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INSTRUCTION Determination of chloride and sodium chloride in foodstuff (Mohrs method

The chloride content is analysed by direct titration of preparing food sample with silver nitrate solution with chromate indicator. This method is to determine the amount of common chloride present in foodstuff ( milk, butter, soup powder). Reagents 1. The Carrez reagent Carrez ! " potassium ferrocyanide #$%e(C&)' ( )*+,, 1-. solution (m/0)1 Carrez !! 2 zinc sulphate 3n4,$ ( 5*+,, )6. solution (m/0)1 +. 6.1& solution of silver nitrate 7g&,)1 ). 8otassium chromate solution #+Cr,$, 16. (m/0)1 Pre aration of the food sam le! 4oup powder. 9eigh + g of sample (with precision of 6.61 g) in a +-6 ml measuring flask1 moisten with 1-6 ml hot distilled water (about :66 C)and mi(. Cool and dilute with water to the mark. ;i( again and filtrate. 8owdered milk 9eigh +6 g of sample (with precision of 6.61 g) in a +-6 ml measuring flask1 moisten with 1-6 ml hot distilled water (about $66 C) and mi(. 9hen cool dilute with water to the mark and mi(. ;easure -6 ml of prepared milk to measuring flask (+-6ml). 7dd 166 ml distilled water, - ml Carrez ! reagent and - ml Carrez !! reagent. 4olution mi(, dilute distilled water to the mark, mi( again and leave for 1- minutes and filtrate. ;ilk ;easure -6 ml of prepared milk to measuring flask (+-6ml). 7dd 166 ml distilled water, - ml Carrez ! reagent and - ml Carrez !! reagent. 4olution mi(, dilute distilled water to the mark, mi( again and leave for 1- minutes and filtrate. Determination of chloride in sam le! ;easure +- ml of soup filtrate or 166 ml of milk filtrate to conical flask. 7dd 1 ml potassium chromate solution and mi(. Titrate with 6.1& silver nitrate solution to a final orange colour. <o a blank determination (+- or 166 ml water = 1 ml 1 ml potassium chromate solution). >epeat the titration procedure at least ) times. !ndividual results shouldn?t vary more than 6,+ ml. Calculations Calculate chloride content from the following formulas %or soup powder %or powdered milk %or milk Cl @ (01 " 0o) ( 6.66)-$' ( 1666 / m Ag/166g sampleB, Cl @ (01 " 0o) ( 6.66)-$' ( 1+-6 / m Ag/166g sampleB Cl @ (01 " 0o) ( 6.66)-$' ( +-6 / -6 Ag/166ml sampleB

where 01 " volume of silver nitrate reCuired to titrate the sample AmlB1 06 " volume of silver nitrate reCuired to titrate the blank determination AmlB1 6,66)-$' " mass of the chloride AgB corresponding with 1 ml 6.1 & silver nitrate solution1 m " mass of sample AgB Calculate sodium chloride &aCl content in 166 g or 166 ml of product. >D8,>T C,&TD&T4 2 filled up analysis report1 2 description of the aim of the e(ercise1 2 shown calculations of individual results1 2 discussion of results and errors1 2 comparison of the e(perimental data with references.

"N"#$SIS R%PORT Determination of chloride and sodium chloride in foodstuff (Mohrs method)'
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8roduct &! Determination of chloride and sodium chloride in foodstuff! 7. Elank determination 0olume of 7g&,) 0o AmlB 7verage 0o AmlB

E. Chloride determination
m " mass of sample AgB 0olume of 7g&,) 0 1 AmlB Content of Cl Ag /166g or 166 mlB 7verage content of Cl Ag /166g or 166 mlB Content of &aCl Ag /166g or 166 mlB

