O port. As an output port, each pin can sink eight TTL inputs. When 1s are written to port 0 pins, the pins can be used as high-impedance inputs. Port 0 can also be configured to be the multiplexed low-order address/data bus during accesses to external program and data memory. In this mode, P0 has internal pull-ups.External pull-ups are required during program verification.

Port 1 (PIN 1-8)
Port 1 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 1 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins, they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 1 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups.

Port 2 (PIN 21-28)
Port 2 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 2 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 2 pins, they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 2 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. Port 2 emits the high-order address byte during fetches from external program memory and during accesses to external data memory that use16-bit

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Port 3 (PIN 10-17)
Port 3 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 3 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins, they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 3 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the pull-ups.

RST (PIN 9)
Reset input. A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the device. This pin drives high for 98 oscillator periods after the Watchdog times out. The DISRTO bit in SFR AUXR (address 8EH) can be used to disable this feature. In the default state of bit DISRTO, the RESET HIGH out feature is enabled.

ALE/PROG (PIN 30)
Address Latch Enable (ALE) is an output pulse for latching the low byte of the address during accesses to external memory. This pin is also the program pulse input (PROG) during Flash programming. In normal operation, ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator frequency and may be used for external timing or clocking purposes. With the bit set, ALE is active only during a MOVX or MOVC instruction. Otherwise, the pin is weakly pulled high.

PSEN (PIN 29)
Program Store Enable (PSEN) is the read strobe to external program memory. When the AT89S52 is executing code from external program memory, PSEN is activated twice each machine cycle..

EA/VPP (PIN 31)
External Access Enable. EA must be strapped to GND in order to enable the device to fetch code from external program memory locations starting at 0000H up to FFFFH. Note, however, that if lock bit 1 is programmed, EA will be
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internally latched on reset. EA should be strapped to VCC for internal program executions..

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CHAPTER-4
DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION 4.1 Design and Implementation
  Power supply circuit supplies +5V DC to all the passive components like resistors, capacitors, IC and Microcontroller. Here voltage regulator is used to convert 12v DC to 5v DC.

4.2 Block Diagram

POWER SUPPLY SPEAKER

OBSTACLE SENSOR

MICRO CONTROLLER LCD

VOICE PROCESSOR

Fig : 4.2 BLOCK DIAGRAM

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4.3 : power supply(12V,1.3A)
It is a device that supplies electric power to an electrical load. The term is most Commonly applied to electric power converters that convert one form of electrical energy to another , though it may also refer to devices that convert another form of energy (mechanical ,chemical, solar) to electrical energy. A regulated power supply is one that controls the output voltage or current to a specific value.

FIG: 4.3 POWERSUPPLY

4.4 obstacle sensor (GH311 module)
Obstacle sensor is used to detect the objects (obstacle) placed at a certain distance. In this project sensor sense the object (obstacle) using ultrasonic sensor depending upon range the sensor can detect up to 2m distance.

FIG:4.4 ULTRASONIC SENSOR

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4.5: speaker
A loudspeaker (or "speaker") is an electro acoustic transducer that produces sound in response to an electrical audio signal input. Non-electrical loudspeakers were developed accessories to telephone systems

FIG: 4.5 SPEAKER

4.6: voice processor (APR9600 MODULE)
The external device may be a controller, which is a device that provides the human playable interface and may or may not produce sounds of its own, or a sequencer, which is computer Hardware or software designed to play electronic musical instruments. Connections between sounds modules, controllers, and sequencers are generally made with MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface), which is a standardized protocol designed for this purpose.

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FIG: 4.6 VOICE PROCESSOR

4.7: LCD (16 bit LCD) It is a flat panel display, electronic visual display, or video display that uses the light modulating properties of liquid crystals. Liquid crystals do not emit light directly. LCDs are used in a wide range of applications including computer monitors, televisions, instrument panels, aircraft cockpit displays, and signage. They are common in consumer devices such as video players, gaming

FIG : 4.7 LCD DISPLAY

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4.8: Regulator(7805)
     

A device that maintains a designated characteristic, as in: Battery regulator Pressure regulator Diving regulator Voltage regulator Regulator (economics), an agency established by central government for the control of or intervention in the operation of markets

FIG: 4.8 REGULATOR

4.9:A crystal oscillator
Is an electronic oscillator circuit that uses the mechanical resonance of a vibrating crystal of piezoelectric material to create an electrical signal with a very precise frequency. This frequency is commonly used to keep track of time(as in quartz wristwatches), to provide a stable clock signal for digital integrated circuits, and to stabilize frequencies.

FIG: 4.9 CRYSTALOSCILLATOR
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4.10: The Intel MCS-5)
CISC instruction set ,single chip microcontroller (µC) series which was developed by Intel in 1980 for use in embedded systems. Intel's original versions were popular in the 1980s and early 1990s and enhanced binary

compatible derivatives remain popular today.

