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You are on page 1of 13

th

International Conference of

International Association for Computer Methods and Advances in Geomechanics (IACMAG)

1-6 October, 2008

Goa, India

Determination of Attenuation and Geometric Damping on Clayey

Sand Residual Soil in Irregular Profile using Surface Wave

Method

S.A. Rosyidi

Dept. of Civil Engineering, Muhammadiyah University of Yogyakarta, Indonesia

M.R. Taha, Z. Chik, A. Ismail

Dept. of Civil & Structural Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia

Keywords: frequency-independent attenuation, geometric damping, SASW method

ABSTRACT: The spectral analysis of surface wave (SASW) method is a non-destructive testing technique base

on the Rayleigh wave dispersion that has been advanced in this study for the evaluation of the material

properties of the soil subgrade structure in irregular profile, i.e. pavement system. The Rayleigh wave is

generated by transient impact sources and then the wave motion is processed using the spectrum analyzer to

obtain the amplitude spectrum of vertical displacement in the frequency domain. The objective of this study is

to describe the procedure of the SASW method for determining the frequency-independent attenuation, a

0

and

the geometric damping ratio, D of the soil structure. Both parameters are useful for dynamic geotechnical

structural design. A frequency-independent attenuation empirical coefficient (a

0

) of the Bornitz equation was

obtained from the auto power spectrum produced by the spectrum analyzer. Subsequently the damping ratio

(D) was able to be calculated using the attenuation coefficient parameter from the Bornitz model. The

damping ratio obtained by the Bornitz model was similar to the values calculated using Spectral Ratio and

Transfer Function model. Good agreement was also found between the values obtained in this study

compared to that of other researchers.

1 Introduction

Many problems related to soil dynamics require the knowledge of the attenuation of seismic wave propagation

in the ground. For geotechnical and pavement structures, wave attenuation is useful for determining the

effects of vibration on the affected area. The attenuations of waves are determined from the radiation and

material damping of the structure. The damping ratio is also an important parameter which measure the

dynamic response of a system at resonance (Clough and Penzien, 1993), ground amplification during

earthquake (Vucetic and Dobry, 1991) and enhancement of reservoir characterization (Klimentos, 1995). Many

in situ and laboratory tests have been used to evaluate damping ratio. Many studies have been also

conducted to obtain the damping behavior and empirical correlations between the damping ratio in terms of

attenuation and the amount of radiated energy compared to the frequency of vibration and type of soil. Lai

(1998), Rix & Lai (1998), and Rix et al. (2000) employed surface wave measurements to determine the

material damping ratio profile of a layered soil deposit. In their studies, an attenuation curve was constructed

from the observed spatial attenuation of Rayleigh wave amplitudes and then was inverted to obtain the

material shear damping ratio. The analytical procedures which they used to obtain the shear wave velocity and

damping ratio profile were performed separately. However, studies on the relationships between the damping

ratio obtained from in situ measurements of seismic wave attenuation and the stiffness of soil subgrade of

pavement structure were relatively few.

The aim of this paper is to determine the frequency-independent attenuation coefficient (α

0

) and the damping

ratio (D) of the generated Rayleigh wave (R-wave) on the soil subgrade structure using the spectral analysis of

surface wave (SASW) method. The SASW method is an in situ seismic technique originally used to evaluate

the stiffness of pavement layers at low strains. The method is based on the dispersion phenomena of R-

waves in layered media. This study is also conducted to show the capability of the SASW method for

attenuation measurement of clayey sand residual soil layer in irregular profile of a pavement structure.

2658

2 Soil Attenuation and Damping Ratio

Attenuation in soil dynamics is a phenomenon that involves the interaction of several mechanisms that

contributed to the energy dissipation of the seismic wave during dynamic excitation (Rix et al., 2000) while

material damping is caused by the energy dissipated within the soil skeletal frame. The physical mechanism

that has been postulated to be responsible for material damping is the energy loss in materials, for instance,

the frictional losses between soil particles (White 1983). The damping ratio (D) is defined as the ratio

between the energy loss and a maximum stored energy within one loading-cycle (Figure 1). Under the low-

loss condition, the relationship between quantities used in different disciplines to characterize fundamental

attenuation and material damping follows:

E

E

D Q

π

∆

2

2

1

· ·

−

(1)

where Q

-1

is the dissipation factor which describes as material attenuation, ∆E energy dissipated during one

cycle at circular frequency ω and E the maximum strain energy stored during referred cycle.

