You are on page 1of 117

BRIDGE

PROCEDURES
GUIDE
FOURTH EDITION 2007
BRIDGE PROCE'DURES GUIDE
The International Chamber of Shipping (ICS) is a voluntary organisation comprising the national shipowners'
associations of 39 countries, together representing more than 70% of the world's merchant tonnage,
Established in 1921, ICS is the trade association for the international shipping industry, its interests covering
all aspects of maritime affairs, particularly marine safety, ship design and construction, pollution prevention
and maritime law.
ICS has consultative status with several inter-governmental organisations, including the International Maritime
Organization (IMO),
While the advice given in this Guide has been developed using the best information available, it is intended
purely as guidance to be used at the user's own risk, No responsibility is accepted by Marisec Publications or
by the International Chamber of Shipping or by any person, firm, corporation or organisation who or which
has been in any way concerned with the furnishing of information or data, the compilation, publication or
any translation, supply or sale of this Guide for the accuracy of any information or advice given herein or for
any omission herefrom or from any consequences whatsoever resulting directly or indirectly from compliance
with or adoption of guidance contained therein even if caused by a failure to exercise reasonable care,
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
Published by
Marisec Publications
12 Carthusian Street
London EC 1 M 6EZ
Tel +442074178844
Fax +442074178877
Email ics@marisecorg
Website www.marisecorg
First edition
Second edition
Third edition
Fourth edition
© Marisec Publications 2007
1977
1990
1998
2007
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE

CONTENTS
Page
6 FOREWORD
8 INTRODUCTION
8 The need for good management of bridge procedures
9 Clarity of purpose
9 Delegation of authority
10 Effective organisation
10 Motivation
11 GLOSSARY, TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
GUIDANCE TO MASTERS AND NAVIGATING OFFICERS
16 1 BRIDGE ORGANISATION
16 1.1 Overview
16 1.2 Bridge resource management and the bridge team
16 1.2 1 Composition of the navigational watch under the STeW Code
17 1.2.2 Watchkeeping arrangements under the STeW Code
17 1.2.3 Reassessing manning levels during the voyage
18 1. 2.4 Sole look-out
18 1.2. 5 The bridge team
18 1.2.6 The bridge team and the master
19 1.2.7 Working within the bridge team
19 1.2.8 New personnel and familiarisation
20 1.2.9 Prevention of fatigue
20 1.2.10 Alcohol consumption
20 1.2. 11 Use of English
21 1 2. 12 The bridge team and the pilot
21 1.3 Navigation policy and company procedures
21 1.3. 1 Master's standing orders
23 2 PASSAGE PLANNING
23 2.1 Overview
23 2.2 Responsibility for passage planning
24 2. 3 Notes on passage planning
24 2.3. 1 Plan appraisal
24 2.3.2 Charts and publications
24 2.3.3 The passage plan
25 2.3.4 Passage planning and electronic navigation systems
26 2.4 Notes on passage planning in ocean waters
26 2. 5 Notes on passage planning in coastal or restricted waters
27 2.6 Monitoring the passage plan
27 2.6.1 Visual monitoring techniques
27 2.6.2 Radar monitoring techniques
28 2.7 Passage planning and pilotage
28 2.7. 1   planning
28 2I2 Pre-arrival information exchange with the pilot
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
29
29
29
30
31
32
32
32
32
32
32
33
33
33
34
34
35
35
36
37
37
37
38
39
40
40
40
41
41
41
42
43
43
44
44
44
44
45
45
45
45
46
46
46
46
47
2.7.3
2.7.4
2.8
2.9
2.10
3
3.1
3. 1.1
3.1.2
3.1.3
3. 1.4
3.1.5
3.2
3.2.1
3.2.2
3.2.3
3.2.4
3.2.5
3.2.6
3.2.7
3.3
33.1
33.2
333
33.4
3.'
3.4,1
34.2
3.5
3 5.1
3.5.2
35.3
35.4
3.6
3.6.1
3.7
3.7.1
37.2
37.3
37.4
3.75
4
4. 1
4.2
4.2.1
4.2.2
...   '  
' ~ '
, ,
..... l
" DO ,+
Pilot on boord
Preparing the outward bound pilotage plan
Passage planning and ships' routeing
Passage planning and ship reporting systems
Passage planning and vessel traffic services
DUTIES OF THE OFFICER OF THE WATCH (OOW)
Overview
Master's representative
Primary duties
In support of primary duties
Additional duties
Bridge attendance
Watch keeping
Maintaining a look-out
General surveillance
Watch keeping and the COLREGS
Recording bridge activities
Periodic checks on navigational equipment
Changing over the watch
Calling the master
Navigation
General principles
Navigation in coastal or restricted waters
Navigation with a pilot on board
At anchor
Controlling the speed and direction of the ship
Use of the engines
Steering control
Radiocommunications
General
Safety watchkeepmg on GMOSS ships
Log keeping
Testing of equipment and false alerts
Pollution prevention
Reporting obligations
Emergency situations
General
Reporting
Search and rescue
Helicopter operations
Piracy
OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF BRIDGE EQUIPMENT
General
Radar
Good radar practice
Radar and collision avoidance
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
48
48
49
49
50
50
50
50
51
51
51
51
51
52
52
52
53
53
53
53
54
54
54
54
54
54
55
55
57
57
57
58
58
59
59
59
59
59
60
64
64
65
65
67
67
68
68
68
69
69
70
42.3
42.4
4.3
4.3 1
4.3 2
4.4
441
44.2
4 4.3
4.44
4.5
4.5 1
452
45.3
4.6
46. 1
46.2
46.3
4.6.4
4.7
47. 1
47.2
47.3
4.8
4.9
49.1
492
493
4 .10
4 10.1
4.10.2
410.3
4104
4. 11
4. 11. 1
4.11.2
4.11.3
4.11.4
4.1 1.5
4.12
412.1
4 12.2
4 12.3
4. 124
4.13
5
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
Radar and navigation
Electronic plotting deVices
AIS
AIS overview
AIS operation
Voyage Data Recorder (VDR) and Simplified Voyage Data Recorder (S-VDR)
VDR and $-VDR overview
VDR requirement s
SNOR requirements
Preserving records
Steering gear and the automatic pilot
Testing of steering gear
Steering control
Off-course alarm
Compass system
Magnetic compass
Gyro compass
Compass errors
Rate of turn
Speed and distance measuring log
Types of speed measurement
Direction of speed measurement
Recording of distance travelled
Echo sounders
Electronic position-fixing systems
Hyperbolic positioning systems
Global navigation sat ellite system
Use of electronic poSi t ion-fixing systems
Integrated bridge systems (185)
Workstati ons, bridge design and layout
ISS equipment
ISS and the automat ion of navigation functions
Using ISS
Charts, ECDIS and nautical publications
Carriage of charts and nautical publications
Official naut ical charts
Use of charts and nautical publications
Electronic charts and electronic chart display systems
ElectronIC chart display systems
Radiocommunications
GMOSS radiocommunication functIOns
GMDSS equipment
Emergency communications
Routme or general communications
Emergency navigation lights and signalling equipment
DYNAMIC POSITIONING
General
Operational planning on DP ships
Navigation in DP mode
Controlling speed and direction in DP mode
Operation and maintenance of DP system
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
71 6 MARITIME PILOTAGE
71 6.' Principles for the safe conduct of pilotage
71 6.2 Provision of information for berth-ta-berth passage planning
72 6.3 Master/pilot information exchange
72 6.4 Duties and responsibilities
73 6.5 Preparation for pilotage
73 6.6 Pilot boarding
74 6.7 Conduct of passage in pilotage waters
74 6.8 Berthing and unberthing
75 6.9 Other matters
75 6.10 Standard references
ANNEXES
PART A - COMMUNICATIONS
78
A'
Ship-ta-Shore: Master/ Pilot Exchange
79 A2 Shore-ta-Ship: Pilot/ Master Exchange
80 A3 Pilot Card
82 A4 Wheelhouse Poster
83 A5 Required boarding arrangements for pilots
84 A6 Distress alert and the frequencies to use
85 A7 Guidance on steering gear test routines
PART B - BRIDGE CHECKLISTS
88
8'
Familiarisation with bridge equipment
90 82 Preparation for sea
92 83 Preparation for arrival in port
93 84 Pilotage
94 85 Passage plan appraisal
95 86 Navigation in coastal waters
96 87 Navigation in ocean waters
97 88 Anchoring and anchor watch
98 89 Navigation in restricted visibility
99 8'0 Navigation in heavy weather or in tropical storm areas
100
8"
Navigation in ice
101
8'2 Changing over the watch
102 813 Calling the master
103 8'4 Pre-operational DP checklist
PART C - EMERGENCY CHECKLISTS
106 C, Main engine or steering failure
107 C2 Collision
108 C3 Stranding or grounding
109 C. Man overboard
110 C5 Fire
111 C6 Flooding
112 C7 Search and rescue
113 C8 Abandoning ship
114 RECOMMENDED INDUSTRY PUBLICATIONS
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
FOREWORD
This fourth edition of the International Chamber of ShiPPing (1(5) Bridge Procedures Guide is intended to
reflect best navigational practice on merchant ships operating today, in all sectors and trades_
As with previous editions, the Guide embraces internationally agreed standards and recommendations
adopted by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). It also includes helpful bridge and emergency
checklists for use by ships' masters and navigating officers. To provide additional value and utility, this new
edition is also accompanied by a CD version of the text with a "search" function.
Above al l, the Guide attempts to bring together the good practice of seafarers with the aim of improving
navigational safety and protection of the marine environment. The need to ensure the maintenance of a safe
navigational watch at all times, supported by safe manning levels on the ship, is also a fundamental principle
adhered to In this Guide.
Following the publication of the first edition of the Bridge Procedures Guide, in 1977, it rapidly became
acknowledged as the principal industry guidance on the subject. Today it is used by ships worldwide, and is
referred to in the f ootnotes of several IMO Conventions. Keeping the Guide up to date is thus a major
responsibility, and an important example of the work whICh ICS undertakes on behalf of the International
shipping industry.
Thic; npw priition t hu<; pmhr<lcP<; thp concept of "continuous improvement". which is one of the key principles
embodied within the IMO International Safety Management (ISM) Code. The successful implementation of
the ISM Code is, of course, one of the more significant development s since the publication of the last edition,
and account has therefore been taken of the need to adhere to ISM Safety Management Systems. In
addition, this new edition reflects the requirements of the new Chapter VIII (Watch keeping) of the IMO
Convent ion on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (STCW), and the latest
changes to the RadiO Regulations.
In particular, this new edition has been revised to address the increasing use of modern electronic navigation
and charting systems which, on new ships, are often integrated into the overall bridge design. Safe
navigation is the most fundamental attribute of good seamanship, and is clearly vi t al to the protection of
safety of life at sea However, an increasingly sophisticated range of navigational aids - most recently
supplemented by the introduction of Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) - now complement the core skills
of navigating officers which have developed over the previous centuries.
This increased sophistication brings its own dangers and a need for additional precautionary measures against
undue reliance on technology. Experience continues to demonstrate that properly formulated bridge
procedures and, most importantly, the development of bridge teamwork are critical to maintaining a safe
navigational watch.
For the fi rst time, the t opic of Dynamic Positioning of ships has also been addressed, having become a more
widespread and heavily used technology, requiring different techniques and competencies from conventional
watchkeeping, together with different organisational strategies and procedures_
This new edi t ion also incorporat es International Best Practices for Mafltime Pilotage, previously produced
Jointly by ICS with the Oil Companies International Marine Forum (OCIMF) and Intertanko. and reproduced
with their kind permission.
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
The assistance of experts from ICS member national shipowners' associations in the preparation of this GUide
is gratefully acknowledged. Special thanks are also due to colleagues from other maritime organisations,
particularly the International Maritime Pilots' Association (IMPA), who have willingly given time and expertise
to ensure that the Bridge Procedures Guide continues to offer the best possible guidance on the subject.
Suggestions and comments from several maritime administrations have also been incorporated into this latest
edition.
It is important to stress that an essential part of bridge organisation is adherence to correct procedures, which
should set out in clear language the operational requirements and methods that should be adopted when
navigating. This Bridge Procedures Guide should therefore be seen as an attempt to codify these best
practices and provide a f ramework upon which owners, operators, masters, officers and pilots can work
together to achieve consistent and reliable performance.
Seafaring will never be without its dangers, but the maintenance of a safe navigational watch at all times,
and the careful preparation of passage plans, are at the heart of good operating practice. If the ICS Bridge
Procedures Guide can help encourage such good practices, it will have continued to serve its primary
purpose.
August 2007
Feedback and comments are welcome on this new edition:
ics@marisec.org
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
INTRODUCTION
THE NEED FOR GOOD MANAGEMENT
OF BRIDGE PROCEDURES
ICS attaches the utmost importance to safe navigation. Safe navigation means that the ship is not exposed to
unnecessary danger and that at all times the ship can be controlled within acceptable marginS.
At all times, safe navigation requires effective command, control, communication and management. It
demands that the situation, the level of bridge manning, and the operational status of navigational systems,
the ship's engines and auxiliaries are all taken into account.
It is people that control ShipS, and it is therefore people, together with management and teamwork, who are
the key to reliable performance. People entrusted with the control of ships must be competent to carry out
their duties.
People also make mistakes and so It is necessary to ensure that monitoring and checking prevent chains of
error from developing. Mistakes cannot be predicted and. once a mistake has been detected, it is human
nature to seek to fit circumstances to the original premise, thus compounding a simple error of judgement.
Passage planning is conducted to assess the safest and most economical sea route between ports. Detailed
plans, particulady in coastal waters, port approaches and pilotage areas, are needed to ensure apprufJriate
margins of safety. Once completed, the passage plan becomes the basis for navigation. EqUipment can fail
and the unexpected can happen, so contingency planning is also necessary.
The above comments apply equally to manoeuvring and operations conducted using any Dynamic Positioning
(DP) capability of the ship. Ship manoeuvres In and around a worksite must be the subjed of a
comprehensive operational plan covering contingencies and appropriate "escape" manoeuvres.
Ergonomics and good design are essential elements of good bridge working practices. Watch keepers at sea
need to be able to keep a look-out. as well as monitor the chart and observe the radar. They should also be
able to communicate using the VHF Without losing situational awareness. When boarding or disembarking
pilots, handling tugs or berthing, it should be possible to monitor instrumentation, particularly helm and
engine indicators, from the bridge wings. Bridge notes should be provided to explain limitations of any
equipment that has been badly sited, pointing out the appropriate remedies that need to be taken.
In summary, good management of bridge procedures combines:
o clarrty of purpose;
o the ability to delegate authorrty as appropriate;
o effective organisation;
o motivation, and the ability to motivate others.
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
CLARITY OF PURPOSE
If more than one person is involved in navigating, it is essential to agree the passage plan and to
communicate consistently and without ambiguity the way the voyage objectives are to be achieved. The
process starts with company instructions to the ship, as encompassed by the Safety Management System
(SMS) supported by master's standing orders and reinforced by discussion and bridge orders. Existing local
pilotage legi slation should al so be ascertained to enable the master to be guided accordingly.
Before approaching coastal and pilotage waters, a ship's passage plan should ensure that dangers are noted
and safe water limits identified. Within the broEd plan, pilotage should be carried out in the knowledge that
the ship can be controlled within the established safe limits, and that the actions of the pilot can be monitored
In this respect, early exchange of information wil enable a clearer and more positive working relationship to be
established in good time before the pilot boards. Where this is not practicable, the ship's plan should be sufficient
to enable the pilot to be embarked and a safe commencement of pilotage made without causing undue delay.
DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY
The master has the ultimate responsibility for the safety of the ship. Delegation of authority to the officer of
the watch (OOW) should be undertaken in accordance with agreed procedures and reflect the ability and
experience of the watch keeper.
Similarly, when a pilot boards, the master may delegate the conduct of the ship to the pilot, bearing in mind
that pilotage legislation varies from country to country and from region to region. Pilotage can range from
optional voluntary pilotage that is adviSOry in nature to compulsory pilotage where the responsibility for the
condud of the navigation of the ship is placed upon the pi lot.
The master cannot abrogate responsibility for the safety of the ship and remains in command at all times. In
the Panama Canal where unique arrangements apply, responsibility is taken by the pilot for the safe
navigation of the ship.
Where the master delegates the conduct of the ship to the pilot, it will be because he considers that the pilot
has specialist knowledge, shiphandling ski lls and communications links with the port. In doing so, the master
must continue to monitor the pilot's intentions to ensure they are safe and reasonable. The OOW supports
the master by monitoring the progress of the ship and checking that the requirements advised by the pilot are
correctly carried out. Where problems occur which may adversely affect the safety of the ship, the master
must be advised immediately.
The process of delegation can be the cause of misunderstanding and so it is recommended that a clear and
positive statement of intention be made whenever handing over and receiving conduct of the ship.
When navigating with the master on the bridge, it is considered good practice, when it is ascertained that it is
safe to do so, to encourage the OOW to carry out the navigation, with the master maintaining a monitoring role.
The watch system should provide a continuity of rested watchkeepers, but the watch changeover can give
rise to errors. Consequently, routines and procedures to monitor the ship's position and to avoid the
possibil ity of mistakes must be built into both the organisation of the navigational watch and procedures for
the change over of navigational watch.
The risks associated with navigation demand positive reporting at all times, self-verification, verification at
handover and regular checks of instrumentation and bridge procedures. The course that the ship is following
and compass errors must be displayed and checked, together with the traffic situation, at regular intervals
and at every course change and watch handover.
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
EFFECTIVE ORGANISATION
Preparing a passage plan and carrying out the voyage necessitate that bridge resources are appropriately
allocated according to the demands of the different phases of the voyage.
Depending upon the level of act ivity likely to be experienced, the master may need to ensure the availabil ity
of adequately rested back-up for the navigational watch.
Where equipment is concerned, errors can occur for a variety of reasons and poor equipment calibration may
be significant. In the case of integrated systems. it is possible that the failure of one component could have
unpredictable consequences for the system as a whole. It is important to ensure that electronic navigational
equipment is carefully synchronised with the appropriate chart datum. Failure to achieve or maintain accurate
synchronisation and alignment has been the cause of groundings.
It is therefore essential that navigational information is always cross-checked and, where there is doubt
concerning the ship's position, it is always prudent to assume a position that is closest to danger and proceed
accordingly.
MOTIVATION
Motivation comes from within and cannot be imposed. It is, however, the responsibi lity of the master to
create the conditions in which motivation is encouraged.
A valuable asset in any organisation is teamwork and this is enhanced by recognising the strengths,
competence and limitations of the people within a team, and organising the work of the bridge team to take
best advantage of the attributes of each team member.
Working in isolation when carrying out critical operations carries the risk of an error going undetected.
Working together and sharing information in a professional way enhances the bridge team and the
master/pilot relationship. Training in bridge resource management can further support this.
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
GLOSSARY, TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
AIS
Automatic Identificat ion System
AMVER
Automated Mutual-Assistance Vessel Rescue
System: a worldwide voluntary system operated
exclusively to support SAR and to make
information available to al l RCCs
ARCS
Admiralty Raster Chart Service: electronic raster
charts produced by the United Kingdom
Hydrographic Office
ARPA
Automati c Radar Plotti ng Aid
ASF
Additional Secondary Factor: corrections to be
appli ed when plotting Loran C positions on charts
to take into account variations In the conducti'Jlty
of the earth's surface over which the signals pass
ATA
Automatic Tracking Aid: elect ronic plotting device
for radars
CES
Coast Earth Station: maritime name for an
INMARSAT shore-based station linking ship earth
stati ons with terrestrial communication networks
COLREGS
Conventi on on the International Regulations for
Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972, as amended
COSPAS-SARSAT
A satel lite system designed to detect distress
beacons transmi tting on the frequency 406 MHz
DATUM
A datum is a reference system for specifying
positions on the earth's surface. Each datum is
associated with a particular re ference spheroid that
can be different in size, ori entation and relati ve
position from the spheroids associated wi th other
horizontal dat ums. Positions referred to different
datums can differ by several hundred metres
DGPS
Differential Global Positioning System (see GNSS)
DOC
Document of Compl iance issued to the ship
operator under the ISM Code
DP
Dynamic Positioning: the abil ity of a ship to
maintain automatical ly a pre-set posi ti on and
heading by uSing her own propel lers and thrusters
DPO
Dynamic Posi t ioning Operator, usual ly a bridge
watch keeper
DSC
Digital Selective Call ing a technique usi ng digital
codes which enable a radio stati on to establish
contact with, and transfer information to, another
stati on or group of stations
EBL
Electronic Bearing Line: a radar feature
ECDIS
Electronic Chart Display and Information System
ECS
Electronic Chart System
EGC
Enhanced Group Call: part of the INMARSAT system
that complements the NAVTEX system to supply
SafetyNET and similar informati on broadcast seNices
ENC
Electronic Navigational Chart
EP
Estimated Posi ti on
EPA
Electroni c Plotting Aid electronic plotting device
for radars
EPIRB
Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon: a
device that transmits distress alerting signals usually
via satel lites
FPSO/ FGSO
Floating Product ion. Storage and
OffioadingiFloating Gas Storage Offloading
ship/vessel or unit: an oi l/gas production facil ity
GLONASS
Global Navigation Satell ite System (see GNSS)
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
III
GMDSS
Global Maritime Distress and Safety System" a global
communications service based upon automated
systems, both satellite and terrestrial, to provde
distress alerting and promulgat ion of maritime
safety Informati on for mariners
GNSS
Global Navigation Satellite System: a worldwide
position and time determination system t hat includes
one or more sa tel lite constellations and receivers
Goe
General Operator's Certifica te: a GMDSS radio
operator's certi ficate for use on ships tradin£
beyond GMDSS Sea Area A 1. This is now u5Jaliy
incorporated into the STew qualificati ons of deck
officers at the operational level.
