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Buttons, Buttonholes, and Facings

BUTTONS AND BUTTONHOLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .362 Basic Types of Buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .363 Types of Buttonholes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .363 Button/Buttonhole Extension . . . . . . . . . . . . . .363 Button and Buttonhole Placement Guide . . .364 FACINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .366 Stitched Facings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .366 Fold-Back Facings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .366 Facing Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .366 Facings for Cut-Out Necklines and Armholes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .366 SELF-EVALUATION TEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .368



362 Chapter 16 BUTTON SIZES BUTTONS AND BUTTONHOLES Buttons and buttonholes are both functional and decorative. such as circle. inches or centimeters representing the diameter of the button. Buttons can be made of plastic. Line 14 1/4 " Line 16 3/8 " Line 18 7/16 " Line 45 1 1/2 " Line 20 1/2 " Line 22 9/16 " Line 55 1 3/8 " Flat Quarter ball Line 25 5/8 " Line 30 3/4 " Line 70 13/4 " Half-ball Full-ball Line 36 7/8 " Line 40 1 " Line 80 2 " . and they come detailed or flat in a wide range of geometric shapes. snaps. rectangle. square. through vertical. (Other types of closures are Velcro. horizontal. making the button an important fashion statement. but their primary purpose is to hold two sides of a garment together by having a button on one side of the garment slipped through a corresponding opening or loop on the other side. Women’s-wear garments button right over left. or saddle stitched. from sportswear to formal wear. or natural substances (wood. placed on an overlapping section of the garment or as a loop where the center lines meet. Buttonholes are openings or loops wide enough to accommodate the size of the button. metal. They are commonly designated by “line” (ligne). or angled slits. half-ball. corded. or covered in fabric or leather. They can be plain or decorative— jeweled. mother-of-pearl). bone. and full-ball (see illustration). hooks and eyes. There are buttons for every type of garment. quarter-ball. and grippers. carved.) Buttons range in size.

fabric. Extension Centerline . The extension should be equal to the diameter of the button (or one-half the diameter on inexpensive garments). For mass-produced garments. This type of buttonhole can be made by a seamstress or sent to a trim house for stitching. SPAGHETTI LOOPS THREAD LOOPS Two-hole button Four-hole button Spaced Close Blanket looped Chain looped Shank Buttons Shank buttons have a solid top and various types of shank (wire. Extension Bound Buttonholes Folded fabric covers the raw edge opening in the garment. Button/Buttonhole Extension Overlap Button closures require an overlap extending beyond the center line. The joined side can be developed with or without an extension. More information follows. Loops are stitched at center line. The center of the button is stitched on the center line of the garment. allowing room for layers of fabric to fit smoothly under the button when closed. loop. Metal shank Cloth shank Types of Buttonholes Machine-Stitched Buttonholes can be stitched as straight or keyhole openings. AND FACINGS 363 Basic Types of Buttons Sew-Through Sew-through buttons have two or four holes for attachment. Shank button Slits Slits can be cut in leather. The shank raises the button away from the fabric surface. or fabric that will not ravel (not illustrated). Asymmetric garments have extensions that are parallel with the asymmetric line. or plastic) attached to the underside. plastic. loops are generally made by a trim house.BUTTONS. Bound Two-hole button Loops Loops are narrow strips of turned bias with or without a filler. BUTTONHOLES. metal. The buttonhole starts at the center line and finishes on the body of the garment.