τ

γ

A

triangle

= E

A

loop

= ∆E

Figure 1. Damping obtained from the cyclic shear stress – strain curve.

Aki & Richards (1980) mentioned that D behaved as frequency independent for 0.1 < f < 10 Hz which is also

called hysteretic or rate-independent damping. Material damping can also be obtained using the attenuation

coefficient (α) and the logarithmic decrement (δ) in which their relationship is written as:

2

2 2

2

1

1

2

?

?

,

_

¸

¸

+

·

−

·

π

δ

π

δ

α

α

c

c

D (2)

where c is seismic wave velocity. The damping ratio during dynamic excitation is usually a small value (less

than 10 %), consequently the second order terms are negligible and equation (2) can be rewritten as:

π

δ α

2 ?

· ·

c

D (3)

Other physical mechanisms also contributed to the decay in the seismic wave amplitude that propagates in

the soil mass. The first mechanism is the spreading of energy over an expanding area as the wavefront

propagates away from the source causing the amplitude of waves to attenuate with increasing distance from

the source (geometric or radiation damping). The second mechanism explained that the reflection and

transmission of seismic waves at inter-faces, mode conversions and scattering in non homogeneous media

causes the wave amplitude to diminish (Rix et al., 2000).

3 Research Methods

3.1 Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave (SASW) Method

Two key elements of the SASW method are the generation of surface wave energy from impact sources and

the measurement of the particle motion of the R-wave at suitable distances from the source on the surface of

2659

media. In layered soil media, the surface wave velocity depends on the frequency (or wavelength) of the wave.

The variation of the velocity with frequency is called dispersion and arises due to the different wavelengths of

waves passing through the layered media. Short wavelengths (high frequency) of waves propagate only

through near-surface materials while longer wavelengths (lower frequency) of waves propagate in deeper

layers. A plot of surface (R-) wave velocity versus frequency is called the dispersion curve.

The experimental set up of the SASW test is shown in Figure 2(a). R-waves in field tests were detected using

two receivers (piezoelectric accelerometers) for post processing. Several configurations of the accelerometers

(d

2

) and the source (d

1

) spacings were required in order to sample different depths. Short receiver spacings (5

and 10 cm) of high frequency (short wavelengths) were used to sample the pavement surface layer while

larger receiver spacings (40 and 160 cm) of low frequency (long wavelengths) were implemented to sample

the pavement base and subgrade layers. The arrangement of receivers which was adopted in this study is the

common receivers midpoint geometry. This arrangement is illustrated in Figure 2(b). The SASW test was

carried out at 40 different sites on a road inside the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia campus in Bangi,

Malaysia.

(a)

(b)

Figure 2. Field set up of SASW measurement (a) and its arrangement of receivers (b)

The signals produced from impact sources in time domain are digitalised and recorded in time domain by a

dynamic spectral analyser. Consequently, they are transferred into its frequency domain and displayed into

several spectrum functions such as the transfer function, coherence and auto power spectrum. Subsequently,

the experimental dispersion curve of the phase velocity and wavelength were developed from the phase

information of the transfer function at the frequency range satisfying the coherence criterion. The time of travel

between the receivers for each frequency can be calculated by:

( )

( )

( ) f

f

f t

360

φ

· (4)

where f is the frequency; ( ) f t and ( ) f φ are respectively the travel time and the phase difference in degrees at

a given frequency. The distance of the receiver (d) is a known parameter. Therefore, the R-wave velocity, V

R

or

the phase velocity at a given frequency is simply obtained by:

( ) f t

d

V

R

· (5)

and the corresponding wavelength of the R-wave, L

R

may be written as:

( )

( )

f

f V

f L

R

R

· (6)

The actual shear wave velocity of the layered profile is produced from the inversion of the composite

experimental dispersion curve. The inversion is employed using several modeling approaches available for