GPS
Global Positioning System (see GNSS)
HF
High Frequency
HPR
Hydroacoustic Posi ti on Reference: a PR5 often used
in conjunction with DP, configured with sea-floor
acousti c transponders
IAMSAR
International Aeronautical and Mari ti me Search
and Rescue Manual: published in three volumes
Joi ntly by ICAO and IMO
IBS
Integrated Bridge System
ICAO
International Civil Aviation Organizati on Montreal
based United Nations intergovernmental body
IHO
International Hydrographic Organization: Monaco
based intergovernmental body
ILO
International Labour Organization: Geneva based
United Nati ons intergovernmental body,
responsible for seafarers' employment standards
IMO
International Maritime OrganizatIOn: London based
Uni ted Nations intergovernmental body, responsible
for the safety of life at sea, including navigational
rules, and the protection of the marine environment
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
INMARSAT
International Mobile Satellite Organizati on:
operator of a system of geostationary satellites for
worldwide mobile communications services and
which supports GMDSS
ISF
InternatIOnal Shipping Federation: global
employers' organisation for shipowners (sister
organisati on of I(S)
ISM Code
International Safety Management Code
ITU
International Telecommunication Union: Geneva
based United Nations intergovernmental body
LL
Internat ional Convent ion on Load Li nes, 1966, as
amended
LSA
Life Saving Appl iance(s)
MARPOL
Internati onal Conventi on for the Prevention of
Poll ution from ShiPS, 1973, as modi fi ed by the
Protocol of 1978, as amended
MF
Medium Frequency
MMSI
Maritime Mobile Service Identi ty: 9-digit
ITU identifica ti on number al located to ships
operating DSC
MOB
Man Overboard
MRce
Maritime Rescue Co-ordinati on Centre" alternati ve
name for RCC favoured by certain administrati ons
MSI
Mari ti me Safety Information: navigational and
meteorological warnings, forecasts and other
urgent safety-related messages broadcast to ships
NAVAREA
One of 16 areas into which the world's oceans
have been divided for the dissemi nation of long-
range navigational and meteorological warnings
under the WWNWS
NAVTEX
Telegraphy system for broadcasting marine weather
forecasts, navigational warnings, SAR alerts and
other warnings and urgent information to ships in
coastal waters (up to 400 nautical mi les) under the
WWNWS
NBDP
Narrow-Band Direct Printing telegraphy used for
radiotelex and NAVTEX
NOAA
Nat ional Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration:
United States producer of electronic raster charts
OOW
Officer of the Watch
PRS
Position Reference System: a navigat ional sensor
(e.g. DGPS) used In conj unction with a DP system
RCC
Rescue Co-ordi nation Centre: a unit responsible for
promoting the efficient organisation of SAR
services and for co-ordlnating the conduct of SAR
operations within a SAR region
RCDS
Raster Chart Display System
RENC
Regional Eledronic Navigational Chart Co-ordinating
Centre: supplier of official chart data
RNC
Raster Navigational Chart
ROC
Restricted Operator's Cert ificate: a GMDSS radio
operator's certificate for use on ships trading only
in GMDSS Sea Area A 1
R/T
Radio Telephony
S-S7 Edition 3
IHO's latest transfer standard for digital
hydrographic data for use with EeDIS
SafetyNET
INMARSAT service for promulgating MSI to ships
on the high seas; it includes shore-la-ship rel ays
of distress alerts and communications for SAR
co-ordination
SAR
Search and Rescue/International Convent ion on
Maritime Search and Rescue, 1979, as amended
SART
Search and Rescue Transponder: a portable radar
transponder for use in survival craft. which
transmits hommg signals In the 9 GHz band
SENC
System Electronic Navigational Chart: a database
that comprises ENC data, ENC updates and other
data added by the mariner that is accessed by, and
displayed on, the ECDIS
SES
Ship Earth Stat ion: shipborne satellite
communication station, used for exchanging
messages with shore subscribers and ships
SMCP
Standard Marine Communication Phrases: an
updated version of SMNV that includes phrases that
have been developed to cover the most important
safety-related fields of verbal communica tions
SMNV
Standard Marine Navigational Vocabulary: adopted
by IMO for communications on board ship as well
as for those between ship and shore
SMPEP
Shipboard Marine Pollution Emergency Plan
SMS
Safety Management System under t he ISM Code
SO LAS
International Convention for the Safety of Ufe at
Sea, 1974, as amended
SOPEP
Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plan
STCW
International Convention on Standards of Training,
Certi fication and Watch keeping for Seafarers,
1978, as amended
STCW Code
Seafarers' Training, Certi fication and Watch keeping
Code, appended to the STCW Convention
S-VDR
Simplified Voyage Data Recorder
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
TMC
Transmi tti ng Magneti c Compass
UMS
Unmanned Machinery Space
VDR
Voyage Data Recorder
VRM
Variable Range Marker· a radar feature
VTS
Vessel Traff ic Services
WEND
World Electronic Navigational (hart Database
WGS84
World Geodetic System 1984 dat um
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
WMO
World Meteorological Organizati on" Geneva based
United Nations intergovernmental body
WWNWS
World-Wide Navigational Warning Service:
established by IMO in collaboration with IHO for
the dissemination of navigational warnings to ships
WWRNS
World-Wide Radio Navigation System: terrestrial
and satell ite radio-navigation systems that have
been accepted by IMO as capable of providing
adequate pOSItIOn informat ion to an unlimited
number of ships
XTE
Cross Track Error
GUIDANCE TO MASTERS AND
NAVIGATING OFFICERS
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
II
1
1.1
BRIDGE ORGANISATION
OVERVIEW
General principles of safe manning. consistent with those agreed by IMO. should be used to
establish the levels of manning that are appropriate to any ship.
At all times, ships need to be navigated safely in compliance with the COLREGS and also to ensure
that protection of the marine environment is not compromised.
An effective bridge organisation should manage efficiently all the resources that are avai lable to
the bri dge and promote good communicati on and teamwork.
The need to mai ntain a proper look-out should determine the basic composi ti on of the
navigational watch. There are, however, a number of circumstances and conditions that could
influence at any time the actual walch keeping arrangements and bridge manning levels
Effective bridge resource and team management should eliminate the risk that an error on the part
of one person could result in a dangerous situation.
The bridge organisation should be properly supported by a clear navigation pol icy incorporating
shipboard operati onal procedures, in accordance wi th the ship's Safety Management System as
required by the ISM Code.
1.2 BRIDGE RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
AND THE BRIDGE TEAM
1.2.1 Composition of the navigational watch under the STCW Code
In determining whether the composition of the navigational watch is adequate to ensure that a
proper look-out can be maintained continuously, the master should take into account all relevant
factors including the following:
o visibility, state of weather and sea;
o traffic density, and other activities occurring in the area in which the ship is navigati ng;
o the attention necessary when na\oigating in or near traffic separation schemes or other routeing
measures, or wi thin industrially controlled work zones;
o the additional workload caused by the nature of the ship's functi ons, immediate operating
requirements and anticipated manoeuvres;
o the fitness for duty of any crew members on call who are assigned as members of the watch,
including compliance with applicable work hour regulations;
o knowledge of and confidence in the professional competence of the ship's officers and crew;
o the experience of each ~ O W   and the familiarity of that OOW with the ship's equipment,
procedures and manoeuvring capability;
o activi ti es taking place on board the ship at any particular time, including radiocommunication
activities, and the avai lability of assistance to be summoned immediately to the bridge when
necessary;
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
o the operational status of bridge Instrumentation and controls, including alarm systems;
o rudder and propeller control and ship manoeuvring characteristics;
o the size of the ship and the field of vIsion available from the conning posItIOn;
o the configuration of the bridge, to the extent that such configuration might inhibit a member of
the watch from detecting by sight or hearing any external development;
o If working In an active DP mode, the need for a dedicated, competent DPO to be in charge of
the positioning of the ship and the operation of the DP system;
o any other relevant standard, procedure or guidance relating to watchkeeping arrangements and
fitness for duty.
1.2.2 Watchkeeping arrangements under the STCW Code
When deciding the composition of the watch on the bridge, whICh may Include appropriately
qualified ratings, the following factors, inter aha, must be taken Into account:
o the need to ensure that the bridge is never left unattended;
o weather conditions, viSibility and whether there is daylight or darkness;
o proximity of navigational hazards which may make It necessary for the DOW to carry out
additional duties;
o use and operatIOnal conditIOn of navigational aids such as radar or eledronlC posItIOn-indicating
devices. DP systems and their associated POSition reference systems, and any other equipment
affecting the safe navigation of :he ship;
o whether the ship is fitted with automatic steering or any form of dynamic positioning ability;
o whether there are radio duti es to be performed;
o unmanned machinery space (UMS) controls, alarms and indicators provided on the bridge,
procedures for their use and limitations;
o any unusual demands on the navigational watch that may arise as a resul t of special operatIOnal
Circumstances
1.2.3 Reassessing manning levels during the voyage
At any time on passage, it may become appropriate to review the manning levels of a navigatIOnal
watch.
Changes to the operatIOnal status of the bridge eqUipment, the prevailing weather and traffIC
conditIOns, the nature of the waters In whICh the ship IS navigating, fatigue levels and workload
on the bndge are among the factors that should be taken Into account.
A passage through restricted waters may, for example, necessitate a helmsman for manual
steering, and calling the master or a back-up officer to support the bridge team. If the ship is
engaged in operations necessitating manoeuvring control using DP, then it is usually necessary to
deploy one or more additional officers to act exclusively in the capacity of OPO.
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
1.2.4 Sole look-out
Under the STew Code, the OOW may, in certain circumstances, be the sole look-out in daylight
conditions (see section 3.2.1.1).
If sole look-out watchkeeping is to be practised on any ship, clear guidance should be given in the
shipboard operational procedures manual, supported by master's standing orders as appropriate,
and covering as a minimum:
o under what circumstances sole look-out watchkeeping can commence;
o how sole look-out watch keeping should be supported;
o under what ci rcumstances sole look-out watchkeeping must be suspended.
It is also recommended that, on each occasion, before sole look-out watchkeeping commences the
master should be satisfied that
o the OOW has had sufficient rest prior to commencing watch;
o in the judgement of the OOW, the anticipated workload is well within his capacity to maintain a
proper look-out and remain in full control of the prevail ing circumstances;
o back-up assistance to the OOW I"as been clearly designated;
o the OOW knows who wil l provide back-up assistance, in what circumstances back-up must be
cal led and how to call it quickly;
o designated back-up personnel are aware of response times and any limitations on their
movements, and are able to hear alarm or communication calls from the bridge;
o all essential equipment and alarrrs on the bridge are fully functional.
1.2.5 The bridge team
The bridge team is established so that the most effective use can be made of available manpower
in order that established work procedures are followed, risk is minimised and ships are navigated
safely. All ship's personnel who have bridge navigational watch duties will be part of the bridge
team. The master and pilot(s), as necessary, wil l need the support of the team, which wil l comprise
the OOW, a helmsman and look-out(s) as required.
The OOW is in charge of the bridge and the bridge team for that watch, until relieved.
It is important that the bridge team works together closely. both within a particular watch and
across watches, since decisions made on one watch may have an impact on another watch.
The bridge team also has an important role in maintaining communications with the engine room
and other operating areas on the ship.
1.2.6 The bridge team and the master
It should be clearly established in the company's Safety Management System that the master has
the overriding authority and responsibility to make decisions with respect to safety and pollution
prevention. The master should not be constrained by a shipowner or charterer from taking any
decision which, in his professional judgement, is necessary for safe navigation, in particular in
severe weather or reduced visibility.
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
( ~ '   \
'. -)
. , ...
The bridge team should have a clear understanding of the information that should be routinely
reported to the master, of the reql..irements to keep the master fully informed, and of the
circumstances under which the master should be called (see bridge checklist B 13).
When the master has arrived on the bridge, his decision to take over control of the bridge from
the OOW must be clear and unamaiguous (see section 3.2.7).
The master should consider the be'1efit of the OOW retaining control of navigat ion. Such action
could strengthen the bridge team as the master may provide more effective support and
monitoring in this role.
1.2.7 Working within the bridge team
1.2.7.1 Assignment of duties
Duties should be clearly assigned, limited to those duties that can be performed effectively, and
clearly prioritised.
Team members should be asked to confirm that they understand the tasks and duties assigned to
them.
The positive reporting on events while undertaking tasks and duties is one way of monitoring the
performance of bridge team members and detecting any deterioration in watchkeeping
performance.
1.2.7.2 COMordination and communication
The abil ity of ship's personnel to COMordinate activities and communicate effectively with each
other is particularly vital during emergency situations. During routine sea passages, port
approaches and pilotage, the bridge team personnel must always work as an effective team.
A bridge team which has a plan thOlt is understood and is well briefed, with all members
supporting each other, will have good situational awareness. Its members will then be able to
anticipate dangerous situations arising and recognise the development of a chain of errors, thus
enabling them to take action to break the sequence.
All non-essential activity or distractions to watchkeeping should be avoided.
Caution should be exercised regarding the use of mobile phones by members of the bridge team
(see section 3.1.4).
1.2.8 New personnel and familiarisation
There are obligations under the ISM Code and the STCW Convention for ship's personnel who are
new to a particular ship to receive ship specific familiarisation in safety matters. The ISM Code also
requires training needs in support of the SMS to be both ident ified and implemented.
For those personnel who have a direct involvement in ship operations such as watch keeping, a
reasonable period of time must be allocated for them to become acquainted with the equipment
that they wil l be using and any associated ship procedures. The familiarisation procedures must be
covered in written instructions that the company is required to provide to the master.
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
An officer must be responsible for the bridge equipment and for one-to-one training of new
personnel. in a common language, ideally supported by checklists (see bridge checklist 81). This
responsibility specifically includes navigational aids as fitted, including but not limited to ECDIS,
ECS, ARPA, AIS, Radar and Echo Sounder. Sel f-teaching manuals, videos or computer based
training programmes are examples of other training methods that could be used on board ship.
1.2.9 Prevention of fatigue
In order to prevent fati gue, the STCW Code stipulates that bridge team members must take
mandatory rest periods. Rest periods of at least 10 hours in any 24 hour period are required. If the
rest is taken in two separate periods, one of those periods must be for at least 6 consecutive
hours. However, the minimum period of 10 hours may be reduced to not less than 6 consecutive
hours provided that any such reduction does not extend beyond two days, and not less than
70 hours rest is provided during each seven day period.
The International Labour Organizat on (ILO) in its Convention ILO 180, which is subject to port
state control, stipulates a minimum rest period for seafarers in any seven day period of 77 hours.
This standard is likely to be more widely enforced foll owing the adopti on in 2006 of the ILO
Maritime Labour Convention.
Detailed guidance is available in the ISF publication fLO Maritime Labour Convention 2006 - a
Guide for the Shipping Industry. The IMO and ILO work hour requirements are complicated, as are
the mandatory requirements to ma ntain individual seafarers' workhour records. ISF has therefore
produced computer software (lSF Vlatchkeeper) to help ship operators comply.
IMO has published guidance regarding fatigue mitigation and management - Guidance on Fatigue.
1.2.10 Alcohol consumption
The STCW Code advises governments to prescribe a maximum blood alcohol level of 0.08% for
ship's personnel during watchkeeping and to prohibit alcohol consumption within 4 hours prior to
commencing a watch. Port states, flag state administrations and companies may have more
stringent policies.
The Oil Companies International Marine Forum (OCIMF) has established a maximum blood alcohol
level of 0.04%.
1.2.11 Use of English
The STCW Code requires the OOW to have knowledge of written and spoken English that is
adequate to understand charts, nautical publications. meteorological information and messages
concerning the ship's safety and operations. and adequate to communicate with other ships and
coast stati ons. In 2001, IMO adopted the Standard Marine Communication Phrases (SMCP) which
replace the Standard Marine Navigational Vocabulary (SMNV).
Communications within the bridge team need to be understood. Communications between
multi lingual team members, and in particular with ratings, should either be in a language that is
common to all relevant bridge team members or in Engl ish.
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
When a pilot is on board, the same rule should apply. Further, when a pilot is communicating to
parties external to the ship, such as tugs, the ship should request that the pilot always
communicates in English or a language that can be understood on the bridge. Alternatively, the
pi lot should be asked to explain his communications to the bridge team, so that the ship is aware
of the pilot's intentions at all times. (See SOLAS Chapter V Regulation 14.4.)
1.2.12 The bridge team and the pilot
When a pilot is on board a ship, he will temporarily join the bridge team and should be supported
accordingly (see section 3.3.3).
1.3 NAVIGATION POLICY AND COMPANY PROCEDURES
1.3.1
Every shipowning or management company should have a safety management policy. It should
provide practical guidance concerning safe navigation and include a clear statement emphasising
t he master's authority. The   should establ ish in the SMS that t he master has the overriding
authority and the responsibi lity to make decisions with respect to safety and pollution prevention
and to request the company's assistance as may be necessary. The guidance should cover:
o allocation of bridge   duties and responsibil ities for navigational procedures;
o procedures for voyage planning and execution;
o chart and nautical publicati on correction procedures;
o procedures to ensure that all essential navigation equipment and main and auxi liary machinery
are available and fully operational;
o advice concerning emergency responses;
o ship position reporting procedures;
o accident and near miss reporting procedures;
o recording of voyage events;
o procedures for fami liarisation training and handover at crew changes;
o a recognised system for identifying special training needs;
o company contacts, including the designated person under the ISM Code.
Master's standing orders
Shipboard operational procedures manuals supported by standing instructions based upon the
company's navigation policy should form the basis of command and control on board
Master's standing orders should be written to reflect the master's own particular requirements and
the circumstances particular to the ship, her trade and the experience of the bridge team currently
on board.
Standing orders and instructions should operate without conflict within the ship's Safety
Management System.
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
Standing orders should be read by all officers upon joining the ship, and signed and dated
accordingly. A copy of the orders should be available on the bridge for reference
1.3.1.1 Bridge order book
In addition to general standing orders, specific instructions may be needed for special
circumstances.
At daily intervals, the master should write in the bridge order book what is expected of the ~ O W  
with particular reference to his requirements during the hours of darkness. These orders must be
signed by each DOW when going on watch.
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
2
2.1
PASSAGE PLANNING
OVERVIEW
Passage planning is necessary to support the bridge team and ensure that the ship can be
navigated safely between ports from berth-la-berth through risk assessment of hazards and
waypoint selection. The passage plan should cover ocean, coastal and pilotage waters.
The plan may need to be changed during the voyage; for example. the destination port may not
have been known or may alter, or It may be necessary to amend the plan follOWing consultation
With the pilot.
If the plan 15 changed during the voyage, the bridge team on each watch should be consul ted and
briefed to ensure that the reVised plan is understood.
The passage plan should aim to establish the most favourable route while maintaining appropriate
margins of safety and safe passing distances offshore. When deCiding upon the route, the
following factors are amongst those that should be taken Into account:
o the marine environment;
o the adequacy and reliability of charted hydrographic data along the route;
o the availability and reliability of n.3vlgatlOn aids, coastal marks, lights and radar conspICuous
targets for fixing the ship along the route;
o any routeing constraints Imposed by the ShiP, e.g. draught, type of cargo;
o areas of high traffic density;
o weather forecasts and expected current, tidal, wind, swel l and visibility conditions:
o areas where onshore set could occur;
o ship operations that may require additional sea room, e.g. tank cleaning or pilot embarkation;
o regulations such as ships' routemg schemes and ship reporting systems;
o the reliability of the propulSion and steering systems on board.
The intended voyage should be plarned prior to departure using appropriate and avai lable
corrected charts and publications. The master should check that the tracks laid down are safe, and
the chief engineer should verify thaI the ship has sufficient fuel. water and lubricants for the
Intended voyage.
In addition, the duty of the master to exercise profeSSional judgement In the light of changing
Circumstances remains a basic requirement for safe naVigation,
2.2 RESPONSIBILITY FOR PASSAGE PLANNING
In most deep sea ShiPS, it is customary for the master to delegate the task of preparing the
passage plan to the officer responsible for navigational equipment and publications. In other ships,
the master may plan the voyage himself.
Irrespedive of who carries out the task of passage planning, It remains the responsibility of the
master to ensure that the passage plan prOVides the basis of safe navigation for the Intended
voyage.
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
Whi le responsibil ity for the plan in pilotage waters rests with the master, the pilot on boarding, or
before if practicable, should advise the master of any local circumstances so that the plan can be
updated (see section 2.7).
While responsibility for the plan in pilotage waters rests with the master, any necessary
amendments may take place subsequent to the Master/Pilot Exchange (see section 2.7).
2.3 NOTES ON PASSAGE PLANNING
2.3.1
In accordance with IMO Resolution A.893(21) Guidelines for Voyage Planning. there are four
distinct stages in the planning and achievement of a safe passage:
o Appraisal;
o Planning;
o Execution;
o Monitoring.
Plan appraisal
Before planning can commence, t he charts, publications and other information appropriate for the
voyage wil l need to be gathered together and studied. A passage appraisal checklist is included In
this GUide as bridge checklist B5.
2.3.2 Charts and publications
Only official nautical charts and publications should be used for passage planning, and they should
be fully correded to the latest available notices to mariners and radio navigation warnings. Any
missing charts and publ icati ons needed for the intended voyage should be identified from the
chart catalogue and obtained before the ship sails (see section 4.11).
For coastal and pilotage planning and for plotting each course alteration point (or waypoint), large
scale charts should be used. for ocean passage planning and open water legs. the largest scale
charts that are appropriate should be used.
2.3.3 The passage plan
The passage plan should incorporate the following details:
o planned track showing the true course of each leg;
o leg distances;
o any speed changes required en route;
o abort/cancellation points for critical manoeuvres;
o wheel over pOSitions for each course alteration, where appropriate;
o turn radius for each course alteration, where appropriate;
o maximum allowable off-track margins for each leg, where appropriate
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
...-.... ..,
  ~ \
a y ,
~ . , ..
At any time during the voyage, the ship may need to leave the planned leg temporanly at short
notice. Marking on the chart relatively shallow waters and minimum clearing distances In CrItICal
sea areas IS one technique which Will assist the OOW when having to deCide qUickly to what
extent to deviate Without jeopardising safety and the marine environment. However, In using thiS
technique, care should be taken not to obscure chart features. On paper charts, only pencil should
be used.
The passage plan should also take mto account the need to monitor the ship's pOSition along the
route, identify contingency actions at waypoints, and allow for collision aVOidance In line With the
COlREGS,
Appropriate details of the passage plan may be copied so that the plan can be readily referred to
at the main conning position.
2.3.4 Passage planning and electronic navigation systems
2.3.4.1 Planning using electronic chart display systems
Passage planning can be undertaken either on paper charts or using an electronic chart display
and InformatIOn system (ECDIS) displaYing electronic navigatIOnal charts (ENC), subject to the
approval of the flag state administration. Raster chart display systems (RCDS) displaying raster
navigational charts (RNC) can be used for passage planning in conjunction With paper charts. (See
section 4.11.)
When passage planning uSing ECDIS, the navigating officer should be aware that a safety contour
can be established around the ship. The crossing of a safety contour, by attempting to enter water
which is too shallow or attempting to cross the boundary of a prohibited or specially defined area
such as a traffiC separation zone, will be Indicated automatically by the ECDIS while the route is
both being planned and executed.
When passage planning using a combination of electronic and paper charts, particular care needs
to be taken at transItIOn POints between areas of electronIC and paper chart coverage. The voyage
involves distinct pilotage, coastal and ocean water phases Planning within anyone phase of the
voyage should be undertaken uSing either all electronic or all paper charts rather than a mixture of
chart types.
Where a passage is planned using paper charts, care should be taken when transferring the details
of the plan to an electronic chart display system. In particular, the navigating officer should ensure
that:
o pOSItIOns are transferred to, and are verified on, electronic charts of an equivalent scale to that
of the paper chart on which the position was Originally plotted;
o any known difference In chart datum between that used by the paper chart and that used by
the electronic chart display system is applied to the transferred positions;
o the complete passage plan as displayed on the electronic chart display system is checked for
accuracy and completeness before it is used.
2.3.4.2 Transferring route plans to other navigation aids
Care must be taken when transferring route plans to electronic navigation aids such as GPS, since
the ship's position that is computed by the navald is likely to be In WGS84 datum. Route plans
sent to the GPS for monitoring cross track errors must therefore be of the same datum.
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
II
Si milarl y, in the case of radars, routes and maps displayed on the radar will be referenced to the
position of the ship. Care must therefore be taken to ensure that maps and plans transferred to, or
prepared on, the radar are created in the same datum as the navald (tYPically a GPS) which IS
connected to, and transmi tti ng positions to, the radar.
2.4 NOTES ON PASSAGE PLANNING IN OCEAN WATERS
When planning ocean passages, the foll owing should be consulted:
o small scale ocean planning and routeing charts providing information on ocean currents, winds.
Ice limi ts etc.;
o gnomonic projection ocean charts for plotting great circle routes, when appropriate;
o the load line zone chart to ensure that the Load Line (Ll) Rules are complied With;
o charts showing any relevant ships' routemg schemes.
Anti cipated meteorological conditions may have an impact on the ocean route that is selected. For
example:
o favourable ocean currents may offer Improved overall passage speeds offsetting any extra
distance travelled;
o Ice or poor visibi lity may limit northerly or southerly advance In high lati tudes;
o requirements for ball ast water exchange may cause the route selected to be amended in view of
forecast or anticipated conditions;
o the presence of seasonal tropical storm acti vity may cal l for certain waters to be avoided and an
allowance made for searoom.
Detai ls of weather routei ng services for ships are contained in lists of radio signals and in Volume D
of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Publication NO.9. Long-range weather
warnings are broadcast on the SafetyNET Service along With NAVAREA navigati onal warntngs as
part of the World-Wide Navigational Warning Service (WWNWS).
Landfall targets need to be considered and identi fi ed as to their likely radar and visual ranges and,
in respect of lights. their rislf'1g and dipping ranges and the arcs/colours of sectored lights.
2.5 NOTES ON PASSAGE PLANNING IN COASTAL OR
RESTRICTED WATERS
By comparison with open waters, rrargins of safety in coastal or restricted waters can be criti cal, as
the time available to take corrective action is likely to be limited.
The manoeuvring characteristics of the ship and any limitati ons or peculiarities that the ship may
have, including reliability problems with its propulsion and steering systems, may Influence the
route selected through coastal waters. In shallow water particularly, allowance should be made for
reduced underkeel clearance caused by ship squat, which increases with ship speed (see section
3.3.2).
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
Ships' routeing schemes, restricted areas and reporting systems along the route, as well as vessel
traffic services, should be taken into account (see sections 2.8, 2.9 and 2.10).
Coastal weather bulletins, including gale warnings, and coastal navigational warnings broadcast
by coast radio stations and NAVTEX may require changes to be made to the route plan.
