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UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

STATIC ANALYSIS OF AN AIRCRAFT WING STRUCTURE USING SUPERELEMENT

ABDUL MALIK HUSSEIN BIN ABDUL JALIL

Thesis submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Science Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

July 2006

Abstract
This study describes the use of superelement for the stress and deflection analysis of a typical modern fighter wing structure. Three methods of analyses were carried out and compared. One is the theoretical analysis, the second is the finite element analysis with the conventional finite element modeling approach and the third is the finite element analysis with the superelement approach. The theoretical analysis was divided into stress and deflection calculations. The stress analysis was carried out using the simple beam theory. The deflection analysis was carried out using the integration and energy method. For the finite element analysis, the finite element models of the wing were developed. Both the Finite Element Analysis and Superelement Analyses were performed using the NASTRAN finite element software. CQUAD4 and BAR2 elements were used to represent the individual components of the wing such as the skin and stringers. For the finite element analyses using the superelement approach, the wing was divided to five (5) and seven (7) substructures respectively known as superelements. Analyses were also carried out by reducing the typical wing structure into the center and outer wing without using superelements and the behavior observed. Partial Reanalysis was also carried on one superelement that was modified. Wing loading at 1-g flight condition was assumed. For all these methods, the direct stress and deflection are sought and to be compared. The finite element analysis using the conventional approach produced the same results as the finite element analysis using the superelement approach. Running the partial re-analysis on one superelement reduced the analysis time greatly as compared to running the analysis with the conventional approach, from 12.4 seconds reduced to 1.03 seconds.

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I voluntarily waive the right of conferment of my degree and agree to be subjected to the disciplinary rules and regulations of University Teknologi MARA.Candidate’s Declaration I declare that the work in this thesis was carried out in accordance with the regulations of Universiti Teknologi MARA. Name of Candidate: ABDUL MALIK HUSSEIN BIN ABDUL JALIL Candidate’s ID No. It is original and is the result of my own work. This topic has not been submitted to any other academic institution or non-academic institution for any other degree or qualification.: 2003307829 Programme: Faculty: Thesis Title: EM780 MECHANICAL ENGINEERING STATIC ANALYSIS OF AN AIRCRAFT WING STRUCTURE USING SUPERELEMENT COPYRIGHT © UiTM . In the event that my thesis be found to violate the conditions mentioned above. unless otherwise indicated or acknowledged as referenced work.

my supervisor.w. iii COPYRIGHT © UiTM . if not for his kind patience and guidance. I will be lost. I would like to thank also staff from Msc Software Malaysia for their kind support and also all at Uitm Shah Alam as without any of this support. not forgetting my wife and son for their sacrifice and understanding in order for me to complete my studies. Dr. for sponsoring and allowing me time occasionally from work to pursue my studies. Managing Director of Caidmark Sdn. I would like to extend my gratitude to Dr Assanah bin Mohd Mydin.t for his graciousness in giving me the strength and will to fulfill the requirements of this thesis. I will be definitely lost in my quest for answers. May Allah s.Acknowledgements I would like to thank Allah s.t bless all your kindness.w. Bhd. Wahyu Kuntjoro.

4.1. C and Wing Tip 4.2.4.3 2.1. 1.1.2.3.1 1.1 Performing Finite Element Analysis Using Superelement Approach 4.2. 4.2 Creating Five (5) Superelements iv COPYRIGHT © UiTM .4 Superelement Analysis 4.2 Theoretical Deflection Analysis 4.1 Theoretical Stress Analysis for Point 1 4.2 3.3 Performing Finite Element Analysis Using Conventional Approach 4.2. B. 4.2 Performing Theoretical Analysis on the Wing 4.1 Theoretical Stress Analysis 4.1 Creating the Wing Model (Finite Element Model of the Wing) 4.1 Introduction Background Problem Identification Objective Theoretical Considerations Superelement Concept Finite Element Analysis Superelement Analysis Literature Review iii iv vi vii x 1 1 2 4 5 5 5 9 16 30 35 36 37 37 38 41 44 44 45 45 45 i ii Methodology Wing Loading at 1-g Symmetrical Level Flight Condition 4.1 2.1 2.2 1.Table of Contents Title Page Abstract Candidate’s Declaration Acknowledgements Table of Contents List of Tables List of Figures List of Abbreviation 1.2 Theoretical Stress Analysis for Sections A. 2.1.