SASW applications. Among them are the transfer matrix method (Haskell, 1953), the dynamic stiffness matrix

method (Kausel and Röesset, 1981), and the finite difference method (Hossain and Drnevich, 1989). In this

inversion process, a profile of a set of a homogeneous layer such as pavement surface, base, subbase and

subgrade layer, extending to infinity in the horizontal direction was assumed. The last layer is usually taken as

a homogeneous half-space. Based on the initial profile, a theoretical dispersion curve was constructed using

an automated forward modeling analysis of the 3-D dynamic stiffness matrix method (Kausel and Röesset,

1981). The theoretical dispersion curve was ultimately matched to the experimental dispersion curve based

2660

on lowest root mean square (RMS) error with an optimization technique from software of Wi nSASW (Joh, 1996;

Rosyidi, 2004)

In order to measure the attenuation and geometric damping ratio from signal spectrums recorded from SASW

test, the Bornitz model was employed in the analysis. The decrease in amplitude (energy density) of the

vertical component of the R-wave with distance due only to geometric configuration is also called the radiation

damping or geometric spreading which is expressed by:

n

r

r

w w

,

_

¸

¸

·

2

1

1 2

(7)

where w

1

is the amplitude of vibration at distance r

1

from the source, w

2

the amplitude at distance r

2

from the

source and n the attenuation factor due to radiation damping which depends on the type of seismic wave, the

position and size of the seismic source (Table 1).

Table 1. Attenuation radiation damping factor (n) with the source on the surface (Kim and Lee, 1998)

Source Type Induced Wave n

Point Body Wave

Surface Wave

2.0

0.5

Infinite line Body Wave

Surface Wave

1

0

The vibration energy of the R-wave is also dissipated during its propagation by the material damping which is

also described by the damping ratio (D). An effective damping ratio of R-wave in layered medium can be

defined and the value is frequency dependent. Its value may become very high for the first few modes of

vibration.

There are several models to describe the combined effect of both the radiation and material damping. The

Bornitz equation is one of the common models used and can be described by:

) (

2

1

1 2

2 1

r r

n

e

r

r

w w

− −

,

_

¸

¸

·

α

(8)

where a is the attenuation coefficient of the material (m

-1

).

The attenuation coefficient of material depends on the type of material and the frequency of vibration. The

estimated value of the attenuation coefficient can be obtained using the R-wave velocity (V

R

), the frequency of

vibration (f) and the damping ratio (D) using the following equation:

R

V

fD π

α

2

· (9)

From the above relationship, the attenuation coefficient linearly increases with the vibration frequency and is

inversely proporti onal with the R-wave velocity.

Alternatively, the independent-frequency attenuation coefficient (Athanasopoulos et al., 2000) can be obtained

by writing Equation 9 in the form:

R

V

D

f

π α

α

2

0

· · (10)

where a

0

is the frequency-independent of attenuation coefficient in unit of s/m.

3.2 Spectral Ratio Method for Damping Ratio

The spectral ratio method has been utilized to determine the in-situ intrinsic attenuation of seismic waves

(Campanella et al., 1994). The damping ratio obtained using spectral ratio method can be expressed as

(Wang et al., 2004):

( )

( ) 1

1

]

1

¸

⋅

,

_

¸

¸

−

,

_

¸

¸

− ·

,

_

¸

¸

T

r

r

C

C

f A

f A

n

2

1

2

1

2

1

ln ln ln ( ) f r r

V

D

R

⋅ − ⋅ +

1 2

2π

(11)

where A

1

and A

2

is the Fourier amplitudes for different frequency (f), C

1

and C

2

respectively represents the

frequency-independent coupling coefficient and transducer response, D the damping ratio, T transmission

coefficient and n the attenuation factor.

2661

From Equation 11, the attenuation due to geometric spreading, reflection and coupling effects are included to

the intercept in Equation 11, and does not influence the inferred material damping ratio as long as the

parameter of D, V

R

and T are assumed to be frequency independent (Wang et al., 2004). Hence, the damping

ratio is derived from the double differentiation of Equation 11 as:

( )

( ) π 2

2

1

2

R

V

f A

f A

f r

D ⋅

,

_

¸

¸

∂ ⋅ ∂

∂

· (12)

3.3 Surface Wave Transfer Function Method for Damping Ratio

Experimental attenuation curves can be simultaneously determined using a single set of multi -channels

measurement of phase velocity with transfer function method and dispersion curves as well (Rix et al. 2001).