2.6 MONITORING THE PASSAGE PLAN
It is important that, when navigation is planned through coastal or restncted waters, due
consideration is given to ensuring !hat the progress of the ship can be monitored effectively.
Therefore, the route plan should, i: possible, be readily available at the main conning position so
that continuous monitoring can be performed easily.
Of particular importance is the need to monitor the position of the ship approaching the wheel
over pOSItIOn at the end of a track, and checkmg that the ship is safely on the new track after the
alteration of course.
The passage plan should include details regarding the required frequency of position·flxing,
regardless of whether or not electronic navigation systems are used, and should also Include
details regarding cross·checking the ship's position by other means, including when electronic
naVigation systems are used.
Distinctive chart features should be used for mOnitoring the ship's position Visual ly, by radar and by
echo sounder, and therefore these need to be an integral part of the passage plan.
2.6.1 Visual monitoring techniques
Ahead, transits can provide a leading line along which a ship can steer safely. Abeam, transits
provide a ready check for use when altering course. At anchor, several transits can be used to
monitor the ship's pOSItIOn.
Bearing lines can also be used effe:t.lvely. A head mark, or a bearing line of a conspiCuOus object
lying ahead on the track line, can be used to steer the Ship, while clearing bearings can be used to
check that a ship is remaining within a safe area.
2.6.2 Radar monitoring techniques
When radar conspicuoUS targets are available, effective use can be made of radar clearing bearings
and ranges.
Ships with good athwartshlp track control can use cleanng bearmgs to monitor the advance of a
ship towards a wheel over positton, while paral lel Indexing can be used to check that the ship is
maintaining track and not drifting to port or starboard. For details on radar and navigation, refer
to section 4.2.3 of thiS GUide.
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
2.7 PASSAGE PLANNING AND PILOTAGE
2.7.1
This section should be read in conjunction with section 3.3.3 (Navigation with a pilot on board)
and section 6 (Maritime pilotage).
Pre-arrival planning
A preliminary plan should be prepared covering pilotage waters and the roles of the bridge team
personnel.
A plan should stil l be prepared even if the master of the ship has a Pilotage Exemption Certificate
for the port.
Planning for anchoring off the port, or aborting port entry in the event of problems arising, should
be included as part of the plan. The plan should also identify charted features that will assist in
monitoring progress and include contingency measures in the event of primary equipment failure,
poor visibility etc.
The Pilot Card should also be updated. The Card contains information on draught and ship's speed
that is liable to change as the loading condition of the ship changes, as wel l as a checklist of
equipment that IS available and working (see annex A3).
2.7.2 Pre-arrival information exchange with the pilot
It is recommended that a pre-arrival exchange of information take place with the pilot before
boarding, particularly where the master has limited local knowledge of the pilotage waters.
An information exchange initiated by the ship approximately 24 hours before the pilot's ETA will
al low sufficient time for more detailed planning to take place both on the ship and ashore. The
exchange wil l also all ow communications between the ship and the pilot station to be firmly
establi shed before embarkation. Ship-to-Shore Master/Pilot Exchange and Shore-to-Ship
Pilot/Master Exchange forms can be used for this purpose (see annexes A 1 and A2).
These forms are intended only to provide a basis; the exact detail of the forms can vary from ship
to ship, trade to trade, or indeed from port to port. It is nevertheless recommended to keep
preliminary informati on exchange to a minimum, and limit the information to that which IS strictly
necessary to assist in planning the pilotage, If appropriate, the Shore-to-Shlp Pilot/Master
Exchange form can be supported by a graphical route plan.
In certain pilotage areas, the passage can last for several hours, in which time circumstances can
alter significantly necessitating changes to the plan. The preferred way of working within any
pilotage area can also vary between pilots.
The master and the pilot should exchange information regarding navigational procedures, local
conditions and rules and the ship's charadenstics and, as appropriate, berthing. ThiS information
exchange should be a continuous process that generally continues for the duration of the pilotage.
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
2.7.3 Pilot on board
The pilotage passage plan will neec to be discussed with the pilot as soon as he (omes on board.
Any amendments to the plan should be agreed, and any consequential changes In individual
bridge team responsibilities made, before pilotage commences.
The pi lotage passage plan should be discussed with all members of the bridge team prior to the
pilot boarding the vessel. The master should advise the bridge team that the pilot will effectively
be a new member of the ship's bridge team, who may not be familiar with the vessel's equipment
or handling characteristi cs. The master should emphasise that the presence of a pilot aboard the
vessel does not release the bridge team from their respective duties or responsibilities.
Where pre-arrival exchange has not taken place, extra time and searoom may need to be allowed
in order to discuss the plan fully before pilotage commences (see section 3.3.3.3).
The pilot should be handed the Pilot Card (see annex A3) and shown the Wheelhouse Poster (see
annex A4). The Wheelhouse Poster provides a summary of ship manoeuvring information. A
manoeuvring booklet containing more detailed informatIOn may also be available on the bridge.
There will be ci rcumstances when a debrief between one of the bridge team and the pilot could
Identify Improvements In the conduct of future pilotage operations.
2.7.4 Preparing the outward bound pilotage plan
After berthing and before the pilot departs the ship, the opportunity should be taken to discuss
the outward bound pilotage passa£e plan with the pilot, bearing In mind that the precise way of
working within any pilotage area can vary between pilots. However, the outward pilot IS the
individual with whom the relevant Master/Pilot exchange takes place and with whom the outward
bound pilotage plan should be discussed and agreed.
2.8 PASSAGE PLANNING AND SHIPS' ROUTEING
Ships' routeing measures have been introduced in a number of coastal waters to:
o reduce the risk of collision between ships in areas of high traffiC denSities;
o keep shipping away from environmentally sensitive sea areas;
o reduce the fisk of grounding In shal low waters.
The use of ships' routelng measures should form part of the passage plan.
Ships' routeing measures can be adopted internationally by IMO. Such schemes are recommended
for use by, and may be made mandatory for, all ShiPS, certain categones of ShiPS, or ships carrying
certain cargoes. Mandatory ships' routeing schemes should always be used unless the ship has
compell ing safety reasons for not following them.
IMO routeing schemes wi ll be sho\o\on on charts With a note of any pertinent provisions as to their
use. Fuller details may be described in Sailing Directions. The IMO publication Ships' Routemg
contains full descnptions of each scheme and any rules applying, but this publication is produced
primarily for the benefit of administrations. It is not kept up to date as regularly as nautical
publications, which should always be consulted for the latest InformallOn.
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
Elements used In routelng systems Include:
o traffic separation scheme - a routelng measure aimed at the separation of opposing streams of
traffic by establishing traffic lanes;
o traffic lane - areas within defined limits in which one-way traffic flows are established;
o separation zone or line - a means to separate traffIC lanes In which ships are proceeding in
Opposite or nearly opposite direC:lons In order to separate traffic lanes from adjacent sea areas
or to separate different traffic lanes;
o roundabout - a separation point or circular zone and a circular traffic lane within defined limits;
o inshore traffi c zone - a designated sea area between the landward boundary of a traffic
separation scheme and an adjacent coast;
o recommended route - a route of undefined width, for the convenience of ships In transit, which
is often marked by centreline buoys;
o deep water route - a route which has been accurately surveyed for clearance of sea bottom and
submerged articles;
o archipelagic sea lane - sea lanes deSignated for the continuous and expeditious passage of ships
through archipelagic waters;
o precautionary area - an area where ships must navigate with particular caution and within
which the direction of flow of traffic may be recommended;
o area to be avoided - an area In which either navigation is particularly hazardous or It is
exceptIOnally important to avoid casualties and which should be aVOided by all ShiPS, or by
certain classes of ships.
2.9 PASSAGE PLANNING AND SHIP REPORTING SYSTEMS
Ship reporting has been introduced by a number of coastal states so that they can keep track, via
radio, radar or transponder, of ships passing through their coastal waters. Ship reporting systems
are therefore used to gather or exchange information about ShiPS, such as their POSition, course,
speed and cargo. In addition to monitOring passing traffic, the information may be used for
purposes of search and rescue and prevention of marine pollution.
The use of ship reporting systems should form a part of the passage plan
Ship reporting systems can be adopted internatIOnally by IMO. Such systems Will be required to be
used by all ships, certain categories of ships or ships carrying certain cargoes.
The master of a ship should comply with the requirements of ship reporting systems and report to
the appropnate authOri ty ail Information that IS required. A report may be required upon leaving as
well as on entering the area of the system, and additional reports or information may be required
to update earlier reports.
Ship reporting requirements may be referred to on charts and In Sailing Directions, but lists of
radiO signals provide full details Details of IMO adopted systems are contained in Part G of the
IMO publication Ships' Routeing (2002 edition).
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
AIS is used by coastal authonties and other ships to gather information regarding a ship's
characteristics, cargo and passage. As such, AIS may be considered to be a constant ship reporting
system. It is essential that both static and dynamic data programmed Into AIS equipment remains
accurate so as to avoid transmitting false data. (See section 4.3.)
2.10 PASSAGE PLANNING AND VESSEL TRAFFIC SERVICES
Vessel traffic services (VTS) have been introduced, particularly in ports and their approaches, to
monitor ship compliance with local regulations and to optimise traffic management. VTS can only
be mandatory within the territorial seas of a coastal state.
VTS requirements on ships should form part of the passage plan. This should include references to
the specific radio frequencies that must be monitored by the ship for navigational or other
warnings, and advice on when to proceed in areas where traffic flow is regulated.
VTS reporting requirements may be marked on charts. but fuller details will be found in Sailing
Directions and lists of radiO signals.
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
3
3.1
3.1.1
DUTIES OF THE OFFICER
OF THE WATCH (OOW)
OVERVIEW
Master's representative
Under the STeW Code, the oow is the master's representative and is primarily responsible at all
times for the safe navigation of the ship and for complying with the COLREGS.
As the master's representative, the COW is in charge of the bridge and therefore in charge of the
bridge team for that watch, until properly relieved. In compliance with shipboard operational
procedures and master's standing orders, the DOW should ensure that bridge watch manning
levels are at all times safe for the prevailing circumstances and conditions.
3.1.2 Primary duties
In order to maintain a safe navigational watch, the primary duties of the OOW will involve
watchkeeping, navigation and GMDSS radio watchkeeping.
3.1.2.1 Watch keeping
The watch keeping duties of the OOW include maintaining a look-out and general surveil lance of
the ship, coll ision avoidance in compliance with the COLREGS. recording bridge activities. and
making periodic checks on the navigational equipment in use. Procedures for handing over the
watch and call ing for support on the bridge should be in place and understood by the OOW
3.1.2.2 Navigation
The navigational duti es of the OOW are based upon the need to execute the passage plan safely
and monitor the progress of the ship against that plan.
3.1.2.3 Radiocommunications
During distress incidents. one of the GMDSS qual ified personnel should be designated to have
primary responsibility for radiocommunications. On passenger ships, that person can have no
other duties during a distress situation.
3.1.3 In support of primary duties
3.1.3. 1 Controlling the speed and direction of the ship
The OOW will need to be conversart with the means and best practices of controll ing the speed
and direction of the ship, handling characteristics and stopping distances. The OOW should not
hesitate to use helm, engines or sOl..nd signalling apparatus at any time.
3.1.3.2 Pollution prevention. reporting and emergency situations
The oow also needs to be fully conversant with shipboard obligations with regard to pollution
prevention, reporting and emergency situations. The OOW should know the location of all the
safety equipment on the bridge and how to operate that equipment.
3.1.4 Additional duties
There may also be a number of add tiona I duties for the OOW to undertake while on watch
General communications, cargo monitoring, the monitoring and control of machinery, and the
supervision and control of ship safety systems are typical examples.
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
Under no circumstances should additional duties interfere with the exercise of primary duties.
Mobi le phones or other personal electronic devices should be used only under circumstances
approved by the master. The potential distraction to personnel on the bridge caused by the use of
mobile phones or other electronic devices should be considered when determining shipboard
policy.
3.1.5 Bridge attendance
The OOW should not leave the bridge unattended. However, in a ship with a separate chartroom,
the OOW may visit that room for s ~   r t periods of time to carry out necessary navigational duties
after first ensuring that it is safe to do so.
3.2 WATCHKEEPING
3.2.1 Maintaining a look-out
In compliance with the COlREGS, a proper look-out must be maintained at all times to serve the
purposes of:
o maintaining a continuous state of vigi lance by sight and hearing, as well as by all other available
means, with regard to any significant change in the operating environment;
o fully appraising the situation and the risk of collision, stranding and other dangers to navigation;
o detecting ships or aircraft in distress, shipwrecked persons, wrecks, debris and other hazards to
navigation, and to allow precautions for security reasons, especially in areas with a known risk
of piracy or armed attack.
Ful l attention to look-out duties must be given by the bridge team on watch. Section 3.2.6
(Changing over the watch) includes advice regarding the need to allow sufficient time, during the
hours of darkness, for the vision of oncoming watch keepers to adjust to ambient light condit ions.
During the hours of darkness, it is essential that the wheelhouse environment and shipboard
procedures support the maintenance of adequate night vision for watchkeepers and look-outs. An
effective wheelhouse and chartroom blackout should be maintained; lighting used in such areas
should be of low intensity and coloured red. The use of blackout curtains or heavy drapes will help
to preserve darkness integrity when it is not possible fully to otherwise exclude conventional
artificial light. Deck lighting should be considered carefully to avoid adversely affecting night vision
from the wheelhouse, even if such lighting only affects a restricted sector of the horizon.
It should be noted that even momentary exposure to bright light can completely destroy night
vision and, during the subsequent readjustment period, the ability to maintain an effective look-
out wil l be impaired. Consideration should be given to fitting cut-out switches to doors leading
into wheelhouses and chartrooms so that on opening such doors adjacent conventional white
light sources are momentarily switched off.
While steering, a helmsman should not be considered to be the look-out, except in small ships
with an unobstructed all-round view at the steering position.
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
On ships with fully enclosed bridges and all windows closed, sound reception equipment will need
to be in operation continuously and correctly adjusted to ensure that all audible sounds on the
open deck can be heard clearly on the bridge.
3.2.1.1 Sole look-out
Under the STCW Code, the OOW may be the sale look-out in daylight provided that on each such
occasion:
a the situation has been carefully assessed and it has been established without doubt that it is safe
to operate with a sale look-out;
a full account has been taken of ell relevant factors, including, but not limited to:
a state of weather
a visibil ity
a traffic density
a proximity of dangers to navigat ion
a the attention necessary when navigating in or near traffic separation schemes;
o assistance is immediately available to be summoned to the bridge when any change in the
si tuation so requires.
If sale look-out watch keeping practices are to be followed, clear guidance on how they should
operate wil l need to be given in the shipboard operational procedures manual (see section 1.2.4).
3.2.2 General surveillance
The OOW needs to maintain a high level of general awareness about the ship and its day-to-day
operations.
This may include maintaining a general watch over the ship's decks to monitor, where possible.
people working on deck and any cargo or cargo handling equipment. Special watch keeping
arrangements may be appropriate in waters where there is thought to be a risk of piracy or armed
attack.
Whenever work is being carried out on deck in the vicinity of radar antennae, radio aerials or
sound signal ling apparatus, the OOW should be particularly observant and should post
appropriate warning notices on the equipment controls.
3.2.3 Watch keeping and the COlREGS
3.2.3.1 lights, shapes and sound signals
The OOW must always comply with the COLREGS. Compliance not only concerns the conduct of
vessels under the steering and sail ng rules, but also displaying the correct lights and shapes and
making the corred sound and ligrt signals.
A vessel dri fting off a port with her engines del iberately shut down, but available for immediate
restart, is not, for example, a "vessel not under command" as defined by rule 3(f) of the
COlREGS.
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
Caution should always be observed when approaching other vessels. Vessels may not be displayi ng
their correct light or shape signals, Dr indeed their signals could be badly positioned and obscured
by the ship's structure when approached from certain directions. In sea areas where traffic fl ow is
regulated, such as port approaches and traffic separation schemes, it may be possible to anticipate
movements from certain ship types. In these circumstances, it is prudent to allow extra sea room,
as long as it is safe to do so.
3.2.3.2 Collision avoidance action
In general, early and positive action should always be taken when avoiding coll isions and, once
action has been taken, the OOW should always check to make sure that the action taken is having
the desired effect.
VHF radio should not be used for col lision avoidance purposes. Valuable time can be wasted
attempting to make contact since positive identification may be difficult and, once contact has
been made, misunderstandings may arise.
Attempts to avoid coll ision by communicating using AIS equipment should be avoided. Accident
investigations have shown that such attempts waste time, distract the attention of the OOW and
often fail to establish effective communicati on.
3.2.3.3 Collision avoidance detection
In clear weather, the risk of coll ision can be detected early by taking frequent compass bearings of
an approaching vessel to ascertain whether or not the bearing is steady and the vessel is on a
collision course. Care however must be taken when approaching very large ships, ships under tow
or ships at close range. An appreciable bearing change may be evident under these circumstances
but in fact a risk of coll ision may still remain.
In restricted visibi lity, conduct of vessels is specifically covered by the COLREGS. In these
conditions, radar, and in particular electronic radar plotting, can be used effectively for assessing
risk of collision. The OOW should take the opportunity to carry out radar plotting practice in clear
visibi lity whenever it is possible.
For details concerning the use of radar for collision avoidance. refer to section 4.2.2 of this Guide.
3.2.4 Recording bridge activities
It is important that a proper. formal record of navigational activities and incidents. which are of
importance to safety of navigation. is kept in appropriate logbooks.
Paper records from course recorders, echo sounders. NAVTEX receivers etc should also be retained
at least for the duration of the voyage, suitably date and time marked if practicable.
In order to all ow the ship's actual track to be reconstructed at a later stage, sufficient information
concerning posi ti on, course and speed should be recorded in the bridge logbook or using
approved electronic means. All positions marked on t he navigational charts also need to be
retained unti l the end of the voyage.
3.2.5 Periodic checks on navigational equipment
3.2.5.1 Operational checks
Operational checks on navigational equipment should be undertaken when preparing for sea (see
bridge checklist B2) and prior to port entry (see bridge checklist B3).
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
After lengthy ocean passages and before entering restricted coastal waters, it is important also to
check that full engine and steering manoeuvrability is available.
3.2.5.2 Routine tests and checks
The OOW should undertake dai ly tests and checks on the bridge equipment, including the
fol lowing:
o manual steering should be tested at least once a watch when the automatic pi lot is in use (see
annex A7);
o gyro and magnetic compass errors should be checked and recorded at least once a watch,
where possible, and after any major course alteration;
o compass repeaters should be synchronised regularly, including repeaters mounted off the bridge,
such as in the engine control room and at the emergency steering position.
3.2.5.3 Checks on electronic equipment
Checks on electronic equipment should confirm both that the piece of equipment is functioning
properly and that it is successfully communicating to any bridge system to which it is connected.
Built-in test facilities provide a useful heal th check on the functional state of the piece of
equipment and should be used frequently.
Electronic equipment systems should be checked to ensure that configuration settings - important
for correct interfacing between pieces of equipment - have not changed.
To ensure adequate performance, information from electronic equipment should always be
compared and verified against information from different independent sources.
3,2.5.4 Checking orders
Good practice also requires the OOW to check that orders are being followed correctly. Rudder
angle and engine rpm indicators, for example, provide the OOW with an immediate check on
whether helm and engine movement orders are being fol lowed.
3.2.6 Changing over the watch (see bridge checklist 812)
The OOW should not hand over the watch if there is any reason to believe that the relieving officer
is unfit to, or is temporarily unable to, carry out his duties effectively. If in any doubt, the OOW
should cal l the master.
Illness or the effects of fatigue, alcohol or drugs could be reasons why the relieving officer is unfit
for duty.
Before taking over the watch, the rel ieving officer must be satisfied as to the ship's position, and
confirm its intended track, course and speed, and engine controls as appropriate, as well as noting
any dangers to navigation expected to be encountered during his watch.
The relieving officer should also be satisfied that all other members of the bridge team for the new
watch are fit for duty, particularly as regards their adjustment to night vision. Although the time
varies between individuals for eyesight to adjust completely from full artificial light to allow an
effective night time look-out, the time required should not be underestimated. Various factors
affect individual adjustment times, but in many cases full night vision will not be achieved in less
than 15 minutes (see section 3.2.1). Watch keepers and look-outs who use spectacles fitted with
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
photo-chromatic (light-sensitive) lenses should be aware that when UV light is removed or reduced
the lenses do not clear completely and some darkening effect is retained at all times. The ability of
a watch keeper or look-out to perf::>rm their duties effectively when wearing spectacles fitted with
photo-chromatic lenses should be considered careful ly.
If a manoeuvre or other action to avoid a hazard is taking place at the moment the OOW is being
relieved, handover should be deferred unti l such action has been completed.
3.2.7 Calling the master
The OOW should notify the master, in accordance wi th standmg orders or the bridge order book,
when m any doubt as to what action to take m the interests of safety.
GUidance on specifIC circumstances for calling the master or other back-up support should be
given in the shipboard operat ional procedures. supported by standing and bridge orders, as
appropriate. Situations where the master should always be cal led are listed in bridge checklist 813.
The OOW wil l continue to be responsible for the watch. despite the presence of the master on the
bridge. unti l informed specifically that the master has assumed that responsibi lity. and this is
mutually understood The fact that the master has taken control on the bridge should be recorded
in the log book.
3.3 NAVIGATION
3.3.1 General principles
It is important that the OOW executes the passage plan as prepared and monitors the progress of
the ship relative to that plan
3.3.1.1 Deviating from or leaving the passage plan
If the OOW has to make a temporary deviation from the passage plan for any reason. the
OOW should return to the plan as soon as it is safe to do so. Consideration should be given to
re-plottmg the course to the next waypomt to avoid potentially confusing encounters and large
alterations of course.
If the OOW has to leave the plan - a reporting of ice may. for example. requi re an
alteration of course - the OOW should prepare and proceed along a new temporary track clear of
any danger. At the first opportuni ty, the OOW should advise the master of the actions taken. The
plan wi ll need to be formally amended and a briefi ng made to the other members of the bridge
team
3.3.1.2 Monitoring the progress of the ship
Good navigati onal practice demands that the OOW:
o understands the capabi liti es and limitati ons of the navigational aids and systems being used,
and continually moni tors their performance;
o uses the echo sounder to monitor changes in water depth;
o uses dead reckoning techniques to check position-fixes;
   
, "
", I
........
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
o cross-checks position-fixes using independent sources of information: this is particularly
important when electronic positior-fixing systems, such as GPS or Loran-C, are used as the
primary means of fixing the position of the ship;
o uses visual navigation aids to support electronic position-fixing methods, i.e. landmarks in
coastal areas and celestial navigation in open waters;
o does not become over reliant on automated navigational equipment. including electronic chart
systems, thereby failing to make proper navigational use of visual information;
o plots historical ship track forward to identify the projected/anticipated position.
3.3.1 .3 Plotting positions from electronic position-fixing systems
Care should be exercised when taking geographical positions from electronic position-fixing
systems like GPS and plotting these onto charts (see section 4.9.3.3).
The OOW should bear in mind that:
o if the chart datum differs from the datum (usually WGS84) used by the electronic position-fixing
system, a datum shift will have to be applied to the position co-ordinates before they are plotted
on the chart. It should be noted that, where an appreciable datum shift does exist for a
particular chart, a "satellite-derived positions" note providing latitude and longitude datum shift
values wil l appear on the chart;
o on charts where the survey source data is very old, accuracy may be poor in certain areas: under
these circumstances in particular the OOW should not rely totally on position-fixing using
electronic systems and should, where possible, increase the use of visual and radar navigational
techniques to maintain safe distances off the land.
3.3.2 Navigation in coastal or restricted waters
This section should be read in conjunction with section 2.5 - Notes on passage planning in coastal
or restricted waters. (See also bridge checkl ist B6.)
As a general rule, navigation should be carried out on the most suitable large scale charts on
board, and the position of the ship should be fixed at frequent intervals. All relevant navigation
marks should be posit ively identified by the OOW before they are used. Visual and radar position-
fixing and monitoring techniques should be used whenever possible.
In coastal waters, the OOW should be aware that ships' routeing schemes (see section 2.8) and
ship reporting systems requiring reports to be made to coast radio and vessel traffic stations (see
sections 2.9 and 2.10) may exist.
