You are on page 1of 76

Effect of Cold Work and Heat Treatment on the Elevated-Temperature Rupture Properties of Grade 91 Material

Technical Report

Effective December 6, 2006, this report has been made publicly available in accordance with Section 734.3(b)(3) and published in accordance with Section 734.7 of the U.S. Export Administration Regulations. As a result of this publication, this report is subject to only copyright protection and does not require any license agreement from EPRI. This notice supersedes the export control restrictions and any proprietary licensed material notices embedded in the document prior to publication.

Effects of Cold Work and Heat Treatment on the ElevatedTemperature Rupture Properties of Grade 91 Material
1011352

Final Report, January 2005

EPRI Project Manager K. Coleman

EPRI • 3412 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, California 94304 • PO Box 10412, Palo Alto, California 94303 • USA 800.313.3774 • 650.855.2121 • askepri@epri.com • www.epri.com

INCLUDING MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. NEITHER EPRI. THE ORGANIZATION(S) BELOW. EXPRESS OR IMPLIED. APPARATUS. OR SIMILAR ITEM DISCLOSED IN THIS DOCUMENT. Suite 278. ORDERING INFORMATION Requests for copies of this report should be directed to EPRI Orders and Conferences. PROCESS. METHOD. (925) 609-1310 (fax). (EPRI). ANY MEMBER OF EPRI. OR SIMILAR ITEM DISCLOSED IN THIS DOCUMENT. All rights reserved. OR (B) ASSUMES RESPONSIBILITY FOR ANY DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY WHATSOEVER (INCLUDING ANY CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES. OR (III) THAT THIS DOCUMENT IS SUITABLE TO ANY PARTICULAR USER'S CIRCUMSTANCE. INCLUDING ANY PARTY'S INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY. PROCESS. (800) 313-3774. 1355 Willow Way. APPARATUS. Concord. ORGANIZATION(S) THAT PREPARED THIS DOCUMENT Alstom Power. INC. Inc. EVEN IF EPRI OR ANY EPRI REPRESENTATIVE HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES) RESULTING FROM YOUR SELECTION OR USE OF THIS DOCUMENT OR ANY INFORMATION. METHOD. press 2 or internally x5379. Copyright © 2005 Electric Power Research Institute. (I) WITH RESPECT TO THE USE OF ANY INFORMATION. NOR ANY PERSON ACTING ON BEHALF OF ANY OF THEM: (A) MAKES ANY WARRANTY OR REPRESENTATION WHATSOEVER. OR (II) THAT SUCH USE DOES NOT INFRINGE ON OR INTERFERE WITH PRIVATELY OWNED RIGHTS. (925) 609-9169. Inc. ELECTRIFY THE WORLD is a service mark of the Electric Power Research Institute. Inc. ANY COSPONSOR. . CA 94520. Inc. EPRI.DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTIES AND LIMITATION OF LIABILITIES THIS DOCUMENT WAS PREPARED BY THE ORGANIZATION(S) NAMED BELOW AS AN ACCOUNT OF WORK SPONSORED OR COSPONSORED BY THE ELECTRIC POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE. Electric Power Research Institute and EPRI are registered service marks of the Electric Power Research Institute.

Palo Alto. EPRI. iii . CA: 2005. Henry This report describes research sponsored by EPRI. Materials Technology Center 1119 Riverfront Parkway Chattanooga. TN 37402 Principal Investigator J.CITATIONS This report was prepared by Alstom Power. 1011352. The report is a corporate document that should be cited in the literature in the following manner: Effects of Cold Work and Heat Treatment on the Elevated-Temperature Rupture Properties of Grade 91 Material. Inc.

.

and Use Many new creep-strength-enhanced ferritic alloys are currently under development or have recently started to be used in fossil boiler applications. but there is no consensus among manufacturers as to the proper heat treatments for different strain levels. then the coupons were bent to induce strain. Results and Findings Large test coupons were marked with grids to make measurements of strain possible. These include T23. T24. x 30-in. Rupture coupons were removed from locations within the block where the material had experienced specific strain levels. The industry has experienced failures of newer creep-enhanced ferritic materials like Grade 91 that indicate these materials suffer from the same type of degradation mechanism as austenitic materials. SC-I. Methods developed by this project to test the effect of strain-induced degradation of these materials can be used to develop guidelines for post-strain heat treatment. and P92. The elimination of premature failures caused by strain will allow utilities to realize the full benefit from upgrades and retrofits on new construction using these alloys. This required having a large block of Grade 91 material forged into 6-in. (152-mm x 152-mm x 762-mm) pieces that could be strained. v . Methods to develop a specific strain level throughout the entire test specimen were developed. Applications.PRODUCT DESCRIPTION For many years it has been understood that straining austenitic materials reduces their hightemperature properties. Subsequent samples received heat treatments to determine the appropriate levels of heat treatment needed to restore rupture properties. With the correlation between strain level and required heat-treatment temperatures that was developed by this project. x 6-in. premature failures resulting from strain-induced material degradation will be minimized. Value. A method of measuring strain using grid markings on the blocks was developed. Challenges and Objectives The goal of this project is to provide technical justification and rules for heat treatment of Grade 91 materials after forming. ASME added a section (PG-19) to the Boiler Code. The goal of the project described in this report is to develop a technical basis for rules that will be added to PG-19 for Grade 91 material. Recognizing this. which requires heat treatment after the forming of austenitic materials. These coupons were then tested to determine the amount of degradation resulting from each level of strain. Boiler manufacturers have implemented guidelines for heat treating these alloys. P91.

Because these alloys are much stronger than the low-alloy ferritic materials (P11 and P22) commonly used for boiler pressure parts.EPRI Perspective EPRI has been at the forefront of new alloy development for high-temperature boiler applications. allowing utilities more flexibility in dispatching units. Approach This program first developed a method to test the effect of strain on the high-temperature performance of materials. Higher operating pressures and temperatures are possible with these materials. This results in initial material savings and improvements in component life. thinner components can be used. Finally. thereby resulting in more-efficient power plants. Next. Keywords P91 Fabrication Advanced materials Headers Piping Heat treatment vi . heat treatments were evaluated to determine if properties could be restored through a subcritical or normalization heat treatment. Thinner components are also more resistant to thermal fatigue damage. an alloy that is being widely used for replacement and new fabrication was tested to see what level of degradation resulted in degraded material properties.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS EPRI acknowledges the contribution of J. Alstom’s principal manufactory engineer. C. Hitchcock. for his assistance in the preparation and production of the cold-bent test blocks. vii .

.

..............................5..............................................4-15 4......4 Determination of Local Strain and Strain Distribution for Preparation of Creep Rupture Test Specimens.......................................................3 The Effect of Heat Treatment on Cold-Worked Grade 91 Microstructure ...........................2 Deformation/Strain Determination Using the Wall Thickness Method................6-1 7 FUTURE WORK ....5.................................................................2 Scale Model Study of the Bending Procedure for Preparation of Test Coupons ..................................................4-9 4...............................................................3 Bending the 6" x 6" x 30" Test Coupons .3-1 4 EVALUATION OF COLD-WORK AND HEAT TREATMENT ON THE ELEVATEDTEMPERATURE CREEP RUPTURE PROPERTIES OF GRADE 91 MATERIAL USING COLD-BENT BLOCKS...............................................7-1 ix .......................................................................................................4-5 4......4-3 4..............4-1 4...5-1 6 RECOMMENDATIONS ...............................................2-7 2...................................5.....................................2-1 2............................1-1 2 STRAIN DEVELOPED DURING THE COLD-BENDING OF GRADE 91 TUBING AS A FUNCTION OF R/D RATIOS ......................................................................1 Deformation/Strain Determination Using the Grid Method ............................................................................4-17 5 CONCLUSIONS ..........................................................4-13 4...............................5...................5 Creep Rupture Testing .....................................................................................................................................................................4-10 4....................................2-13 3 REVIEW OF CREEP RUPTURE TEST RESULTS USING COLD-ROLLED GRADE 91 STRIPS ...................................3 The Effect of Heat Treatment on Creep Rupture Behavior of Cold-Worked Grade 91 Material.................1 Creep Rupture Behavior of Unstrained Grade 91 Material.........................................2 The Effect of Cold-Work on Creep Rupture Behavior of Grade 91 Material......................4-11 4........4 The Relationship Between Cold-Work-Induced Hardness Increase and Creep Life Reduction.................................................................................................2-1 2................CONTENTS 1 BACKGROUND AND INTRODUCTION ....4-1 4...............................................................1 Material Preparation for Creep Rupture Testing ..............................

...................................................................................................................................8-1 A MEASURED AND CALCULATED STRAINS FOR BENT TUBES USED IN THE STUDY........................8 REFERENCES ....................................................................... A-1 x ............................

.................................................................................2-4 Figure 2-3 Calculated Strain Levels at Seven Locations Around the Tube Bend for Nominal 25% Level (Based on Grid Method ∆L/Li) .............................................................................4-2 Figure 4-2 Typical Microstructural Condition of the Grade 91 Material in the Re-Heat Treated Condition...2-3 Figure 2-2 Calculated Strain Levels at Seven Locations Around the Tube Bend for Nominal 33% Level (Based on Grid Method ∆L/Li) .................................................................3-3 Figure 3-2 Summarized Creep Rupture Test Results as a Function of Cold-Work Levels ........ for the Nominal 33% Strain Level (Based on Wall Thickness Method ∆t/ti) .................................................................................................................................4-4 xi .....................................2-11 Figure 2-10 Calculated Strain Levels at the 90° Location of the Tube Bend at Eight Locations Around the Circumference........................................................................................................................................................................ for the Nominal 20% Strain Level (Based on Wall Thickness Method ∆t/ti) .........................................................................................2-12 Figure 2-11 Example of the Effect of Heat Treatment on the Microstructure of ColdFormed Tubing...............................................................................................................................................................................2-14 Figure 3-1 Summarized Creep Rupture Test Results Using Cold-Rolled Grade 91 Strips at Test Temperatures of 600°C and 650°C and at Various Stress Levels in the Range of 81–190 MPa ........................2-10 Figure 2-9 Calculated Strain Levels at the 90° Location of the Tube Bend at Eight Locations Around the Circumference.......................................................................................................2-8 Figure 2-7 Calculated Strain Levels at the 90° Location of the Tube Bend at Eight Locations Around the Circumference.........................3-4 Figure 4-1 Sketch Showing the Center Thermocouple Location ............................................ for the Nominal 25% Strain Level (Based on Wall Thickness Method ∆t/ti) ............ for the Nominal 15% Strain Level (Based on Wall Thickness Method ∆t/ti) .........2-9 Figure 2-8 Calculated Strain Levels at the 90° Location of the Tube Bend at Eight Locations Around the Circumference..................................................................2-6 Figure 2-5 Calculated Strain Levels at Seven Locations Around the Tube Bend for Nominal 15% Level (Based on Grid Method ∆L/Li) .2-5 Figure 2-4 Calculated Strain Levels at Seven Locations Around the Tube Bend for Nominal 20% Level (Based on Grid Method ∆L/Li) ......................................................................LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2-1 Locations of Measured and Calculated Strains Using the Grid Method ..........2-7 Figure 2-6 Locations of Measured and Calculated Strains Using the Wall Thickness Method ...4-3 Figure 4-3 Typical Results of Single-Step 3-Point Bending and Multiple-Step 3-Point Bending ......................................................................