The simultaneous determination provides more consistent and effective result for obtaining material damping

ratio (Lai, 1998). The experimental transfer function method for determining damping ratio is implemented by

the concept of deconvolution to an ensemble of surface seismic traces with no need for the characterization of

the seismic sources. Deconvolution of a signal f

2

(t) with a signal f

1

(t) is represented in the frequency domain

as the ratio between the Fourier transform of the two signals F

2

(ω) and F

1

(ω) respectively:

( )

( )

( )

( ) ( )

( )

2

1

1 2

1

2

21

ω

ω ω

ω

ω

ω

F

F F

F

F

F

⋅

· · (13)

where ω is the circular frequency and F

21

is equivalent to the transfer function of the system (Foti 2003).

Considering a set of multi -channel measurements of particle velocity along a straight line on the ground

surface, the experimental transfer function ( ) ω ,

~

r F can be estimated using deconvolution of the whole

ensemble of signals:

( ) ( )

( )

( ) ω

ω

ω ω

l

i

li

F

F

F r F · · ,

~

(14)

where F

i

(ω) is the Fourier transform of the ith signal detected at distance r from the sources, F

1

(ω)the Fourier

transform of the signal detected by the closest receiver and F

i

(ω) the represents the ith deconvolution signal.

The experimental transfer function is then used in regression analysis to estimate the attenuation curves of the

surface waves. The analytical expression of the transfer function is obtained from the modeling of soil

structures of linear viscoelastic homogeneous layers where the expression is used for regression. By

inserting an expression of the complex phase angle, ψ(r,ω) which is assumed as K( ω )⋅r and geometric

spread function, G(r, ω), Equation (14) can be expressed as (Lai, 1998):

( )

( )

( )

( )( )

1

,

,

,

~

1

r r K i

e

r G

r G

r F

− ⋅ −

·

ω

ω

ω

ω (15)

where ( ) ( ) [ ] ( ) { } ω α ω ω ω

R R

i V K + · / is a complex wave number with ( ) ω

R

V , the phase velocity and ( ) ω α

R

,

the attenuation coefficient of Rayleigh waves. The assumption ψ(r,ω) = K( ω )⋅r is equivalent to considering

the phase angle ψ(r,ω) to be the result of a single mode of surface wave propagation (Rix et al. 2001).

Equation 15 is used in non linear regression analysis to estimate the complex valued wave number K( ω )

from the experimental values of the transfer function. The experimental complex wave number obtained with

the regression procedures contains the information related to surface wave attenuation. It can be used in a

complex valued inversion procedure to estimate the damping ratio profiles. Detail discussion for this section

can be referred to Rix and Lai (1998) and Foti (2003).

4 Results and Discussion

4.1 Soil Subgrade Layer Properties

The average road-pavement profile consists of an asphalt layer (70 mm thick) and a base of crushed

aggregate (400 mm thick) over a soil subgrade. Layer properties and thickness of the three layers are shown

in Figure 3. Based on the phase data in transfer function spectrum, the experimental dispersion curve for

subgrade layer could be obtained and the result is illustrated in Figure 3. The shear wave velocity was

obtained by inversion of the R-wave velocity dispersion curve from SASW measurement. An example of the

2662

final shear wave profile at test site is described in Figure 4. The pavement structure profile in Fi gure 3 shows

that the shear wave velocity gradually decreases with depth. The shear wave velocity of the asphaltic layer was

found to be 840 m/s while the base and subgrade layers were 297 m/s and 126 m/s, respectively. The

average of the inverted shear wave velocity of the soil subgrade layer for the UKM test sites was found to be

178.689 m/s with a range of 116.44 to 263.226 m/s. Using the shear wave velocity parameter, the soil material

of subgrade layer in this study was evaluated and classified as a sandy soil following on Puri (1969) and

Nazarian and Stokoe (1986).

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

0.01 0.1 1 10

Wavelength, m

P

h

a

s

e

v

e

l

o

c

i

t

y

,

m

/

s

3-D Model, RMS 12.63 m/s

Data

Subbase and subgrade layer

Figure 3. The experimental dispersion curve and the 3-D theoretical curve for phase data of subgrade

measurement from 320 cm receiver spacing.