Knowledge of the ship's draught, staoility conditions and manoeuvring characteristics is also
important. As the ship enters shallow water, squat may have a critical effect on the
manoeuvrability of the ship and cause an increase in draught. Squat effect varies in proportion to
the square of the ship's speed and wil l therefore reduce as speed is reduced. On board information
should be used to confirm squat characteristics for individual loading conditions.
The importance of ali the bridge team fully understanding the coastal waters phase of the passage
plan, as well as understanding their individual roles and those of their colleagues, cannot be
stressed too strongly.
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
3.3.3 Navigation with a pilot on board
This section should be read in conjunction with section 2.7 - Passage planning and pilotage, and
with reference to section 6 - Maritime pilotage.
3.3.3.1 Responsibilities
Once the pilot has embarked and has arrived on the bridge, the pilot will join the bridge team. The
pilot has a specialised knowledge of navigation in local waters. Depending on local pilotage laws,
the master may delegate the conduct of the ship to the pilot, who directs the navigation of the
ship in close co-operation with the master and/or the OOw. It is important that the responsibil ities
of the pi lot and the master are agreed and clearly understood so that the pilot can be integrated
easily into the normal bridge management team and that any potential conflict is avoided. Should
confl ict arise, both parties have a responsibility to resolve this in a professional manner with the
overriding priority of safety of navigation of the vessel. If the conduct of the vessel is delegated
from the master to the pilot, this should be formalised and recorded.
The presence of a pilot does not relieve the master or the OOW of their duties and obligations for
the safety of the ship. Both should be prepared to exercise their right not to proceed to a point
where the ship would not be able to manoeuvre or would be in any danger.
3.3.3.2 Pilot embarkation/disembarkation
For information on pilot boarding arrangements, refer to annex AS.
3.3.3.3 Master/pilot information exchange on boarding (see bridge checklist 84)
The preliminary pilotage passage plan prepared in advance by the ship should be discussed and
agreed with the pilot immediately after boarding. There should be sufficient time and sea room to
allow this to happen safely.
Where lack of time or sea room does not allow the plan to be discussed fully, the bare essentials
should be covered immediately and the rest of the discussion held as soon as it is safe to do so.
On a long pi lotage passage, it may be appropriate to review and update the plan in stages.
3.3.3.4 Monitoring the pilotage
The safe progress of the ship as planned should be monitored closely at all times. This will also
include track monitoring and regular fixing of the position of the ship, particularly after each
course alteration, and monitoring underkeel clearance.
Verbal orders from the pilot also need to be checked to confirm that they have been carried out
correctly. Thi s will include monitoring both the rudder angle and rpm indicators when helm and
engine orders are given.
It is recommended that communication between the pilot and the bridge team is conducted in the
English language or a language common to all relevant personnel (see section 1.2.11 l.
If the master leaves the bridge, the OOW shoul d always seek clarification from the pilot when in
any doubt as to the pi lot's actions or intentions. If a satisfactory explanation is not given, the OOW
should notify the master immediately, taking whatever action is necessary before the master
arrives. Whenever there is any disagreement with decisions of the pilot, the cause of concern
should always be made clear to the pi lot and an explanation sought.
The OOW should bear in mind that, during pilotage, the ship will need to be properly secured for
sea. Excessive use of deck lighting at night may cause visibility interference.
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
3.3.4 At anchor (see bridge checklist B8)
On anchoring, a fix on the anchor drop position should be made and the ship's swinging circle
ascertained, based upon the length of cable In use. landmarks and tranSits should be selected for
ease of monitOring the position of the ship as It lies at anchor, and appropriate light and shape
signals should be exhibited in accordance with the COLREGS and any local regulations.
While at anchor, the DOW should maintain a check on the ship's position to monitor that the ship
does not drag its anchor or move too close to any other anchored ship.
A proper look-out must be maintained and ship inspection rounds made periodically, particularly if
the ship is anchored in waters which might present a risk of attack by pirates or armed robbers.
The master should be notified immediately if the ship drags her anchor, or If sea conditions or
viSibility detenorate
3.4 CONTROLLING THE SPEED
AND DIRECTION OF THE SHIP
3.4.1 Use of the engines
In order not to Jeopardise the safety of the ship, the OOW should not hesitate to use the engines
to change speed on passage if the situation so requires.
Whenever possible, timely notice of intended changes to engine speed should be given to the
engine room. If the ship is fitted with bridge control of the main engines, direct control of the
engines wi ll be pOSSible from the bndge.
3.4.1.1 Safe speed
In compliance with the COLREGS, ships should at all times proceed at a safe speed. In restricted
visibility, safe speed may require a redudlon In servICe speed to reduce the stopping distance of
the ship. When near ice, ships are specifically required to proceed at moderate speeds. Speed
changes may be required to avoid a colliSion in circumstances where the ship IS unable to alter
course.
High speed craft and fast conventbnal ships should assess the risk caused by wash and wake,
particularly in shallow water.
3.4.1.2 Control and different engine types
To control the main engines effectively, the OOW should be familiar With their operation from the
bridge, as well as the operation of the propeller mechanism. The OOW should also be aware of
any limitatIOns the system may have and appreciate that the type and configuration of the ship's
engines could have ImplicatIOns when changing speed. Direct-dnve diesel, diesel through
gearbox/clutch, turbo-eledric and gas turbine engines all have relatively quICk responses to
change, prOVided the engines are on stand-by. Geared turbines are less responSive.
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
.,. ••• tq.
'<\9'
, I
... ....
3.4.2 Steering control
Steering control of the ship will comprise manual steering. probably supplemented by an
automatic pilot (autopilot) or other track control system.
In areas of high traffic density, in conditions of restricted visibility and in all other potentially
hazardous situations, a helmsman should be available on the bridge, ready at all times to take over
steering control immediately.
When steering the ship under autopilot, it is highly dangerous to allow a situation to develop to a
point where the OOW is without assistance and has to break the continuity of the look-out in
order to take emergency action and engage manual steering,
Changing between automatic and manual steering should always be made in good time under the
supervision of the OOw. Manual steering should be tested once per watch and after prolonged
use of the autopilot (see annex A7).
3.4.2.1 Use of override controls
Manual steering override controls can be used on those occasions when the autopilot is engaged
and the DOW needs to take immediate and direct control of the steering.
Override controls typically have a non follow-up type of operation and are likely to differ from the
main steering control position where follow-up control is usual.
The DOW needs to be famil iar with the operation of the steering control systems on the bridge, as
well as the method of control at the emergency steering position.
3.4.2.2 Manoeuvring data
Ship's manoeuvring data is contained on the Pilot Card and Wheelhouse Poster (see annexes A3
and A4). Some ships also have a manoeuvring booklet. The OOW needs to be familiar with this
data.
It is important not only to record on the Pilot Card the ship's draught, but also any permanent or
temporary ship idiosyncrasies that could affect the manoeuvrability of the ship. A ship may, for
example, have a tendency to steer to port at full speed, but steer to starboard at slow speed.
3.S RADIOCOMMUNICATIONS
3.5.1 General
The following basic principles apply to al l communication carried out by radio:
o absolute priority should be given to distress. urgency and safety communications;
o interference with other radio users should be avoided;
o frequencies should be used for their correct purpose.
The ITU publ ication Manual for Use by the Maritime Mobile and Maritime Mobile-Satellite Services
contains relevant extracts from the ITU Radio Regulations, setting out the correct procedures to be
followed
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
3.5.2 Safety watch keeping on GMDSS ships
The OOW should normally be in possession of a General Operator's Certificate (GOe). For ships
operat ing only in GMDSS Area A 1, a Restricted Operator's Certificate (ROC) is sufficient. The OOW
wi ll be responsible for ensuring compliance with the radio watch keeping requirements of SOLAS,
the ITU Radio Regulations and any local watch keeping rules.
3.5.2.1 VHF watch keeping
The VHF watch keeping range is 20 to 30 nautical miles, depending upon antenna height . All ships
must maintain a watch on:
o DSC Channel 70 (156.525 MHz) (Digital Selective Cal ling);
o Channel 16 (156.8 MHz) when practicable (Distress, safety and calling);
o Channel 13 (156.650 MHz) when practicable (Inter-ship).
3.5.2.2 MF (30G-3000 kHz) watch keeping
Medium frequency (MF) broadcasts wil l typically have a RfT range of between 150 and 250
nauti cal miles by day and a DSC range of 600 to 700 nautical miles. Reception range will be
greater at night. Ships must keep a continuous watch on:
o t he NAVTEX frequency 518 kHz, when in an area where the service is provided;
o t he DSC frequency 2187.5 kHz.
3.5.2.3 HF (3000 kHz - 30 MHz) watch keeping
High frequency (HF) broadcasts have an unlimited range. Ships fitted with HF must keep a
continuous watch on:
o the DSC distress frequency 8414.5 kHz;
o at least one of the DSC frequencies 4207.5, 6312, 12577. 16804.5 kHz, as appropriate to the
time of day and the position of the ship.
3.5.2.4 Satellite watch keeping
Ships fi tted with a ship earth station (SES) must keep a continuous watch on the satell ite
appropriate to the ship's position. The range of satell ite broadcasts is unlimited (except in polar
regions).
3.5.2.5 Maritime safety information
Mari time safety information (MSI) is defined as navigational and meteorological warnings,
meteorological forecasts and other urgent safety related messages broadcast to ships.
A continuous MSI watch should be kept at sea at all times by all ships. The NAVTEX receiver meets
this requirement while the ship is w thin a NAVTEX coverage area. Beyond such coverage,
watchkeeping s.hould be undertaken usi ng the appropriate MF, HF or satellite frequencies on
which MSI is broadcast.
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
3.5.3 log keeping
A radio log must be maintained containing up to date records of all incidents connected with
radiocommunicdtions that appear to be of importance to the safety of life at sea In particular, the
foll owing are normally required
o a summary of communications relating to dist ress, urgency and safety traffic;
o a reference to important radio service Incidents;
o the position of the ship at least once per day.
The log should contain the identities of other stations with which the ship communicates or
attempts to communica te. and records of any difficulties experienced oWing to congestion,
interference, atmospheric noise or ionospheric disturbances.
Incidents involving obscene language or unnecessary transmissions should be recorded with the
identi ties of the stations concerned. if known. This is particularly relevant to VHF Channel 16.
3.5.4 Testing of equipment and false alerts
Radio equipment should be tested at the intervals stated by the manufacturer and in accordance
With flag state requirements. Great care should be taken to avoid the transmission of false alerts
when testing equipment
Regular testing of radio equipmen: will demonstrate cont inued compliance with the requirements
of Regulation 4 of SO LAS Chapter IV (Functional requirements)
3.5.4.1 Cancellation of false alerts
If a distress alert is inadvertently transmitted by either VHF. MF or HF DSC:
o the equipment must be reset immediately;
o as appropriate. the equipment s'lould be:
o se t to VHF Channel 16, or
o tuned for RIT on MF 2182 kHz, or
o tuned for RIT on the HF distress and safety frequency in each band in which the false alert
was transmitted;
o a broadcast message to "al l stations" must be transmitted. cancel ling the false alert.
If a distress alert is inadvertently t ransmitted by a ship earth station (SES). the appropriate rescue
co-ordinatIOn centre (RCC) should be notified that the alert is cancelled by sending a distress
priority message by way of the same coast earth station (CES) through which the false distress
alert was sent.
If a distress alert is inadvertently transmitted by an EPIRB, the appropriate RCC should be
contacted through a shore station and the distress alert should be cancel led
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
3.6 POLLUTION PREVENTION
3.6.1
3.6.1 .1
The OOW should be aware of the serious effects of operational and accidental pollution of the
marine environment and should be familiar with MARPOl and the ship's Shipboard Oil Pollution
Emergency Plan (SO PEP) or Shipboard Marine Pol lut ion Emergency Plan (SMPEP) as appropriate.
(An SMPEP can be a combined document for the oi l pol lution emergency plan and that for
noxious liquid substances.)
Reporting obligations
Al l ships should make a report to the relevant authorities when an incident involving another ship
is observed or an incident on their own ship involves:
o a discharge or probable discharge of oi l or of noxious liquid substances above the permitted
level for whatever reason, includhg securing the safety of the ship or saving life; or
o a discharge or probable discharge of harmful substances in packaged form, including those in
containers, portable tanks, vehicles and barges.
A report is also required if the ship suffers damage, fai lure or a breakdown that affects the safety
of the ship or impairs safe navigaticn, and results in a discharge or probable discharge into the sea
of a harmful substance, It should be noted that reports are not normal ly required if there has only
been a breakdown or fai lure of machinery or equipment.
Reporting points
The SOPEP/SMPEP should include as an appendix the list of agencies or officials of administ ra ti ons
that should be contacted.
In the absence of a local agency or if there is any delay in contacting a listed reporting point, the
nearest coastal radio station, designated ship movement reporting station or R(( should be
contacted by the fastest avai lable means.
3.7 EMERGENCY SITUATIONS
3.7.1 General
The OOW should be fully conversant with the emergency checklists contained in Part ( of this
Guide or similar checklists within the ship operator's Safety Management System and should know
what initial action to take in response to emergency situations.
A collision (see emergency checklist (2), a grounding (see emergency checklist (3) or a man
overboard (see emergency checklist (4) are examples of situations that wil l require immediate
action from the OOW before the master arrives on the bridge.
SOLAS requires emergency training, drills and mustering exercises to be carried out. These drills
will involve the OOW on those ships where the bridge is the designated emergency control station.
The OOW should be fully conversant with the general emergency alarm signals, the actions to be
taken on hearing or instigating an alarm and the ship's emergency plans.
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
An illustrated table describing the s1ip's li fe saving appliances should be kept on the bridge. Ships
or persons in dist ress should use the prescribed signals when communicating with life-saving
stations. maritime rescue uni ts, MRCCs and ai rcraft engaged in search and rescue operations
3.7.2 Reporting
The OOW should be aware that SaLAS Chapter V Regulation 32 provides details of the obligati on
to broadcast danger messages to ships in t he area and the nearest coast station with notification
of conditions that include:
o dangerous ice;
o a dangerous derelict or any other direct danger to navigati on;
o a tropical storm;
o sub-freezing air temperatures associated with gale force winds causing severe ice accretion on
superstructures;
o winds of force 10 or above on the Beaufort scale for which no storm warning has been
received.
The safety signal should be used when announcing danger messages (see section 4.12.3.3).
3.7.3 Search and rescue (see emergency checklist (7)
The OOW should be aware that SaLAS Chapter V Regulation 33 includes details of ships' search
and rescue (SAR) obl igations.
On receiving a signal from any source that persons are in distress at sea, ships that are in a position
to provide assistance are bound to proceed with all speed to their assistance. Ships can also be
requisitioned to provide assistance.
During SAR operati ons, ship-to-ship communication should be by VHF or MF. Satell ite channels
should be kept free for communications with rescue co-ordination centres.
Guidance on search and rescue activity can be found in the IAMSAR Manual published by IMO.
3.7.4 Helicopter operations
The OOW of a ship that is likely to be engaged in the transfer of personnel or stores by helicopter
should become fami liar with the ICS Guide to Helicopter/Ship Operations.
3.7.5 Piracy
The OOW of a ship that is likely to operate in waters that may present a risk of attack by pirates or
armed robbers should be familiar with the latest edition of the ICS/ISF publ ica ti on Pirates and
Armed Robbers: Guidelines on Prevention for Masters and Ship Security Officers.
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
4
OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE
OF BRIDGE EQUIPMENT
4.1 GENERAL
4.2
It is important that the master and the watch keeping officers are completely familiar with all the
navigational and communications e:juipment. charts and publications on board.
Bridge yvatchkeeping officers should acquaint themselves with the contents of operating manuals
for equipment, particularly with regard to the setting up of controls and the procedures to be
fol lowed in the event of equipment failure.
It is important that, when electronic navigation systems (ECDIS and ECS) are fitted, full use is made
of their capabil ities including waypoint and other alarms, the determination of cross track error
and dept h of water. Such use wi ll stimulate interaction with the DOW and provide barriers to the
vessel departing from its planned track.
Periodic checks on the equipment (see section 3.2.5) should be carried out. Equipment found to
have operational defects should be brought to the attention of the master and recorded in the
logbook and on the Pilot Card (see annex A3).
Regular preventive maintenance of al l equipment should be carried out according to instructions
set out in the shipboard maintenance procedures manual and manufact urers' manuals.
A ful l set of charts and publications appropriate for the intended voyage should be avai lable on
board and kept up to date.
RADAR
The OOW should be familiar with the differences between X and S-band radars, and be aware
that the X-band radar is capable of operating in the 9 GHz frequency band for the detection of
search and rescue transponder (SART) devices.
On ships fitted with a radar instal lation that includes an interswitching unit to al low radar displays
to change transceivers, the OOW should be familiar with interswitching arrangements.
4.2.1 Good radar practice
It is recommended that a radar is kept running and fully operational at all ti mes and should be
connected to the VDR or S-VDR as appropriate.
When using radar, the OOW should bear in mind the fol lowing:
o the qual ity of performance of the radar needs to be checked regularly: a performance monitor,
if fitted, should be used for this purpose;
o an incorrectly aligned heading marker can give rise to misleading interpretations of potential
collision situations: heading marker al ignment needs checking periodically against both the
compass heading and the fore and aft line of the ship;
o small vessels, ice and ot her floating objects such as containers may not be detected by the
radar;
o video processing techniques should be used with care;
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
o echoes may be obscured by sea or rain clutter: the careful use of clutter controls will assist;
o masts or other structural features may cause shadow or blind sectors on the display: the OOW
should be aware of these sectors.
4.2.1.1 Clear weather practice
Operating the radar at sea in clear weather will provide an opportunity for watchkeepers to
practise their radar coll ision avoidance and navigation ski lls; for example. radar observations and
target vectors can be checked visual ly. Regular practice of parallel indexing techniques in clear
weather and safe waters should provide watch keepers with improved abi lity in this form of track
monitoring.
4.2.1.2 Range scales
The choice of range scales will depend upon factors such as traffic density. speed of own ship and
how often the radar is being observed.
Detection of targets, particularly small targets, is generally better at short ranges. However, if the
radar is to be used for plotting, it is not advisable to use a scale that is too short .
Advance warning of approaching vessels and land is an important factor in deciding upon a safe
speed, and requires the monitoring of longer range scales.
4.2.2 Radar and collision avoidance
4.2.2.1 Accuracy of own ship speed and heading inputs
In radar plotting. measurement of the course, speed and aspect of a target is used to determine
the closest point of approach of that target and to indicate whether or not there is a risk of
coll ision,
The accuracy of the target plot will depend upon an accurate input of own ship's course and
speed during the plotting interval; a yawing ship or inaccurate speed and heading inputs into the
radar will reduce the accuracy of ca culated target vectors.
Plot inaccuracies will be most apparent in head-on situations and may make a target appear to be
passing clear when in fact it is crossing ahead or nearly ahead.
4.2.2.2 The plotting period
A single observation of the range and bearing of a target cannot give any indication of target
course and speed. Multiple observa:ions are required. and the longer the plotting period, the
greater will be the accuracy.
Accuracy in the plot will however be lost if either own ship or the target changes course or speed
during the plotting period. A change in the course or speed of the target may not be immediately
detected.
The estimation of the course and speed of the target and risk of collision is only valid up to the
time of the last observation. The situation must therefore be kept closely under review.
4.2.2.3 Changing target bearing
It should not be assumed that, because the relative bearing of a target is changing, there is no risk of
coll ision. An alteration of course and/or speed of own ship may alter the relative bearing and, at
close quarters, risk of collision can ellist even with a changing compass bearing (see section 3.2.3.3).
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
4.2.3 Radar and navigation
When using radar for position-fixing and moni toring, the OOW should check:
o the overall performance of the radar;
o the identity of the fi xed objects being observed;
o gyro error and accuracy of the heading line al ignment;
o accuracy of the variable range markers (VRM), electronic bearing lines (EBl) and fixed range
rings;
o that the parallel index lines are correctly set .
4.2.3.1 Parallel indexing
Parallel index techniques can be useful when monitoring the ship's progress in relation to the
passage plan.
Parallel indexing does not fix the ship's position, but provides a method on the radar of verifying
that the ship is maintaining a safe course to pass a fixed object, such as a headland, at the desired
passing distance. Paral lel indexing does not therefore replace the need to fix the ship's position on
the chart at regular intervals.
The technique requires an index line to be drawn to pass through the radar echo of a fixed object,
tangential to a VRM set to a range equal to the desired passing distance. The index line wi ll line up
paral lel to the ground track that the ship wi ll need to follow to maintain a safe passing distance.
Parallel indexing can be used on both relative motion and ground stabilised true motion modes of
radar operation. With a relative motion display, the echo of a fixed object will move in a direction
and at a speed which is the reciprocal of own ship's ground track, and the echo should move
along the index line. On a ground stabi lised true motion display, the echo will remain stationary
and the edge of the VRM should move along the index line as the ship passes the echo.
4.2.3.2 El ectronic mapping
Electronic mapping facilities are commonly available for displaying on the radar picture, the
passage plan and local area maps.
Maps can be drawn to include chart features such as buoys, channel limits. separation zones and
anchorages using a number of different lines and symbols. Once complete, the map can be stored
in the radar.
Any map or passage plan needs to be geographicall y referenced so that it will appear on the radar
correctly orientated and posi ti oned relative to the ship's position.
Any errors in the ship's position used by the radar, errors in the accuracy of the maps or poor radar
ground stabi lisation could cause map interpretation problems (see section 2.3.4.2).
Maps electronically overlaid on radar pictures should always be used with caution.
4.2.4 Electronic plotting devices
On larger ships, at least one of the radars carried is likely to have automatic radar plotting aid
(ARPA) functions. Radars on smaller ships may be fitted with either automati c tracking aid (ATA) or
electronic plotting aid (EPA) functions.
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
ATA uses ARPA hardware but with limited functional ity; there are no trial manoeuvre, target past
position or guard zone features, and manual acquisi ti on is limited to 10 targets. EPA offers basic
electronic plotting functions that are as good as a reflection plotter.
In comparison with standard radar, ARPA and ATA offer a number of automated collision
avoidance features. However, watc1keepers should be aware of the dangers of being over reliant
on these devices and must
o understand the types of errors that are possible and recognise the operational warnings that
appear on the display;
o understand the limitations of the devices;
o treat the apparent precision of the digital display of the closest point of approach (CPA) with
caution;
o regularly test the devices using the built-in operational test facil ities.
4.2.4.1 Heading and speed inputs
Correct and rel iable speed and heading inputs into bridge equipment including ARPA or ATA are
vital if information is to be processed correctly. Input derived from GPS equipment should be
monitored and periodical ly cross-cl-ecked with independently derived data to verify its continued
accuracy.
Speed and heading inputs need to be sea stabilised (water tracked) to provide the ARPA or ATA
with speed and course through the water. The use of these devices in a ground stabilised (bottom
tracked) mode for assessing risk of col lision could be particularly hazardous in sea areas that
experience significant tidal streams and currents.
4.2.4.2 Automatic target acquisition
Features such as guard zones and target acquisi ti on footprints are commonly used for the
automatic acquisition of ARPA targets.
Such features should always be used Wi th caution, especially in sea areas where radar
inconspicuous targets can be expected.
4.3 AIS
4.3.1 AIS overview
AIS is a maritime mobile band VHF broadcast system that can send both dynamic and static ship
information, such as MMSI, call sign, position, course and speed, to other AIS transponders and
base stations. Recent years have seen AIS functionality expand to include the sending of a variety
of additional information, such as ETA, waypoints, data from navigational aids such as buoys and
lighthouses, rate of turn, time stamp, ship type, type of cargo, draught, dimensions, passenger
detai ls and text messages.
All ships of 300 gross tonnage and upwards engaged on international voyages, and cargo ships of
500 gross tonnage and upwards not engaged on internati onal voyages, and passenger ships
irrespective of size shall be fitted With AIS, as required by IMO.
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
4.3.2 AIS operation
It is vital that the AIS unit is installed and operated correctly. Unless this is done, the integrity of the
broadcast data can become unrel iable. Basic static data such as ship dimensions must be checked
for accuracy, as must the correct input of dynamic data such as speed etc.