....................Figure 4-4 Example of the 6" x 6" x 30" Test Blocks and the Grids Inscribed on the Surface of the Blocks Prior to Bending ...................................................................................................................................................... with the Inscribed Grid Patterns Shown in the Bend Zone.........................................4-6 Figure 4-5 Bending Status After Completion of the First Stage in the Bending Process ..........................................................................4-10 Figure 4-9 Documentation of the Creep Rupture Behavior of the Unstrained Grade 91 Test Material as Compared to the Imputed Mean and Minimum Properties for Grade 91 Material .................4-19 xii ........................4-12 Figure 4-10 Documentation of the Effect of Cold-Work on the Creep Rupture Behavior of the Grade 91 Test Material............................................ Based on Comparison with the Behavior of the Unstrained Base Metal .................................................................4-14 Figure 4-11 The Effect of a Post-Forming Subcritical Heat Treatment on the Creep Rupture Behavior of the Cold-Worked Grade 91 Test Material Compared with the Behavior of the Unstrained Base Metal and the Cold-Worked Material with No PostForming Heat Treatment .....................................................4-9 Figure 4-8 Photo Showing Orientation of Test Specimens ..................................................................4-16 Figure 4-12 Creep Life Reduction as a Function of Hardness Increase Induced by ColdWorking ............................................................................................................................................................4-7 Figure 4-6 Bending Status After Completion of the Second and Third Stages of the Bending Process .........................................................4-8 Figure 4-7 Final Condition of the Bent Test Coupons......................

...........................................................................................1-2 Table 2-1 Chemistry for Two Heats Used in the Deformation Study ...........................................4-2 Table 4-3 Hardness Measurements from the Surface to the Center of the Block ...........................................................2-12 Table 2-4 Hardness Values of Specimens..................................4-3 Table 4-4 Cold-Work-Induced Hardness Increase and Creep Life Reduction.................................................................................4-18 xiii ....................3-2 Table 4-1 Chemical Composition of the Grade 91 Heat for the Test Program .........................................................................3-1 Table 3-2 Material Hardness Values as a Function of the Level of Cold-Work .......4-1 Table 4-2 Mechanical Composition of the Grade 91 Heat for the Test Program ....................................................2-15 Table 3-1 Chemical Composition for the Two Heats Used for Simulated Creep Rupture Testing ......................2-1 Table 2-2 Tube Identification ...................2-2 Table 2-3 The Ratio εt / εL ........................................................................LIST OF TABLES Table 1-1 Chemical Composition of Wrought Modified 9Cr and Standard 9Cr-1Mo Steels ......

.

there have been further developments in the advanced 9-12Cr ferritic steels. Strategies for improving overall power plant efficiency have received attention worldwide since the first of the energy crises in the 1970s. With the loss of funding support for the LMFBR program that occurred in the late 1970s. In addition. 1-1 . Among these new alloys are Grade 92 (Code Case 2179). ORNL participated actively in the commercialization and ASME Code approval of what today is known as Grade 91. leading to new alloys with service temperature advantages over Grade 91. One group of materials that has shown substantial promise for operation in the intermediate temperature regimes of advanced-cycle steam generators has been the creep-strength-enhanced ferritic alloys. Of course. including high creep rupture strength coupled with satisfactory fracture toughness at temperatures below ambient. Subsequently. largely in the power and petrochemical industries. It should be recognized that the composition and properties of Grade 91 were optimized for the LMFBR application. Grade 122 (Code Case 2180). Grade 91 gained its initial acceptance as boiler tubing suitable for use in ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section I construction in Code Case 1943 in 1983. among which the modified 9Cr alloy (Grade 91) has seen the most extensive use in existing plants. a series of proposals for the development of a “super” 9Cr alloy for use in the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) was submitted to DOE (and to its predecessor organizations. Beginning in 1969. The alloy composition and favorable mechanical properties. had been established by the year 1977. The ensuing years have seen widespread usage of the material. particularly for the steam tubing and other structural material for the sodium-steam generator components. Approval was granted to begin the hardware development work at CE in early 1975 under the administration of Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s (ORNL’s) Metals and Ceramics Division.S. AED and ERDA) by CE. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship from 1969 to 1977. and fossil-fired steam generators were identified as potential users. and an inevitable focus of that attention has been an increase in the operating parameters (steam pressure and temperature). and Grade 911 (Code Case 2327). The Grade 91 alloy was developed by the then Combustion Engineering’s (CE’s) Metallurgical and Materials Laboratory under U. such an increase requires the selection of materials for critical pressure part components that can operate reliably under the more rigorous operating conditions. known as Grade 23 in Code Case 2199. Included among the new boiler steels has been an enhanced version of the standard 2-1/4Cr-1Mo alloy.BACKGROUND AND INTRODUCTION 1 The efficiency of fossil power plants is a direct function of both the temperature and the pressure of the product steam. This alloy was not optimized for fossil boiler or petrochemical applications [1–6]. the program sponsors looked toward other possible applications of the alloy.

Si 0.05 Ni 0. as that behavior compares to the unprocessed material (base metal). The principal modification consists of controlled additions of vanadium.18– 0.50 Cr 8. Because of their strong microstructural dependence.85– 1.025 max.20– 0.010 max. regulatory groups. V) carbonitrides. on the creep behavior of the materials.020 max. 0.08– 0. the requirements imposed by various organizations are not consistent.50 Mo 0.04 max. even in thick sections. S 0. and in some cases are contradictory.070 Al 0. Fabrication difficulties and recent service failures have indicated that the requirements associated with cold-forming of modified 9Cr material should be better understood.Background and Introduction The modified 9Cr alloy represents a reengineering of the standard 9Cr-1Mo alloy. the effect of creep is simply taken into account through the allowable stresses.00 8. Like its lower-strength predecessor. From the standpoint of designing pressure part components for operation at elevated temperatures in boilers. will transform to 100% martensite upon air cooling. Material vendors. which substantially increase the creep strength of the alloy through the precipitation of M23C6 carbides and MX (Nb.30– 0.60 0.25– 1. V 0.00 0. That these processes may adversely affect the properties of the material is well known. 0. Table 1-1 Chemical Composition of Wrought Modified 9Cr and Standard 9Cr-1Mo Steels Element Standard 9Cr-1Mo Modified 9Cr C 0. Table 1-1 compares the specified chemical compositions for the standard 9Cr-1Mo alloy and the modified 9Cr material [7]. the modified 9Cr alloys typically have fabrication requirements that are more stringent than those of the standard boiler alloys.10 N 0. and construction companies have established these requirements in attempts to address the unique characteristics of the modified 9Cr alloy and thereby ensure optimum serviceability of the components. As a result. 1-2 . which are established by Subcommittee II of the ASME Code based on the tested creep properties of the material. so all effects of processing are not known at this time. However. therefore. are generally not considered. The data from which the allowable stresses are derived are typically based on the testing of fully heat-treated base material samples using uniaxial test specimens.10 0. within the specified chemical composition range. such as welding and forming. the critical dependence of these materials on the ability of the carbonitride particles precipitated during tempering to stabilize the disordered martensitic structure suggests that they may be particularly vulnerable to processing effects.030– 0.90– 1.25 Nb 0.06– 0. and nitrogen.60 P 0. long-term service experience with the material is limited. The effects of fabrication processes.00– 9.40 max. that an understanding of the possible effects of fabrication on the creep properties of materials is essential to predicting the serviceability of the components fabricated from these materials.30– 0. niobium. creep is one of the primary damage mechanisms that must be considered in determining the serviceability of those components. which is identified as T9 in the ASME SA-213 tubing specification. With regard to the creep-strength-enhanced ferritic steels. in addition to the lesser solution strengthening effects. Certainly the well-known susceptibility of these materials to the Type IV effect is evidence of this vulnerability. There is no doubt. as the premature failures of high-energy piping at longitudinal seam welds have demonstrated. In common engineering practice.15 max.025 max.12 Mn 0. the modified 9Cr alloy exhibits superior hardenability and. 0.00– 10.

