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Influenza pandemic From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Influenza (Flu) H1N1 virus Types Avian A/H5N1 subtype

Canine Equine Swine A/H1N1 subtype Vaccines 2009 pandemic Pandemrix Fluzone Influvac Live attenuated Optaflu Treatment Amantadine Arbidol Laninamivir Oseltamivir Peramivir Rimantadine Vitamin D Zanamivir Pandemics 2009 swine 1968 1969 Hong Kong 1957 Asian flu 1918 Outbreaks 2008 West Bengal 2007 Bernard Matthews H5N1 2007 Australian equine 2006 H5N1 India 1976 swine flu See also Flu season Influenza evolution Influenza research Influenza-like illness Vaccine reformulations v t e Influenza ward at Walter Reed Hospital, in Washington, D.C. during the Spanish f lu pandemic of 1918 1919. An influenza pandemic is an epidemic of an influenza virus that spreads on a wor ldwide scale and infects a large proportion of the human population. In contrast to the regular seasonal epidemics of influenza, these pandemics occur irregular ly, with the 1918 Spanish flu the most serious pandemic in recorded history. Pan demics can cause high levels of mortality, with the 1918 Spanish influenza pande mic estimated as being responsible for the deaths of approximately 50 million pe ople or more. There have been about three influenza pandemics in each century fo r the last 300 years, the most recent one being the 2009 flu pandemic.[1] Influenza pandemics occur when a new strain of the influenza virus is transmitte d to humans from another animal species. Species that are thought to be importan t in the emergence of new human strains are pigs, chickens and ducks. These nove l strains are unaffected by any immunity people may have to older strains of hum an influenza and can therefore spread extremely rapidly and infect very large nu mbers of people. Influenza A viruses can occasionally be transmitted from wild b irds to other species causing outbreaks in domestic poultry and may give rise to human influenza pandemics.[2][3] The propagation of influenza viruses throughou t the world is thought in part to be by bird migrations, though commercial shipm ents of live bird products might also be implicated, as well as human travel pat terns. The World Health Organization (WHO) has produced a six-stage classification that describes the process by which a novel influenza virus moves from the first few

5 H1N1/09 Flu Pandemic (2009 2010) 5 Other pandemic threat subtypes 6 Strategies to prevent a flu pandemic 7 Strategies to slow down a flu pandemic 7. a new strain of H1N1 influenza was declared to be a global pandemic (Stage 6) by the W HO after evidence of spreading in the southern hemisphere.3 Hong Kong Flu (1968 1969) 4.5 Malaysia 10 See also 11 External resources 12 References 13 External links 14 References Influenza[edit] Main article: Influenza Structure of the influenza viron. and weakness and fatigue.2 Variable mortality 4 Influenza pandemics 4.536] laboratory confirmed cases of pandemic influenza H1N1 2009. sore throat.4 Russian Flu (1977 1978) 4.[7] these sympt .infections in humans through to a pandemic. severe headache.1 Spanish Flu (1918 1920) 4. particularly in young chil dren and the elderly.[8] Alth ough nausea and vomiting can be produced.250 deaths.1 United Nations 9. worldwide m ore than 206 countries and overseas territories or communities have reported [50 3. common symptoms of influenza infection are fever.1 Vaccines 7. This starts with the virus mostly i nfecting animals. I n humans.3 United States 9. muscle pains. then moves throu gh the stage where the virus begins to spread directly between people. Influenza. commonly known as flu. which can be fatal. influenza i s a much more severe disease and is caused by a different type of virus. The viral RNAs that make up t he genome are shown as red coils inside the particle and bound to Ribonuclear Pr oteins (RNPs).1 Wave nature 3. coughing.4 Canada 9.[5] The 13 November 20 09 worldwide update by the WHO stated that "[a]s of 8 November 2009. especially in children. including ove r 6. influenza causes pneumonia."[6] Contents [hide] 1 Influenza 2 Variants and subtypes of Influenzavirus A 3 Nature of a flu pandemic 3. is an infectious disease of birds and mammals caused by an RNA virus of the family Orthomyxoviridae (the influenza viruses). with a few cases where animals infect people.3 Public response measures 8 Phases 9 Government preparations for a potential H5N1 pandemic (2003 2009) 9.[7] In more serious c ases. and ends with a pandemic when infections from the new virus have spread worldwide. The hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) proteins are shown on the surface of the particle. On 11 June 2009.2 World Health Organization 9.2 Anti-viral drugs 7. While sometimes confused with the common cold.[4][dea d link] One strain of virus that may produce a pandemic in the future is a highly pathog enic variation of the H5N1 subtype of influenza A virus.2 Asian Flu (1957 1958) 4.