Poor quality broadcast data not on y brings the AIS concept into disrepute, but also lowers the
mariner's confidence in observed data of other ships and can significantly reduce the potential
gains to be had from this equipment. This is particularly relevant if AIS is to be considered as an aid
to collision avoidance by making use of the potential contribution it can make towards
navigational safety in areas of high traffic density or reduced visibility.
AIS, in common wi th the use of helm controls and radar, is an item of bridge equipment that
should be at the disposal of the OOW Masters are encouraged to ensure that watch keeping
officers are fully familiar with the use of t his equipment and that they monitor its performance
and, if necessary, make any operational adjustments as part of their normal watchkeeping duties.
Incoming AIS data should be used wi th caution. In addi ti on, occasional checks should be made to
ensure that course and speed data transmi tted by own ship is accurate.
4.4 VOYAGE DATA RECORDER (VDR) AND SIMPLIFIED
VOYAGE DATA RECORDER (S-VDR)
4.4.1 VDR and S-VDR overview
VDR and S-VDR equipment has been mandated for carriage on both new ships (VDR) and existing
ships (S-VDR) according to schedules agreed at IMO, Similar to the black boxes carried on aircraft,
VDR equipment enables accident investigators to review procedures and instructions in the
moments before an incident and helps to identi fy the cause of any accident.
Addi ti onally, S-VDR provides the vessel operator and owner wi th informati on that can enhance
ship operation and management, and provides the owner/operator with a comprehensive record
of events during a given period.
4.4.2 VDR requirements
Performance standards for VDRs vvere adopted by IMO in 1997 with phased implementation from
2002. Subsequent IMO performance standards for S-VDR require implementation from 2006.
VDR should continuously maintain sequential records of preselected data items relating to status
and output of the ship's equipment and command and control of t he ship. As a minimum, the
following parameters must be recorded: date and ti me, position, speed, heading, radar data, echo
sounder data, mandatory alarms, r Jdder data, telegraph data, hull opening and watertight door
stat us, as well as wind data and accelerations and hull stresses. VDR and S-VDR equipment also
records all VHF communications and al l verbal communicati on in the wheelhouse.
The VDR should be instal led in a protective capsule that is brightly coloured and fitted with an
appropriate device to aid location, It should be entirely automatic in normal operation.
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
4.4.3 S·VDR requirements
An S-VDR is not required to store the same level of detailed data as a standard VDR, but
nonetheless should store, in a secure and retrievable format, information concerning the position,
movement, physical status, command and control of a ship over the period leading up to and
following an incident.
4.4.4 Preserving records
In some designs of VDR and S-VDR, the speedy intervention of the master or other person on
board is needed fol lowing an incident to ensure the data is saved. With these models, if there is no
manual intervention, the data will be overwritten within 12 hours and so will not be avai lable to
the accident investigator, It is therefore essential for masters, watch keeping officers and accident
inspectors to be aware of the features of particular systems fitted to ships,
4.5 STEERING GEAR AND THE AUTOMATIC PILOT
4.5.1 Testing of steering gear
The OOW should ensure that the SOLAS requirements for the operation and testing of the
steering gear are observed (see annex A7) ,
4.5.2 Steering control
These paragraphs should be read in conjundion with section 3.4.2 of this Guide.
Steering control of the ship will comprise manual steering, probably supplemented by an
automati c pilot (autopilot) or other track control system. At each steering position, there should be
a gyro repeater and rudder angle indica tor, An emergency back-up steering position, usual ly in the
steering gear flat. is also required.
If an autopilot is fitted, a steering mode selector switch for changing between automatic and
manual steering, and a manual override control to allow t he OOW to gain instant manual control
of the steering, will be required.
4.5.2.1 The autopilot (heading/ track controller)
The role of the autopilot is to steer the ship automatically. The autopilot can either be operated
independently or, in an integrated bridge, controlled by a navigation system.
When operated as an independent system, the course to steer will need to be set manually on the
autopi lot and the autopi lot wil l steer that course unti l a new course is entered. When linked to an
integrated system, the autopilot wi ll be able to receive cross track error (XTE) information and
track-keep automatically.
4.5.2.2 Automatic track-keeping (if fitted)
Track-keeping control allows the sh p to maintain its planned track, whereas course-keeping only
ensures that the ship is pointing in the right direction. Wind and currents can, for example, move
the ship sideways and off its track while the ship's heading remains unchanged.
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
For a ship to operate an automatic track-keeping system, the autopilot should be adaptive and
able to perform turns automatically between track legs, using either pre-set turn radius or rate of
turn values.
Turns are commenced at a wheel over position only after the OOW has acknowledged the wheel
over position alarm and is satisfied that it is safe to execute the turn.
If a malfunction occurs when track-keeping, the system should alarm and revert immediately to
course-keeping mode.
If the malfunction occurs whi le the autopilot is on a track, the autopilot should continue to steer
the pre-set course of that track. If the autopilot is performing a turn when the malfunction occurs,
the autopilot should complete the turn at the pre-set turn value and take up the course of the
next track.
An autopilot performing automatic track-keeping functions and its alarm outputs should always
be monitored closely.
The abi lity of the autopi lot to fol low closely a planned track wil l depend upon the accuracy of the
XTE information sent to the autopilot from the navigation system (see section 4.10.3).
It should be recognised that, in automatic track-keeping mode, there can be frequent heading
changes that can give misleading information in end-to-end situations, as well as supplying varying
heading data inputs to ARPA equij:ment.
4.5.3 Off·course alarm
As part of the steering control system, there should be an off-course alarm facility to warn the
OOW when the ship deviates excessively from its course.
Examples of appropriate devices include:
o a magnetic off-course alarm independent from other bridge equipment and inputs;
o a second gyro compass with a heading comparison unit connected to both compasses.
The alarm should be in use at al l times when the autopilot is in operation.
The use of the off-course alarm does not relieve the OOW from frequently checking the course
that is being steered.
Non-activation of the off-course alarm will not always mean that the ship is maintaining its
planned track. The ship may be moved off its track by wind and currents even though the heading
remains unchanged.
4.6 COMPASS SYSTEM
4.6.1 Magnetic compass
The magnetic compass is generally fitted above the bridge on the centreline with a periscope, so
that the compass is readable from the helmsman's position.
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
Where the magnetic compass is needed to provide heading outputs to other bridge systems, a
transmi tti ng magnetic compass (TMC) is fitted. TMC outputs should be corrected for compass
error and the TMC should be tested once a week, in clear visibi lity
A compass deviati on card should be maintained and posted on the bridge. The compass will need
to be swung at intervals during the ship's life, and particularly after major steel conversion work to
the ship. Caution should be observed when using the magnetic compass on ships that carry
magnetic cargoes such as iron and steel.
Compass safe distances are specified on al l electrical bridge equipment and provide the minimum
distances from the magnetic compass that equipment can be installed.
4.6.2 Gyro compass
It is recommended that the gyro compass should be run continuously. Should a gyro compass stop
for any reason, it should be restar,ed and subsequently checked before use to ensure it has
"settl ed" and is reading correctl y.
Speed and latitude corrections need to be appl ied to t he gyro compass. Where the gyro has no
direct speed log or posit ion input, manual corrections wil l have to be made as required.
The gyro will support a number 01 repeaters, including a repeater at the emergency steering
position. Gyro repeaters on the bridge should be checked agai nst the main gyro at least once a
watch and after excessive manoeuvring. Other repeaters should be checked frequently
4.6.3 Compass errors
As a safeguard against the gyro and gyro repeaters wandering, frequent checks should be made
between the magnetic and gyro C)mpasses.
Magnetic and gyro compass errors should be checked and recorded each watch, where possible,
using ei ther azimuth or transit bearings
A record of magnet ic and gyro cOl1pass courses to steer and compass errors should be maintained
and kept available to the helmsman
4.6.4 Rate of turn
When ships are manoeuvring, particularly large ships where the di stance between the bow and
the pivot point of the ship is considerable, rate of turn Indication prOVides the ship handler Wi th
feedback on how quickly the ship is turning. Rate of turn measurement is used by automatic track-
keepi ng systems to periorm controlled turns.
4.7 SPEED AND DISTANCE MEASURING LOG
Speed logs, depending upon their type, will provide either measurements of speed through the
water or speed over the ground.
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
4.7.1 Types of speed measurement
In general terms, speed through the water is used for radar coll ision avoidance and speed over the
ground is used for navigation. Caution should be exercised jf speed over the ground is used for
collision avoidance, as differences can arise in the aspect of a target and its vector due to strong
cross tides. Speed made good can also be measured on ships and represents the speed that the
ship has achieved over a period of time. Speed made good can be measured from the chart
between position-fixes, and is also calculated and transmitted by electronic position-fixing systems.
4.7.2 Direction of speed measurement
Doppler-type logs can be either si ngle-axis and measure speed in the fore and aft direction or dual-
axis and measure fore and aft and athwartship movement. Coupled Wi th rate of turn
measurement, dual-axis logs are a so able to calculate the speed and direction of movement of the
bow and stern. Electro-magnetic logs provide single-axis measurement only.
4.7.3 Recording of distance travelled
4.8
As well as indicating ship's speed, logs record and display distance travelled. It is good navigation
practice to initialise the log distance trip at the start of each new track and record log distances in
the logbook at the end of each watch.
ECHO SOUNDERS
The navigational echo sounder should be expected to operate down to depths of at least
200 metres (approximately 110 fathoms).
The echo sounder should always te used when making a landfall and kept switched on in coastal
waters. If the echo sounder is fitted with a shallow water alarm, the alarm should be set to an
appropriate safe depth to warn of approaching shallow water.
Care should be taken to check that the units of soundings on the echo sounder are the same as
those used on the chart in use. When comparing echo and chart soundings, allowance must be
made for the draught of the ship and any water stand or tidal effects.
4.9 ElECTRONIC POSITION-FIXING SYSTEMS
4.9.1
Electronic position-fixing systems provide an automatic and continuous position update for ships
fitted with a suitable receiver using either a terrestrial hyperbolic radio navigation system, such as
Loran C, or a global satellite system, such as GPS.
Hyperbolic positioning systems
The use of hyperbolic positioning systems at sea has declined. Omega and Decca are no longer
operational. However, Loran C, as a back-up to the global navigation satellite system, is to be
retained for the time being.
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
4.9.1 .1
The use of lattice charts showing hyperbolic lines of position has also declined, and most receivers
convert the readings to latitude and longitude.
Current research projects are investigating the viability of enhanced Loran C to fulfil the
requirement for an effective back-up system in the event of a GPS system failure,
loran C
Loran C has a basic range of approximately 1,200 miles using ground-wave signals, although
extended range coverage is possible using skywaves.
Corrections need to be applied to Loran C signal s to take into account variations in the
conductivity of the earth's surface over which the signals pass. These are known as additional
secondary factor (ASF) corrections. The corrections may need to be applied manually before
plotting the position on the chart.
The development of enhanced Loran C will seek to provide adequate back-up if GPS is unavailable
or degraded and for GPS correction data.
4.9.2 Global navigation satellite system
A global navigation satell ite system (GNSS) is a satell ite system that provides ships fitted with
suitable receivers with a means of obtaining continuous worldwide position, time and speed
information.
The Global Positioning System (GPS), operated by the United States, and the Global Navigation
Satell ite System (GLONASS), operated by the Russian Federation, are currently available for civilian
use on ships.
Other systems such as Galileo, the European satell ite navigation system, are also under
development.
4.9.2.1 GPS and DGPS
Since 2001, the artificial degradation applied by the United States authorities to GPS transmissions
and known as Selective Availabi lity (SA) has been removed. The previous commercial global
positioning capability with accuracy of the order of 100 met res was improved by thi s measure to
offer accuracy of 15-25 metres at :he receiver antenna.
Differential GPS (DGPS) receivers apply corrections to raw GPS signals determined and transmitted
by terrestrial monitoring stations. Differential signals can be transmitted to ships via satell ites or
using HF radio links. Within DGPS coverage, positional accuracy of the order of 10 metres, or
better, at the receiver antenna is possible.
Greater navigational accuracy than that offered by the above systems is provided by special ised
equipment including GPS based equipment, and is used by those who require increased positional
fidelity.
4.9.3 Use of electronic position-fixing systems
Care should be taken when using electronic position-fixing systems.
Watch keepers need to understand the capabil ities and limitations of the systems they are using,
and continually monitor and validote the information given.
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
When using electronic navigational equipment for position·fixing and passage planning, it should
be remembered that all vessels have at all times a statutory requirement to comply with the
COlREGS. Compliance with the COLREGS may require vessels to deviate from their intended
electronic track to avoid a close qU3rters situation.
When following any track on an electronic navigation system or paper chart, the DOW shall,
before making any course alteration and/or speed alteration, first assess the likely consequences of
such actions to ensure that they do not cause a close quarters situation to develop.
4.9.3.1 Use of electronic position-fixing systems in integrated bridges
When position· fixing systems transmit data to other navigation systems, the integrity and quality
of the data transmitted needs to be safeguarded
Techniques used should include:
o using pre·set quality limits to monitor the fix quality of each position·fixing system connected to
the integrated bridge;
o comparing all positions to identify and reject any rogue positions or positions that are clearly
incorrect;
o comparing electronic positions with the ship's estimated position (EP) calculated using direct
inputs from the log and gyro;
o checking the status of the data transmitted and ensuring that only valid data messages are used.
4.9.3.2 Route monitoring
Route storage and cross track error (XTE) monitoring are common GPS features. By entering the
passage plan in the GPS as well as the navigation system, the GPS can provide an integrated
bridge system (IBS) with an independent route monitoring capability.
4.9.3.3 Chart datums and accuracy (see section 3.3.1.3)
Electronic position· fixing systems, and in particular GPS receivers, calculate positions referenced to
the global datum WGS84. This may not be the same as the datum of the chart in use, with the
result that the position when plotted may be wrong in the context of the chart.
Where the difference or datum shift is known, a "satellite·derived positions" note on the chart
provides the offset to apply to the position before it is plotted.
Many receivers have facil ities to transform positions from WGS84 to the datum of the chart
internally, so eliminating the need to apply datum offsets manually. It is nevertheless
recommended that the receiver is kept referenced to WGS84 and position shift values are applied
manually because the transformation parameters used in the receiver may differ from those
parameters used by the hydrographic office that produced the chart.
The precision of chart features (e.g. dangers) on navigational charts is of the order of 0.3 mm -
equivalent to an accuracy of 15 metres or more at scales of 1 :50,000 or greater. Many coastal
charts are of such scales and therefore may not be as precise as DGPS when displaying dangers.
The DOW should therefore always allow a sensible safety margin to take account of any such
discrepancies.
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
4.10 INTEGRATED BRIDGE SYSTEMS (lBS)
An integrated bridge system is a combination of systems which are interconnected to allow the
centralised monitoring of sensor information and control of a number of operations such as
passage execution, communications, machinery control, safety and security.
There is no single standard 185 design for ships and nor is 185 mandatory. Classification societies do
offer optional class notations for ships; the "NAV1" class from Lloyd's Register (LR), the "Wl-0C"
class from Det Norske Veritas (DNV), the "NAV-DC" class from Germanischer Lloyd (GL) and
"OMBO" class from the American Bureau of Shipping (ASS) are examples of class notations for ISS
arrangements designed to support periodic one man bridge operations.
Factors which will determine the extent to which ISS design allows certain bridge functions to be
automated include the design of the bridge, the type of equipment that is fitted and the layout of
that equipment on the bridge.
4.10.1 Workstations. bridge design and layout
Centralised control and monitoring require a workstation design approach. At the main operating
position on the bridge (referred to variously as the workstation for navigation/traffic survei llance
and manoeuvring, the navigation workstation or the conning position) the OOW should be able to
undertake all his primary duties unassisted with efficiency and safety
The design should also allow two bridge team members to work side by side unhindered.
Sridge design and the layout of the workstations, together with the equipment and
instrumentation at those workstations, are important parts of ISS design. There should be proper
access into and around the bridge. a good working environment and adequate bridge visibility
from al l the workstations.
A detailed review of the principles of ISS design is outside the scope of this Guide. but the design
should ensure that the failure of one sub-system does not cause the fai lure of another and that
any fai lure is immediately brought to the attention of the OOw.
4.10.2 IBS equipment
To permit centralised monitoring and control of navigational functions on the bridge. the following
systems will be required
4.10.2.1 Navigation management system
The navigation management system provides the mechanism for planning, executing and
monitoring the passage plan and wi ll therefore provide the link between the charts on which the
voyage has been planned. the position-fixing systems, the log and gyro and the autopilot.
An electronic chart display system will typically function as the navigation management system
within an ISS, supported by a dedicated route planning terminal to allow route planning activities
to be undertaken while on passage and without interfering with the OOw.
4.10.2.2 Alarm system
The ISS has an alarm system to warn the OOW jf potentially dangerous situations could arise.
Failure of the OOW to acknowledge alarms - usually within 30 seconds - wil l transfer the alarm to
remote alarm units in cabins, offices and messes to call for back-up assistance.
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
The main navigational sensors need to be connected to the alarm system, in particular the radar
which provides traffic alarms, the gyro and autopilot which provide course-related alarms, and the
position-fixing systems which provide position-related alarms. ECDIS, the steering gear, power
distribution panels etc. may also be connected.
Included in the alarm system should be a watch safety or fitness alarm to monitor the alertness of
the OOw. An interval timer for setting alarm intervals of up to 12 minutes should be part of the
system. To be effective, it is essential that the watch alarm is fully operational and that the OOW
cannot disable it for his own convenience. A number of alarm acknowledgement points, each with
a pre-warning alarm to give the OOW notice that the alarm is about to be activated, should be
available around the bridge. As with the failure of the OOW to acknowledge a navigation alarm, if
the fitness time interval expires, an alarm should sound away from the bridge.
4.10.2.3 Conning display
The display should be available at the conning position to show information summaries of the
important navigational sensors used on passage and while docking.
The display also provides the OOW with a central place to monitor sensors and compare actual
settings with those ordered.
4.10.3 IBS and the automation of navigation functions
The process of planning a passage through to its execution and monitoring the progress of the
ship against the plan are bridge operations that can be safely automated as long as certain
procedures and disciplines are fol lowed:
o the plan needs to be thoroughly prepared on charts (see section 2);
o the details of the plan, and in particular the waypoints, need to be carefully prepared on or
transferred to the navigation system (see section 2.3.4);
o the position of the ship needs to be safely calculated and quality monitored by the navigation
system (see section 4.9);
o if the position of the ship is accurate and reliable and the passage plan has been safely entered,
the XTE deviations off-track as calculated by the navigation system and transmitted to the
autopilot will be accurate, and will allow the autopilot to control the direction of the ship
automatically and safely (see section 4.5.2.2).
4.10.4 Using IBS
Where fitted, clear guidance on IBS operati ons should be contained in the shipboard operational
procedures manual. In particular, acvice on when to commence and when to suspend automatic
track-keeping should be provided.
Over reliance on automatic systems. coupled with the OOW paying too little attention to visual
navigational and watch keeping techniques, can be dangerous.
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
4.11 CHARTS, ECDIS AND NAUTICAL PUBLICATIONS
4.11.1 Carriage of charts and nautical publications
All ships should carry adequate anc up to date official nautical charts. Sai ling Directions, lists of
lights, notices to mariners, tide tables and al l other nautical publications necessary for the intended
voyage.
An on board chart and publ ication management system is recommended to ensure that records
are kept of what charts and publications are carried and when they were last corrected.
4.11.2 Official nautical charts
Official nautical charts can be eithe' paper or electronic, produced by, or on the authority of, a
national hydrographic office.
Unlike paper charts, electronic charts need to be displayed on an electronic chart display system
Official electronic nautical charts can be in one of two formats:
o Electronic navigational charts (ENC) are official vector nautical charts. When displayed on ECOIS
equipment, they are equivalent to paper charts;
o Raster navigational charts (RNC) are official raster nautical charts. British Admiralty ARCS format
charts and United States NOAA format charts are examples. However, when displayed on ECDIS
(or RCDS) equipment, they are not fully equivalent to paper charts (see section 4.11.5.4).
4.11.3 Use of charts and nautical publications
Only official nautical chart data which is up to date and adequate should be used for passage
planning or navigation. The charts can either be paper charts or electronic charts that are
equivalent to paper charts. All other nautical charts are by definition not official and are often
referred to as private charts. These :harts are not accepted as the basis for navigation under the
SOLAS Convention.
For advice on planning using a com:)ination of electronic and paper charts, refer to section 2.3.4.1.
When navigating using electronic charts, care should be taken to ensure that the display shows
sufficient" look-ahead" distance and the next chart can be readily accessed.
4.11.4 Electronic charts and electronic chart display systems
There are two kinds of official elect'onic charts commonly available: Vector or Electronic
Navigational Charts (ENC) and Raster Navigational Charts (RNC). The mariner using electronic
chart systems should be aware of the differences between the two types of chart formats.
4.11.4.1 Vector chart format electronic charts
Vedor charts are compiled by attricuting to each and every chart feature a set of values, and each
chart feature is stored in a layered digital database. Storage in a database allows the chart data to
be displayed as a seamless chart, while layering enables fields of data that are not required at the
time to be removed from display to reduce chart clutter.
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
II
Chart features can be interrogated to display additional information about charted objects,
The inherent "intelligence" of vectorised charts allows three dimensional "route safety zone
monitoring". Chart depth contours and air draught clearances around the ship can be monitored
automatically, both while the route is being planned and whi le the ship is on passage (see section
2.3.4). Alarms will be triggered automatically if a safety zone around a ship is breached.
An international standard for vector charts has been finalised by IHO (S-57 Edition 3) and vector
charts complying with this standarc produced by or on the authority of a national hydrographic
office are known as electronic navigational charts (EN C).
4.11 .4.2 Raster chart format electronic charts
Raster charts are exact copies of paper charts and are produced by digital scanni ng techniques.
Information on raster charts cannot be layered and the move from one chart to another wi ll not be
seamless. Raster charts have to be individually selected and displayed.
Raster charts have no inherent "intelligence". The chart data itself cannot trigger automatic alarms
without the addition of user-inserted information that has been entered manually during route
planning
Without selecting different scale charts, the look-ahead capability using raster charts may be
limited, causing some inconvenience when determining the identity of distant objects. Datums and
projections may differ between raster charts and care must be taken to take account of such
differences.
A facsimile of a paper chart originated by or distributed on the authority of a national
hydrographic office is known as a raster navigational chart (RNC).
4.11.5 Electronic chart display systems
Standard features of electronic chart display systems include the display of electronic vector and/or
raster charts overlaid with the position of the ship and its track, and facilities to route plan and
automatically update charts using digital notices to mariners. Navigation sensors such as GPS, log
and gyro wi ll be connected to provide positional information. An autopilot may also be connected
when the electronic chart display system is installed as part of an integrated bridge system.
Some electronic chart display systems offer the capability to display radar data overlaid on the
chart. This can be either selected targets or a full radar picture that can be independentl y
controlled. Caution should always be exercised where target vectors based on the ship's speed
through the water are overlaid on an electronic chart that is displaying speed over the ground.
Factors that will determine to what extent an electronic chart display system can be used will
include the type of system that has been fitted, the ability of that system to display official nautical
charts and whether or not the flag state administration allows its use for navigational purposes.
Electronic chart display systems can be categorised as ECDIS, RCDS or ECS,
4.11.5.1 Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS)
ECDIS is a shipborne navigational system whose performance standards are speci fied in IMO
Resolution A.817(19). It must support the whole range of navigational functions that make use of
the characteristics of the chart data and their speci fi c presentation. Moreover, to be an ECDIS, the
equipment must be shown to meet all the requirements of the IMO Performance Standards and
offer, besides the graphic presentation of chart data, additional information about the
characteristi cs of the displayed features.
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
Within the ECDIS, the ENC database stores the chart information in the form of geographic
objects represented by point, line and area shapes, carrying individual attributes which make any
of these objects unique, Appropria:e mechanisms are built into the system to query the data and
then to use the obtained information to perform certain navigational functions (e.g. anti-
grounding surveillance). The presentation of the current position, rangelbearing functions and
route planning capabil ities are other examples of the minimum ECDIS requirements laid down in
the IMO Performance Standards.
4.11.5.2 Carriage requirements for ECDIS
Only a type-approved ECDIS operating with up to date official ENCs and with appropriate back-up
may be used to replace all paper charts on a ship. Where official ENCs are not yet available, IMO
regulations allow flag states to authorise the use of official raster charts (together with an
appropriate fol io of paper charts).