Mark the buttonhole placement out from the center line one-half the distance between the holes of the button and one-half the width of the shank. 1 1/2 " 1 1/2 " FRONT 1 1/2 " . Apply the same rule for the waistband on the buttonhole side. For stylistic buttons (odd shapes). Belted Garment Mark the position so that buttonhole is at least 1 1/2 inches up and down from belt or buckle width. Make a copy from front to shoulder/neck for the person who makes the buttonholes. consideration must be given to the distance between the holes of the button or to the width of the button shank. place on the center line of the garment. However. see page 364. Buttonhole Placement The buttonhole placement generally starts 1/8 inch out from the center front (on the extension). When spacing buttonholes. consider placing buttonhole as near to the bust level as possible to avoid gapping.364 Chapter 16 Buttonhole Length The length of a buttonhole is determined by the diameter of a flat button plus 1/8 inch. The waist can be secured with Velcro or hook and eye. Buttonhole Spacing Mark the first and last buttonhole. if needed (see examples). Center the space between holes of the button or center of the shank. the buttonhole will not be centered with the button. FRONT LEFT SIDE FRONT RIGHT SIDE Diagonal Buttonholes The rules stated previously apply. Divide the remaining space among the remaining buttonholes needed. Otherwise. This may require closer or wider placement than desired. plus 1/4 inch. Make a copy of the button and buttonhole placement as a guide for the buttonhole maker. Same location Button Placement Mark button placements on the left side corresponding to buttonholes on the right. Mark buttonhole placement at the waistline to secure waist. Unbelted Garment Button and Buttonhole Placement Guide Necklines Mark the buttonhole down from the neckline at a distance equal to one-half the diameter of the button.

and file for future reference. mark the correct length. Collecting button sizes: Find buttons to fit the example sizes. experiment on a piece of scrap fabric. and full-ball buttons. set the buttonhole machine. Button placement is marked at the top of the buttonhole at the neck and at the lower end of the last buttonhole. slit another sample. . b Instructions for button and buttonholes apply. and men’s-wear garments are buttoned left over right. Mark the length of the diameter on the scrap fabric. label them. slash more. and those buttons that are carved and decorated. slit the fabric. Lapels Figure 3 Mark button and buttonhole at a point where the lapel folds over from the extension (breakpoint). This button placement stabilizes the garment. BUTTONHOLES. or if self-made. Place remaining buttons and buttonholes using previous information.BUTTONS. If too tight. and push the button through. Figure 2a Top Figure 2b Center Center Center Bottom How to Determine Accurate Buttonhole Length It may be difficult to determine the correct buttonhole length for shank buttons. Remember that women’swear garments are buttoned right over left. if too loose. half-ball. with the remaining buttons centered. Solution: Before placing the buttonhole on the garment. Figure 1 Figure 3 Waistbands and Cuffs Figure 2a. quarter-ball. Use the information provided for marking button/buttonholed sleeve cuffs. AND FACINGS 365 Vertical Buttonholes Figure 1 These instructions apply to inset bands or the use of tiny buttons. When you have the correct length. Measure the diameter of the button from side to side.

and armhole facings. Separate facing. sleeveless garments. Figure 1 1/16 " Facings vary in width and shape but generally are from 1 1/2 to 2 inches. and other self-faced sections are covered in the appropriate chapters. Fold-back facings requiring buttons and buttonholes are discussed with shirts. Fold-back hemlines of shirts. front facings can also be modified to offset stretch of cut-out necklines and sleeveless garments. cutout armholes. Generally. The edge of the garment’s cutout is eased into the modified facing for a closer fit.366 Chapter 16 FACINGS Stitched Facings A stitched facing’s primary purpose is to conceal raw edges of seams for designs with cutout necklines. sleeves. and any styleline where raw edges must be covered. yokes. Facings for deeply cutout necklines or armholes may be modified.) 1/8 " Center back Separate Facings Center front Facing Types Armhole facing Neck facing . The following instructions apply only to neckline. curved hemlines. Both methods are illustrated. pants. Individual facings for the neckline and armhole. cuffs.) Fold-Back Facings Fold-back facings are not stitched to the garment but are part of the main pattern. 2 Facings are traced from the front and back patterns. jackets. 1/8 " Figure 2 1/16 " Neck facing Figures 1. Combined facing. (Review contouring for guidance when facing rather than bodice is modified. and cowls. to name a few. shoulder. Facings are planned as part of the plotting. All-in-one facing for the neckline and armhole. sleeves. with the cut edge of the neck and armhole of the garment eased into the facing to offset stretch or to cause a closer fit. This eliminates looseness and stretch. The outer edge of the facing is trimmed 1/16 inch at the shoulder to zero at the shoulder tip and 1/8 inch in from side to zero at the armhole. inset hemlines. pockets. collars. The back facing should be longer than the depth of the front neckline for hanger appeal. (Broken line indicates original pattern from which the facing is traced. Facings for Cut-Out Necklines and Armholes In the following series. jackets. They are traced from the pattern before or after the design pattern has been developed. the foldback facings follow straight lines of the garment— hemlines of skirts.

