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NFPA 68-2002

Guide for Venting of Deflagrations Updated/Revised to:

NFPA 68-2007
Standard on Explosion Protection by Deflagration Venting

Two main directives and codes recognized for the use of explosion protection National Fire Protection Agency (NFPA) • NFPA is an international organization charged with creating and maintaining minimum standards and requirements from fire prevention. numbering over 300. and personnel protective equipment. building codes. ATEX • Atex is the European equivalent to NFPA except it is the law. not a guideline • Global companies may request compliance to Atex regardless of location .

installation and maintenance. location.NFPA 68 . and use of devices and systems that vent the combustion gases and pressure resulting from a deflagration within an enclosure. .2007 Edition Guide to Explosion Venting Applies to the design.

General Organization – Changes and focus NFPA 2007 Gases/Mists Dusts/Hybrid Mixtures Low Strength L/D < 2-3 High Strength Compact L/D < 5 Pipes and Ducts L/D > 5 Compact Enclosures L/D < 6.8 Pipes and Ducts L/D > 5 .

Summary of Major Changes • • • • Standard Hazard Analysis and Design Options Vessel L/D Determination Revised general correlations for dusts – – – – – – – Basic equation Initial pressure L/D Turbulence Panel inertia Partial volume Vent ducts • Inspection and Maintenance .

Additional Minor Changes • • • • • Dust collector volumes for sizing Kst Data Hydraulic diameter Fireball dimension FlamQuench building volume .

Company Official) . authority to the Authority Having Jurisdiction (OSHA. FM.Standard on Explosion Protection by Deflagration Venting • Mandatory requirements for the – – – – – design. location. installation. maintenance and use of devices and systems • More power.

2. .3 Hazard Analysis.2 A documented risk evaluation acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction shall be permitted to be conducted to determine the level of protection to be provided.3.2.1 The design basis deflagration hazard scenario shall be identified and documented.3.Hazard Analysis (part of new Chapter on General Requirements) • 4. • 4. • 4.2.

3 Prescriptive-Based Design.3.2 Performance-Based Design. • 4.3.Compliance Options (New in 2007 Standard) • 4. . A prescriptive-based design shall be in accordance with Chapter 6 through Chapter 11 of this standard. A performance-based design shall be in accordance with Chapter 5 of this standard.

5 (round) • L/D = H/Deff Additional Examples .Explicit Procedure for L/D Calculation (now specifically defined by NFPA) • • • • H = maximum flame travel Veff based on distance H Aeff = Veff/H Dhe = hydraulic diameter 4x[Aeff/p] – where p = perimeter H • Deff = [4xAeff/π]0.

Revised General Correlations • Flow Chart.information input in sequence. as one will now affect others • Combination Rule Chart • New Equations – – – – – – – Basic equation Initial pressure L/D Turbulence Panel inertia Partial volume Vent ducts .

Kst.Part 1: Determination of Explosion Indices of Combustible Dusts in Air.g.1 It shall be permitted to determine KSt and Pmax per ISO 6184/1.1.Revised General Correlations For Dusts NFPA-68 2007 Edition Determine appropriate input parameters (e. Explosion Protection Systems .2 or 6. Standard Test Method for Pressure and Rate of Pressure Rise for Combustible Dusts. enclosure volume and L/D. . the vent size shall be based on the highest KSt of all components and the highest Pmax of all components • • • • . Pmax.1.2* For dusts.2.2.2* It shall be permitted for the owner/user to test the dust with moisture content and particle size that deviates from the recommended conditions established by the method described in 6. vent cover area density.1(new) provided a documented assessment acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction has been performed prior to using these KSt and Pmax values to determine vent sizing. 6.1.1. • 6. Pinitial. etc. the vent size shall be based on the KSt and Pmax of the mixture. Pstat.2 Where the dust mixture composition is not certain. KSt and Pmax shall be determined in approximately spherical calibrated test vessels of at least 20 L capacity per ASTM E 1226.1. 6.1 Where the hazard consists of a dust mixture. 6.2.2.2.2.2.

can be increased or decreased based on documented operating experience” 11. suitable for review by an authority having jurisdiction that verifies a vent area is sufficient to prevent deflagration pressure from exceeding the enclosure strength and identifies areas exposed to potential overpressure. Inspection and Maintenance **Critical for Owner/Operators “Inspected annually . and design calculations shall be developed and maintained for each vent closure application. Data sheets. event propagation. .Chapter 11.2 Design Parameters and Documentation. and fireball effects during venting. installation details.

Vent closure specifications 5. Copy of vent identification label 10. Vent relief (pressure and fireball) path – (Fireball dimension) 13. Process elevation view 12. Employee training requirements . User documentation of conformity with applicable standards 7. Design calculations – (VentCalc) 3. Combustible material properties test report – (Kst Testing) 11.11. Proximity of personnel to vent relief path – (Safe Placement of vents) 9. Process interlocks (if provided) 18. Vent closure identification 8. End user inspection/maintenance forms 6. Event deflagration isolation requirements (if required) 19. Mechanical installation details 15. Process plan view 14. Vent restraint installation and design documentation (if required) 17. Electrical supervision (if provided) installation details 16. General specifications 4.2 Design Parameters and Documentation Documentation shall include all of the following: 1. Manufacturer’s data sheets and instruction manuals 2.

And The spacing between bags is less than the radius.7.1(1) If all vent area is below the filters.Dust Collector Vent Placement 8. Then Calculate the volume “below the bags only” – .

Dust Collector Vent Placement – 8. And The spacing between bags is greater than the radius.1(1) All vent area is below the filters.7. Then Use entire volume below the tube sheet minus the bag volume .

Full Length Bag D Shortened or Removed Bag Vent Diameter. the bags are either completely removed or shortened so that they do not extend below the top of the vent for a distance of one vent diameter from the vent. D Then The bags immediately adjacent to the vent shall be removed and the remaining bags shall be restrained from passing through the vent Calculate The entire volume below the tube sheet minus the bag volume Bag Restraint for Full Length Bags D .i.7.e.Dust Collector Vent Placement – 8.1(2) If the bags extend below the vent and are modified… .

Then you must Restrain the row closest to the vent And Calculate the total volume below the tube sheet (vent size is larger) .7.Dust Collector Vent Placement – 8.1(3) If the bottom of vent is at or above the bottom of the bags.