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0 200 400 600 800 1000

Shear Wave Velocity, Vs (m/s)

D

e

p

t

h

,

H

(

m

)

Asphalt

Base

Layer

Subgrade

Layer

Figure 4. The shear wave velocity profile from the SASW inversion.

2663

Kabir (2005) studied the basic properties of soil subgrade at UKM campus. The basic properties of the soil

subgrade at the UKM campus are described in Table 2. From geological studies, the subgrade soil was

grouped as meta-sedimentary residual soil. Based on the soil tests using BS 1377:1990, the soil subgrade

was classified to sedimentary residual soil with code of SC (clayey sand) or clayed sand residual soil. The

result shows that the soil classification based on the shear wave velocities is reasonably in agreement with

the laboratory soil properties obtained by Kabir (2005).

Table 2. Soil properties of the subgrade layer

Units

Property

% mm No Unit

Specific gravity - - 2.60

Sand fraction 59 2 – 0.063 -

Silt fraction 18 0.063 – 0.002 -

Clay fraction 23 < 0.002 -

LL 36 - -

PL 17 - -

PI 19 - -

Organic content 0.63 - -

pH - - 4.95

4.2 Attenuation Coefficient in Soil Subgrade Layer

The particle displacement spectra of signals recorded from first and second accelerometer at test sites for r =

160 and 320 cm, are illustrated in Figure 5. In this spectrum, the particle displacement may reflect the

combination of several mode of Rayleigh wave propagation because the R-waves propagated in a layered

media with extreme stiffness contrast.

1.E-13

1.E-12

1.E-11

1.E-10

1.E-09

1.E-08

1.E-07

1.E-06

0 50 100 150 200 250 300

Frequency (Hz)

P

a

r

t

i

c

l

e

D

i

s

p

l

a

c

e

m

e

n

t

(

m

)

r = 160 cm

r =320 cm

Figure 5. Particle displacement spectra from SASW measurement at selected road site

Figure 6a shows the auto power spectrum from FFT analysis of particle displacement spectra of 160 cm

receiver spacing for pavement subgrade assessment. Using the bandwidth criteria, the useful frequency of the

signal needed is obtained from the auto power spectra in the range of 68.75 to 135.16 Hz. This frequency

range of waves is the effective measured R-waves that propagate in the soil subgrade layer. The plot of the

coherence function spectrum (Figure 6b) also indicate that the two signals are highly correlated (coherence

magnitude > 0.98) in that frequency range. The use of the coherence function is more useful for goodness

level confirmation of the measured frequency from the bandwidth criteria for the subgrade layer.

The decay factor curve of the R-wave for the experimental data is then obtained from the plot of the ratio of the

second amplitude (w

2

) over the first amplitude (w

1

) versus frequency (Figure 7) where the curve shows a

2664

general trend of frequency dependency. A regression analysis is then performed on the experimental data to

obtain the decay factor. The Bornitz equation (Equation 10) can then be written as:

f

e

w

w

0

6 . 1

5 . 0

1

2

2

1

α −

,

_

¸

¸

· (16)

For a 160 cm receiver spacing, the value of r

1

and r

2

are 1.6 and 3.2 m, respectively. The best-fit curve is then

established between the decay factor of the experimental data and the Bornitz equation by trial and error for

different values of α

0

from visual best-fit evaluation of the two curves. From Figure 7, the value of frequency-

independent attenuation coefficient of the soil subgrade layer of the pavement structure obtained is calculated

as 1.9375 × 10

-3

s/m. The results of frequency-independent attenuation and the frequency range of each layer

of the pavement structure are described in Table 3. The frequency range of the attenuation coeffi cient of the R-

waves in the pavement layers was chosen using the bandwidth criteria.