35 mm x 6. This program has been designed to address the issues outlined above by providing additional data that will make it possible to devise technically defensible cold-forming requirements. A few preliminary studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of cold-working on the creep properties of Grade 91 by ORNL. and the tubes were cold-formed into bends using R/D ratios commonly used for boiler tubing. Accurate strain measurements were made on etched bend samples in both the circumferential and longitudinal directions. a program of testing has been initiated by Alstom Power’s Materials Technology Center under the sponsorship of EPRI.Background and Introduction For example.25" (6. The strain pattern developed in each of the test coupons during cold-bending was based on the evaluation of a matrix consisting of 0. and operating conditions can be evaluated. it is essential that the effects of cold-forming and subsequent heat treatment on the creep properties of modified 9Cr steel be quantified to the extent possible. four simulated cold-bent coupons (6" x 6" x 30" [152 mm x 152 mm x 762 mm]) of Grade 91 material were produced. Since modified 9Cr steel is being used more extensively by boiler manufacturers due to its excellent elevated-temperature properties. Sumitomo. The first stage of the program involved more accurately determining the deformation/strain patterns that develop in boiler tubing during bending. then supplementary efforts may be advisable. The cold-forming procedures used to bend the tubing mirrored the standard procedures used at Alstom’s Chattanooga tubular production site for many years. strain. or whether there exists some threshold level of strain below which there are no significant effects.25" x 0. For the program. The creep rupture test specimens were then removed from the test coupons to represent specific strain levels. From these studies it appears certain that there is a significant reduction in the creep rupture strength of Grade 91 material when strained beyond certain limits. and Stork Boiler/TNO Research Institute in the Netherlands [8–10].25 mm) cells inscribed into the surface of each coupon prior to bending. In order to provide baseline data. Should effects be uncovered during this program that have not been anticipated. Creep rupture specimens were extracted from the tension side of the bent coupons to simulate the extrados condition of cold-formed tubing. Creep rupture test conditions were designed based on the imputed creep rupture 1-3 . heat treatment. Over 1200 measurements were made and the appropriate calculations performed to define the strain pattern. recognizing that not all possible combinations of composition. and that forming limits are inconsistent. In order to provide a more sound technical basis for assessing the effects of cold-forming and subsequent heat treatment on the creep properties of modified 9Cr steel. with special attention given to the extrados and intrados of the bends. The objective of this program is to more accurately characterize the magnitude of the effect of coldworking on the elevated-temperature properties of Grade 91. Common sizes of Grade 91 tubing were purchased. there are not sufficient data to establish what the limits are and whether the degree of reduction is a direct function of the amount of working. creep rupture specimens also were prepared from the as-received base material. However. that some post-forming heat treatment is actually deleterious. test coupons representing several different deformation/strain levels were produced using cold-bent Grade 91 wrought plate (6" [152 mm] thick). Once the deformation/strain data obtained from the T91 tube bends were evaluated. concerns have arisen that some forming requirements are too conservative with regard to the application of heat treatment.

this range spans the design stress levels for most applications in boilers. V&M Tubing.3 ksi (140 MPa). and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) The test stress levels for the program ranged from 8. Test temperatures were selected to yield rupture times for the unstrained base metal between 300 and 10. MPC. the results of the program are reviewed and the implications of the results to the more general issue of coldforming of Grade 91 material are discussed in detail. In this report.000 hours. along with test data from ORNL. EPRI. 1-4 .7 ksi (60 MPa) to 20.Background and Introduction properties of unstrained Grade 91 material calculated from ASME SCI allowable stresses for sections above and below 3" (76 mm) in thickness.

The etching was applied around the full circumference of the tube for a length of 20" (508 mm). The grid pattern itself consisted of a 0.003 <.044 2-1 .024 .077 .001 .25" (6.001 .077 .01 <.001 .094 .009 .023 . efforts were made to accurately determine the amount of strain developed in a cold-formed Grade 91 tube bend.094 .01 <.040 Heat B 9833-01 .1" (2. where the maximum strain was expected to occur.28 . and these were identified as heats B9832-01 and B9833-01. the ability to accurately quantify the level of strain developed in a cold-bent tube is essential in establishing the relationship between coldworking effects and creep rupture life. the strains estimated by standard design formulas were compared to the actual strains developed in a tube during bending in both the longitudinal and transverse directions.003 <. A deep etching pattern was used to ensure survival of the pattern during the bending operation. A grid pattern was inscribed on the outer diameter surface of each tube along the length of tubing to be bent. Grade 91 tubing was purchased for use in sizes commonly adopted for superheater or reheater applications.001 .002 .54 mm) in diameter inside the square.02 .001 <. Table 2-1 Chemistry for Two Heats Used in the Deformation Study Heat # C Mn P S Si Ni Cr M V Nb Ti Co Cu Al B W As Sn Zr N Heat B 9832-01 . The deformation/strain pattern along the length of the cold-formed T91 tubing was determined in both the circumferential and longitudinal directions. As part of this evaluation.001 .08 8.001 .39 .99 .08 8. Obviously. with the focus of attention being the extrados and intrados of the bends.39 .001 <. Two heats of the material were selected for this purpose.21 .1 Deformation/Strain Determination Using the Grid Method As a preliminary step in the study of cold-work effects on Grade 91 tubing.34 . such as those that have been used at Alstom’s Chattanooga tubular production site for many years.013 <.02 .21 .STRAIN DEVELOPED DURING THE COLD-BENDING OF GRADE 91 TUBING AS A FUNCTION OF R/D RATIOS 2 The purpose of this portion of the study was to more accurately determine the cold-working strains developed in the process of tube bending when using bending techniques that represent standard practice in the industry.35 mm) square with four circles 0.002 .39 . and tube bends were cold-formed to several different R/D ratios typically used in the production of superheater or reheater bends.98 . 2. The bending practice reflected common shop procedures.39 .013 <. The compositions of these two heats are recorded in Table 2-1.01 .

eight tubes. and post-bending stress relief conditions. As previously mentioned. two from each estimated strain level and one from each heat.Strain Developed During the Cold-Bending of Grade 91 Tubing as a Function of R/D Ratios A total of 23 tubes were included in this portion of the study. nominal bending strains. In addition. with each square containing four 0. To evaluate possible effects of heat treatment on the cold-worked microstructures. D/2R. were stress relieved at 1350°F (732°C) for 30 minutes. Table 2-2 Tube Identification Tube # 11A 11B 12A 12B 13A 13B 15A 15B 16A 16B 17A 17B 19A 19B 20A 20B 21A 21B 24A 24B 25A 25B 26A Heat # B 9832-01 B 9833-01 B 9832-01 B 9833-01 B 9832-01 B 9833-01 B 9832-01 B 9833-01 B 9832-01 B 9833-01 B 9832-01 B 9833-01 B 9832-01 B 9833-01 B 9832-01 B 9833-01 B 9832-01 B 9833-01 B 9832-01 B 9833-01 B 9832-01 B 9833-01 B 9832-01 Estimated Strain Level 33% 33% 33% 33% 33% 33% 25% 25% 25% 25% 25% 25% 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% 15% 15% 15% 15% 15% Heat Treatment As Bent As Bent 1350°F ∗ 30 minutes 1350°F ∗ 30 minutes 1425°F ∗ 60 minutes 1425°F ∗ 60 minutes As Bent As Bent 1350°F ∗ 30 minutes 1350°F ∗ 30 minutes 1425°F ∗ 60 minutes 1425°F ∗ 60 minutes As Bent As Bent 1350°F ∗ 30 minutes 1350°F ∗ 30 minutes 1425°F ∗ 60 minutes 1425°F ∗ 60 minutes 1350°F ∗ 30 minutes 1350°F ∗ 30 minutes 1425°F ∗ 60 minutes 1425°F ∗ 60 minutes As Bent 2-2 . a grid pattern was first etched onto the outer diameter surface of the tube in the area to be bent. were stress relieved at 1425°F (774°C) for 60 minutes. and 33%.125" [53. The bend radius was determined using the formula for strain. with D being the original tube outer diameter (D = 2.54-mm) diameter circles. eight tubes. 15%.1" (2. All 23 tubes were then bent to one of four estimated strain levels. two from each estimated strain level and one from each heat.975 mm]) and R being the nominal bend radius. the grid consisting of 0. 20%.35-mm) squares.25" (6. 25%. Table 2-2 lists the tube identifications.

at each of the four strain levels for both heats of material the measured strains were very consistent. At all four strain levels. although the variations appeared to be within the normal scatter of the data. The data are represented in graphical form in Figures 2-2 through 2-5. However. These calculated strain values then were compared with the nominal strain.2 and 1. In general. the measured strain was up to 1.2 times higher than the nominal value.25" (6. In fact. For a nominal strain of 33%. Figure 2-1 Locations of Measured and Calculated Strains Using the Grid Method 2-3 .3 times the nominal strain value.35 mm). the grid pattern on each tube was measured at seven locations around the bend. As shown in Figures 2-2 through 2-5. the location within the bend where the maximum strain occurred varied to a small extent. Actual strain was defined as εL = ∆L/Li.25" from the measured length. Each square etched onto the tube surface was originally 0. as indicated in Figure 2-1.Strain Developed During the Cold-Bending of Grade 91 Tubing as a Function of R/D Ratios After the tubes were bent. and individual values are presented in Appendix A. the measured axial strain was in all cases somewhat higher than the strain estimated by the D/2R formula. The magnitude of the difference depended on the applied strain and the location within the bend. as can be seen in Figures 2-2 through 2-5. the maximum strain measured at all strain levels was between 1. and the ∆L was calculated by subtracting 0. certain locations on the bend extrados exceeded the estimated strain.

Strain Developed During the Cold-Bending of Grade 91 Tubing as a Function of R/D Ratios 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 30 60 90 Tube Location (degrees) 120 150 180 Calculated Strain (in.) As-Bent Condition (Heat A and B) 1350°F ∗ 30 Minutes (Heat A and B) 1425°F ∗ 60 Minutes (Heat A and B) Figure 2-2 Calculated Strain Levels at Seven Locations Around the Tube Bend for Nominal 33% Level (Based on Grid Method ∆L/Li) 2-4 ./in.

/in.) 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 30 60 90 Tube Location (degrees) As-Bent Condition (Heat A and B) 1350°F ∗ 30 Minutes (Heat A and B) 1425°F ∗ 60 Minutes (Heat A and B) Figure 2-3 Calculated Strain Levels at Seven Locations Around the Tube Bend for Nominal 25% Level (Based on Grid Method ∆L/Li) 120 150 180 2-5 .Strain Developed During the Cold-Bending of Grade 91 Tubing as a Function of R/D Ratios 35 30 Calculated Strain (in.