Fig: 4.10 MICROCONTROLLER Intel's original MCS-51 family was developed using NMOS technology, but later versions, identified by a letter C in their name (e.g., 80C51) used CMOS technology and consume less power than their NMOS predecessors. This made them more suitable for battery-powered devices .Some derivatives integrate a digital signal processor (DSP).

4.11: light-emitting diode (LED)
Is a semiconductor light source.LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices and are increasingly used for other lighting. Appearing as practical electronic components in 1962, early LEDs emitted low-intensity red light, but modern versions are available across

the visible, ultraviolet,and infrared wavelengths, with very high brightness .

FIG: 4.11 LED
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4.12 : capacitors
A capacitor or condenser is a passive electronic component consisting of a pair of conductors separated by a dielectric. When a voltage potential difference exists between the conductors, an electric field is present in the dielectric. This field stores energy and produces a mechanical force between the plates. The effect is greatest between wide, flat, parallel, narrowly separated conductors. Capacitors are widely used in electronic circuits to block the flow of direct current while allowing alternating current to pass, to filter out interference, to smooth the output of power supplies, and for many other purposes.

Fig: 4.12 CAPACITORS

4.13. Resistors

Fig 4.13: RESISTORS
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A resistor is a two-terminal electronic component that produces a voltage across its terminals that is proportional to the electric current through it in accordance with Ohm's law (V = IR) Resistors are elements of electrical networks and electronic circuits. The primary characteristics of a resistor are the resistance, the tolerance, maximum working voltage and the power rating. Other characteristics include temperature coefficient, noise, and inductance.

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CHAPTER-5
SOFTWARE USED 5.1 µVision3 software
The µVision3 IDE is a windows based software development platform that combines a robust editor, project manager, and integrated make facility. µVision3 integrates all tools including the C compiler, macro assembler, linker/locator, and HEX file generator. µVision3 helps expedite the development process of our embedded applications by providing the following:           Full-featured source code editor Device database for configuring the development tool setting Project manager for creating and maintaining our projects Integrated make facility for assembling, compiling, and linking our embedded applications Dialogs for all development tool settings True integrated source level Debugger with high-speed CPU and peripheral simulator Advanced GDI interface for software debugging in the target hardware and for connection to keil ULINK Flash programming utility for downloading the application program into Flash ROM Links to development tools manuals, device datasheets and user’s guides. In the Build Mode, we maintain the project files and generate the application. In the Debug Mode, we verify our program either with a powerful CPU and peripheral simulator or with the Keil ULINK USB-JTAG Adapter (or other AGDI drivers) that connect the debugger to the target system. The ULINK allows us also to download our application into Flash ROM of our target system.

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5.2 Features and benefits
Feature Benefit

The µVision3 Simulator is the Write and test the application code before only Debugger that completely production simulates all on-chip peripherals. Investigate hardware different is available. hardware

configurations to optimize the hardware design. Simulation capabilities may be Sophisticated systems can be accurately expanded using the Advanced simulated by adding our own peripheral Simulation Interface (AGSI). drivers.

The Code Coverage feature of the Safety-critical systems can be thoroughly µVision3 analysis execution. Simulator of our provides tested and validated. Execution analysis program’s reports can be viewed and printed for certification requirements.

The µVision3 Device Database Mistakes in tool settings are practically automatically configures the eliminated and tool configuration time is

development tools for the target minimized. micro controller. The µVision3 IDE integrates Quickly access development tools and additional third-party tools like third-party tools. All configuration details VCS, CASE, and FLASH/Device are saved in the µVision3 project. Programming.

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5.3 Software Development Life Cycle
When you use the Keil µVision3, the project development cycle is roughly the same as it is for any other software development project. 1. Create a project, select the target chip from the device database, and configure the tool settings. 2. Create source files in C or assembly. 3. Build our application with the project manager. 4. Correct errors in source files. 5. Test the linked application. The following block diagram illustrates the complete µVision3 software development cycle. Each component is described below.

5.4 Process To Run Keil Software

        

Create Project file and Select CPU Project Workspace-Books Create New Source Files Add Source Files to the Project Create Files Groups Set tool Options for Target Hardware Configure the CPU Start-up Code Build Project and Generate Application Program Code Create a HEX File for PROM Programming

5.5 Description: 5.5.1 Create Project file and Select CPU
To create a new project file, go to the µVision3 menu and select Project — New — µVision Project. The Create New Project dialog asks us for the new project file name. At this time navigate to the folder where our new project will reside. It's a good idea to use a separate folder for each project. Use the icon
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Create New Folder in this dialog to create a new empty folder. Select this folder and enter the file name for the new project, i.e. Project1. µVision3 creates a new project file with the name PROJECT1.UV2which contains a default target and file group name. We can see these names in the Project Workspace — Files.

5.5.2 Select Microcontroller from Device Database
When we create a new project µVision3 asks us to select a CPU for our project. The Select Device dialog box shows the µVision3 device database. Just select the microcontroller you use.