2 Center Wing Structure 5.1 Stress Analysis Results for Outer Wing Structure 5.2.5.2.1.5.2.4.7 Conclusion Bibliography Appendices Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C Appendix D Appendix E Appendix F Appendix G 51 58 59 60 61 61 62 62 62 63 63 63 65 67 67 67 69 72 72 72 73 75 78 83 83 87 96 98 127 144 147 v COPYRIGHT © UiTM .2.1 Deflection at Section A Due to Bending Moment Using Energy Method 4.3 Theoretical Stress Analysis for Center Wing 4.2 Deflection Analysis Results for Outer Wing Structure 5.4 Theoretical Deflection Analysis for Center Wing 4.1.3 8.1 5. 8.3 Creating Seven (7) Superelements 4. 8.5 8.1 Theoretical Stress Analysis for Outer Wing 4.2 Theoretical Deflection Analysis for Outer Wing 4.2.2.6 Partial Re-Analysis on Typical Wing Structure 5.1 Outer Wing Structure 5.2.3 Partial Re-Analysis 6.1.1 Stress Analysis Results for Center Wing Structure 5.2 Results and Discussion Typical Wing Structure Stress Analysis Results for A Typical Wing Structure Deflection Analysis Results for A Typical Wing Structure 5.2.2.2 Two Separate Wing Structures 5.5.1 5.1.5.2 Deflection Analysis Results for Center Wing Structure 5.2 8.5.5.1 8. 5.4 8.2 Deflection at Section A Due to Shear Force Using Energy Method 4. 7.5 Performing Analysis on Two Separate Wing Structures 4.4.6 8.2.

Table 5.4: FEA (superelement approach) Direct Stress Acting along the Wing with Five (5) Superelements 5. Table 5.11: FEA (conventional approach) Direct Stress Acting Along the Wing 12.3: FEA (conventional approach) Direct Stress Acting along the Wing Table 5. Table 5. Table 5.10: Theoretical Direct Stress Acting Along the Wing 11. Table 5.1: Forces Acting Along the Wing Table 5.2: Theoretical Direct Stress Acting Along the Wing Table 5. Table 5. 2. Table 5.18: FEA (conventional approach) Deflection Acting at Section c vi COPYRIGHT © UiTM . Table 5.6: Theoretical Displacement Acting Along the Wing Table 5.9: FEA (superelement approach) Displacement Acting Along the Wing With Seven (7) Superelements 10.14: Results of Reaction Forces of Partial Outer Wing Structure 15.7: FEA (conventional approach) Displacement Acting along the Wing Table 5. Table 5. Table 5.List of Tables 1. 7. Table 5.13: FEA (conventional approach) Displacement Acting along the Wing 14.12: Theoretical Displacement Acting along the Wing 13.17: Theoretical Deflection Acting at Section c 18. Table 5. 8.15: Theoretical Stress Acting at Point 1 16.5: FEA (superelement approach) Direct Stress Acting along the Wing with Seven (7) Superelements 6. 3. Table 5.16: FEA (conventional approach) Stress Acting at Point 1 17. 4.8: FEA (superelement approach) Displacement Acting Along the Wing with Five (5) Superelements 9.