) 20 15 10 5 0 0 30 60 90 Tube Location (degrees) 120 150 180 As-Bent Condition (Heat A and B) 1350°F ∗ 30 Minutes (Heat A and B) 1425°F ∗ 60 Minutes (Heat A and B) Figure 2-4 Calculated Strain Levels at Seven Locations Around the Tube Bend for Nominal 20% Level (Based on Grid Method ∆L/Li) 2-6 ./in.Strain Developed During the Cold-Bending of Grade 91 Tubing as a Function of R/D Ratios 30 25 Calculated Strain (in.

are represented graphically in Figures 2-7 through 2-10.) 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 30 60 90 Tube Location (degrees) 120 150 180 As-Bent Condition (Heat A and B) 1350°F ∗ 30 Minutes (Heat A and B) 1425°F ∗ 60 Minutes (Heat A and B) Figure 2-5 Calculated Strain Levels at Seven Locations Around the Tube Bend for Nominal 15% Level (Based on Grid Method ∆L/Li) 2. To quantify this deformation. using the formula εt = ∆t/ti based on wall thickness. direction and to evaluate the ovalization of the tubing that occurred as a result of the bending process. Wall thickness was then measured at eight locations around the circumference of the tubing in these ring sections and compared to an average wall thickness value obtained outside of the bend area. or through-thickness. 2-7 . The calculated strain levels. The locations for wall thickness measurements are shown in Figure 2-6. ring sections were cut from each tube at the midpoint of the bend.2 Deformation/Strain Determination Using the Wall Thickness Method The data reported above pertained to the strains developed in the axial direction./in. Another aspect of the deformation study was to study strain in the transverse. as indicated in Figure 2-6. as quantified using the grid method.Strain Developed During the Cold-Bending of Grade 91 Tubing as a Function of R/D Ratios 20 18 16 Calculated Strain (in.

For example. all four wall thickness graphs show that the strain measured in the transverse directions was lower than the maximum strain measured in the axial direction. The graphs also illustrate that. the unstrained wall thickness was assumed to be equal to the original wall thickness in the bend.Strain Developed During the Cold-Bending of Grade 91 Tubing as a Function of R/D Ratios Figures 2-7 through 2-10 demonstrate that.59 times the strain in the longitudinal direction. the strain in the transverse direction was approximately 0. regardless of tube location. only the “as-bent” data were used. In general. Finally. The relationship between maximum strain in the transverse (wall thickness) direction and maximum strain in the longitudinal (grid) direction are shown in Table 2-3. the extrados position at the midpoint of the bend is consistently the location of maximum tensile strain. as expected. the measured strain on the intrados side is higher than that experienced on the extrados. and there is a degree of error associated with this assumption. There is some degree of error inherent in these calculations. and only the maximum strain. as expected. To obtain the ratios (εt / εL). while the intrados position at the midpoint of the bend generally is the location of maximum compressive strain. Figure 2-6 Locations of Measured and Calculated Strains Using the Wall Thickness Method 2-8 .

for the Nominal 33% Strain Level (Based on Wall Thickness Method ∆t/ti) 2-9 ./in.Strain Developed During the Cold-Bending of Grade 91 Tubing as a Function of R/D Ratios 20 15 10 Extrados Intrados Calculated Strain (in.) 5 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 165 180 195 210 225 240 255 270 285 300 315 330 Location Around Circumference (degrees) As-Bent Condition (Heat A and B) 1350°F ∗ 30 Minutes (Heat A and B) 1425°F ∗ 60 Minutes (Heat A and B) Figure 2-7 Calculated Strain Levels at the 90° Location of the Tube Bend at Eight Locations Around the Circumference.

for the Nominal 25% Strain Level (Based on Wall Thickness Method ∆t/ti) 2-10 .) 5 0 -5 -1 0 -1 5 -2 0 -2 5 -3 0 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 165 180 195 210 225 240 255 270 285 300 315 330 L o c a tio n A ro u n d C irc u m fe re n c e (d e g re e s ) As-Bent Condition (Heat A and B) 1350°F ∗ 30 Minutes (Heat A and B) 1425°F ∗ 60 Minutes (Heat A and B) Figure 2-8 Calculated Strain Levels at the 90° Location of the Tube Bend at Eight Locations Around the Circumference./in.Strain Developed During the Cold-Bending of Grade 91 Tubing as a Function of R/D Ratios 20 15 10 E x tra d o s In tra d o s Calculated Strain (in.

for the Nominal 20% Strain Level (Based on Wall Thickness Method ∆t/ti) 2-11 .) 5 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 165 180 195 210 225 240 255 270 285 300 315 330 Location Around Circumference (degrees) As-Bent Condition (Heat A and B) 1350°F ∗ 30 Minutes (Heat A and B) 1425°F ∗ 60 Minutes (Heat A and B) Figure 2-9 Calculated Strain Levels at the 90° Location of the Tube Bend at Eight Locations Around the Circumference.Strain Developed During the Cold-Bending of Grade 91 Tubing as a Function of R/D Ratios 20 15 10 Extrados Intrados Calculated Strain (in./in.

8% 19./in.4% 32.48 .7% Maximum Longitudinal Strain Using the Grid Method (εL – in. for the Nominal 15% Strain Level (Based on Wall Thickness Method ∆t/ti) Table 2-3 The Ratio εt / εL Estimated Nominal Strain 33% 25% 20% 15% Maximum Transverse Strain Using Wall Thickness (εt – in./in.Strain Developed During the Cold-Bending of Grade 91 Tubing as a Function of R/D Ratios 20 15 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 Extrados Intrados Calculated Strain (in.0% Ratio εt / εL .4% 18.6% 24.56 .9% 11.) 40.) 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 165 180 195 210 225 240 255 270 285 300 315 330 Location Around Circumference (degrees) As-Bent Condition (Heat A and B) 1350°F ∗ 30 Minutes (Heat A and B) 1425°F ∗ 60 Minutes (Heat A and B) Figure 2-10 Calculated Strain Levels at the 90° Location of the Tube Bend at Eight Locations Around the Circumference./in.62 2-12 .4% 11.68 .) 27.

there appeared to be no significant difference in the degree of recrystallization that occurred when comparing the three nominal strain levels. The example for the effect of heat treatment on the microstructure of cold-formed tubing is shown in Figure 2-11 for the strain level of 33%.3 The Effect of Heat Treatment on Cold-Worked Grade 91 Microstructure In order to evaluate in a qualitative manner the possible effects of heat treatment on the coldworked microstructures. and the other eight bends (two from each estimated strain level and one from each heat) were stress-relieved at 1425°F (774°C) for 60 minutes. a total of 16 tube bends were given a post-forming heat treatment. Eight of the sixteen bends (two from each estimated strain level and one from each heat) were stressrelieved at 1350°F (732°C) for 30 minutes. In all cases. The degree of recrystallization was limited at all three nominal strain levels. 25%. and evidence of significant recrystallization was observed in specimens representing all three nominal strain levels.Strain Developed During the Cold-Bending of Grade 91 Tubing as a Function of R/D Ratios 2. when viewed by light optical microscopy at magnifications up to 1000x. at least as the recrystallization amount could be determined by optical microscopy at magnifications as high as 1000x. The microstructural examination was focused on nominal strain levels of 20%. metallographic specimens were removed from the bend extrados to provide both the longitudinal and circumferential views of the structure. For each nominal strain level and heat treatment condition. however. Surprisingly. For the 1425°F heat treatment for 60 minutes. the degree of recrystallization was more advanced. specimens were also removed from the bend extrados on the as-bent tubes. and 33%. The heat treatment parameters had been selected to bracket the range of tempering parameters commonly used in manufacturing for the processing of Grade 91 tubing. 2-13 . The metallographic examination established that for the 1350°F treatment for 30 minutes. the first traces of recrystallization could be seen in the cold-worked Grade 91 material. the grain structure had been refined in comparison with the cold-worked condition. For comparison.

The measured hardness values are summarized in the Table 2-4. 2-14 .Strain Developed During the Cold-Bending of Grade 91 Tubing as a Function of R/D Ratios Figure 2-11 Example of the Effect of Heat Treatment on the Microstructure of Cold-Formed Tubing Hardness measurements were obtained using a Vickers hardness tester with a 20-kg test load from specimens representing nominal strain levels of 20% and 33%.

It should be pointed out that the same tempering parameters (1350°F for 30 minutes and 1425°F for 60 minutes) will be used in the program to further evaluate the effects of heat treatment on coldworked Grade 91 material. At 1425°F for 60 minutes. the heat treatment reduced the hardness value of the cold-worked Grade 91 to a level that is approximately equal to that of the original base metal with 0% cold-work. tempering at both conditions reduced the hardness measurably. 2-15 .Strain Developed During the Cold-Bending of Grade 91 Tubing as a Function of R/D Ratios Table 2-4 Hardness Values of Specimens Nominal Strain Level 20% 33% As-Bent 251 HV / 239 HB 255 HV / 243 HB 1350°F for 30 minutes 237 HV / 225 HB 234 HV / 223 HB 1425°F for 60 minutes 227 HV / 216 HB 227 HV / 216 HB Base Metal (0% Strain) 225 HV / 214 HB 225 HV / 214 HB As can be seen. The hardness testing results were generally consistent with the metallographic examination.

.

REVIEW OF CREEP RUPTURE TEST RESULTS USING COLD-ROLLED GRADE 91 STRIPS

3

Prior to the beginning of the current test program, limited creep rupture testing had been conducted on cold-formed Grade 91 material, in which the cold-deformation had been induced by cold-rolling flattened strips of the material. This testing involved two separate heats (Heats A and B). The chemical composition for the two heats is presented in Table 3-1.
Table 3-1 Chemical Composition for the Two Heats Used for Simulated Creep Rupture Testing Heat # Heat A Heat B C .094 .086 Mn .38 .38 P .020 .020 S <.001 .001 Si .29 .26 Ni .14 .06 Cr 8.64 8.25 Mo .86 .88 V .21 .22 Nb .06 .07 Cu .02 <.01 Al .03 .03 N .041 .046

Cold-rolling is an easily controlled method of inducing a specific level of deformation, and it has been the method of choice in several of the studies on the effects of cold-work that have been conducted to date. However, the manner in which the material is deformed during cold-rolling only introduces compressive deformation to the material, which is significantly different than the manner in which the material is deformed in both tension and compression at certain critical locations in a tube during bending. Questions have been raised regarding the validity of the data obtained from the testing of cold-rolled strip, and it has been this uncertainty that served as the basis for the current study. For the earlier study, coupons were rolled to five different levels of cold-work (10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, and 30%). At the time of the study, Grade 91 plate was not available, and therefore Grade 91 tubes were used instead. Strips were cut from the tubing so that the longitudinal axis was oriented perpendicular to the intended rolling direction. These strips were flattened and then normalized and tempered at Alstom’s Chattanooga manufacturing facility. The flattened strips were then sent to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to be cold-rolled to the desired level of cold-strain for each of the two material heats. To serve as control samples, several of the specimens were normalized and tempered, but were not cold-worked. Prior to conducting creep rupture testing, hardness was measured on all simulation coupons using a Vickers hardness tester with a 20-kg test load. The results of the hardness testing are summarized in Table 3-2.