In all other cases, the ship must carry all paper charts necessary for its intended voyage.
4,11.5.3 ECDIS back-up requirements
No electronic system is completely fail-safe. IMO Performance Standards therefore require that the
"overall system" includes both a primary ECDIS and an adequate independent back-up
arrangement that provides:
a independent facilities enabl ing a safe takeover of the ECDIS functions in order to ensure that a
system failure does not result in a critical situation; and
a a means to provide for safe navigation for the remaining part of the voyage in case of ECDIS
failure.
There are a number of possible options that could meet these requirements, including·
a A second ECDIS connected to an independent power supply and a separate GPS position input;
a An appropriate up to date folio of official paper charts for the intended voyage;
a An ECDIS operating in the RCDS mode of operation; or
a A radar-based system called "Chart-Radar" meeting the IMO Performance Standards of IMO
Resolution A.477(XII), as amended by MSC 64(67).
4.11.5.4 Requirement for the safe use of ECDIS
Navigation with ECDIS is fundamental ly different from navigating with paper charts. As a
consequence, the safe use of ECDIS requires the mariner to be appropriately trained and
appropriate bridge procedures to be established.
In 1998, IMO recognised that it would take some years to complete the world's coverage of ENCs.
As a consequence, IMO ECDIS Performance Standards were amended adding a new optional
mode of operation of ECDIS, the Raster Chart Display System (RCDS) mode. In this mode, RNCs
can be used in an ECDIS to meet SOLAS carriage requirements for nautical charts. However, this is
only allowed if approved by the flag state. The intention of those changes was to allow the ECDIS
to operate as far as possible on official chart data, i.e. official ENCs where available with official
RNCs filling in the gaps.
IMO took note of the limitations of RNCs as compared to ENCs, and the revised ECDIS
Performance Standards require that the ECDIS must be used together with "an appropriate fol io
of up to date paper charts" for the areas where RCDS mode is employed. The intention was to
allow the number of paper charts carried by a ship to be reduced where RCDS mode was utilised,
but only to a level compatible with safe navigation.
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
As no definition of the term" appropriate folio" was provided by IMO, different flag states
developed individual interpretations. Consequently, shipowners should consult their flag state as to
whether RCDS mode is allowed and under what conditions.
In areas where ENCs or RNCs are not available, ships must carry all paper charts necessary for the
intended voyage.
4.11.5.5 ECDIS and port state control
II
Ships arriving at a port may be subject to port state control by local officials based on international
agreements.
In Europe, port state control is conducted according to the regulations set out in the Paris
Memorandum of Understanding. Its ECDIS guidelines explain how a port state control officer
(PSCO) should assess whether a shb is using electronic charts in accordance with SO LAS
requirements. Checks may include whether:
o the ship has documentation confirming that the system complies with IMO Performance
Standards for ECDIS. In the absence of such documentation, the PSCO should seek confirmation
from the flag state that the system does meet the statutory requirements;
o the system is being used for primary navigation. It should be establi shed whether ECDIS is used
in the ENC mode or RCDS mode or in both modes;
o there are written procedures on board the ship for using ECDIS;
o the master and watch keeping officers are able to produce appropriate documentation that
generic and type-specific ECDIS familiarisation has been undertaken;
o the charts used for the intended voyage are the latest official editions;
o the charts in use are up to date; and
o there are approved back-up arrangements available to ensure a safe transfer of the ECDIS
functions in the event of ECDIS failure and to provide safe navigation for the remaining part of
the voyage
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
4.11.5.6 Summary of IMO ECDIS carriage requirements
Are official
ENCs available
YES NO YES NO
for area of
operation?
What digital Official ENC Official ENC
charts are being (coverage at an (coverage at
Private charts
used in the aparopriate an appropriate Official RNC
(6)
ECOIS by lhe scale for scale for
mariner? navi gation) navigation)
How is the
As an ECDIS in As an ECDIS in
ECDIS As an ECDIS
RCDS mode RCDS mode
As an ECS
operating?
Independent Independent
What back·up ECDIS or ECDIS or
Not required Not required
system is other back-up other back-up
OR
Il) Il)
required? solution solution
required required
An • appropriate
All up to date
folio· of up to All up to dale
What are the Not required (1)
date paper
paper charts
paper chans
requirements (Except if
charts to be
required for
required for
for the carriage back-up is a
used in
safe navigation
safe navigation
of official paper folio of paper
conjunction
in areas where
for the intended
chans? charts) ENCs are
with the ECDIS
available
voyage
in RCDS mode
Does the ECDIS
fulfil chan
YES (1 ) YES (2) NO (4) NO IS)
carriage
requi rements?
Notes to table above:
(1) Some flag states may require sp!!ClIic documentation to allow thiS.
(2) ReqUIres approval of ship's flag state - flag state defines meaning of "appropriate"
(3) Back-up system IS only required If ECDIS IS Intended to meet carnage reqUIrements
(<1 ) For ECDIS to fulfil carriage requirements, ships must use ENCs where these are available.
(5) If pnvate charts are used In an ECDIS, the system IS regarded as operating as an ECS.
(6) Paper charts (not the ECDIS) should remain the pnmary means of navigatIOn
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
4.11.5.7 Raster Chart Display System (ReDS)
RCDS, or an ECDIS used in a RCDS mode of operation, displaying RNC chart data should generally
only be used as a supplementary navigation tool. Amendments to the IMO ECDIS Performance
Standards add a new optional mode of operation of ECDIS - the Raster Chart Display System
(RCDS) mode. In this mode, RNCs can be used in an ECDIS to meet SOlAS carriage requirements
for nautical charts. However, this is only allowed if approved by the flag state. A complete folio of
up to date paper charts should be carried by ships operating in the RCDS mode.
No periormance standard currently exists for RCDS.
4.11.5.8 Electronic Chart System (ECS)
ECS should only be used as a supp ementary navigation tool together With a complete folio of up
to date paper charts
All electronic navigation systems vvhich are not tested to show compliance with the ECDIS
Performance Standards can be generical ly designated as "Electronic Chart Systems" (ECS). An ECS
may be able to use either official ENCs, RNCs or ot her chart data produced privately and could
have functionality similar to ECDIS
Some ECS equipment manufacturers also produce vector and raster data to use in their products
Their charts are derived from hydrographic office paper charts or hydrographic office digital data.
Hydrographic offices do not take a"ly responsibi lity for the accuracy or reliabil ity of privately
produced charts
Where the ship operates with ECS, the paper chart remains the official basis for navigati on on
board. The ship must retain and use a full fol io of up to date paper charts on board, regardless of
the type of electronic charts used.
Because ECS are not intended to meet SOlAS requirements, no related IMO Performance
Standards have been developed,
4.12 RADIOCOMMUNICATIONS
4.12.1 GMDSS radiocommunication functions
Only quali fied radio personnel should operate equipment for GMDSS purposes. GMDSS equipped
ships are required to be able to do the fol lowing wherever they operate:
o transmit ship-to-shore distress alerts by two independent means;
o receive shore-to-ship alerts (usu<3l1y relayed by Rescue Co-ordin<3tion Centres);
o transmit and receive:
o ship-to-ship alerts;
o SAR co-ordinating communicctions;
o on-scene communicati ons;
o locating signals;
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
...... '<>
l ~ 1   1 ~
.. <iti t
\ l
" , .. ..
o maritime safety information;
o routine or general communications to and from shore;
o bridge-to-bridge communications.
4.12.2 GMDSS equipment
Ships operating GMDSS are equipped according to carriage requirements that relate to trading
areas, i.e. Areas Al, A2, A3 and A4 as stipulated in SOLAS. All ships operating GMDSS can be
expected to have at least the fol lowing equipment:
o VHF radio-telephone (Channels 6, 13 and 16):
o Channel 6 may be used ship-to-ship for SAR operations;
o Channel 13 is used for safety of navigation ship-to-ship;
o Channel 16 is used for distress and urgency traffic, and may be used by aircraft for safety
purposes;
o VHF DSC (Channel 70) transmitter and watch receiver:
o Digital selective calling (DSC) is used for calling and replying, and for transmitting,
acknowledging and relaying dstress alerts. It allows a specific station to be contacted and
made aware that the calling station wishes to communicate with it, and to indicate how to
reply, or which station to listen to for subsequent distress traffic. Cal ls can also be addressed
to "all ships" or "all stati ons";
o Search and rescue transponder (SART) used for providing homing signals from survival craft for
detection by 9 GHz radar;
o NAVTEX receiver used for receiving maritime safety information which is automatically printed
by the receiver. Enhanced group call (EGC) facil ities will also be required for ships operating
outside NAVTEX range for the receipt of SafetyNET broadcasts;
o Emergency position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB) used in SAR for alerting and for providing
homing signals for use by aircraft.
Ships sail ing beyond range of a VHF DSC coast station must also have a medium frequency DSC
transmitter and watch receiver. If sailing beyond MF DSC range, they must have a ship earth
station or a high frequency DSC transmitter and watch receiver including a radio telex system.
Ships operating in polar regions wi ll not have International Mobile Satellite Organization
(INMARSAn satell ite coverage.
4.12.3 Emergency communications
EmergenOj communications include distress, urgenOj and safety messages.
4.12.3.1 Distress alert. distress message and distress relay
The distress alert is an automated form of distress signal and indicates that a ship, aircraft or other
vehicle. or a person is in grave and imminent danger and requires immediate assistance. It may
contain all or some of the information contained in the distress message.
The distress alert may be sent using DSC on one or more of the frequencies dedicated exclusively
to the purpose, or by satellite (see annex A6).
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
II
Messages concerning sa fety of life and navigation should be transmitted in a standard form
containing the following information, whichever mode of transmission is used:
o name of ship;
o cal l sign of ship;
o maritime mobi le service identity (MMSI) of ship;
o position of ship;
o nature of distress (or other emergency);
o type of assistance required (if appropriate);
o any other information that may help those whose assistance is required.
The master should order the relaying of a distress message whenever it is clear that the ship in
distress cannot transmit the message itself or if further help is thought to be necessary. The master
should make clear in the relay message that his own ship is not in distress by using the prefix
"MAYDAY RELAY" .
4.12.3.2 Urgency messages
An urgency message is one containing urgent information relating to a ship, aircraft or person, for
example:
o man overboard;
o lost propeller;
o permanent loss of power;
o announcing and identi fying medical transports;
o communications concerning medical advice.
The urgency signal should only be sent on the authority of the master.
If using terrestrial communications. the urgency announcement should be made on one or more
of the DSC distress frequencies contained in annex A6. The actual urgency message which follows
should be sent on one or more of :he radio telephony/telex frequencies for follow-up distress
traffic.
If using satell ite communications, it should be noted that ship earth stations only have "distress"
and "routine" priority levels. INMARSAT has therefore devised a system of two-digit codes for
urgency and safety communications. However, not al l coast earth stations accept al l the codes.
4.12.3.3 Safety messages
A safety message is one containing an important navigational or meteorological warning. As wel l
as the items listed in section 3.7.2, information reports concerning the position of buoys and the
working of lighthouses and other aids to navigation can be made.
When transmitting safety messages, the safety message format should be used using the same
frequencies and procedures as for urgency messages.
4.12.3.4 Emergency over
Whenever the emergency is clearly over, it should be cancelled by a broadcast to "all stations".
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
4.12.4 Routine or general communications
Routine or general communications include ship-ta-ship communication, pilotage messages, port
operations. ship movements, ship's business messages and other public correspondence.
The frequencies used by coast stations, port stations etc. can be ascertained from the ITU List of
Coast Stations.
4.12.4.1 Routine communications using OSC
When transmitting on DS(, the OOW should listen on the ship's transmission frequency and,
when it is free, make the call. The call should contain information on:
o the mode of transmission to be used for the follow-up message (i.e. telephony, telex);
o the frequency to be used to transmit the message.
Coast stations usually monitor two DSC channels - national and international. The national
channel should be tried first. The acknowledgement to the call will normally be on the frequency
that is paired with the frequency on which the call was made. The station that is called should
either confirm the frequency for the follow-up traffic or indicate another frequency.
On receiving a DSC call that gives no indication of follow-up frequency to use, the receiving ship
should indicate a suitable frequency in its acknowledgement.
4.12.4.2 Routine communications using radio telephony
Before commencing any transmission, check whether the frequency is already occupied.
A simplex cal l in which both stations use the same frequency involves listening on that frequency.
A duplex call in which separate frequencies are used involves listening on the ship's transmit
frequency: when the channel is free, the receiver should be retuned to the coast station reply
frequency and the call made in the normal way.
When cal ling, speak clearly. First gi'-le the name of the station being called followed by own ship's
name (and call sign if necessary). If it is necessary to spell the name of the ship, the phonetic
alphabet should be used. Give the other station time to answer; it may have heard you but be
unable to reply immediately.
4.12.4.3 Routine communications using radio telex
Before transmitting to a coast station, listen on its answering frequency for the "channel free"
signal.
4.13 EMERGENCY NAVIGATION LIGHTS
AND SIGNALLING EQUIPMENT
The OOW is responsible for ensuring that the emergency navigation lights and signalling
equipment are in working order and ready for immediate use at all times.
The condition of flags and shapes should be checked at regular intervals.
Sound signalling equipment must be checked daily and maintained in an operational condition
Where roller guides and wires operate the whistle, these should be examined frequently to ensure
easy operation. Electric and automatic whistles should be maintained according to manufacturers'
instructions.
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
5
5.1
DYNAMIC POSITIONING
GENERAL
The foreword to this edition notes that this is the first occasion that Dynamic Positioning (DP) has
been addressed in the les Bridge Procedures Guide. The guidance provided here addresses the
interface between DP systems and bridge procedures. This section of the Guide should be
considered supplementary to detailed DP procedure manuals and training requirements for those
serving aboard DP ships.
5.2 OPERATIONAL PLANNING ON DP SHIPS
In addition to making a conventional passage berth-ta-berth, many vessels undertake operations
involving navigation in areas where different forms of hazard exist. for example in offshore oirfields.
The berth-ta-berth plan should address operational planning within a worksite environment.
When arriving at the operational area or worksite, it is necessary for a detailed operational plan to
be available covering the approach and other phases of the envisaged operation. If the vessel is
using DP mode, then the capabilities and limitations of the DP system and its peripheral equipment
should be allowed for.
When developing the operational plan, the following factors are among those that should be
taken into account:
o guidance contained within the ship's operational procedures manuals, together with any
instructions or guidance from the vessel's owners or managers, or from the agency responsible
for operations within the worksite area;
o any conditions that may necessitate changes being made to the operational planning;
o location of hazards within the \r\IOrksite area, depth of water on and around the worksite;
o whether vessel manoeuvrability s impaired by any aspect of the operation;
o expected weather conditions, conditions of   sea state and currents;
o availability of vessel power;
o level of vessel redundancy and the redundancy requirements of the operation;
o availabil ity of position reference, including contingency and back-up references;
o any restrictions that might be imposed by the field operator regarding the placing or
manoeuvring of underwater hadware:
o proximity of other vessels at any stage of the operation and the effects upon the
manoeuvrability of own vessel or the integrity of her position references;
o abil ity of own vessel to react to changes in weather, power or operational status.
All of the above will form part of a formal risk assessment which wil l cover al l aspects of the
operation.
Contingency planning is an essential part of any planning for this type of operation. By their
nature, operations of this type are often conducted in close proximity to other vessels or fixed
structures. It is essential that contingency plans are made covering safe escape routes and actions
to be taken in the event of unforeseen circumstances, catastrophic fai lure or any significant
degradation of vessel systems.
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
5.3 NAVIGATION IN DP MODE
During DP operations, the watch kEeper must be aware of the proximity of other vessels or
structures which might present a collision hazard. This is especial ly important in view of the fact
that vessels engaged in DP operations are usually unable to manoeuvre immediately, often being
hampered vessels. The appropriate tights and other signals must be displayed.
The watch keeper is responsible for the continuous monitoring of the vessel's position and of the
status of the various Position Reference Systems (PRS) providing positional data. If data from more
than one PRS is being automatically pooled or combined, then the watchkeeper must be aware of
the relative weightings applied to individual PRS.
Many operations involving DP capable vessels entai l vessel positioning relative to a moving target,
for example a shuttle tanker condl..cting tandem loading operations from a Floating Production,
Storage and Offloading vessel (FPSO) . Under these circumstances, the watchkeepers must be
aware of the motion characteristics of the target. There must also be provision of appropriate
position references, including both absolute references, such as DGPS, and relative references with
position data referenced to the moving target.
Many operations involving DP capable vessels entail deployment of underwater equipment such as
Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) - tethered submersibles. Other operations entail deployment
of divers, pipelines, cables or other underwater equipment. The watchkeeper must be aware of
the hazard presented by thiS equipment to the vessel's manoeuvrability, especially in view of the
risk of fouled propellers or thrusters, and also of the limitations in manoeuvring imposed by the
presence of underwater equipment or operations.
5.4 CONTROLLING SPEED AND DIRECTION IN DP MODE
The watchkeeper is responsible for the monitoring of all equipment related to the control of the
position and heading of the vessel whilst in DP mode. DP systems are very complex because, via
computer control, they integrate a number of different functions relating to the power plant,
propulsion systems, and position and heading references.
DP systems wil l employ complex mathematical modelling techniques to provide adaptive
positioning control. This modell ing process takes time to establish within the system. The
watch keeper must therefore ensure that sufficient time has been allowed for the mathematical
model to become established before commencing operations upon which the precise posit ioning
of the ship is a critical factor.
Effective control of a vessel in DP mode is dependent upon the efficient operation of propulsion
units, propellers and thrusters. The watch keeper must continually monitor that propulsion
commands are matched by feedback values from all thrust units.
The watch keeper must also constantly be aware of the demands being made on the power plant
and ensure that sufficient power is avai lable for effective control of the ship, with an appropriate
power reserve. Similarly, individual propulsion units (propel lers and thrusters) must be monitored
continuously.
In deteriorating environmental conditions, the watchkeeper must continue to monitor the accuracy
with which the vessel's position and heading are being maintained. If position and/or heading
excursions are outside acceptable limits, then due consideration must be given to suspending
operations until more favourable conditions prevail.
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
5.5 OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF DP SYSTEM
As Dynamic PosItIOning IS a vessel "unction rather than a speCifIC piece of equipment, It can be
descnbed as an IntegratIOn of a va' iety of components such as PosItIOn Reference Systems (PRS),
gyro compasses, computers, propulsion systems and the vessel's power plant. DP systems are
controlled by means of an Operator Station, usually located on the bridge.
Before commencing DP operations, or transfernng to DP control from conventional naVigation, all
systems must be careful ly checked and tested; a pre-DP checklist is normally proVided for this
purpose (see checklist 814).
Upon transfernng from conventioral navigational control to DP control, the watchkeeper must
check that (antral of all propulslor unitS and thrusters is effective, i.e. that all unitS are being
correctly commanded by the DP system. This IS normally done In a "Manual" DP mode, With
poSition and heading of the vessel controlled by a Joystick located on the DP panel.
When In automatic DP mode, the watchkeeper must set warning and alarm limits to appropnate
values in order to give indications of heading or positIOn excursions.
In many DP vessels, full system redundancy is provided. Multiple gyro compasses, wind sensors,
PRS and computers contribute to the level of redundancy. The watch keeper must monitor and
compare Input data from duplicated sensors. The system should give warnings and alarms against
data discrepancies If the system features triple modular redundancy, With triplicated sensors, then
a "voting" capability allows aulolT.allC detectIOn of an errant sensor and automatic rejection of an
Incorrect sensor and ItS data.
All PRS have Inherent hmlts 10 thel ' levels of reliability and accuracy. It IS normal to deploy more
than one PRS With data pooling to provide a "best fll" position. The walchkeeper should aVOid
common-mode failure scenarios resuiling from the deployment of PRS of the same type.
Typical posi ti on reference systems include:
o differential GPS;
o microwave rangelbearing systems;
o hydroacoustic systems;
o taut wife systems;
o laser-based systems.
If the operation necessitates the deployment of three Position Reference Systems, then at least one
of these references should be a suiace reference, Le. not all of them should be underwater
systems such as the taut wire or tre hydroacoustlc system.
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
6 MARITIME PILOTAGE
This chapter is closely based on the International Best Practices for Maritime Pilotage guidelines
jointly publ ished by I(S, OCIMF and Intertanko and which should prove a useful supplement to
sections 2.7 and 3.3.3 of this Guide. The kind permission of the co-authors is acknowledged for
the reproduction of these guidel ines. Recommendations are offered to ship masters, bridge
supporting staff and pilots on the minimum standards of pilotage service that the shipping
industry should expect on board ships in pilotage waters worldwide.
The aim of this chapter is to clarify the roles of the master, the ship's crew and the pilot, and the
working relationship between them. However, the recommendations are designed to complement,
and not replace, existing regulatiols and standard references by giving detailed guidance on the
interaction between parties involved in pilotage operations.
6.1 PRINCIPLES FOR THE SAFE CONDUCT OF PILOTAGE
Efficient pilotage is chiefly dependent upon the effectiveness of the communications and
information exchanges between the pilot, the master and other bridge personnel and upon the
mutual understanding each has for the functions and duties of the others. Ship's personnel, shore-
based ship management and the relevant port and pilotage authorities should utilise the proven
concept of Bridge Resource Management.
Establishment of effective co-ordination between the pilot, master and other ship's personnel,
taking due account of the ship's systems and the equipment available to the pilot, is a prerequisite
for the safe conduct of the ship through pi lotage waters.
The presence of a pilot on the ship does not relieve the master or officer in charge of the
navigational watch from their duties and obl igations for the safe conduct of the ship.
6.2 PROVISION OF INFORMATION FOR
BERTH-TO-BERTH PASSAGE PLANNING
Ships should provide the relevant port or pilotage authority with basic information regarding their
arrival intentions and ship characteristics, such as draught and dimensions, as required by the port
or other statutory obligations. This should be completed well in advance of the planned arrival and
in accordance with local requirements.
In acknowledging receipt of this irformation, relevant information should be provided to the ship
(either directly or via agents) as soon as it becomes available. Such informati on should include as a
minimum: the pilot boarding point; reporting and communications procedures; and sufficient
details of the prospedive berth, anchorage and routeing information to enable the master to
prepare a provisional passage plan to the berth prior to his arrival. Whilst charts, pilot books and
port guidelines provide much of this information diredly, masters should recognise that not al l of
this information may be available in sufficient detail to complete the passage plan until the pilot
has boarded the ship.
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
6.3 MASTER/PILOT INFORMATION EXCHANGE
6.4
The pi lot and the master should exchange information regarding the pilot's intentions. the ship's
characteristics and operational parameters as soon as possible after the pilot has boarded the ship.
The ICS Master/Pilot Exchange Forms (annexes Aland A2) or the equivalent company format,
should be completed by both the master and pilot to help ensure ready availabil ity of the
information and that nothing is omitted in error.
The exchange of information regarding pi lotage and the passage plan should include clarification of:
o roles and responsibil ities of the master, pilot and other members of the bridge management team;
o navigational intentions;
o local conditions including navigational or traffic constraints;
o tidal and current information;
o berthing plan and mooring boat use;
a proposed use of tugs;
a expected weather conditions.
After taking this information into account and comparing the pilot's suggested plan with that
initially developed on board, the pi at and master should agree an overall final plan early in the
passage before the ship is committed. The master should not commit his ship to the passage until
satisfied with the plan. All parties should be aware that elements of the plan may change.
Contingency plans should also be made which should be followed in the event of a malfunction or
a shipboard emergency, identifying possible abort points and safe grounding areas. These should
be discussed and agreed between pi lot and master.
DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES
The pilot, master and bridge personnel share a responsibility for good communications and mutual
understanding of the others' role for the safe conduct of the vessel in pilotage waters. They should
also clarify their respective roles and responsibi lities so that the pilot can work easily and
successful ly with the normal bridge management team.
The pilot's primary duty is to provide accurate informat ion to ensure the safe navigation of the
ship. In practice, the pilot will often con the ship on the master's behalf.
The master retains the ultimate resoonsibility for the safety of his ship. He and his bridge personnel
have a duty to support the pilot and to monitor his actions. This should include querying any
actions or omissions by the pilot (or any other member of the bridge management team) if
inconsistent with the passage plan or if the safety of the ship is in any doubt.