Figure 25: Layout of the Aircraft [59] 26. Figure 4: Layout of Axial Bar Arrangement Figure 5: Superelement 1 and 2 (Residual Structure) 6. Figure 18: Configuration of A typical –Aero Engine [42] 19. Figure 20: The Global Model of the Space Shuttle Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) [50] 21. 3. Figure 1: Sequence in Finite Element Software Application 2. Figure 15: Overall Finite Element Model of the Wing [34] 16. Figure 19: Finite Element Model of Engine Casing [42] 20. Figure 26: Superelement of the Fuselage [59] 27. Figure 22: Finite Element Model of A Heat Exchanger [58] 23. Figure 27: Superelement of the Right Wing [59] 28. Figure 28: Layout of F/A-18 Aircraft vii COPYRIGHT © UiTM . Figure 13: Coupled Rigid Body and Flexible Body Dynamic Model of Rear Suspension [33] 14. Figure 6: Finite Element Model of the Axial Bar 7. Figure 24: The Modified Structure of the End Plate [58] 25. Figure 16: Finite Element Model of Wing Lower Skin [34] 17. Figure 9: Cessna’s Finite Element Model of Total Wing 10. Figure 12: Rigid Body Dynamic Model of Rear Suspension [33] 13. Figure 2: Example of A Complete Airplane Figure 3: Airplane Broken Down to Six Levels of Substructures or Superelements 4. 2 and 3 9. Figure 7: Results of Forces acting at Point 1 and 2 8.List of Figures 1. Figure 8: Results of Displacement at Point 1. Figure 23: End Plate Structure of the Heat Exchanger [58] 24. Figure 14: Finite Element Model of the Front Link and Knuckle [33] 15. Figure 21: Finite Element Model of an Anti-Ship Missile [51] 22. 5. Figure 17: Finite Element Model of the Crack Zone [34] 18. Figure 10: Example of Superelements 11. Figure 11: Substructure or Superelement [22] 12.

Figure 55: Superelement 7: Outer Quarter Wing 56. Figure 41: Superelement 3: Forward Center Beam 42. Figure 36: Cross Section of Section 1 37. Figure 29: Structure of Wing 30. Figure 34: Reaction Forces Acting at the Wing-Lug Joints 35. Figure 30: Methodology for Comparison of Analysis for a Typical Wing Structure 31. Figure 58: Displacement Distribution of A Typical Wing Structure viii COPYRIGHT © UiTM . Figure 48: Superelement 5: Center Quarter Wing 1 49. Figure 46: Superelement 3: Forward Center Beam 47. Figure 43: Superelement 5: Outer Half Wing 44.29. Figure 45: Superelement 2: Middle Center Beam 46. Figure 33: Deriving the Bending Moment 34. Figure 50: Superelement 7: Outer Quarter Wing 51. Figure 44: Superelement 1: Aft Center Beam 45. Figure 39: Superelement 1: Aft Center Beam 40. Figure 49: Superelement 6: Center Quarter Wing 2 50. Figure 54: Sections of Analysis for Deflection of Outer Wing 55. Figure 53: Sections of Analysis for Outer Wing 54. Figure 40: Superelement 2: Middle Center Beam 41. Figure 38: Finite Element Model of the Typical Wing Structure 39. Figure 35: Cross Section of Stringer 36. Figure 32: Sections of Analysis for Typical Wing Structure 33. Figure 47: Superelement 4: Inner Quarter Wing 48. Figure 57: Comparison of Direct Stress Distribution of A Typical Wing Structure 58. Figure 51: Finite Element Model of Outer Wing Structure 52. Figure 37: Theoretical Deflection Diagram 38. Figure 52: Finite Element Model of Center Wing 53. Figure 31: Wing Model Showing Ribs Section 1 to Section 9 32. Figure 42: Superelement 4: Inner Half Wing 43. Figure 56: Direct Stress Distribution of A Typical Wing Structure 57.

59. Figure 59: Comparison of Displacement of A Typical Wing Structure 60. Figure 62: Displacement Distribution of Outer Wing 63. Figure 84: Superelement 4: Inner Quarter Wing 85. Figure 85: Superelement 5: Center Quarter Wing 1 86. Figure 87: Superelement 7: Outer Quarter Wing 88. Figure 71: Description of Sections 72. Figure 80: Superelement 5: Outer Half Wing 81. Figure 77: Superelement 2: Middle Center Beam 78. Figure 86: Superelement 6: Center Quarter Wing 2 87. Figure 66: Reaction Force in the z-Direction 67. Figure 83: Superelement 3: Forward Center Beam 84. Figure 75: Creating Superelement ‘sp1’ 76. Figure 73: To View New Group Created 74. Figure 78: Superelement 3: Forward Center Beam 79. Figure 72: Creating a New Group 73. Figure 76: Superelement 1: Aft Center Beam 77. Figure 65: Reaction Force in the y-Direction 66. Figure 67: Stress Distribution of A typical Wing Structure after Partial ReAnalysis Appendices 68. Figure 61: Comparison of Stress Results of Outer Wing Structure 62. Figure 60: Direct Stress Distribution for Outer Partial Wing 61. Figure 70: Reference for Deflection Analysis 71. Figure 81: Superelement 1: Aft Center Beam 82. Figure 64: Reaction Force in the x-Direction 65. Figure 79: Superelement 4: Inner Half Wing 80. Figure 68: Stress Analysis at Point 1 69. Figure 69: Reaction Forces at Fuselage Support 70. Figure 82: Superelement 2: Middle Center Beam 83. Figure 63: Comparison of Deflection Results of Outer Wing Structure 64. Figure 74: To Associate the Nodes to the Elements in the Group ‘s1’ 75. Figure 88: Selecting Superelement Subcase ix COPYRIGHT © UiTM .