3-1

Review of Creep Rupture Test Results Using Cold-Rolled Grade 91 Strips Table 3-2 Material Hardness Values as a Function of the Level of Cold-Work Vickers (20-kg Load) Hardness of Grade Heat # Heat A Heat B N&T 215 204 10% Cold-Work 231 271 15% Cold-Work 231 251 20% Cold-Work 312 224 25% Cold-Work 307 276 30% Cold-Work 338 338

A total of 36 specimens, including 21 specimens at 0% and 15 specimens at 10–30%, were machined for creep rupture testing. Creep rupture testing was conducted at two different temperatures, 600°C and 650°C, and at various stress levels in the range of 81–190 MPa. Test results are presented in Figures 3-1 and 3-2 as the Larson-Miller Parameter (LMP = [T(°K) * (35.0 + Log time(hrs))] / 1000) plotted against the various stress levels. In Figure 3-1, the creep rupture test results of 0% specimens (shown in the plot as solid symbols with trend lines) are compared with those of various levels (10–30%) of cold-strained specimens (shown as open symbols). In Figure 3-2, the same creep rupture test results are further detailed as the function of cold-strain levels.

3-2

Review of Creep Rupture Test Results Using Cold-Rolled Grade 91 Strips

225

200

175 Stress (MPa)

150

125

100

75 31 32 33 34 35 36 LMP T (K) * (35.0 + Log time(hrs)) / 1000

Heat A, 0% Heat B, 0% Heat A, 10–30% Cold-Work Heat B, 10–30% Cold-Work Figure 3-1 Summarized Creep Rupture Test Results Using Cold-Rolled Grade 91 Strips at Test Temperatures of 600°C and 650°C and at Various Stress Levels in the Range of 81–190 MPa

3-3

The results further indicated that the greater the cold-strain level. It was as an attempt to answer these questions that the current. especially at strain levels above 10%.Review of Creep Rupture Test Results Using Cold-Rolled Grade 91 Strips 225 200 175 Stress (MPa) 150 125 100 75 31 32 33 34 35 36 LMP T (K) * (35. more detailed study of cold-working effects was initiated. over the possible influence of the manner in which the material was strained on the material behavior. and over the magnitude of the effect at intermediate strain levels where. Questions remained. at present.0 + Log time(hrs)) / 1000 Heat A: Blue Heat B: Green 10% Cold-Work 15% Cold-Work 20% Cold-Work 25% Cold-Work 30% Cold-Work Figure 3-2 Summarized Creep Rupture Test Results as a Function of Cold-Work Levels Despite the anomalous behavior of the Heat B material. there exists some confusion regarding the appropriate heat treatment practice. 3-4 . however. the more significant the adverse effect on creep rupture properties. this preliminary study indicated that for the Grade 91 material there was a definite effect of cold-working by rolling on the creep rupture behavior of the material.

001 .10 .08-.21 .020 max .40 max Cr 8.06-.18-. 4. First.92 V . it is hoped that evaluating material that has been cold-deformed in a manner approximating the strain behavior of a tubular bend will answer the question of whether the method of straining substantially alters the response of the material to cold-working effects. In comparison with the strain induced by the cold-rolling of plate.44 .85-1. The chemical composition and mechanical properties of the Grade 91 heat are presented in Tables 4-1 and 4-2.013 .60 SA-387 Gr. measuring 6" x 6" x 30" (152 mm x 152 mm x 762 mm) and representing one heat of material.35 8.07 .20-. because 6" (152-mm) thick plate of the Grade 91 material was not available at the time of the program start.85-1.14 .50 .075 .30-.21 Nb .014 .03-. Although the scope of the project has limited the evaluation to one heat of Grade 91 material.07 4-1 . The use of a 6" thick block was intended to minimize the through-thickness strain gradient.33 .08-.11 8.13 ------- Al .030-.12 .010 max .48 P .049 ASME .25 .60 . it is intended that the testing will more accurately characterize the response of Grade 91 material to cold-work effects at intermediate levels of strain as a basis for formulating technically defensible heat treatment requirements.20-.05 .16 .1 Material Preparation for Creep Rupture Testing Four forged blocks of Grade 91 material.06-.50 8.50 Ni .18-.070 .0-9. so that the local strain within the gage section of the creep rupture specimens could be maintained at a relatively uniform level. Table 4-1 Chemical Composition of the Grade 91 Heat for the Test Program Heat # 66071 (Alstom Lab) 66071 (Mill Report) C . were purchased for the program.001 .04 max .12 .015 .33 .085 .00-9.025 max S .10 Cu .090 Mn . sufficient material is available to support a larger test matrix than originally proposed.04 max .EVALUATION OF COLD-WORK AND HEAT TREATMENT ON THE ELEVATED-TEMPERATURE CREEP RUPTURE PROPERTIES OF GRADE 91 MATERIAL USING COLD-BENT BLOCKS 4 The test program has been designed to obtain information on two unresolved questions.25 .017 N .025 max Si .91 ASTM A336-F91 . Second.05 .93 .30-.40 max .047 .5 Mo . strain induced by bending provides a closer approximation of both the tension and compression strain patterns that develop during the cold-bending of tubing and piping.

It should be noted that the tempering parameter for the re-heat treatment was adjusted to simulate V&M Tubing’s tempering practice for Grade 91 tubing. 1350 min. A typical area of the microstructure of the Grade 91 test material after the re-heat treatment is shown in Figure 4-2. two pairs of thermocouples were attached to one of the four pieces so that the center and surface temperatures of the blocks could be monitored.125" (3. quenching in oil. During the entire course of the re-heat treatment.4 mm Figure 4-1 Sketch Showing the Center Thermocouple Location After the re-heat treatment.Evaluation of Cold-Work and Heat Treatment on the Elevated-Temperature Creep Rupture Properties of Grade 91 Material Using Cold-Bent Blocks Table 4-2 Mechanical Composition of the Grade 91 Heat for the Test Program Heat # Tensile Strength (ksi) 106 85–110 85–110 Yield Strength (ksi) 87 60 min. Examination of the microstructure after the re-heat treatment using optical microscopy showed that the microstructure was uniform from the surface to the center of the test blocks and also confirmed the absence of coarse grain boundary carbides. 60 min. Normalizing (°F/h) 1900/5 1900–2000 1900–2000 Tempering (°F/h) 1400/8 1350 min. and tempering at 1436°F (780°C) for 1 hour. all four pieces were re-heat treated. This re-heat treated structure then became the base condition for all subsequent testing in the program.2-mm) diameter x 3" (76-mm) deep centerline hole. Reduction in Area (%) 66 --40 min. The hardness test results are summarized in Table 4-3. To ensure uniformity of the microstructure throughout the 6" x 6" (152-mm x 152-mm) cross-sectional area of the blocks and to eliminate any coarse carbides that may have formed near the center of the blocks during “slow” cooling from the normalizing temperature. The center thermocouple was installed into a 0. Elongation in 2" (%) 23 18 min. as shown in Figure 4-1. 66071 (Mill Report) ASME ASTM The as-received Grade 91material (four separate blocks) had been normalized and tempered by the mill after forging. 1 inch = 25. where it may be seen that the hardness was consistent throughout the cross section. a through-thickness hardness survey was conducted to verify the uniformity of the microstructure across the entire cross-section of the block. located 6" (152 mm) from the end of the block. 4-2 . 20 min. The re-heat treatment consisted of austenitizing at 1940°F (1060°C) for 1 hour. The holding time was recorded once the center of the block had reached the designated heat-treating temperature.

2–1.2 Scale Model Study of the Bending Procedure for Preparation of Test Coupons Based on the results of the tube bend strain measurements as described above. In order to determine the most appropriate bending procedure to produce the desired levels of strain in 6" x 6" x 30" (152-mm x 152-mm x 762-mm) forged blocks.3 times the nominal strain level predicted using D/2R. scale models of the blocks. were constructed 4-3 .4 mm x 127 mm).4 mm x 25.Evaluation of Cold-Work and Heat Treatment on the Elevated-Temperature Creep Rupture Properties of Grade 91 Material Using Cold-Bent Blocks Table 4-3 Hardness Measurements from the Surface to the Center of the Block Location Near Surface Hardness (HB) 217 1" from Surface 212 2" from Surface 212 Center 212 Figure 4-2 Typical Microstructural Condition of the Grade 91 Material in the Re-Heat Treated Condition 4. it was known that the actual strain levels in cold-bent tubing are typically 1. measuring 1" x 1" x 5" (25.

25-mm) diameter dies were evaluated.Evaluation of Cold-Work and Heat Treatment on the Elevated-Temperature Creep Rupture Properties of Grade 91 Material Using Cold-Bent Blocks from Grade 91 plate material and bent using several different bending procedures. Single-step 3-point bending caused a peaking effect. 4-point bending required too high a bending force. and combination bending techniques. For the bending of these models. • Figure 4-3 Typical Results of Single-Step 3-Point Bending and Multiple-Step 3-Point Bending 4-4 . Approximately 43 tons (39.35-mm) grids were marked on their surface to permit determination of the local strain after bending.25" (6. A total of four scale models were made and evaluated. Prior to bending the scale models. as shown in Figure 4-3.35-mm x 6. coupled with 3-point bending.8-mm) and 3. 4-point bending. which resulted in a steep strain gradient in the longitudinal direction. with extensive measurements and strain calculations obtained from each model.4-mm x 25. both 2" (50.4-mm) cross-section scale model.75" (92. Multiple-step 3-point bending with various-size dies (upper and lower dies) created a desirable bend profile. as shown in Figure 4-3. The results of the scale model study are summarized as follows: • • • No cracking or tearing developed on the tension surface of the scale models to a maximum strain of 73%. 0.000 kg) of bending force was needed to bend the 1" x 1" (25.25" x 0.