0

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02

0 50 100 150 200

Frequency, Hz

S

p

e

c

t

r

a

l

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

(

i

n

a

c

c

e

l

e

r

a

t

i

o

n

,

m

/

s 2

)

A1(f)

A2(f )

(a)

0.8

0.9

1

0 50 100 150 200

Frequency, Hz

C

o

h

e

r

e

n

c

e

(

m

a

g

n

i

t

u

d

e

)

(b)

Figure 6. (a) The power spectrum of received signal at first and second receiver, (b) the coherence function

spectrum from 160 cm receiver spacing.

y = 3.149e

-0.0031x

R

2

= 0.6478

1.5

1.7

1.9

2.1

2.3

2.5

2.7

2.9

70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150

Frequency, Hz

W

2

/

W

1

Standard deviation in 10 % of

exponential regression from data

Initial - theoretical curve from

Bornitz equation

Best fit theoretical curve

from Bornitz equation

α

0 = 1.9375 E -03 (s/m)

Figure 7. The decay factor curve of amplitude ratio versus frequency of 160 cm receiver spacing for soil

subgrade layer.

2665

Table 3. The results of frequency-independent attenuation and the frequency range of each layer

Layer α

0

(× 10

-3

s/m)

COV

(%)

Frequency

Range (Hz)

Surface

0.432 – 0.653

(average 0.54)

15.6

8 – 13 k

Base

0.883 – 1.012

(average 0.90)

25.7

900 – 1.5 k

Subgrade 1.018 – 2.145

(average 1.58)

22.4 20 - 180

From the results it can be observed that the asphaltic layer has a lower average value of attenuation than the

base and subgrade layers. It also indicates that the attenuation increases but material stiffness decreases

with depth.

The values of the frequency-independent attenuation coefficient obtained from this study were compared with

experimental results that have been carried out by other researchers, such as Yang (1995), Woods (1997),

and Athanasopoulos et al. (2000) as shown in Figure 8. Woods and Jedele (1985), and Woods (1997)

classified soil groups from the frequency-dependent attenuation of the 5 Hz vibration. The average attenuation

coefficient of the subgrade material is 1.58 × 10

-3

s/m, i.e. ranging between 1.018 – 2.145 × 10

-3

s/m. The

result falls into Class 1 (soft soil) and Class 2 (medium soil) using Woods (1997) classification. In general,

the results are also in good agreement with Anthanasopoulos et al. (2000).

Yang (1995) also studied the frequency-independent attenuation coefficient for soil ranging from loose sand

and soft clays to rock. Figure 8 shows that the average of this study is close to the lower bound of the

attenuation coefficient range obtained by Yang (1995) for unsaturated loose sand material which is most likely

due to the difference in material. However, the attenuation coefficient of subgrade material obtained in this

study is still within the upper and lower bound of the Anthanasopoulos’s (2000) empirical correlation of:

a

0

= 3.17 × 10

-3

×

500

Vs

e

−

(best-fit) (17)

a

0

= 1.15 × 10

-3

×

500

Vs

e

−

(lower bound) (18)

1.E-05

1.E-04

1.E-03

1.E-02

1.E-01

100 200 300

Shear Wave Velocity m/s

α

o

(

s

e

c

/

m

)

Athanasopoulos et al. (2000)

Yang (1995)

Class 2

Woods & Jedele (1985);Woods (1997)

unsaturated loose sands

Class 1

Measured attenuation

clayed sand residual soil

(this study)

Figure 8. The decay factor curve of amplitude ratio versus frequency of 160 cm receiver spacing for soil

subgrade layer.

2666

4.3 Damping Ratio

By knowing the attenuation coefficient, the damping ratio of the pavement materials can be obtained. In the

case of seismic measurement, the damping ratio is usually a small value (D < 10 %). Consequently, the

damping ratio of soil subgrade layer of pavement structures can be calculated using Equation 3 and 10. From

the value of frequency-independent attenuation coefficient of 1.9375 × 10-3 s/m (Figure 7) and the average R-

wave velocity of 144.54 m/s (V

S

= 126 m/s), the soil subgrade layer damping ratio was then obtained as 3.52

%.

It is also possible to calculate the damping ratio of the soil subgrade using the spectral ratio method. Figure 9

shows the recorded signals from multiple impacts of the source at a test site for increasing the resolution of

time domain spectra. From the recorded signals, it can be recognized that higher amplitude (A

1

and A

2

for first

and second measured signal, respectively) is measured for first mode of R- wave amplitude. It is also noted

that the decreasing signal magnitude is identified as the R-wave attenuation in the subgrade layer which is an

important tool for determining the material damping ratio. Using the fast fourier transform (FFT) analysis, both

signals were transformed to the Fourier amplitude in frequency domain.