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
6.S PREPARATION FOR PILOTAGE
The pilot and Pilotage Authority should:
o ensure that the pilot is adequately rested prior to an act of pilotage, in good physical and mental
fitness and not under the influence of drugs or alcohol;
o establish communication with the ship to make arrangements for boarding;
o maintain current information relevant to navigational, hydrographic and meteorological
information as well as traffic movements within the pilotage area;
o facilitate communication with the ship to make arrangements for boarding.
In supporting the pilot. the master and bridge personnel should:
o ensure they are adequately rested prior to an act of pilotage, in good physical and mental fitness
and not under the influence of drugs or alcohol;
o draw upon the preliminary information supplied by the relevant port or pilotage authority along
with published data (e.g. charts. tide tables, light lists, Sailing Directions and radio lists) in order
to develop a provisional passage plan prior to the ship's arrival;
o prepare suitable equipment and provide sufficient personnel for embarking the pilot in a safe
and expedient manner;
o establish communications with the pilot station to confirm boarding details
6.6 PILOT BOARDING
The boarding position for pilots should be located, where practicable, at a great enough distance
from the port so as to allow sufficient time for a comprehensive face-to-face exchange of
information and agreement of the final pilotage passage plan. The position chosen should allow
sufficient sea room to ensure that the ship's safety is not put in danger, before, during or directly
after such discussions, neither should it impede the passage of other ships.
The pilot or Pilotage Authority should:
o take all necessary personal safety precautions, including using or wearing the appropriate
personal protective equipment and ensuring items are properly maintained;
o take any appropriate measures a·,ailable to check that boarding equipment appears properly
rigged and manned;
o liaise with the master so that the ship is positioned and manoeuvred to permit safe boarding.
In supporting the pilot:
o the master and ship's personnel should ensure that the means of pilot embarkation and
disembarkation are properly positioned, rigged. maintained and manned in accordance with
IMO recommendations and, where applicable, other port requirements;
o the master should liaise with the pilot station/transfer craf t so that the ship is positioned and
manoeuvred to ensure safe boarding.
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
6.7 CONDUCT OF PASSAGE IN PilOTAGE WATERS
It is essential that a face-to·face master/pi lot exchange (MPX) results in clear and effective
communication and the wil lingness of the pilot. master and bridge personnel to work together as
part of a bridge management team. English language, or a mutually agreed common language or
the IMO Standard Marine Communicat ion Phrases, should be used, and al l members of the team
share a responsibility to highl ight for clarification any perceived errors or omissions by other team
members.
The master and bridge personnel should:
o within the bridge management team, interact with the pilot providing confirmation of his
directions and feedback when they have been compl ied with;
o monitor at all times the ship's speed and position as well as dynamic factors affecting the ship
(e.g. weather conditions, manoeuvring responses and density of traffic);
o confirm on the chart at appropriate intervals the ship's position and the positions of navigational
aids, alerting the pilot to any perceived inconsistencies.
The pilot should:
o ensure that the master is able to participate in any discussions when one pi lot relinquishes his
duty to another pilot;
o report to the relevant authority any irregularity within the passage, including deficiencies
concerning the operation, manning, or equipment of the ship.
6.8 BERTHING AND UNBERTHING
II
The necessity of co-operation and a close working relationship between the master and pilot
during berthing and unberthing operati ons is extremely important to the safety of the ship. In
particular, both the pilot and the master should discuss and agree which one of them wil l be
responsible for operati ng key equipment and controls (such as main engine, helm and thrusters).
The pi lot should co-ordinate the efforts of all parties engaged in the berthing or unberthing
operation (e.g. tug crews, linesmen, ship's crew). His intentions and actions should be explained as
soon as practicable to the bridge management team, in the previously agreed appropriate language.
In supporting the pilot. the master and bridge personnel should:
o ensure that the pilot's directions are conveyed to the ship's crew and are correctly implemented;
o ensure that the ship's crew provide the bridge management team with relevant feedback
information;
o advise the pilot once his directions have been complied with, or where an omission has occurred
or if a potential problem exists.
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
6.9 OTHER MAnERS
The pilot should:
o assist interested parties such as port authorities, national authorities and flag administrations in
reporting and investigating incidents involving vessels whilst under pilotage, subject to the laws
and regulations of the relevant authorities;
o observe the recommendations within this chapter and meet or exceed the requirements set
down in IMO Assembly Resolution A.960(23) and its annexes;
o report to the appropriate authority anything observed which may affed safety of navigation or
pollution prevention, including any incident that may have occurred to the piloted ship;
o refuse pilotage when the ship to be piloted is believed to pose a danger to the safety of
navigation or to the environment Any such refusal, together wi th the reason, should
immediately be reported to the appropriate authority for further action.
The master, having the ultimate responsibility for the safe navigation of the ship, has a
responsibil ity to request replacement of the pilot should he deem it necessary.
6.10 STANDARD REFERENCES
IMO Resolution A.960(23), Annexes I and II and subsequent amendments "Recommendations on
Training, Qualifications and Operational Procedures for Maritime Pilots other than Deep Sea Pi lots"
IMO Resolution A.893(21) "Guidelines for Voyage Planning"
IMO Resolution A.889(21) "Pilot Transfer Arrangements"
SOLAS Chapter V. Regulation 23 "Pilot Transfer Arrangements"
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
ANNEXES
PART A - COMMUNICATIONS
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
II
SHIP IDENTITY
Name Call sign Flag
Ship’s agent Year built IMO No
Cargo type Ship type Last port
ADDITIONAL COMMUNICATION INFORMATION
Fax Telex Other
PILOT BOARDING
Date/ETA Freeboard
Boarding station (if there is more than one)
SHIP PARTICULARS
Draught fwd Draught aft Draught amidships (salt water)
Air draught Length Beam
Displacement Dwt Gross Net
ANCHORS
Port anchor Stbd anchor (length of cable available)
MANOEUVRING DETAILS AT CURRENT CONDITION
Full speed Half speed
Slow speed Min. steering speed
Propeller direction of turn Controllable pitch
Number of propellers Number of fwd thrusters Number of aft thrusters
MAIN ENGINE DETAILS
Type of engine
Max. number of engine starts Time from full ahead to full astern
EQUIPMENT DEFECTS RELEVANT TO SAFE NAVIGATION
OTHER IMPORTANT DETAILS e.g. berthing restrictions, manoeuvring peculiarities
motor / turbine / other
left / right yes / no
(UTC/LT)
78 Bridge procedures guide
A1 Ship-to-shore: Master/Pilot Exchange
SHIP REQUESTING PILOTAGE DETAILS
Ship Name Call sign
ORIGINATING AUTHORITY
Contact name VHF channel
Other means of contact
PILOT BOARDING INSTRUCTIONS
Date/arrival time at pilot boarding station
Position pilot will board
Embarkation side Approach course and speed
Requested boarding arrangement
BERTH AND TUG DETAILS
Intended berth and berthing prospects
Side alongside Estimated transit time to berth
Tug rendezvous position Number of tugs
Tug arrangement Total bollard pull
LOCAL WEATHER AND SEA CONDITIONS at the pilot boarding station on arrival
Tidal information (heights/times)
Expected currents
Forecast weather
DETAILS OF THE PASSAGE PLAN including abort points/emergency plans
REGULATIONS including VTS reporting, anchor/look-out attendance, max. allowable draught
OTHER IMPORTANT DETAILS including navigation hazards, ship movements
port / starboard
port / starboard / TBA
(UTC/LT)
79 Bridge procedures guide
A2 Shore-to-ship: Pilot/Master Exchange
SHIP’S PARTICULARS
Name Call sign
Displacement (tonnes) Deadweight (tonnes) Year built
Length OA (m) Breadth (m) Bulbous bow
Draught fwd (m) Draught aft (m) Draught amidships (m)
Port anchor (shackles) Stbd anchor (shackles) (1 shackle=27.4 m/15 fathoms)
ENGINE
Type of engine Maximum power (kW) (HP)
rpm/pitch loaded speed ballast speed
Full ahead (kts) (kts)
Half ahead (kts) (kts)
Slow ahead (kts) (kts)
Dead slow ahead (kts) (kts)
Dead slow astern
Slow astern
Half astern
Full astern (% of full ahead power)
Engine critical rpm Maximum number of consecutive starts
Time full ahead to full astern (sec) Time limit astern (min)
yes / no
80 Bridge procedures guide
A3 Pilot card
m m
m
m
Manifold
Parallel W/L
Loaded m
Ballast m
m
in
m
ft
Air
draught
STEERING
Rudders LI ___ I (num_b;e::. r):....!:=====::;-:--:_I (type) LI ____ o 1 (maXimum angle)
Time hard·over to hard-over I I (sec)
Rudder angle for neutral effect l 0 I
Propellers I I (number) Direction of turn I left / right I
Controllable pitch I yes I no Thrusters I I (number)
Bow power 1 1 (kWt11P) Stern power 1 1 (kW/HP)
Steering idiOL,-yn- ,-ra-,:- ;e-, rl    
EQUIPMENT CHECKED AND READY FOR USE
Anchors
Whistle
Flags
X-Band radar
S-Band radar
Speed log
Echo sounder
Electronic position-fixing
Compass system
Gyro compass error
Steering gear
Rudder/RPM/ROT indicators
Engine telegraphs
VHF
Mooring winches and lines
EQUIPMENT OPERATIONAL DEFECTS
OTHER IMPORTANT DETAILS
Master's name: ........................ .
o
Cleared away 1 yes I no
ARPA I ye,lno 1
ARPA I ye,lno 1

I water I ground II single axis / dual axis
___________
Number of power units in use LI ___ .-l
Date: .
ReferffiCe. IMO ResoiutlOr1 A601(1 5) ProvISIQIl and dIsplay of marooellVrlr.g InformatIOn on bo;Ird shiPS
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
82 Bridge procedures guide
A4 Wheelhouse poster
Reference: IMO Resolution A.601(15) Provision and display of manoeuvring information on board ships
Max. displacement................tonnes, and Deadweight................tonnes, and Block coefficient................at summer full load draught
Draught at which the manoeuvring
data were obtained
TURNING CIRCLES AT MAX. RUDDER ANGLE
PERFORMANCE MAY DIFFER FROM THIS RECORD DUE TO ENVIRONMENTAL, HULL AND LOADING CONDITIONS
THRUSTER EFFECT at trial conditions
Time delay Turning rate Time delay to Not effective
for full thrust at zero speed reverse full thrust above speed
Bow s ˚/min min s knots
Stern s ˚/min min s knots
Combined s ˚/min min s knots
ANCHOR CHAIN
Max. rate of
No. of heaving
shackles (min/shackle)
Port
Starboard
Stern
(1 shackle = ______m/______fathoms)
Loaded Ballast
Trial/Estimated Trial/Estimated
___m forward ___m forward
___m aft ___m aft
STEERING PARTICULARS
Type of rudder(s) ________________________________
Maximum rudder angle ___________˚
Time hard-over to hard-over
with one power unit ___________s
with two power units ___________s
Minimum speed to maintain
course propeller stopped _______knots
Rudder angle for neutral effect ___________˚
PROPULSION PARTICULARS
Type of engine ______, ___kW (___HP). Type of propeller ______
Rpm/pitch
Speed (knots)
Engine order
setting
Loaded Ballast
Full sea speed
Full ahead
Half ahead
Slow ahead
Dead slow ahead
Dead slow astern
Slow astern
Half astern
Full astern
DRAUGHT INCREASE (LOADED)
Estimated Squat Effect Heel Effect
Under keel Ship’s speed Max. bow squat Heel angle Draught increase
clearance (knots) estimated (m) (degree) (m)
2
m 4
8
m
12
16
MAN OVERBOARD
RESCUE MANOEUVRE
SEQUENCE OF ACTIONS TO BE TAKEN
• TO CAST A LIFEBUOY
• TO GIVE THE HELM ORDER
• TO SOUND THE ALARM
• TO KEEP THE LOOK-OUT
Insert a
recommended
turn
Loaded Ballast
Trial/Estimated Trial/Estimated
Max. rate of
No. of heaving
shackles (min/shackle)
Max. rate of
No. of heaving
shackles (min/shackle)
Speed (knots)
Loaded Ballast Loaded Ballast
Critical revolutions ___rpm
Minimum rpm ___ ___knots
Time limit astern ___rpm
Time limit at min. rev.___rpm
Emergency full ahead
to full astern ___s
Stop to full astern ___s
Astern power ___% ahead
Max. no. of
consecutive starts ___
for full thrust at zero speed reverse full thrust above speed
Bow s ˚/min min s knots
Stern s ˚/min min s knots
Combined s ˚/min min s knots
Time delay Turning rate Time delay to Not effective
for full thrust at zero speed reverse full thrust above speed
Bow s ˚/min min s knots
Stern s ˚/min min s knots
Combined s ˚/min min s knots
Time delay Turning rate Time delay to Not effective
for full thrust at zero speed reverse full thrust above speed
Bow s ˚/min min s knots
Stern s ˚/min min s knots
Combined s ˚/min min s knots
Time delay Turning rate Time delay to Not effective
for full thrust at zero speed reverse full thrust above speed
Bow s ˚/min min s knots
Stern s ˚/min min s knots
Combined s ˚/min min s knots
Time delay Turning rate Time delay to Not effective
for full thrust at zero speed reverse full thrust above speed
Bow s ˚/min min s knots
Stern s ˚/min min s knots
Combined s ˚/min min s knots
Under keel Ship’s speed Max. bow squat Heel angle Draught increase
clearance (knots) estimated (m) (degree) (m)
2
m 4
8
12
16
Under keel Ship’s speed Max. bow squat Heel angle Draught increase
clearance (knots) estimated (m) (degree) (m)
2
m 4
8
12
16
Estimated Squat Effect Heel Effect
Under keel Ship’s speed Max. bow squat Heel angle Draught increase
clearance (knots) estimated (m) (degree) (m)
2
m 4
8
12
16
Under keel Ship’s speed Max. bow squat Heel angle Draught increase
clearance (knots) estimated (m) (degree) (m)
Thruster kW (HP)
Ship’s name....................................................... Call sign......................Gross tonnage.......................Net tonnage........................
83 Bridge procedures guide
A5 Required boarding arrangements for pilots
R
E
Q
U
I
R
E
D
B
O
A
R
D
I
N
G
A
R
R
A
N
G
E
M
E
N
T
S
F
O
R
P
I
L
O
T
I
n
a
c
c
o
r
d
a
n
c
e
w
i
t
h
I
.
M
.
O
.
r
e
q
u
i
r
e
m
e
n
t
s
a
n
d
I
.
M
.
P
.
A
.
r
e
c
o
m
m
e
n
d
a
t
i
o
n
s
I
N
T
E
R
N
A
T
I
O
N
A
L
M
A
R
I
T
I
M
E
P
I
L
O
T
S

A
S
S
O
C
I
A
T
I
O
N
H
.
Q
.
S

W
e
l
l
i
n
g
t
o
n

,
T
e
m
p
l
e
S
t
a
i
r
s
,
V
i
c
t
o
r
i
a
E
m
b
a
n
k
m
e
n
t
,
L
o
n
d
o
n
W
C
2
R
2
P
N
T
e
l
:
+
4
4
2
0
7
2
4
0
3
9
7
3
F
a
x
:
+
4
4
2
0
7
2
4
0
3
5
1
8
R
I
G
G
I
N
G
F
O
R
F
R
E
E
B
O
A
R
D
S
O
F
9
M
E
T
R
E
S
O
R
L
E
S
S
H
A
N
D
H
O
L
D
S
T
A
N
C
H
I
O
N
S
M
i
n
.
d
i
a
m
.
3
2
m
m
1
2
0
c
m
a
b
o
v
e
b
u
l
w
a
r
k
m
i
n
.
7
0
c
m
m
a
x
.
8
0
c
m
.
a
p
a
r
t
M
A
N
-
R
O
P
E
S
w
i
t
h
o
u
t
k
n
o
t
s
m
i
n
.
d
i
a
m
.
2
8
m
m
I
F
R
E
Q
U
I
R
E
D
B
Y
P
I
L
O
T
S
t
e
r
n
B
o
w
3 t o 7 m e t r e s d e p e n d i n g o n s i z e
o f p i l o t l a u n c h a n d h e i g h t o f s w e l l
0
.
5
m
D
a
v
i
t
T
w
o
m
a
n
-
r
o
p
e
s
r
e
a
d
y
f
o
r
i
m
m
e
d
i
a
t
e
u
s
e
.
M
i
n
.
d
i
a
m
.
2
8
m
m
G
u
a
r
d
r
i
n
g
R i g i d p a r tF l e x i b l e p a r t
A
p
i
l
o
t
h
o
i
s
t
m
a
d
e
a
n
d
r
i
g
g
e
d
i
n
a
c
c
o
r
d
a
n
c
e
w
i
t
h
S
O
L
A
S
C
h
a
p
t
e
r
V
,
t
o
g
e
t
h
e
r
w
i
t
h
a
p
i
l
o
t
l
a
d
d
e
r
r
i
g
g
e
d
a
l
o
n
g
s
i
d
e
f
o
r
i
m
m
e
d
i
a
t
e
t
r
a
n
s
f
e
r
,
m
a
y
b
e
u
s
e
d
s
u
b
j
e
c
t
t
o
a
g
r
e
e
m
e
n
t
b
e
t
w
e
e
n
t
h
e
M
a
s
t
e
r
a
n
d
t
h
e
P
i
l
o
t
.
I
t
s
h
o
u
l
d
b
e
n
o
t
e
d
t
h
a
t
t
h
e
d
i
s
t
a
n
c
e
b
e
t
w
e
e
n
t
h
e
n
e
a
r
e
s
t
s
i
d
e
r
o
p
e
s
o
f
t
h
e
p
i
l
o
t
h
o
i
s
t
a
n
d
p
i
l
o
t
l
a
d
d
e
r
w
i
l
l
b
e
a
t
l
e
a
s
t
1
.
4
m
e
t
r
e
s
.
N
O
!
V
e
r
y
d
a
n
g
e
r
o
u
s
l
a
d
d
e
r
t
o
o
l
o
n
g
N
O
!
N
O
!
N
o
s
h
a
c
k
l
e
s
N
o
k
n
o
t
s
N
o
s
p
l
i
c
e
s
N
O
!
T
h
e
s
t
e
p
s
m
u
s
t
b
e
e
q
u
a
l
l
y
s
p
a
c
e
d
N
O
!
T
h
e
s
t
e
p
s
m
u
s
t
b
e
h
o
r
i
z
o
n
t
a
l
N
O
!
S
p
r
e
a
d
e
r
s
m
u
s
t
n
o
t
b
e
l
a
s
h
e
d
b
e
t
w
e
e
n
s
t
e
p
s
N
O
!
T
h
e
s
i
d
e
r
o
p
e
s
m
u
s
t
b
e
e
q
u
a
l
l
y
s
p
a
c
e
d
N
O
!
T
h
e
l
o
o
p
s
a
r
e
a
t
r
i
p
p
i
n
g
h
a
z
a
r
d
f
o
r
t
h
e
p
i
l
o
t
a
n
d
c
a
n
b
e
c
o
m
e
f
o
u
l
o
f
t
h
e
p
i
l
o
t
l
a
u
n
c
h
R
e
s
p
o
n
s
i
b
l
e
o
f
f
c
e
r
B
u
l
w
a
r
k
l
a
d
d
e
r
s
e
c
u
r
e
d
t
o
s
h
i
p
T
w
o
h
a
n
d
h
o
l
d
s
t
a
n
c
h
i
o
n
s
r
i
g
i
d
l
y
s
e
c
u
r
e
d
t
o
s
h
i
p

s
s
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e
A
T
N
I
G
H
T
P
i
l
o
t
l
a
d
d
e
r
a
n
d
s
h
i
p

s
d
e
c
k
l
i
t
b
y
f
o
r
w
a
r
d
s
h
i
n
i
n
g
o
v
e
r
s
i
d
e
l
i
g
h
t
A
p
p
r
o
v
e
d
b
y
I
.
M
.
O
.
M
a
r
c
h
2
0
0
1
L
i
f
e
b
u
o
y
w
i
t
h
s
e
l
f
-
i
g
n
i
t
i
n
g
l
i
g
h
t
2
m
2
m
P
I
L
O
T
L
A
D
D
E
R
M
u
s
t
e
x
t
e
n
d
a
t
l
e
a
s
t
2
m
e
t
r
e
s
a
b
o
v
e
l
o
w
e
r
p
l
a
t
f
o
r
m
L
a
d
d
e
r
s
t
o
r
e
s
t
f
r
m
l
y
a
g
a
i
n
s
t
s
h
i
p

s
s
i
d
e
O
f
f
c
e
r
i
n
c
o
n
t
a
c
t
w
i
t
h
b
r
i
d
g
e
A
C
C
O
M
M
O
D
A
T
I
O
N
L
A
D
D
E
R
S
h
o
u
l
d
r
e
s
t
f
r
m
l
y
a
g
a
i
n
s
t
s
h
i
p

s
s
i
d
e
S
h
o
u
l
d
l
e
a
d
a
f
t
M
a
x
i
m
u
m
5
5
˚
s
l
o
p
e
L
o
w
e
r
p
l
a
t
f
o
r
m
h
o
r
i
z
o
n
t
a
l
R
i
g
i
d
h
a
n
d
r
a
i
l
s
p
r
e
f
e
r
r
e
d
A
P
I
L
O
T
L
A
D
D
E
R
C
O
M
B
I
N
E
D
W
I
T
H
A
N
A
C
C
O
M
M
O
D
A
T
I
O
N
L
A
D
D
E
R
i
s
u
s
u
a
l
l
y
t
h
e
s
a
f
e
r
m
e
t
h
o
d
o
f
e
m
b
a
r
k
i
n
g
o
r
d
i
s
e
m
b
a
r
k
i
n
g
a
p
i
l
o
t
o
n
s
h
i
p
s
w
i
t
h
a
f
r
e
e
b
o
a
r
d
o
f
m
o
r
e
t
h
a
n
9
m
e
t
r
e
s
R
e
c
o
m
m
e
n
d
e
d
9
m
e
t
r
e
m
a
r
k
5
t
h
s
t
e
p
m
u
s
t
b
e
a
s
p
r
e
a
d
e
r
H
e
i
g
h
t
r
e
q
u
i
r
e
d
b
y
p
i
l
o
t
M a x . 8 s t e p s b e t w e e n
s p r e a d e r s
S
P
R
E
A
D
E
R
M
i
n
.
1
8
0
c
m
l
o
n
g
M
i
n
.
4
0
c
m
3
0
-
3
8
c
m
S
H
I
P
S
W
I
T
H
H
I
G
H
F
R
E
E
B
O
A
R
D
(
M
O
R
E
T
H
A
N
9
M
)
W
h
e
n
n
o
s
i
d
e
d
o
o
r
a
v
a
i
l
a
b
l
e
M
E
C
H
A
N
I
C
A
L
P
I
L
O
T
H
O
I
S
T
N
O
O
B
S
T
R
U
C
T
I
O
N
S
Terrestrial radiocommunication
The distress alert may be sent using digital selective calling (DSC) on one or more of the following
frequencies which are dedicated exclusively to the purpose:
VHF Channel 70
MF 2187.5 kHz
HF 4207.5 kHz
HF 6312 kHz
HF 8414.5 kHz
HF 12577 kHz
HF 16804.5 kHz
The distress alert should indicate:
o on which frequency the follow-up distress message will be transmitted;
and
o the mode of transmission (telephony or telex).
The frequencies that should be used for the follow-up distress message:
Radio Telephone (R/T) Radio Telex
Channel 16 VHF
2182 kHz 2174.5 kHz
4125 kHz 4177.5 kHz
6215 kHz 6268 kHz
8291 kHz 8376.5 kHz
12290 kHz 12520 kHz
16420 kHz 16695 kHz
Satellite radiocommunication
The distress alert by satellite should be transmitted, with absolute priority,
to a Rescue Co-ordination Centre (RCC).
84 Bridge procedures guide
A6 Distress alert and the frequencies to use
Manual steering positions
The steering gear should be tested at all the manual steering positions on the bridge:
o after prolonged use of the autopilot;
o once per watch;
o before entering coastal waters.
Multiple steering gear power units
In coastal waters, use more than one steering gear power unit when such units are capable of
simultaneous operation.