An example of the blocks ready for bending is shown in Figure 4-4.4-mm) grids were marked over a 20" (508-mm) center portion on the tension surface of the blocks. 4-5 .5" (12.25" x 0. The target maximum strain level on the tension surface was 34%.7-mm x 12. a three-step 3-point bending procedure with varioussize upper and lower dies was selected to produce the cold-bent coupons for the program. Then.25" (6. The evaluation showed that in cold-bent tubing the local strain produced on the outer fibers of the bend extrados would not normally exceed 35%. The change in the size of the grids permitted a determination to be made of the local strain level and strain distribution through the entire block. which represented a wide range of bend radii and tube diameters in common use for boiler applications. with 0. This target strain was identified based on the results of an evaluation of strain patterns recorded on a large group of cold-bent tubes.3 Bending the 6" x 6" x 30" Test Coupons After reviewing the results of the scale model study with a manufacturing engineer familiar with the bending of heavy section components. 0. 1" x 1" (25. so that creep rupture test specimens could be removed from specific locations with the desired amount of strain. Prior to the bending.35-mm) grids were marked over a 10" (254-mm) section near the center of the blocks.5" x 0.7-mm) grids marked on 5" (127-mm) extensions from the center area. all side-surfaces of the blocks were mechanically cleaned and blue-inked.35-mm x 6. In addition.4-mm x 25.Evaluation of Cold-Work and Heat Treatment on the Elevated-Temperature Creep Rupture Properties of Grade 91 Material Using Cold-Bent Blocks 4.

4-6 . During the bending. The bending sequence is documented in Figures 4-5 and 4-6. Tennessee.Evaluation of Cold-Work and Heat Treatment on the Elevated-Temperature Creep Rupture Properties of Grade 91 Material Using Cold-Bent Blocks Figure 4-4 Example of the 6" x 6" x 30" Test Blocks and the Grids Inscribed on the Surface of the Blocks Prior to Bending The bending of the blocks was carried out in Alstom’s header shop in Chattanooga. and an example of the cold-bent coupons is presented in Figure 4-7. the metal temperature of the blocks was monitored using a laser-guided infrared thermometer. The maximum metal temperature of the coupons was controlled to maintain the metal temperature of the blocks below 150°F (66°C). using a 6000-ton press.

Evaluation of Cold-Work and Heat Treatment on the Elevated-Temperature Creep Rupture Properties of Grade 91 Material Using Cold-Bent Blocks Figure 4-5 Bending Status After Completion of the First Stage in the Bending Process 4-7 .

Evaluation of Cold-Work and Heat Treatment on the Elevated-Temperature Creep Rupture Properties of Grade 91 Material Using Cold-Bent Blocks Figure 4-6 Bending Status After Completion of the Second and Third Stages of the Bending Process 4-8 .

with the Inscribed Grid Patterns Shown in the Bend Zone 4.4 Determination of Local Strain and Strain Distribution for Preparation of Creep Rupture Test Specimens To accurately characterize the local strain produced during the bending of the blocks. identifying the location 4-9 . 1200 separate measurements were obtained from the grid-matrix inscribed on the surfaces of each block.Evaluation of Cold-Work and Heat Treatment on the Elevated-Temperature Creep Rupture Properties of Grade 91 Material Using Cold-Bent Blocks Figure 4-7 Final Condition of the Bent Test Coupons. Based on these measurements. Then. a specimen removal plan was formulated. a strain matrix was generated for the entire bending zone produced on each block.

V&M Tubing. 8. All creep rupture specimens used in the test program were produced with a 0. The test stress levels for the program ranged from 8. 11–14]. the variation in strain level within the gage section of any of the creep rupture specimens was calculated to be less than 5%. a range which spans the design stress levels for most applications in boilers. Test temperatures were selected to yield rupture times for the unstrained base metal between 300 and 10. plus one of two post-forming subcritical heat treatments The tests of the cold-strained material focused on tensile strains ranging from 10 to 30%.505" (12.5 Creep Rupture Testing Creep rupture testing was conducted on specimens obtained from the test blocks that represented the following conditions: • • • Material with no cold-strain (0%) Material embodying various levels of cold-strain. along with test data from ORNL.000 hours. MPC. The orientation of the specimens relative to the test block was such that the specimens were removed from the tension side of the bend with the axis of the specimen transverse to the straining direction and parallel to the tension surface (as shown in Figure 4-8). Figure 4-8 Photo Showing Orientation of Test Specimens It was possible to remove approximately 35 creep rupture specimens from each coupon. and MHI [2. Based on the results of the strain measurements across the entire bending zone. in addition to 12 base metal specimens with 0% strain. but with no post-forming heat treatment Material embodying various levels of cold-strain. including 15 specimens with 10–30% tension strain and 8 specimens with 10–25% compression strain. The time-to-rupture for unstrained base metal was estimated based on the imputed creep rupture properties for Grade 91 material calculated from the ASME SC I allowable stresses for sections above and below 3" in thickness. EPRI.Evaluation of Cold-Work and Heat Treatment on the Elevated-Temperature Creep Rupture Properties of Grade 91 Material Using Cold-Bent Blocks for each creep rupture specimen that would represent the desired level of strain.7 ksi (60 MPa) to 20.3 ksi (140 MPa). 4-10 .827 mm) diameter in the gage length. 4.

the test results for unstrained material were compared with the imputed mean and minimum properties calculated from the ASME SC I allowable stresses for section thickness above and below 3" (76 mm). 4-11 . As shown in Figure 4-9. the Larson-Miller plot of the results indicates that the creep strength of the unstrained material falls between the mean values for Grade 91 above and below 3" in section thickness.5. That is.1 Creep Rupture Behavior of Unstrained Grade 91 Material The initial creep rupture tests were designed to “locate” the unstrained test material within the database population.Evaluation of Cold-Work and Heat Treatment on the Elevated-Temperature Creep Rupture Properties of Grade 91 Material Using Cold-Bent Blocks 4.

Evaluation of Cold-Work and Heat Treatment on the Elevated-Temperature Creep Rupture Properties of Grade 91 Material Using Cold-Bent Blocks 100.00 58.00 65.00 LMP=(T+460)(36+logt)/1000 Figure 4-9 Documentation of the Creep Rupture Behavior of the Unstrained Grade 91 Test Material as Compared to the Imputed Mean and Minimum Properties for Grade 91 Material 4-12 .00 61.00 60.) Grade 91 Base Metal with 0% Cold-Work Stress (ksi) 10.00 69.0 Imputed Mean for Grade 91 (<3 in.00 59.) Imputed Minimum for Grade 91 (>3 in.00 63.00 64.00 62.0 57.00 66.0 Note: Imputed Mean and Minimum Properties are Calculated Based on ASME SC I Allowable Stresses 1.) Imputed Mean for Grade 91 (>3 in.00 67.) Imputed Minimum for Grade 91 (<3 in.00 68.

so that as the strain increases the creep rupture life decreases.5. The magnitude of the effect appears to be directly proportional to the amount of cold-strain. it is clear that the cold-work induced during bending has had a significant and adverse effect on the creep rupture behavior of the Grade 91 material. Based on the results obtained to date. specifically 10%. on the creep rupture behavior of the Grade 91 material focused on two stress levels. These stresses were chosen because they represented typical reheater and superheater design values.5 ksi (100 MPa).7 ksi (60 MPa) and 14. 8. The test results are presented in Figure 4-10. 20%. and 30%.Evaluation of Cold-Work and Heat Treatment on the Elevated-Temperature Creep Rupture Properties of Grade 91 Material Using Cold-Bent Blocks 4. where they are compared with the results obtained for the unstrained base metal (0%) as well as the imputed mean and minimum properties calculated from the ASME SC I allowable stresses for section thickness above and below 3" (76 mm). 4-13 .2 The Effect of Cold-Work on Creep Rupture Behavior of Grade 91 Material The evaluation of the effect of varying levels of cold-work.

00 58.00 62.00 59.0 Imputed Mean for Grade 91 (<3 in. Based on Comparison with the Behavior of the Unstrained Base Metal 4-14 .) Imputed Minimum for Grade 91 (>3 in.) Imputed Mean for Grade 91 (>3 in.00 67.00 63.00 60.Evaluation of Cold-Work and Heat Treatment on the Elevated-Temperature Creep Rupture Properties of Grade 91 Material Using Cold-Bent Blocks 100.) Grade 91-Base Metal (0% Cold-Work) Grade 91-30% Cold-Work Grade 91-20% Cold-Work Grade 91-15% Cold-Work Grade 91-10% Cold-Work Stress (ksi) 10.00 66.0 57.00 69.00 68.0 Note: Imputed Mean and Minimum Properties are Calculated Based on ASME Maximum Allowable Stress 1.00 61.) Imputed Minimum for Grade 91 (<3 in.00 65.00 LMP=(T+460)(36+logt)/1000 Figure 4-10 Documentation of the Effect of Cold-Work on the Creep Rupture Behavior of the Grade 91 Test Material.00 64.

These heat treatments fairly represent typical postfabrication (tempering) heat treatment practice for Grade 91 tubular components. The creep rupture test results are shown in Figure 4-11. and 30% levels. The creep rupture tests for the specimens representing these heat treatment conditions were conducted at a stress level of 14. and 25%.Evaluation of Cold-Work and Heat Treatment on the Elevated-Temperature Creep Rupture Properties of Grade 91 Material Using Cold-Bent Blocks 4. with the cold-strain levels of 15%. 20%.5 ksi (100 MPa). 4-15 . were selected for evaluation.3 The Effect of Heat Treatment on Creep Rupture Behavior of Cold-Worked Grade 91 Material Two subcritical heat treatments. representing a low and a high tempering parameter (1350ºF [732ºC] for 30 minutes and 1425ºF [774ºC] for 60 minutes). 20%. where they are compared with the results for the unstrained base metal (0%) and the cold-strained material at the 10%.5.