some pathogenic to one species but not others.[13] Vaccinations against influenza are most commonly given to high-risk humans in in dustrialized countries[14] and to farmed poultry. The various types of influenza viruses in humans. Often. Three influenza pandemics oc curred in the 20th century and killed tens of millions of people.[16] A vaccine fo rmulated for one year may be ineffective in the following year. Some variants named using this convention are:[18] Bird Flu Human Flu Swine Flu Horse Flu Dog Flu Avian variants have also sometimes been named according to their deadliness in p oultry.[15] The most common human vacc ine is the trivalent influenza vaccine that contains purified and inactivated ma terial from three viral strains. and indefinitely at very low tempe ratures (such as lakes in northeast Siberia). this virus did not mutate to spread easily between people.[17] Variants are sometimes named according to the species (host) the strain is endem ic in or adapted to. Broken lines indicat e uncertain strain identifications. For example. Healthy individuals can become infected if they breathe in a virus-laden aerosol directly. these new strains result from the spread of an existing flu virus t o humans from other animal species. and from infected birds through their droppings. human flu. When it first killed humans in Asia in the 1 990s. creating aerosols containing the virus. Typically this vaccine includes material from t wo influenza A virus subtypes and one influenza B virus strain. nasal secr etions. and according to their deadliness (example LP). over 30 days at 0 °C (32 °F). or if they touch their eyes. however.[10][11][12] Flu spreads around the world in seasonal epidemics. also called: deadly flu or death flu The Influenza A virus subtypes are labeled according to an H number (for hemaggl utinin) and an N number (for neuraminidase). influenza is transmitted from infected mammals through the air by cou ghs or sneezes. Most known strains are extinct strains. . Flu viruses can remain infectious for about one week at huma n body temperature. feces and blood. some pathogenic to multiple species. with each of t hese pandemics being caused by the appearance of a new strain of the virus in hu mans. the annual flu subtype H3N2 no longer contain s the strain that caused the Hong Kong Flu. Most influenza strains can be inac tivated easily by disinfectants and detergents. and H3N2 flu. single-stranded. with neuraminidase inhibitors being p articularly effective. especially chickens: Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza (LPAI) Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI). since the influe nza virus changes rapidly over time and different strains become dominant. according t o their subtype (example H3N2).oms are more characteristic of the unrelated gastroenteritis."[9] Typically. according to their typical host (example Human flu virus).[19] Influenza A viruses are negative sense. segmented RNA viruses. a deadly avian strain of H5N1 posed a great risk for a new influenza pande mic. Antiv iral drugs can be used to treat influenza. Solid squares show the appeara nce of a new strain. Influenza can also be transmitted by saliva. causing recurring influenza pandemics. nose or mouth a fter touching any of the aforementioned bodily fluids (or surfaces contaminated with those fluids). Variants and subtypes of Influenzavirus A[edit] Main article: Influenzavirus A Variants of Influenzavirus A are identified and named according to the isolate t hat they are like and thus are presumed to share lineage (example Fujian flu vir us like). So a flu from a virus similar to the isolate A/Fujian/411/2002(H3N2) is called F ujian flu. which is sometimes called "stomach flu" or "24-hour flu. Each subtype virus has mutated into a variety of strains with differing pathogenic profiles.

S. but recently two new types were isolated: a new type (H16) was isolated from black-h eaded gulls caught in Sweden and the Netherlands in 1999 and reported in the lit erature in 2005...[23] There were not enough doctors..". We have been averaging about 100 deaths per day [.]. Pneumonia means in about all cases death [."There are 16 different HA antigens (H1 to H16) and nine different NA antigens ( N1 to N9) for influenza A. .]. It is horrible. but to see these poor devil s dropping like flies [. lack of trust. or medic al supplies for the living as they contacted the disease. The 1889 1890 and 1918 1919 flu pandemics eac h came in three or four waves of .. For example in the 1918 pandemic: "This horrif ic disconnect between reassurances and reality destroyed the credibility of thos e in authority.[20] The other. Others have a higher Pandemic Severity I ndex whose severity warrants more comprehensive social isolation measures. no on e to trust. For sev eral days there were no coffins and the bodies piled up something fierce [. One can stand it to see one. People felt they had no one to turn to.. no one to rely on. Efforts to deal with pandemics c an leave a great deal to be desired because of human selfishness. 15 HA types had been recognized. the loss of this many people in the population caused upheaval and psychological da mage to many people. Dead bodies were often left unburied as few people were available to deal with them. Army camp in the 1918 pandemic said: It is only a matter of a few hours then until death comes [."[24] A letter from a physician at one U. two or twenty men die.[22] The 1918 pandemic killed tens of millions and sickened hundreds of millions.].[ 25] Wave nature[edit] Flu pandemics typically come in waves. illegal behavior. We have lost an outrageous n umber of Nurses and Drs.].. hospital rooms. Until recently. There can be grea t social disruption as well as a sense of fear. and ignorance.. It takes special trains to carry away the dead.. was isolated from fruit bats caught in Gu atemala and reported in the literature in 2013. H17."[21] Nature of a flu pandemic[edit] Some pandemics are relatively minor such as the one in 1957 called "Asian flu" ( 1 4 million dead..]. depending on source).