-80

-60

-40

-20

0

20

40

60

80

0.0197 0.0198 0.0199 0.02 0.0201 0.0202 0.0203 0.0204 0.0205

Time (sec)

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

(

a

c

c

e

l

e

r

a

t

i

o

n

u

n

i

t

)

Recorded Signal from

1st Receiver

Recorded Signal from

2nd Receiver

A1

A2

Figure 9. Recorded signal from SASW measurement for first (A

1

) and second receiver (A

2

).

Figure 10 shows the spectral ratio of the Fourier amplitude obtained from the recorded signals and its linear

regression curve based on the predominant frequency in the subgrade layer. The recorded signals were set

up using time delay of 20ms to avoid the degradation of signals. The linear regression was generated to find

a slope value of the spectral ratio curve in Equation 11. The coefficient of determination (R

2

) of 0.65 was

obtained for the fitted curve. Possible devi ation from the receiver interface, multiple reflections from boundary

and near fi eld effect may contribute in the results. However, in general (as shown in Figure 10) the trend of

measured amplitudes follows the fitted curve. The damping ratio is then obtained using Equation 12 and yield

a value of 3.54 %.

The third method used in this analysis for damping ratio measurement is the surface wave transfer function

method. From particle displacement spectra of four receivers, the transfer function can be directly evaluated

using Equation 14. In the analysis of geometric spreading function, G(r,ω) was assumed to be proportional to

r / 1 and Equation 15 can be simplified as:

( )

( )( )

1

1

,

~

r r K i

e

r

r

r F

− ⋅ −

·

ω

ω (19)

Figure 11 shows the comparison of amplitude of transfer function between the experimental data and

regression analysis for a frequency of 50 Hz. It also indicates that from Figure 10, the attenuation

phenomenon is clearly detected. A fit from model to the experimental curves was then obtained. The

regression process is repeated over the entire frequency range of interest to estimate the variation of the

complex wave number with frequency. The inversion process using damped least-square algorithm (Foti,

2003) was then carried out in order to obtain the damping ratio profile of the tested site. Figure 11 shows the

damping profile obtained using the transfer function method. From Figure 12, it can be observed a good

agreement of the damping ratio was obtained by Bornitz equation, the spectral ratio and the transfer function

method from spectrum data of the SASW measurement.

2667

y = -0.0031x + 1.1471

R

2

= 0.6478

0

1

2

70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150

Frequency, Hz

L

n

(

A

1

/

A

2

)

Spectral Ratio = ln (A1/A2)

Fitted Curve :

Figure 10. Spectral ratio curve and its linier regression from the recorded signal of SASW measurement.

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

Receiver offset, m

Experimental curve

Regression

Frequency = 50 Hz

Figure 11. Comparison between experimental transfer function and regression model.

5 Conclusion

In general, good agreement was obtained between the attenuation coefficients obtained from this study

compared to the studies of Yang (1995), Woods & Jedele (1985), Woods (1997) and Athanasopoulos et al.

(2000).

The value of damping ratio of the soil subgrade layer obtained from Bornitz equation also shows good

agreement compared to the spectral ratio and the transfer function method using the spectrum data of the

SASW measurement.

Thus, it is shown that the characterization of the physical properties of the pavement in terms of shear wave

velocity, the attenuation coefficient and the shear damping ratio of clayed sand residual soil subgrade layer

can be satisfactory obtained using the SASW method. In addition, the SASW method has the advantage of

being fast, economical and non-destructive.

2668

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

0.00% 1.00% 2.00% 3.00% 4.00% 5.00%

D

e

p

t

h

,

H

(

m

)

Damping Ratio

transfer function

method

Bornitz method

spectral ratio

method

Asphalt

Base

Layer

Subgrade

Layer

Figure 12. Damping ratio profile from the transfer function method and its comparison with Bornitz and the

spectral ratio method.

6 Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the Ministry of National Education of Republic of Indonesia (through Hibah

Bersaing Grant), Dept.of Civil Engineering, Muhammadiyah University of Yogyakarta Indonesia and Dept.of

Civil & Structural Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia for supporting this research work.

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2670

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