00 66.20 65.80 68.0 Heat Treatment 1: 1350°F for 30 Minutes Heat Treatment 2: 1425°F for 60 Minutes Imputed Mean for Grade 91 (<3 in.) Imputed Minimum for Grade 91 (>3 in.Evaluation of Cold-Work and Heat Treatment on the Elevated-Temperature Creep Rupture Properties of Grade 91 Material Using Cold-Bent Blocks 100.0 Note: Imputed Mean and Minimum Properties are Calculated Based on ASME Maximum Allowable 1.00 67.0 65.) Grade 91-Base Metal (0% Cold-Work) Grade 91-30% Cold-Work Grade 91-20% Cold-Work Grade 91-15% Cold-Work Grade 91-10% Cold-Work Grade 91-25% Cold-Work + Heat Treatment Grade 91-20% Cold-Work + Heat Treatment Grade 91-15% Cold-Work + Heat Treatment Stress (ksi) 10.20 67.) Imputed Mean for Grade 91 (>3 in.00 65.80 66.20 66.40 66.60 66.20 Figure 4-11 The Effect of a Post-Forming Subcritical Heat Treatment on the Creep Rupture Behavior of the Cold-Worked Grade 91 Test Material Compared with the Behavior of the Unstrained Base Metal and the Cold-Worked Material with No Post-Forming Heat Treatment 4-16 .40 65.60 67.60 65.80 67.) Imputed Minimum for Grade 91 (<3 in.40 67.00 68.

As expected. and coldworked plus post-forming heat treatment. cold-worked (10–30%).4 The Relationship Between Cold-Work-Induced Hardness Increase and Creep Life Reduction Hardness measurements were conducted on the Grade 91 material in all test conditions.5. using a Brinel hardness tester with the standard test condition (10-mm ball and 3000-kg load). the post-forming heat treatments reduced the cold-worked hardness by an amount that was consistent with the tempering parameter for the specific heat treatment applied. Comparing the results for the specimens heat treated at 1350ºF for 30 minutes with the results for specimens heat treated at 1425ºF for 60 minutes suggests a slight improvement in creep strength with a higher tempering parameter. 4-17 . the increase in hardness stemming from the cold-work was found to be directly proportional to the amount of cold-strain. What was not expected. Also as expected. was the fact that the magnitude of the creep life reduction was directly proportional to the increase in hardness caused by the cold-work. including unstrained base metal (quenched and tempered).Evaluation of Cold-Work and Heat Treatment on the Elevated-Temperature Creep Rupture Properties of Grade 91 Material Using Cold-Bent Blocks The limited test results obtained indicate that post-forming heat treatment of the cold-worked Grade 91 material in the range of 1350ºF (732ºC) for 30 minutes and 1425ºF (774º) for 60 minutes provides no significant increase in the creep rupture time. as shown in Figure 4-12. 4. The results of the measurements are recorded in Table 4-4. but what is potentially of considerable practical interest.

) Grade 91 (25%CW+1425°F/60 min.) Grade 91 (15% CW) Grade 91 (15%CW+1350°F/30 min.) Grade 91 (10% CW) 1 218 240 225 210 228 224 212 224 223 206 220 16–+144% 62––80% – – 22 7 59––80% – – – + – + 65% 60% – – 56% 50% 8 – 10 6 46– 54% – – 42––50% – + – 36% 25% --– 20% 7% 6 6 5 – + + – 46––59% + – – – 5% 18% 6% 12 2 25% – – + 49–0% 7––18% Imputed mean value was calculated based on ASME SC I allowable stresses for Grade 91 with thickness greater than 3".) Grade 91 (20% CW) Grade 91 (20%CW+1350°F/30 min.Evaluation of Cold-Work and Heat Treatment on the Elevated-Temperature Creep Rupture Properties of Grade 91 Material Using Cold-Bent Blocks Table 4-4 Cold-Work-Induced Hardness Increase and Creep Life Reduction Sample ID Hardness (HB) Hardness Difference (HB-HB0) 0 + Life Reduction (%) Relative to Base Metal 0 – Relative to Imputed Mean1 – Grade 91 BM (0%) (HB0) Grade 91 (30% CW) Grade 91 (25%CW+1350°F/30 min.) Grade 91 (15%CW+1425°F/60 min. 4-18 .) Grade 91 (20%CW+1425°F/60 min.

Evaluation of Cold-Work and Heat Treatment on the Elevated-Temperature Creep Rupture Properties of Grade 91 Material Using Cold-Bent Blocks 80 70 60 Life Reduction (%) 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 Cold-Work-Induced Hardness Increase (HV) Figure 4-12 Creep Life Reduction as a Function of Hardness Increase Induced by Cold-Working 4-19 .

.

in which the impact of post-forming subcritical heat treatment on the rupture properties of the material included beneficial effects in some instances. Based on limited test results. In general. apparently related to the magnitude of the tempering parameter. but that the magnitude of the effect increases with the level of cold-strain induced. Results to date indicate that there is no obvious threshold value below which the effect is absent.CONCLUSIONS 5 • Principal conclusions of the study are as follows: Testing of Grade 91 material that had been cold-worked to approximate the strain induced during typical cold-bending of boiler tubes has confirmed that this cold-work does have a significant and adverse effect on the creep rupture strength of the material. the results of this study are in broad agreement with the results obtained from prior studies in which the cold-work was induced in the material through the cold-rolling reduction of plate specimens. Inconsistencies have been noted with the results of a recent V&M Tubing study. and the tempering effect of the post-forming heat treatment was consistent with the relative magnitude of the tempering parameter. This is consistent with the explanation that attributes the degradation in properties induced by cold-work to accelerated recovery/recrystallization and the consequent reduction in the obstacles to dislocation movement. As expected. It will be necessary to resolve this question through additional testing. since the apparent benefits do not appear to be consistent with the mechanism by which it is assumed the degradation due to cold-work takes place. the increase in the material hardness due to cold-work was proportional to the amount of strain. What was not expected was a possible relation between the magnitude of the creep life reduction and the increase in the material hardness caused by the cold-work. a post-forming subcritical heat treatment conducted at tempering parameters commonly used in the fabrication of Grade 91 tubular components provided no significant benefit with regard to restoration of the creep rupture strength of cold-worked Grade 91 material. • • • 5-1 .

.

Results of the recent V&M Tubing study indicate that under certain circumstances these heat treatments may. • 6-1 . The benefits of post-forming subcritical heat treatments of cold-formed bends in Grade 91 material are minimal with respect to improvements in creep rupture life. Similar proposals currently are being considered by an ASME SCII Task Group. if the full strength of the Grade 91 material is required to ensure satisfactory service life. and. and action on this matter is expected in the near future. such as a reduction in hardness or residual stress to avoid corrosion-related damage. therefore. be damaging. other potential benefits of the post-forming subcritical heat treatment. they need not be applied for that purpose. may dictate that they be performed for a specific application.RECOMMENDATIONS 6 • Recommendations arising from the study include the following: Based on the information available to date. However. then when the amount of tensile strain induced during bending exceeds 20%. the full length of the tubing should be renormalized and tempered. in fact.

.

Duplicate specimens will be tested for all material conditions.000 hours. The range of variations in response to cold-work between different heats of the material should be investigated in a systematic fashion. 7-1 . Finally. microstructural studies will be conducted on material in all conditions represented in the creep rupture tests in order to correlate the loss of strength and the effect of post-forming heat treatment with the change in substructure. but there is currently no provision for such work to be carried out.FUTURE WORK 7 Alstom intends to continue the current program in order to confirm results obtained through relatively short-term tests by comparing them with the results of longer-term tests intended to run up to 10. Further validation of the effects of the cold-work will be obtained through the performance of carefully selected pressurized tubular creep rupture tests. Tests also will be performed on specimens removed from the compression side of the bends to compare the effects on rupture strength of compressive and tensile strains of a similar magnitude. Additional creep rupture tests are planned to focus on intermediate strain levels in an effort to identify a threshold value below which the effect on properties is not practically significant.

.

Ward. Ward. J. Section II. and Heat-Exchanger Tubes. to R. Roberts. 17–30. B. Chakravarti. Chicago. 8 8-1 . C. T. 8. S. London. ORNL. W. ASME. Iseda. C. Yosikawa. and K. 1000 Prospect Hill Road. October 25–27. The Sumitomo Search. 5. 1992. Kubata. Combustion Engineering. Vallourec Industries. Etienne. 11. Superheater. C. Bodine. G.. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. and J. W. G. Tennessee. SA213-2001. S.” ORNL/BRP-79/2. 1977. Vandergriff. M. and C. Part II: Modified 9Cr-1Mo Steel Development Program Progress Report for Period Ending September 30. A. “Effect of Fabrication Processes on the Creep Behavior of 9-12% Chromium Steels. Sikka. Arav. C. Y.. T. Owens. M. Ward. Vandergriff. March 1994. British Nuclear Society. B. 1978.Yamamoto. Bodine. May/June 1997. F. May 1988. C. Chakravarti. M. C. A Program for the Development of Advanced Ferritic Alloys for LMFBR Structural Applications. and C. Van Wortel. S. Florida. Contract AT (30-1)-4004 Correspondence: CEND-355 June 1969 (First Proposal for Development of 9–12%Cr for BRP Applications). Oak Ridge. pp. Part I: Modified 9Cr-1Mo Steel Development Program Progress Report for Period Ending September 30. M. Haynase.REFERENCES 1. H. Ward. T. D. Lentferink. Harkness. B. Swindeman. D. M. “Development of a Ferritic Steel for High Temperature Power Plants. 4. W. Roberts. Revision 2. CEND-360 December 1970. Jr. Windsor. Ward. T. B. 9.” Paper 25 in International Conference on Ferritic Steels for Fast Reactor Steam Generators. Private Communication. Oak Ridge National Laboratory.” Paper Presented at Materials Show and Conference of American Society of Metals. “Specification for Seamless Ferritic and Austenitic Alloy–Steel Boiler. Inc.” ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. C. K.. “The Development of a 9Cr Steel with Improved Strength and Toughness.” Proceedings of the International Conference on Creep of Materials. D. 3. Bodine. R&PD 960003-1 July 1970. Connecticut. “C-E Power Systems. M. F. The T91 Book. V. Oak Ridge. B. D. Jr. “Oak Ridge National Laboratory. September 1977. Harkness. 10. T. Tennessee. Alstom Power. Chakravarti. and C. TR-MCD-015. C. May 1–21. 6. G. Lake Buena Vista. 1978. 7. 2. Owens. Part A. C.” ORNL/BRP-79/2.