1.5 List of Abbreviation 1. FEA – Finite Element Analysis x COPYRIGHT © UiTM . VPD – Virtual Product Development 2.

One of the key studies that contributed to the finite element method used today is that carried out by Turner and colleagues in 1956 [11]. This thesis utilizes the NASTRAN finite element software. In general. It is a form of numerical analysis which can be used for stress prediction and also to perform structure optimization [4. There are many finite element softwares that can be found in the market today. LUSAS.3]. Although the name ‘finite element method’ was a recent invention.1. Three terms are often used in application of the finite element software which are pre-processor. discretization of the domain. They are the direct equilibrium method. selecting the elements. There are many references that can be found to better understand the concept of using finite element as an analysis tool [2. selection of materials. The use of finite element analysis has made its way to a stage where they are widely used in various engineering applications and are improving steadily over the past decade.1 Background The Finite Element method synthesizes complicated structural systems as a connected collection of objects. the application was put to use much earlier [6]. work or energy methods and weighted residual methods. resulting in a set of linear algebraic equations. there are three approaches that can be used to solve various finite element problems. all kinds of field problems that can be formulated into variational form [13] and also in fluid mechanics [14]. such as. as in Figure 1. From then on. Pre-processor is the process of preparing the geometry. ANSYS and NASTRAN [7-10]. This involves the use of simple finite elements (pin jointed bars and triangular plates with in-plane-loads) to analyze aircraft structures. called finite elements that embody local physical laws [1]. Introduction 1. applications of loadings and the specifications of 1 COPYRIGHT © UiTM . the development of finite element has expanded to carryout stress analysis [12]. These softwares has capabilities from low to sophisticated usage combined with excellent graphics capabilities. 5]. solution process and post-processor. Engineers are able to predict the behaviour of these elements as it would be in the form of mathematical models which will then be solved.

the software will set up the equations which will be solved through the solution process. pressure distribution or heat flux distribution. User Input Pre-Processor Solution Output Presentation Post-Processor Figure 1: Sequence in Finite Element Software Application 1.boundary conditions. upon assembly. Post-processor is where the user can evaluate the stress distribution.2 Problem Identification Superelements are defined as grouping of finite elements that. It is an analysis procedure that supports collaborative analysis and is very useful for large models that are developed by different organizations. Based on these inputs. Figure 2: Example of A Complete Airplane 2 COPYRIGHT © UiTM . structural displacements. maybe considered as an individual element for computational purposes.

Here. The image superelement can save processing time in that they are able to use the stiffness. complex structure to be analyzed. each superelement can be analyzed individually. Figure 3: Airplane Broken Down to Six Levels of Substructures or Superelements Figure 3 shows the same airplane model being divided into six different substructures or superelements to ease the analysis. 3 COPYRIGHT © UiTM . hence saving analysis time should there be a modification made. Superelements can consist of physical data (elements and grid points) or can be defined as an image of another superelement or as an external superelement (a set of matrices from an external source to be attached to the model).Figure 2 shows an example of a complete airplane. Superelements allow a big. To analyze this model using the Finite Element Analysis with the conventional approach will take a very long time as it has a very large number of degrees of freedom. mass and damping from their primary superelement. which reduces the amount of calculations needed. Full data recovery is available for image superelements. These reduce matrices for the individual superelements are combined to form an assembly solution. These individual components will be analyzed and then assembled together to produce a complete analysis results. displacement etc) for the superelements [15]. An image superelement can be an identical image or a mirror image copy of the primary. by dividing this structure to individual components. The results of the assembly are then used to perform data recovery (calculations of stresses.