Sodium chloride, also known as common salt, ta'le salt, or halite, is a chemical compound with the formula &aCl. 4odium chloride is the salt most responsible for the salinity of the ocean and of the e(tracellular fluid of many multicellular organisms. 7s the main ingredient in edible salt, it is commonly used as a condiment and food preservative. (iological im ortance 4odium chloride is essential to life on Darth. ;ost biological tissues and body fluids contain a varying amount of salt. The concentration of sodium ions in the blood is directly related to the regulation of safe body2fluid levels. 8ropagation of nerve impulses by signal transduction is regulated by sodium ions. (8otassium, a metal closely related to 4odium, is also a maFor component in the same bodily systems). 6.G. sodium chloride in water is called a physiological solution because it is isotonic with blood plasma. !t is known medically as normal saline. 8hysiological solution is the mainstay of fluid replacement therapy that is widely used in medicine in prevention or treatment of dehydration, or as an intravenous therapy to prevent hypovolemic shock due to blood loss. *umans are unusual among primates in secreting large amounts of salt by sweating. Production and use Hordanian and !sraeli salt evaporation ponds at the south end of the <ead 4ea ;odern rock salt mine near ;ount ;orris, &ew Iork &owadays, salt is produced by evaporation of seawater or brine from other sources, such as brine wells and salt lakes, and by mining roc) salt, called halite. 9hile most people are familiar with the many uses of salt in cooking, they might be unaware that salt is used in a plethora of applications, from manufacturing pulp and paper to setting dyes in te(tiles and fabric, to producing soaps and detergents. !n most of Canada and the northern J47, large Cuantities of rock salt are used to help clear highways of ice during winter, although K>oad 4altK loses its melting ability at temperatures below 21-LC to 2+6LC (-L% to 2$L%). 4alt is also the raw material used to produce chlorine which itself is reCuired for the production of many modern materials including 80C and pesticides. (iological uses ;any microorganisms cannot live in an overly salty environment water is drawn out of their cells by osmosis. %or this reason salt is used to preserve some foods, such as smoked bacon or fish. !t has also been used to disinfect wounds. !n medieval times salt would be rubbed in to household surfaces as a cleansing agent. "dditi*es The salt sold for consumption today is not pure sodium chloride. !n 1G11 ;agnesium carbonate was first added to salt to make it flow more freely. !n 1G+$ trace amounts of iodine in form of sodium iodide, potassium iodide or potassium iodate were first added, creating iodized salt to reduce the incidence of simple goiter.

Determination of chloride '+ Mohrs method! The reaction of 7g&,) with Cl2 may be represented as 7g= = Cl2 @ 7gCl (s) 4uppose that we have a sample containing an unknown Cuality of chloride ions. The number of moles (or weight) of chloride might be determined by titration with a silver nitrate solution of known concentration, C. The known silver nitrate solution is added to the unknown chloride solution until we have added e(actly the same number of moles of 7g&,) to the mi(ture as there are moles of chloride present. Eut " 9e will not establish the eCuivalence point volume of 7g&,) in the titration of chloride. The eCuivalence point is a Cuantity that e(ist only in theory. !n the world we must satisfy ourselves with the MendpointN which is an e(perimental estimate of the eCuivalence point. ,ur obFective in a titration analysis is to match the e(perimental endpoint as closely as possible with the theoretical eCuivalent point. The ;ohrs method analysis for chloride employs a colour2change indicator, potassium chromate #+Cr,$, to signal of titration of chloride ions with a MstandardN 7g&,) solution " a 7g&,) solution of knowing concentration. 9e will assume that the visual endpoint of this titration is also the eCuivalence point and use this assumption to calculate of chloride present in an unknown sample. The indicator reaction! Considered the process of adding 7g&,) solution held in a flask and containing chloride ions. 7t the start, when only a small amount of 7g&,) has been added, the solution contains some 7gCl precipitate, a very small concentration of 7g= ions and an e(cess of Cl2 ions (Cl2 ions are Fust floating around MwaitingN for the addition of more 7g&,)). 9hen we have added Fust enough 7g&,) to reach the eCuivalence point the solution in the flask contains 7gCl and very small concentration of 7g=. !f we continue to add more 7g&,) the 7g= ion react with Cr,$ ions (indicator) from the following reaction +7g&,) = #+Cr,$ @ +#&,) = 7g+Cr,$ (orange precipitate) that is the endpoint of titration.