Before departure from port
Shortly before departure, check and test the steering gear including, as applicable,
the operation of the following:
o the main steering gear;
o the auxiliary steering gear;
o the remote steering control systems;
o the main steering position on the bridge;
o the emergency power supply;
o the rudder angle indicators in relation to actual rudder position;
o the remote steering gear control system power failure alarms;
o the steering gear power unit failure alarms; and
o automatic isolating arrangements and other automatic equipment.
Checks and tests
Checks and tests should include:
o the full rudder movement according to the required capabilities of the steering gear;
o the timing of rudder movement from hardover-to-hardover, using each steering gear power unit
singly and together, to ensure consistency with previous tests;
o a visual inspection of the steering gear and its connecting linkage; and
o the operation of the means of communication between the bridge and the steering gear compartment.
Changeover procedures
All officers concerned with the operation or maintenance of the steering gear should acquaint
themselves with the changeover procedures.
The regular testing of manual steering should be an opportunity for all bridge team members to test and
practise procedures for changeover between different modes, as appropriate. Typically these will include:
o Auto Track Keeping to Auto Pilot;
o Auto Pilot to Hand Steering;
o Hand Steering to Non Follow-Up;
o Hand Steering to Emergency Steering.
Emergency steering drills
Emergency steering drills should take place at least every three months and must include direct control
from within the steering gear compartment, the communications procedure with the bridge and, where
applicable, the operation of alternative power supplies.
Records
The dates on which these checks and tests are conducted, and the date and details of emergency
steering drills carried out, must be recorded in the log book.
85 Bridge procedures guide
A7 Guidance on steering gear test routines
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
"'.,,"\.
; ~     ,
" W,I
.... ," ,
PART B - BRIDGE CHECKLISTS
Note: These checklists have been included as a guide.
Masters and navigati ng officers may wish to add to or modi fy
these checklists to suit the particular operational needs of the ship.
,,,,,.r..,
i -\
' <\tl ' '.. _"I
~ . '   ,,,
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
II
Has the operation of the following equipment been studied and fully understood?
bridge and deck lighting
emergency arrangements in the event of main power failure
navigation and signal lights, including
searchlights
signalling lamp
morse light
sound signalling apparatus, including
whistles
fog bell and gong system
safety equipment, including
LSA equipment including pyrotechnics, EPIRB and SART
bridge fire detection panel
general and fire alarm signalling arrangements
emergency pump, ventilation and watertight door controls
internal ship communications facilities, including
portable radios
emergency “batteryless” telephone system
public address system
AIS and external communication equipment, including
VHF and GMDSS equipment
alarm systems on bridge
automatic track-keeping system, if fitted
ECDIS and electronic charts, if fitted
echo sounder
electronic navigational position-fixing systems
VDR or S-VDR equipment
gyro compass/repeaters
IBS functions, if fitted
magnetic compass
off-course alarm
radar including ARPA
speed/distance recorder
engine and thruster controls
88 Bridge procedures guide
B1 Familiarisation with bridge equipment
o
o
o
o
ship security alert equipment
steering gear, including manual, auto-pilot and emergency
changeover and testing arrangements (see annex A7)
location and operation of ancillary bridge equipment
(e.g. binoculars, signalling flags, meteorological equipment)
stowage of chart and hydrographic publications
Other checks (to be expanded by master and navigation officer):
o
o
o
o
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
Has a passage plan for the intended voyage been prepared? (see section 2)
Has the following equipment been checked and found ready for use?
anchors
bridge movement book/course and engine movement recorder
echo sounder
electronic navigational position-fixing systems
gyro/magnetic compass and repeaters
passage plan entered into integrated bridge system
radar(s)
required AIS data inputs made, speed/distance recorder
clocks
Has the following equipment been tested, synchronised and found ready for use?
bridge and engine room telegraphs, including
rpm indicators
emergency engine stops
thruster controls and indicators, if fitted
controllable pitch propeller controls and indicators, if fitted
communications facilities, including
bridge to engine room/mooring station communications
portable radios
VHF radio communications with port authority
navigation and signal lights, including
searchlights
signalling lamp
morse light
sound signalling apparatus, including
whistles
fog bell and gong system
steering gear, including manual, auto-pilot and emergency
changeover arrangements and rudder indicators (see annex A7)
window wiper/clearview screen arrangements
Is the ship secure for sea?
cargo and cargo handling equipment secure
all hull openings secure and watertight
cargo/passenger details available
stability and draught information available
90 Bridge procedures guide
B2 Preparation for sea
o Are all the crew on board and all shore personnel ashore?
o Are necessary personnel sufficiently rested?
o Have required security and stowaway searches been carried out?
o Are the pilot disembarkation arrangements in place? (see annex AS)
Other checks:
D
D
D
D
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
II
In preparing the passage for arrival in port, has a pre-pilotage
information exchange taken place? (see annexes A1 and A2)
Has the passage plan been updated following receipt of the Shore-to-Ship
Pilot/Master Exchange form and all latest navigational warnings?
Has the ETA been sent with all relevant information required by local regulations
(e.g. details of dangerous/hazardous goods carried)?
Is it necessary to rearrange cargo/ballast?
Has the following equipment been prepared and checked?
course and engine movement recorders
clock synchronisation
communications with the engine control room and mooring stations
signalling equipment, including flags/lights
deck lighting
mooring winches and lines, including heaving lines
pressure on fire main
anchors cleared away
stabilisers and log tubes housed, if fitted
Has the steering gear been tested, and has manual steering been engaged
in sufficient time for the helmsman to become accustomed before manoeuvring
commences? (see annex A7)
Have the engines been tested and prepared for manoeuvring?
Has the Pilot Card (see annex A3) been completed and are the pilot embarkation
arrangements (see annex A5) in hand?
Have VHF channels for the various services (e.g. VTS, pilot, tugs, berthing instructions)
been noted and a radio check carried out?
Has the port been made fully aware of any special berthing requirements
that the ship may have?
Other checks:
92 Bridge procedures guide
B3 Preparation for arrival in port
Immediately on arrival on the bridge, has the pilot been informed of
the ship’s heading, speed, engine setting and draught?
Has the pilot been informed of the location of lifesaving appliances
provided on board for his use?
Have details of the proposed passage plan been discussed with the
pilot and agreed with the master, including:
radio communications and reporting requirements
bridge watch and crew stand-by arrangements
deployment and use of tugs
berthing/anchoring arrangements
expected traffic during transit
pilot change-over arrangements, if any
fender requirements
Has a completed Pilot Card (see annex A3) been handed to the pilot and
has the pilot been referred to the Wheelhouse Poster? (see annex A4)
Have the responsibilities within the bridge team for the pilotage been
defined and are they clearly understood?
Has the language to be used on the bridge between the ship, the pilot
and the shore been agreed?
Are the progress of the ship and the execution of orders being monitored
by the master and officer of the watch?
Are the engine room and ship’s crew being regularly briefed on the
progress of the ship during the pilotage?
Are the correct lights, flags and shapes being displayed?
Other checks:
93 Bridge procedures guide
B4 Pilotage
Have navigation charts been selected from chart catalogue, including:
large scale charts for coastal waters
appropriate scale charts for ocean passages
planning charts
routeing, climatic, pilot and load line zone charts
Have publications been selected, including:
Sailing Directions and pilot books
light lists
radio signals
guides to port entry
tide tables and tidal stream atlas
Have all navigation charts and publications been corrected up to date, including:
the ordering of new charts/publications, if necessary
notices to mariners
local area warnings
NAVAREA navigational warnings
Have the following been considered?
ship’s departure and arrival draughts together with any
restrictions on underkeel clearance due to squat
ship’s cargo and any special cargo stowage/carriage restrictions
if there are any special ship operational requirements for the passage
Have the following been checked?
planning charts and publications for advice and recommendations on route to be taken
climatological information for weather characteristics of the area
navigation charts and publications for landfall features
navigation charts and publications for Ships’ Routeing Schemes,
Ship Reporting Systems and Vessel Traffic Services (VTS)
Has weather routeing been considered for passage?
Have the following preparations been made for port arrival?
navigation charts and publications studied for pilotage requirements
Ship-to-Shore Master/Pilot Exchange form prepared (see annex A1)
Pilot Card updated (see annex A3)
port guides studied for port information including arrival/berthing restrictions
Other checks:
94 Bridge procedures guide
B5 Passage plan appraisal
Have the following factors been taken into consideration in preparing the passage plan?
advice/recommendations in Sailing Directions
ship’s draught in relation to available water depths
effect of squat on underkeel clearance in shallow water
tides and currents
weather, particularly in areas prone to poor visibility
available navigational aids and their accuracy
position-fixing methods to be used
daylight/night-time passing of danger points
traffic likely to be encountered – flow, type, volume
any requirements for traffic separation/routeing schemes
ship security considerations regarding piracy or armed attack
Are local/coastal warning broadcasts being monitored?
Is participation in area reporting systems recommended including VTS?
Is the ship’s position being fixed at regular intervals?
Has equipment been regularly checked/tested, including:
gyro/magnetic compass errors
manual steering before entering coastal waters if automatic steering
has been engaged for a prolonged period
radar performance and radar heading line marker alignment
echo sounder
Is the OOW prepared to use the engines and call a look-out or a helmsman to the bridge?
Have all measures been taken to protect the environment from pollution
by the ship and to comply with applicable pollution regulations?
Other checks:
95 Bridge procedures guide
B6 Navigation in coastal waters
Is keeping a look-out being given due priority?
Are NAVAREA, HYDROLANT and HYDROPAC navigational warning broadcasts
and other long-range weather reports being monitored closely?
Are changes in the local weather being monitored
and is the barometer observed regularly?
Is participation in area reporting systems (e.g. AMVER) recommended?
Is the ship’s position being fixed at regular intervals?
Are celestial navigational techniques being practised?
Are gyro/magnetic compass errors and radar performance being checked regularly?
Have radar techniques been practised (in clear visibility)?
Have preparations been made for landfall?
Have measures been taken to protect the environment from pollution
by the ship and to comply with applicable pollution regulations?
Other checks:
96 Bridge procedures guide
B7 Navigation in ocean waters
Has an anchoring plan been prepared taking into account:
speed reduction in ample time
direction/strength of wind and current
tidal stream when manoeuvring at low speeds
need for adequate searoom particularly to seaward
depth of water, type of seabed and the scope of anchor cable required
Have the engine room and anchor party been informed
of the time of “stand-by” for anchoring?
Are the anchors, lights/shapes and sound signalling apparatus ready for use?
Has the anchor position of the ship been reported to the port authority?
While at anchor, the OOW should:
determine and plot the ship’s position on the appropriate chart as soon as practicable
when circumstances permit, check at sufficiently frequent intervals whether the ship is remaining
securely at anchor by taking bearings of fixed navigation marks or readily identifiable shore objects
ensure that proper look-out is maintained
ensure that inspection rounds of the ship are made periodically
ensure vessel access control precautions are maintained in respect of vessel security
observe meteorological and tidal conditions and the state of the sea
notify the master and undertake all necessary measures if the ship drags anchor
ensure that the state of readiness of the main engines and other machinery is in
accordance with the master’s instructions
if visibility deteriorates, notify the master
ensure that the ship exhibits the appropriate lights and shapes and that appropriate sound
signals are made in accordance with all applicable regulations
take measures to protect the environment from pollution by the ship
and comply with applicable pollution regulations
Other checks:
97 Bridge procedures guide
B8 Anchoring and anchor watch
Has the following equipment been checked to ensure that it is fully operational?
radar, ARPA or other plotting facilities
VHF
fog signalling apparatus
navigation lights
echo sounder, if in shallow waters
watertight doors, if fitted
Have look-out(s) been posted and is a helmsman on stand-by?
Has planning allowed for the provision of additional bridge team personnel if required?
Have the master and engine room been informed, and the engines put on stand-by?
Are the COLREGS being complied with, particularly with
regard to rule 19 and proceeding at a safe speed?
Is the ship ready to reduce speed, stop or turn away from danger?
If the ship’s position is in doubt, has the possibility of anchoring been considered?
Other checks:
98 Bridge procedures guide
B9 Navigation in restricted visibility
Have the master, engine room and crew been informed of the conditions?
Have all movable objects been secured above and below decks,
particularly in the engine room, galley and in storerooms?
Has the ship’s accommodation been secured and all ports and deadlights closed?
Have all weather deck openings been secured?
Have speed and course been adjusted as necessary?
Has the crew been warned to avoid upper deck areas made dangerous by the weather?
Have safety lines/hand ropes been rigged where necessary?
Have instructions been issued on the following matters:
monitoring weather reports
transmitting weather reports to the appropriate authorities or, in the case
of tropical storms, danger messages in accordance with SOLAS
Other checks:
99 Bridge procedures guide
B10 Navigation in heavy weather
or in tropical storm areas
Have the master, engine room and crew been informed of the ice conditions?
Have watertight doors been shut, as appropriate?
Has speed been moderated?
Has the frequency of sounding tanks and bilges been increased?
Have instructions been issued on the following matters:
monitoring ice advisory service broadcasts
transmitting danger messages in accordance with SOLAS
Other checks:
100 Bridge procedures guide
B11 Navigation in ice
When changing over the watch, relieving officers should personally
satisfy themselves regarding the following:
standing orders and other special instructions of the master relating to navigation of the ship
position, course, speed and draught of the ship
prevailing and predicted tides, currents, weather and visibility
and the effect of these factors upon course and speed
procedures for the use of main engines to manoeuvre when the main engines are on
bridge control, and the status of the watchkeeping arrangements in the engine room
the ship security status
sufficient time has been allowed for night vision to be established and that such vision is maintained
navigational situation, including but not limited to:
the operational condition of all navigational and safety equipment
being used or likely to be used during the watch
the errors of gyro and magnetic compasses
the presence and movements of ships in sight or known to be in the vicinity
the conditions and hazards likely to be encountered during the watch
the possible effects of heel, trim, water density and squat on underkeel clearance
any special deck work in progress
Other points:
101 Bridge procedures guide
B12 Changing over the watch
The OOW should notify the master immediately:
if restricted visibility is encountered or expected
if traffic conditions or the movements of other ships are causing concern
if difficulties are experienced in maintaining course
on failure to sight land, a navigation mark or obtain soundings by the expected time
if, unexpectedly, land or a navigation mark is sighted or a change in soundings occurs
of breakdown of the engines, propulsion machinery remote control, steering gear or
any essential navigational equipment, alarm or indicator
if the radio equipment malfunctions
in heavy weather, if in any doubt about the possibility of weather damage
if the ship meets any hazard to navigation, such as ice or a derelict
if any vessel security concerns arise
in any other emergency or if in any doubt
Other points:
102 Bridge procedures guide
B13 Calling the master
Ship’s Name: ................................................................ Date: ................................. Time: ……………..
Item Status Remarks
Computers A Running Online
B Running Online
A/B Difference Messages
Thrusters 1 Running Enabled
2 Running Enabled
3 Running Enabled
4 Running Enabled
5 Running Enabled
6 Running Enabled
Power and 1 Running Stand-By
Generators
2 Running Stand-By
3 Running Stand-By
4 Running Stand-By
Bus Tie Switch Open/Closed
Equipment Class Consequence Analysis Enabled
Control Gain Low/Med/High Customised/Relaxed
Alt Rot Point No Selected Position:
Wind Sensors 1/2 Available Selected Gyro Differences Checked
Gyros 1 Running Selected Repeater Checked
2 Running Selected Gyro Alarms Checked
3 Running Selected
MRU 1
MRU Differences Checked
2
Printer Running Paper OK Outstanding Messages Checked
Position DGPS 1 Running HDOP Diff Available IMCA DQI Factor
Reference
AOD (Sec)
Systems
2 Running HDOP Diff Available IMCA DQI Factor
AOD (Sec)
Taut Port Deployed Water Depth: m
Wires
Starboard Deployed Water Depth: m
Fan Deployed Range/Brg: Reflector Location
Beam
HPR 1 Running Pole Up/Down Transponders Deployed
2 Running Pole Up/Down Transponders Deployed
Communications VHF Channels:
Working: Tested
Listening:
UHF Channels: Tested
Internal Tested
Talkback Tested
Weather Forecast Time Received:
Signals Displayed
30 Mins Setting Time Complete
MCR Checklist Complete
Tasks Agreed
Permit To Work Ref No: Expiry Time:
Signed: ……………………….................….………......……. Rank: ………………………………………
103 Bridge procedures guide
B14 Pre–operational DP checklist
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
PART C - EMERGENCY CHECKLISTS
Note: These checkl ists have been included as a guide.
It is recommended that appropriate checklists >hould be devised to suit the particular needs of the ship type
and trade, taking into account that other personnel and passengers may be on board.
It is recommended that emergency dri lls and on board training should include scenarios with incidents
addressed in the Emergency Checklists. During such drills and training, the use of Emergency (heck lists
should be encouraged to increase familiarity in their use.
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE
Action to be carried out:
Inform master
Take action to manoeuvre ship away from danger
Prepare for anchoring if in shallow water
Exhibit “not under command” shapes/lights
Commence sound signalling
Broadcast URGENCY message to ships in the vicinity, if appropriate
Modify AIS status message to communicate relevant information
Inform VTS or port authority if in controlled or similarly monitored waters
In case of a STEERING FAILURE:
Inform engine room
Engage emergency steering
Prepare engines for manoeuvring
Take way off the ship
Other actions:
106 Bridge procedures guide
C1 Main engine or steering failure
Action to be carried out:
Sound the general emergency alarm, and carry out a crew muster to check for
missing or injured personnel
Close watertight doors and automatic fire doors
Manoeuvre the ship so as to minimise effects of collision without endangering other ships
Switch on deck lighting at night
Switch VHF to Channel 16 and, if appropriate, to Channel 13
Muster passengers, if carried, at emergency stations
Make ship’s position available to radio room/GMDSS station, satellite terminal and other
automatic distress transmitters and update as necessary
Sound bilges and tanks after collision
Check for fire/damage
Take appropriate damage control measures
Offer assistance to other ship
Inform Coastal State Authorities if appropriate
Preserve VDR or S-VDR records if not automatically protected
Broadcast DISTRESS ALERT and MESSAGE if the ship is in grave and imminent danger and immediate
assistance is required, otherwise broadcast an URGENCY message to ships in the vicinity
Other actions:
107 Bridge procedures guide
C2 Collision
Action to be carried out:
Stop engines
Sound general emergency alarm, and carry out a crew muster to check for missing or
injured personnel
Consider use of anchor
Close watertight doors, if fitted
Switch to high cooling water intakes
Maintain a VHF watch on Channel 16 and, if appropriate, on Channel 13
Exhibit lights/shapes and make any appropriate sound signals
Switch on deck lighting at night
Check hull for damage
Sound bilges and tanks
Visually inspect compartments, where possible
Sound around ship
Determine which way deep water lies
Determine the nature of the seabed
Obtain information on local currents and tides, particularly details of the rise and fall of the tide
Consider reducing the draught of the ship
Consider taking on additional ballast to prevent unwanted movement
Make ship’s position available to radio room/GMDSS station, satellite terminal and other automatic
distress transmitters and update as necessary
Inform Coastal State Authorities if appropriate
Preserve VDR or S-VDR records if not automatically protected
Broadcast DISTRESS ALERT and MESSAGE if the ship is in grave and imminent danger and
immediate assistance is required, otherwise broadcast an URGENCY message to ships in the vicinity
Other actions:
108 Bridge procedures guide
C3 Stranding or grounding
Actions to be carried out:
Release lifebuoy with light and smoke signal on the side the crew member has fallen overboard
Take immediate avoiding action so as not to run over the man overboard
Note ship’s position, wind speed and direction, and time
Activate GPS man overboard marker
Sound three prolonged blasts of the ship’s whistle and repeat as necessary
Post a look-out with binoculars and instructions to maintain a continuous watch on
the man overboard
Engage hand steering, if helmsman available
Commence a recovery manoeuvre, such as a Williamson turn
Inform master, if not already on the bridge
Inform engine room
Hoist signal flag “O”
Place engines on stand-by
Muster rescue boat’s crew, master and coxswain, and jointly assess launch/recovery risks
Prepare rescue boat for possible launching
Consider alternative means of MOB recovery if launch/recovery of rescue boat considered
to be of excessive risk
Distribute portable VHF radios for communication
Rig pilot ladder/nets to assist in the recovery
Make ship’s position available to radio room/GMDSS station
Broadcast URGENCY message to ships in the vicinity
Preserve VDR or S-VDR records if not automatically protected
Assume role of On Scene Co-ordinator
Other actions:
109 Bridge procedures guide
C4 Man overboard
Action to be carried out:
Sound the fire alarm
Call master if not already on bridge and notify engine room
Muster crew
Establish communications
Check for missing and injured crew members
On locating the fire, notify all on board of that location
If an engine room fire, prepare for engine failure and manoeuvre ship away from danger
Assess fire and determine:
The class of fire
Appropriate extinguishing agent
Appropriate method of attack
How to prevent the spread of the fire
The necessary personnel and firefighting methods
Close down ventilation fans, skylights and all doors including fire and watertight doors
Switch on deck lighting at night
Make ship’s position available to radio room/GMDSS station, satellite terminal or other
automatic distress transmitters and update as necessary
Inform Coastal State Authorities if appropriate
Preserve VDR or S-VDR records if not automatically protected
Broadcast DISTRESS ALERT and MESSAGE if the ship is in grave and imminent danger
and immediate assistance is required, otherwise broadcast an URGENCY message to
ships in the vicinity
Other actions:
110 Bridge procedures guide
C5 Fire
Actions to be carried out:
Sound the general emergency alarm
Close watertight doors, if fitted
Sound bilges and tanks
Identify location of incoming water
Cut off all electrical power running through the area
Shore up area to stem water flow
Check bilge pump for operation
Check auxiliary pumps for back-up operation, as required
Make ship’s position available to radio room/GMDSS station, satellite terminal and
other automatic distress transmitters and update as necessary
Inform Coastal State Authorities if appropriate
Broadcast DISTRESS ALERT and MESSAGE if the ship is in grave and imminent danger
and immediate assistance is required, otherwise broadcast an URGENCY message to
ships in the vicinity
Other actions:
111 Bridge procedures guide
C6 Flooding
Actions to be carried out:
Take bearing of distress message if radio direction finder fitted
Re-transmit distress message
Maintain continuous listening watch on all distress frequencies
Consult IAMSAR manual
Establish communications with all other surface units and SAR aircraft involved in the SAR operation
Plot position, courses and speeds of other assisting units
Monitor X-band radar for locating survival craft transponder (SART) signal using 6 or 12
nautical mile range scales
Post extra look-outs for sighting flares and other pyrotechnic signals
Other actions:
112 Bridge procedures guide
C7 Search and rescue
Actions to be carried out:
Broadcast DISTRESS ALERT and MESSAGE on the authority of the master
Instruct crew members to put on lifejackets and wear adequate and warm clothing
Instruct crew members to put on immersion suits, if carried, if water temperature is below 16˚ C
Order crew members to lifeboat stations
Prepare to launch lifeboats/liferafts
Ensure that lifeboat sea painters are attached to the ship
Embark all crew in the lifeboats/liferafts and launch
Ensure lifeboats/liferafts remain in safe proximity to the ship and in contact with each other
Other actions:
113 Bridge procedures guide
C8 Abandoning ship
Recommended Industry Publications
Guidel ines on the Application of the IMO Internati onal Safety Management (ISM) Code
Guidance for Ship Operators on the IMO Internati onal Ship and Port Faci lity Security (lSPS) Code
Assessment and Development of Safety Management Systems
Model Ship Security Plan
Pirates and Armed Robbers: Guidelines on Prevention for Masters and Ship Securi ty Officers
Peri l at Sea and Salvage: A Guide for Masters
Guide to Hel icopter / Ship Operations
International Safety Guide for Oil Tankers and Terminals (lSGOTI)
Tanker Safety Guide (Chemicals)
Tanker Safety Guide (Liquefied Gas)
ISF Watchkeeper 2.0 (work hour record software)
ISF Guide to the STeW Convention
ILO Maritime Labour Convention: A Guide for the Shipping Industry
ISF On Board Training Record Book for Deck Cadets
These and other useful industry publ ications are avai lable from
Marisec Publ ications
12 Carthusian Street
London EC 1 M 6EZ
Tel +442074178844
Fax +442074178877
Email publications@marisec,org
Website www,marisec.orgipubs
BRIDGE PROCEDURES GUIDE