with analysis providing additional information to support these activities [17]. One is the theoretical analysis. supports local/global analysis allowing the analyst to refine the model in important regions of the structure allows multiple level of sub structuring for dynamic analysis. Other advantages of using superelements includes the ability to solve problems using components that exceeds computer resources for a single large analysis. no internal geometry information is available only the grid points to which the matrices are attached are known. The application of finite element analysis within the aircraft industry has mainly concentrated on providing an inside into both detail and structural behavior. Cardona [16] states that the main advantage of sub structuring techniques is to allow the detailed modeling of components with complex geometry and structural functions while keeping a relatively simple global dynamic model with a number of degrees of freedom as small as possible. 4 COPYRIGHT © UiTM . partial redesign only requires a partial reanalysis. The next era would be to provide detailed simulation of a structure where such testing programmes can be significantly reduced. For these matrices. 1.3 Objective The objective of this study is to carry out the stress and deflection analysis on a typical fighter aircraft wing structure using superelement. In order to achieve the objective. three methods of analyses were carried out and compared. the second is the finite element analysis with the conventional approach and the third is the finite element analysis using the superelement approach. The testing of structures still forms a large part of the design and qualification process.The other type of superelement is the external superelement where a part of a model is represented by using matrices of an outside source.

1 5 COPYRIGHT © UiTM . 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 1000 N 2000 N 3000 N 2m 2m 2m 2m Figure 4: Layout of Axial Bar Arrangement Figure 4 shows the layout of the axial bar arrangement. The finite element analysis of the axial bar using the conventional approach was carried out.u E = 72e3 N/m2 µ = 0. the elements are arranged in the form of : f = k.1.1 Superelement Concept The superelement concept is described in detail using the axial bar arrangement as described below. For the finite element analysis using the superelement approach. Finite Element Analysis is first conducted.. followed by the superelement analysis and compared. 2. The analysis using the MSC.1 Finite Element Analysis For the conventional finite element analysis.FEA 2003 software was also carried out.3 A = 1 m2 AE 1 × 72 × 10^3 = = 36 × 103 L 2 k = 36 × 103 . 2. Theoretical Considerations 2. the axial bar was divided into 2 superelements.2.

.3 Element 2 − 1⎤ ⎡u 2 ⎤ ⎧ f 2 x⎫ 3 ⎡ 1 ⎨ ⎬ = 36 × 10 ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎩ f 3x ⎭ ⎣ − 1 1 ⎦ ⎣u 3 ⎦ .6 Expanding the equation: ⎧ f 1x ⎫ ⎡0 0 0 0 ⎪ f 2 x⎪ ⎢0 0 0 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ 3 ⎨ f 3 x ⎬ = 36 × 10 ⎢0 0 1 − 1 ⎢ ⎪ f 4 x⎪ ⎢0 0 − 1 1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎣0 0 0 0 ⎭ ⎩ f 5x ⎪ 0⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ 0⎥ ⎦ ⎡ u1 ⎤ ⎢u 2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢u 3 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢u 4 ⎥ ⎢ ⎣u 5 ⎥ ⎦ . 2. 2.7 6 COPYRIGHT © UiTM . 2.. 2. 2. 2...5 Element 3 − 1⎤ ⎡u 3 ⎤ ⎧ f 3x ⎫ 3 ⎡ 1 ⎨ ⎬ = 36 × 10 ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎩ f 4 x⎭ ⎣− 1 1 ⎦ ⎣u 4 ⎦ ..2 Expanding the equation: ⎧ f 1x ⎫ ⎡ 1 −1 ⎪ f 2 x⎪ ⎢− 1 1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ 3 ⎢0 0 = 36 × 10 3 x f ⎨ ⎬ ⎢ ⎪ f 4 x⎪ ⎢0 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎣0 0 ⎩ f 5x ⎪ ⎭ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ 0⎥ ⎦ ⎡ u1 ⎤ ⎢u 2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢u 3 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢u 4 ⎥ ⎢ ⎣u 5 ⎥ ⎦ ..Element 1 − 1⎤ ⎡ u1 ⎤ ⎧ f 1x ⎫ 3 ⎡ 1 ⎨ ⎬ = 36 × 10 ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎩ f 2 x⎭ ⎣− 1 1 ⎦ ⎣u 2 ⎦ .4 Expanding the equation: ⎧ f 1x ⎫ ⎡0 0 0 ⎪ f 2 x⎪ ⎢0 1 − 1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ 3 ⎢0 − 1 1 = 36 × 10 3 x f ⎨ ⎬ ⎢ ⎪ f 4 x⎪ ⎢0 0 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎣0 0 0 ⎩ f 5x ⎪ ⎭ 0 0 0 0 0 0⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ 0⎥ ⎦ ⎡ u1 ⎤ ⎢u 2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢u 3 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢u 4 ⎥ ⎢ ⎣u 5 ⎥ ⎦ .