5.5.3 Tips and Tricks
The following section discusses advanced techniques we may use with the µVision3 Project Manager.  Start External Tools after Build Process shows how to execute programs after a successful build command which is useful for post-processing as required for symbol information by some emulators or programmers.  Specify a Separate Folder for Listing and Object Files lets us direct the object and listing files of your project to specific folders.  Use a CPU that is not in the µVision Device Database explains how to define new Devices that can be selected from the Device Database™.  Create a Library File gives us the tool setup that is required for creating library files.  File Extensions allows us to set the file extension for the various file types of a project.  Import Project Files from µVision Version 1 explains you how to import existing µVision Version 1 *.PRJ files.  Version and Serial Number Information allows you to view project specific tool version information.

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CHAPTER-6
PROJECT DESCRIPTION
The input unit comprises of an ultrasonic sensor in order to compute the distance to the point on the surface of any object and also to project a structured wave grid on the objects in the field of vision. The voice processor and control unit performs the necessary integration between the sensed data streams from the sensors, and the computation needed in order to relate distance to each grid point in the field of vision. Control unit also functions to adapt the sensors to any required depth of the field of vision. The input unit is wired or wirelessly linked via port to the controller unit. This link enables bi-directional flow of information.

6.1: Working Module
The kit is powered by 12v 1.3A battery.The 12v supply is converted to 5v using 7805regulator. This supply is given to microcontroller, ultrasonic sensor and voice module or playback module APR9600.The ultrasonic sensor GH311 module comprises of two sections transmitter and receiver. The transmitter rapidly transmits the waves and if any object (obstacle) obstructs the path of the wave, they get reflected. The receiver receives the reflected waves at a particular frequency. The pulse is received by a microcontroller. According to the program code the microcontroller enables the voice module and gives the output. The voice module is programmed with two playback voices . In this a voice IC is used to control the frequency of the voice. If the obstacle is detected in the front direction it instructs the blind person to take right and in case if there is any obstacle in this direction also it instructs the blind person to take left.In the due course sensor detects the distance of the obstacle and displays it on the LCD.

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6.2 : Pin Connections
1. Ultrasonic sensor connected to port pin 2.2(pin 24) 2. Voice module connected to port 1 (pin 1-8) 3 .Lcd connected to port pin 2.7 (pin 28) 4 .Crystal oscillator connected to XTAL1, XTAL2(pin 18-19)

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FIG :6.2 :schematics

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CHAPTER-7

7.1: ADVANTAGES:  It has small physical dimensions, allowing the user free

movement to carry from one place to other place, hence it is portable.   Low power consumption. Ultrasonic sensor can cover distance upto 20m ,hence distant objects can be detected 7.2: DISADVANTAGES:
 Due to the usage of ultrasonic sensor ,cost increases.  If sensors fail, total system won’t work.  It

detects

even

minute

obstacles,

for

example:

small

creatures(mosquito). 7.3: APPLICATION:

It is useful for obstacle detection.

7.4: LIMITATION:

The radiations produced by the sensors will harm the person and those radiations can be limited by varying the resistor values.

Single sensor cannot cover 360degrees .By placing two more sensor it is possible to cover entire 360degrees which increases complexity

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CHAPTER-8
Code Implementation
#include<reg51.h> sbit sensor=p3^0; sbit voice1=p1^0; sbit voice2=p1^1; unsigned char check=1; void delay (unsigned int n) { unsigned int j,k; for (j=0;j<n;j++) for (k=0;k<500;k++) } void main() { delay(50); while(1) { if(sensor==1) { if(check==1)

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{ check=0; voice1=0; delay(200); voice1=1; } else if (check==0) { check=1; voice2=0; delay(200); voice2=1; } else; while(sensor==1); delay(500); } else if(sensor==0) { voice1=1; voice2=1; } } }

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CONCLUSION: A multi system controller allows several electronic gadgets to be controlled by a single device. This enables automation in any environment that has several electronic devices. During the course of our project, we have developed a working model to demonstrate the functioning of a multi system controller using RF communication. The device developed is simple and controls three devices i.e. bulbs, fan and a remote controlled car. This device is capable of controlling devices that run on both ac and/or dc power supply. FUTURE SCOPE: With increased complexity, this device can be successfully used in any environment where automation is desired. If we increase the number of sensors to three we can detect the obstacles at an angle of 270degrees.with further automation we convert the distance displayed on the LCD to be played on the headset (speaker).

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APPENDIX
BIBLIOGRAPHY REFERENCE SITES: www.keil.com www.wisegeek/microcontroller.com www.wikipedia.com www.mytutorialcafe.com www.avrfreaks.com www.softpedia.com www.rfsolutions.co.uk www.freewebs.com www.tpub.com www.electronics4u.com www.ipic.co.jp www.electronics.howstuffworks.com www.consumer.phillips.com www.amazon.co.uk www.directron.com www.remotecontroltechnology.com www.zilog.com www.atmel.com

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