September 2002. 8-2 . 13. C. D. 1983. Creep Data Sheets. L. March 29. Thorwald. Anderson. 14. V. Lundin. Liu. ORNL/SMI/MHI/CE Joint Meeting on Super 9Cr (Modified 9Cr-1Mo). “Determination of Creep Behavior of Singular HAZ Regions to Model the Behavior of the Entire HAZ of Cr-Mo Steels (ASME T/P11.” Welding Research Council Bulletin 475. G. December 1993.References 12. Sumitomo Metals. T/P91. T/P92. Sumitomo Seamless Tubes and Pipe. P. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. and T. T/P122) In Elevated Temperature Service.

356 0.351 0.4 36.351 0.4 34.4 12B B 9833-01 33% 1350°F * 30 minutes 0° 30° 60° 90° 120° 150° 180° A-1 .351 0.6 40.351 0.253 0.331 0.5 40.253 0.341 0.4 40.336 0.5 40.7 1.351 0.4 40.351 0.4 40.253 0.253 0.341 0.253 0.351 0.4 40.4 1.253 Calculated Strain (∆L / Li) 1.4 36.351 0.4 1.4 40.4 1.4 1.351 0.4 40.4 40.351 0.351 0.4 42.253 0.4 42.) 0.A MEASURED AND CALCULATED STRAINS FOR BENT TUBES USED IN THE STUDY Location along Bend 0° 30° 60° 90° 120° 150° 180° 11B B 9833-01 33% As Bent 0° 30° 60° 90° 120° 150° 180° Square after Bend (in.351 0.321 0.) 0.4 40.4 Tube # 11A Heat # B 9832-01 Estimated Strain 33% Heat Treatment As Bent Tube # 12A Heat # B 9832-01 Estimated Strain 33% Heat Treatment 1350°F * 30 minutes Location along Bend 0° 30° 60° 90° 120° 150° 180° Square after Bend (in.4 32.356 0.6 40.4 40.351 0.253 Calculated Strain (∆L / Li) 1.4 28.4 1.

6 32.327 0.336 0.253 Calculated Strain (∆L / Li) 1.341 0.4 32.7 32.7 30.6 1.331 0.331 0.7 1.6 1.7 1.4 36.6 30.) 0.5 36.4 1.4 Tube # 13A Heat # B 9832-01 Estimated Strain 33% Heat Treatment 1425°F * 60 minutes Tube # 15A Heat # B 9832-01 Estimated Strain 25% Heat Treatment As Bent Location along Bend 0° 30° 60° 90° 120° 150° 180° Square after Bend (in.6 32.351 0.4 36.4 1.351 0.253 0.4 30.327 0.5 38.336 0.253 0.253 0.331 0.253 0.5 32.322 0.327 0.331 0.6 40.331 0.341 0.7 30.253 0.) 0.4 34.346 0.253 Calculated Strain (∆L / Li) 1.4 15B B 9833-01 25% As Bent 0° 30° 60° 90° 120° 150° 180° A-2 .5 40.6 28.5 36.Measured and Calculated Strains for Bent Tubes Used in the Study Location along Bend 0° 30° 60° 90° 120° 150° 180° 13B B 9833-01 33% 1425°F * 60 minutes 0° 30° 60° 90° 120° 150° 180° Square after Bend (in.341 0.341 0.6 32.4 34.331 0.253 0.327 0.

4 17B B 9833-01 25% 1425°F * 60 minutes 0° 30° 60° 90° 120° 150° 180° A-3 .327 0.253 0.331 0.6 32.) 0.331 0.6 1.331 0.7 1.331 0.6 32.4 30.7 30.331 0.7 30.6 32.331 0.331 0.331 0.253 Calculated Strain (∆L / Li) 1.7 30.7 26.6 32.327 0.6 30.Measured and Calculated Strains for Bent Tubes Used in the Study Tube # 16A Heat # B 9832-01 Estimated Strain 25% Heat Treatment 1350°F * 30 minutes Location along Bend 0° 30° 60° 90° 120° 150° 180° Square after Bend (in.4 1.327 0.6 32.7 30.253 0.4 16B B 9833-01 25% 1350°F * 30 minutes 0° 30° 60° 90° 120° 150° 180° Tube # 17A Heat # B 9832-01 Estimated Strain 25% Heat Treatment 1425°F * 60 minutes Location along Bend 0° 30° 60° 90° 120° 150° 180° Square after Bend (in.4 32.4 32.253 Calculated Strain (∆L / Li) 1.253 0.4 32.331 0.327 0.331 0.253 0.253 0.4 1.6 32.327 0.6 30.) 0.8 1.7 30.327 0.327 0.331 0.6 32.6 32.317 0.327 0.253 0.7 1.

3 3.309 0.307 0.4 19.258 0.8 24.307 0.263 0.307 0.9 3.9 22.307 0.9 22.4 23.8 24.297 0.307 0.8 24.8 24.) 0.263 Calculated Strain (∆L / Li) 5.307 0.9 22.9 7.258 0.) 0.8 5.8 23.9 21.9 22.309 0.312 0.312 0.8 24.4 20B B 9833-01 20% 1350°F * 30 minutes 0° 30° 60° 90° 120° 150° 180° A-4 .307 0.312 0.0 22.8 24.8 22.9 22.9 22.3 22.Measured and Calculated Strains for Bent Tubes Used in the Study Tube # 19A Heat # B 9832-01 Estimated Strain 20% Heat Treatment As Bent Location along Bend 0° 30° 60° 90° 120° 150° 180° Square after Bend (in.253 Calculated Strain (∆L / Li) 3.268 0.305 0.9 1.312 0.258 0.312 0.307 0.312 0.312 0.307 0.4 24.258 0.3 19B B 9833-01 20% As Bent 0° 30° 60° 90° 120° 150° 180° Tube # 20A Heat # B 9832-01 Estimated Strain 20% Heat Treatment 1350°F * 30 minutes Location along Bend 0° 30° 60° 90° 120° 150° 180° Square after Bend (in.4 3.

292 0.0 0.292 0.) 0.312 0.0 17.0 17.0 17.0 17.8 24.297 0.8 24.4 24.9 24.0 17.2 20.312 0.250 0.312 0.Measured and Calculated Strains for Bent Tubes Used in the Study Tube # 21A Heat # B 9832-01 Estimated Strain 20% Heat Treatment 1425°F * 60 minutes Location along Bend 0° 30° 60° 90° 120° 150° 180° Square after Bend (in.4 9.8 24.292 0.312 0.0 1.312 0.) 0.8 24.250 0.0 0.3 21B B 9833-01 20% 1425°F * 60 minutes 0° 30° 60° 90° 120° 150° 180° Tube # 24A Heat # B 9832-01 Estimated Strain 15% Heat Treatment 1350°F * 30 minutes Location along Bend 0° 30° 60° 90° 120° 150° 180° Square after Bend (in.8 7.0 17.268 Calculated Strain (∆L / Li) 3.0 17.292 0.312 0.302 0.297 0.292 0.312 0.250 0.8 24.8 24.8 24.0 19.312 0.0 17.292 0.258 0.258 0.273 0.292 0.292 0.4 24B B 9833-01 15% 1350°F * 30 minutes 0° 30° 60° 90° 120° 150° 180° A-5 .312 0.8 3.253 Calculated Strain (∆L / Li) 0.0 19.

Measured and Calculated Strains for Bent Tubes Used in the Study Tube # 25A Heat # B 9832-01 Estimated Strain 15% Heat Treatment 1425°F * 60 minutes Location along Bend 0° 30° 60° 90° 120° 150° 180° Square after Bend (in.0 17.292 0.292 0.292 0. Therefore.250 0.292 0.250 Calculated Strain (∆L / Li) 0.0 17. this heat was not tested at 15% strain as bent.292 0.) 0.292 0.292 0.0 17.0 17.0 17.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 17.292 0.250 0.0 17.0 0.292 0.0 17.292 0.292 0.0 17. A-6 .0 17.297 0.297 0.0 17.292 0.0 19.292 0.0 17.250 Calculated Strain (∆L / Li) 0.0 17.0 19.) 0.250 0.0 25B B 9833-01 15% 1425°F * 60 minutes 0° 30° 60° 90° 120° 150° 180° Tube # 26A Heat # B 9832-01 Estimated Strain 15% Heat Treatment As Bent Location along Bend 0° 30° 60° 90° 120° 150° 180° Square after Bend (in.250 0.0 Note: There was not enough of Heat B 9833-01 to make 24 tubes.

.

you acknowledge that it is your obligation to consult with your company’s legal counsel to determine whether this access is lawful. you and your company acknowledge that this assessment is solely for informational purposes and not for reliance purposes. Now known simply as EPRI. About EPRI EPRI creates science and technology solutions for the global energy and energy services industry. export classification for specific EPRI Intellectual Property. and society.S.855. Inc. the company provides a wide range of innovative products and services to more than 1000 energyrelated organizations in 40 countries. You and your company understand and acknowledge your obligations to make a prompt report to EPRI and the appropriate authorities regarding any access to or use of EPRI Intellectual Property hereunder that may be in violation of applicable U.com • www.Export Control Restrictions Access to and use of EPRI Intellectual Property is granted with the specific understanding and requirement that responsibility for ensuring full compliance with all applicable U. EPRI. Printed on recycled paper in the United States of America EPRI • 3412 Hillview Avenue. California 94303 • USA 800. You and your company acknowledge that it is still the obligation of you and your company to make your own assessment of the applicable U. Electric Power Research Institute and EPRI are registered service marks of the Electric Power Research Institute. Palo Alto. Inc. This includes an obligation to ensure that any individual receiving access hereunder who is not a U. Palo Alto. EPRI’s multidisciplinary team of scientists and engineers draws on a worldwide network of technical and business expertise to help solve today’s toughest energy and environmental problems. citizen or permanent U. In the event you are uncertain whether you or your company may lawfully obtain access to this EPRI Intellectual Property.313. and foreign export laws and regulations is being undertaken by you and your company. resident is permitted access under applicable U.S. Although EPRI may make available on a case by case basis an informal assessment of the applicable U.com .S.S.epri. U. and foreign export laws and regulations.2121 • askepri@epri.3774 • 650. Electrify the World Program: Fossil Materials and Repair 1011352 © 2005 Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI).S.S. export classification and ensure compliance accordingly.S.S. California 94304 • PO Box 10412. electric utilities established the Electric Power Research Institute in 1973 as a nonprofit research consortium for the benefit of utility members. All rights reserved. or foreign export laws or regulations. their customers.