2.12 Solving the Equations 1000 = (72E3 × u2) – (36E3 × u3) 7 COPYRIGHT © UiTM .Element 4 − 1⎤ ⎡u 4 ⎤ ⎧ f 4 x⎫ 3 ⎡ 1 ⎨ ⎬ = 36 × 10 ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎩ f 5x ⎭ ⎣ − 1 1 ⎦ ⎣u 5 ⎦ Expanding the equation: ⎧ f 1x ⎫ ⎡0 0 ⎪ f 2 x⎪ ⎢0 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ 3 ⎨ f 3 x ⎬ = 36 × 10 ⎢0 0 ⎢ ⎪ f 4 x⎪ ⎢0 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎣0 0 ⎩ f 5x ⎪ ⎭ . 2. the forces are applied to the equations. 2. u1 = u5 = 0 ⎡ 2 − 1 0 ⎤ ⎡u 3 ⎤ ⎧ f 2 x⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 3 ⎢ ⎨ f 3 x ⎬ = 36 × 10 ⎢− 1 2 − 1⎥ ⎢u 4 ⎥ ⎪ f 4 x⎪ ⎢ ⎣ 0 −1 2 ⎥ ⎦ ⎢ ⎩ ⎭ ⎣u 5 ⎥ ⎦ . The boundary conditions are then applied.. The equations are then solved to calculate the displacement that occurs at the respective elements. 2.8 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ u1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ ⎢u 2 ⎥ 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎢u 3 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 1 − 1⎥ ⎢u 4 ⎥ 0 −1 1 ⎥ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣u 5 ⎥ ⎦ . 2...13 ... u1 = u5 = 0. 2. The values of these displacements are then applied to the individual element equations to calculate the reaction forces at each node. Applying the Boundary Conditions.10 These matrices equations are then combined to form the structural equation.11 Applying the Forces 0 ⎤ ⎧1000 N ⎫ ⎡ 72 E 3 − 36 E 3 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎨2000 N ⎬ = ⎢− 36 E 3 72 E 3 − 36 E 3⎥ ⎪3000 N ⎪ ⎢ 0 − 36 E 3 72 E 3 ⎥ ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡u 2 ⎤ ⎢u 3 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎦ ⎣u 4 ⎥ . Then.9 Combining the Matrix for the Structural Equation ⎧ f 1x ⎫ ⎡ 1 − 1 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ u1 ⎤ ⎪ f 2 x⎪ ⎢− 1 2 − 1 0 0 ⎥ ⎢u 2 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ 3 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢u 3 ⎥ = 36 × 10 3 x f − 0 0 2 1 0 ⎨ ⎬ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎪ f 4 x⎪ ⎢ 0 0 − 1 2 − 1⎥ ⎢u 4 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎣ 0 0 0 −1 1 ⎥ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣u 5 ⎥ ⎦ ⎩ f 5x ⎪ ⎭ ..