d. • Slash. as shown. mark slash line and notches (shaded area shown in (f). Trim 1/16 inch across shoulder. • For back facing. e • Slash and overlap 3/8 inch and blend. Draw cut-out necklines and trim excess (indicated on broken lines). • Back: The depth of the back facing should exceed depth of the front neckline (improves hanger appeal). i • After tracing the pattern and drawing the armhole. Figure 4 1/16 " 1 1/2 " 1 1/2 " FRONT Slash. • Retrace upper part of the pattern and draw facing.BUTTONS. • Slash. BUTTONHOLES. overlap 3/8" and blend (i). • Front: Mark about one third up from center front neckline and draw a slash line. trim excess. b • Trace the back and front patterns. Mark notches. see Figure 1. Cut facing from paper. mark slash line and notches (shaded area shown in (h). • For back facing. Cut the back facing from paper. AND FACINGS 367 V-Cut Neckline Facing Figures 1 a. • Retrace the upper part of the pattern and draw facing. trim excess. • Modify facing to offset stretch. overlap and blend 1/8 " Blend (h) (i) . • Retrace and blend. Figure 2 1/16 " 1 1/2 " Overlap Blend FRONT 3/8 " 1 1/2 " (e) (c) (d) Scoop-Neckline Facing Figures 3 f. Figure 1 FACING BACK 1/16 " FACING FRONT 1/16 " 1 1/2 " FRONT 1 1/2 " BACK (b) (a) Figures 2 c. • Trace back pattern and facing. see Figure 1. Figure 3 1/16 " 1 1/2 " Overlap/Blend 3/8 " 1 1/2 " Blend (g) (f) Cut-Out Armhole Facing Figures 4 h. Redraw upper part of both patterns and draw facings. overlap 3/8" and blend (g). g • After tracing the pattern and drawing a scoop neckline.

2 • Combined facings are traced from the front or back patterns. __________________ are traced before separating stylelines ending in armhole and necklines.368 Chapter 16 Figures 3. • To complete the back facing. Buttonholes start __________________ inch into area of the extension. if the pattern has been separated. Check your answers on page 805. neck. and side. Center back . plastic at the underside is a __________________ button. However.) Combined Facings Figures 1. place style seamlines together and trace section being faced. it would be too bulky. 4 • Facings for garments with stylelines should be developed before the bodice pattern is separated. and sides. 4. as shown. otherwise. 7. with line blended to zero as shown. (Broken lines indicate original pattern. (Insert twill tape along V-neckline to help prevent stretching. Buttonhole size is determined by the button’s __________________. An all-in-one facing is a __________________ facing. Vertical buttonholes are generally marked on __________________. 10. • Trim 1/8 inch at shoulder. Two facing types are __________________ and __________________. 5. 1. trimmed 1/8 inch at shoulder. and blended to zero. neck. Figure 1 FRONT FACING 1/8 " 1/8 " 1/8 " Close 4" 2" Figure 2 BACK FACING 1/8 " Figure 3 FRONT FACING (Design 1) 1/8 " 1/8 " Figure 4 FRONT FACING (Design 2) 1/8 " 1/8 " 1/8 " Center front 1/8 " 1/8 " 1/8 " SELF-EVALUATION TEST Fill in the blanks. metal. 6. 8. Wire loop.) • Repeat for back (not illustrated). A facing’s primary purpose is __________________. Contour facing applies only to __________________ and __________________. 3. 9. Line/ligne refers to button __________________. Measurements given may be used for the basic neckline. 2. the shoulder dart is closed (broken line). • Facing length at center back varies according to depth of the front neck.