u2 = 0..15 1000 + (36e3 × u 3) = 0.14 .111m Insert u3 into 2.111) = 0.17 into 2.014 + 0. u3 = 0.0695] = -2502 N ( .16 into 2. 2.5(0.046 54000 .16. u2 = .67(0.0695 = 69.sign indicating direction) f5x = 36 × 103 [-u4 + u5] = 36 × 103 [-0.097 + 0] = 3492 N 8 COPYRIGHT © UiTM .056 = 0.2000 = (-36E3 × u2) + (72E3 × u3) 3000 = (-36E3 × u3) + (72E3 × u4) From 2.. 3000 = -36E3(0.097) + 0.16 Insert 2.. 2.014 + 0.13.67u4 + 0.5mm Calculating Reaction Forces f1x = 36 × 103 [u1 – u2] = 36 × 103 [0 – 0.046) + 72E3u4 3000 = -24120u4 – 1656 + 72000u4 = 47880u4 – 1656 u4 = 3000 + 1656 = 0.014 + 0.17 Insert 2. 2000 = -36e3(0..14.014 + 0.097 m = 97 mm 47880 Insert value of u4 into 2.67u4 + 0.15.17.5u3) + (72E3 × u3) – (36E3 × u4) 2000 = -504 – 18000u3 + 72000u3 – 36000u4 = 54000u3 – 36000u4 -504 u3 = 36000u 4 + 2000 + 504 = 0. 2.046 = 0.5u3 72e3 . 2.

2.. 2.19 . These transformed matrices will then be reduced. 2. Boundary conditions are applied to the forces equations and the stiffness matrices are reduced to the boundary to form superelement 1.2 Superelement Analysis Superelement 1 Superelement 2 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 1000 N 2000 N 3000 N 2m 2m 2m 2m Figure 5: Superelement 1 and 2 (Residual Structure) Figure 5 shows the division of the axial bar into two (2) superelements: Structural Matrix for Superelement 1 (Node 1 and Node 3) ⎧ f1⎫ AE ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ f 2⎬ = L ⎪ f 3⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎡ 1 − 1 0 ⎤ ⎡ u1 ⎤ ⎢− 1 2 − 1⎥ ⎢u 2 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 1 1 − ⎦ ⎢ ⎦ ⎣u 3 ⎥ ⎣ .20 .. initial forces applied. the stiffness matrices will be reduced: ⎧ f 2⎫ AE ⎡ 2 − 1⎤ ⎡u 2 ⎤ ⎨ ⎬= ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ L ⎢ ⎩ f 3⎭ ⎣ − 1 1 ⎦ ⎣u 3 ⎦ This reduced stiffness matrix will be in the form of: AE L Kot = −1⎤ ⎡ 2 − 1⎤ 3 ⎡ Koo = 2 ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ = 36 × 10 ⎢ Kto = −1 Ktt = 1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ 9 COPYRIGHT © UiTM . which is about 6000N. 2.18 Applying boundary conditions. u1 = 0.1.Total Reaction Forces: f1x + f5x = 3492 + 2502 = 5994N. u1 = 0.. the boundary of the elements of the equations are transformed. When applied boundary conditions.

These values will then be used in the calculation based on the formulas provided. the forces applied to the finite element structure too need to be reduced from the finite element form to the superelement form using the formula provided. Boundary Transformation This boundary transformation is required to reduce the stiffness matrix from the finite element to the superelement form. 2.× -1 ) 2 1 × 36 × 103 = 72 × 10^3 = 0..21 . Reduce Stiffness Matrix to Boundary [Ktt] 1 = 36 × 103 [ Ktt + KotT . The formula for applying boundary conditions to the forces is as follows: Pf1 = [ P2 1000 ] ]=[ P1 0 − .. 2. The formula to obtain the boundary transformation [Got] for superelement 1 is as follows: [Got] 1 = 36 × 103 (-Koo-1 × Kot) 1 = 36 × 103 (. 0. 2.. the stiffness matrix is reduced further based on the given formula.5)] = 18 × 103 Resulting Stiffness as seen in grid point 3 = 18 × 103 Besides the stiffness matrix.5 Once the boundary transformation value is obtained. Got] = 36 × 103 [1 + (-1 .23 This is reduced to the boundary in the superelement form using the following formula: 10 COPYRIGHT © UiTM .22 .

the boundary of the elements of the equations are transformed.(1000)] = 500N Structural Matrix for Superelement 2 (Node 3 and Node 5) 0 ⎤ − K 34 ⎡ K 34 AE ⎢ [Kgg] = − K 34 K 34 + K 45 − K 45⎥ ⎥ ⎢ L ⎥ ⎢ 0 K 45 K 45 − ⎦ ⎣ 2 .29 .. Applying Boundary Condition.5).27 The next step is to apply the boundary conditions to the forces equations for superelement 1 and 2. The procedure for this is similarly applied as superelement 1. 2.28 Reduce Stiffness Matrix to Boundary [Ktt] 2 = K 34. u5 = 0. Po] 0 − − . 2.. u5 = 0 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎡u 3 ⎤ [Kgg] 2 = 36 × 103 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣− 1 2 ⎦ ⎣u 4 ⎦ .24 = P31 = [ P 3 1 + (0.26 Applying Boundary Condition. 2..= [Pt] 1 = [ Pt + GotT . 2. 2... 2.. Boundary conditions are applied to the forces in the stiffness equations and the stiffness matrices are reduced to the boundary to form superelement 2.25 ⎡ 1 − 1 0 ⎤ ⎡u 3 ⎤ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ = 36 × 10 ⎢ ⎢− 1 2 − 1⎥ ⎢u 4 ⎥ ⎢ ⎦ ⎢ ⎦ ⎣ 0 −1 1 ⎥ ⎣u 5 ⎥ 3 . These transformed matrices will then be reduced.K 45 36 × 10^3 × 36 × 10^3 = = 18 × 103 K 34 + K 45 36 × 10^3 + 36 × 10^3 11 COPYRIGHT © UiTM .5 − ( K 34 + K 45) − 72 × 10^3 . Boundary Transformation [Got] 2 = − 36 × 10^3 − K 34 = = 0.

32 Kaa1 & Kaa2 = [Ktt] 1 & [Ktt] 2.34 . Kggo = 0. 2. The force is also created for the boundary condition. Po] 0 = P32 + (0. Pt . Since there are no elements. For Remaining Grid Point 3 Residual Structure (Figure 5) [Kgg] = [Kaa] = [Kaa1 + Kaa2 0 + Kggo] .35 . 2.Resulting Stiffness as seen in grid point 3 = 18 × 103 Applying boundary conditions to the forces: Pf1 = [ P4 3000 ] ]=[ P5 0 − − . Kggo represents the stiffness matrix of any element in the structure.(3000) = 1500N ..31 Once the reduce matrices for the superelement 1 and 2 have been formed. reduced matrix for superelement 1 and 2..5).33 12 COPYRIGHT © UiTM .. 2. the model is now treated as a residual structure with the following equation. K = Kaa1 + Kaa2 = 18 × 103 + 18 × 103 = 36 × 103 For Force: Pt = F1 + F2 + F3 = 500 + 1500 + 2000 = 4000N The following formula is applied when retrieving the Solution Retrieving Solution Residual Structure (Figure 5) ua = Ktt-1. 2. 2...30 [P3]2 = [ Pt + Got .. 2.

2.055m u2 = 0.069m Superelement 2 Fixed Boundary Solution = u4o = [Koo]-2 {P4} = . 2.055m u4 = 0.0967m Finite Element Analysis Using MSC.40 = 0.u3o = 4000 = 0.5 × 0.5 × 0. 2.39 1 × 3000 = 0. The finite element 13 COPYRIGHT © UiTM .37 1 × 1000 = 0.... u3 = 0.014m 72 × 10^3 .11 m 36 × 10^3 . 2.FEA 2003 (Nastran)_Software Point 1 Point 3 Point 2 Figure 6: Finite Element Model of the Axial Bar Figure 6 shows the finite element model of the axial bar as calculated in section 1.055 + 0. 2.014 = 0.055 + 0. This model was also divided into two superelements.11 = 0..11 = 0.38 Solution for Boundary Motion = u2 = [Got] 1 ..36 Superelement 1 Fixed Boundary Solution = uo = [Koo]-1 {P2} u20 = . u3 .0417m 72 × 10^3 Solution for Boundary Motion = u4a = [Got] 2 .014 = 0.