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Prof. Dr. Luiz Fernando Gomes
While phonetics deals with how speech sounds are actually produced, transmitted and received in actual spoken language, phonology deals specifically with the ways those sounds are organized into the individual languages, hence dealing with abstractions on a virtual basis. In an attempt to make this definition a little more accessible, you might dare to say that phonology deals with what is in a speaker's head (knowledge about the sounds of language, “LANGUE”), while phonetics focuses on what actually comes out of the speaker's head and mouth (concrete production of sounds, “PAROLE” Transcription: Into / Into [ / indicates phonemic or broad transcription:
focus in difference between words; ] indicates phonetic or narrow transcription: focus on individual difference of pronunciations.
Organs of speech
The term organs of speech refers to those parts of the human body which are concerned in various ways with the production of speech. A lot of them are only secondarily concerned with the production of speech – their primary functions have to do with eating, chewing, and swallowing food, and respiration. Those parts of the body below (not the lungs) belong to the vocal tract. The vocal tract is divided into the supraglottal and the subglottal tract.
• • • • • • • • • • • • • •
lips teeth nasal cavity tongue hard palate soft palate pharynx larynx vocal folds/cords trachea lungs uvula diaphragm jaw bone
Vocal Sound Production
Diaphragm action pushes air from the lungs through the vocal folds, producing a periodic train of air pulses. This pulse train is shaped by the resonances of the vocal tract. The basic resonances, called vocal formants, can be changed by the action of the articulators to produce distinguishable voice sounds, like the vowel sounds. ARTICULATORY PHONETICS CONSONANTS AND VOWELS TRANSCRIPTON AND CLASSIFICATION Consonants are mainly classified according to:
3 1-The state of the glottis: voiced or voiceless 2-The position of the velum: oral or nasal 3- the place of articulation: bilabial, labiodental, interdental, alveolar, palatal, velar and glottal 4- the manner of articulation: stops, continuants, fricatives, affricates, liquids and glides.
1- State of the glottis:
Voiceless: without vibration of vocal folds: [p , t , k , f , θ , , , s, h] Voiced: with vibration of vocal folds: [ b, d, g, z, ʒ, ð ,m ,n, ŋ, l, r, dʒ, j, w] 2- The position of the velum Nasal and Oral Sounds - Sounds pronounced through the nose are nasal [m] [n], and [ŋ]; those pronounced through the mouth are oral (all other consonants...)
3- Place of Articulation
1- Bilabials: [p, b, m] - Sounds produced by bringing the lips together 2- Labiodentals: [f, v]- Sounds produced with bottom lip against upper teeth 3- Interdentals: [ ð, θ ] this and thin - Sounds produced with tip of tongue between the upper and lower teeth (also called dentals) 4- Alveolars: [ t, d, n, s, z, l, r] - Sounds produced with the front part of the tongue against the alveolar ridge - the part of the roof of the mouth that is right behind the teeth [ ʃ , ʒ , tʃ , dʒ, j ]- Sounds produced with the front part of the tongue against the hard palate just behind the alveolar ridge 5- Velars: [k, g, ŋ, w ]- Sounds produced with the back of the tongue against the soft palate (velum) 6- Glottal: [ h ] 7- Sounds produced with the glottis (vocal cords) - the h sound is produced with open glottis; if the glottis is closed to stop the air momentarily, a glottal stop is produced: the sound represented by tt when a Beatle says "bottle", or the sound that starts each syllable if you say "uh-oh". Manners of Articulation
4 4- Manner of articulation: how lips, tongue, velum, and glottis can be positioned in different ways to produce different sound types. Stops and Continuants: the airstream enter the cavity, it may be stopped, partially obstructed, or it may flow freely out of the mouth. 1-Stops: [p, t ,k b, d, g, m, n, ŋ] - Sounds in which the airstream is stopped completely in the mouth cavity for a brief period (note that in m, n, and ŋ, the nasal stops, air is stopped in the mouth even though it continues to flow through the nose) Continuants: 1-Fricatives: [f, s, ʃ , v, ʒ , z, θ, ð, h] - Sounds in which the airstream is not totally stopped but is obstructed to a narrow area, causing friction. 2-Africates: [tʃ , dʒ] - combine a stop and a fricative and you get an affricate. Basically, to make one of these you pronounce the stop, then the fricative, so ch = t + sh and j = d + zh. Affricates are also classified as stops since the airstream is halted briefly. 3- Liquids: [l, r ]- Sounds where the airstream is obstructed, but not so much as to either stop it or create friction. In American English the r is considered a retroflex because of how the tongue flexes back toward the alveolar ridge (in most dialects). L is considered a lateral liquid because it is made by putting the tip of the tongue against the alveolar ridge, then letting the airstream flow around the sides of the tongue - laterally. 4 -Glides (semivowels): [j, w] - Sounds with little or no obstruction to the airstream in the mouth. Ex. Woo, yes. They may either preceded or followed by a vowel.[j] (palatal glide] is produced in a position almost identical to [i:] (beat) and [w] (labio-velar), in position similar to [u:]. USA s z c j u IPA ʃ ʒ tʃ dʒ
5 Place >> Manner! Stop (oral) voiceless Stop (oral) voiced Nasal (stop) Fricative voiceless Fricative voiced Africate voiceless Africate voiced Glide voiceless Glide voiced Liquid
Bilabial Labiodental Interdental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal pet p till t kill k
bet b met m feel veal f v thin θ then ð
dill d nil n seal s zeal z mesher measure church
gill g sing ŋ hill h
which* m witch* w
lead l read r * Some dialects of English do not distinguish the voiceless wh in which from the voiced w in witch
Consonants Classification IPA As found in Description p pill Voiceless bilabial stop t till Voiceless alveolar stop k kill Voiceless velar stop b bill Voiced bilabial stop d dill Voiced alveolar stop g gill Voiced velar stop m mill Nasal Bilabial Stop m nil Nasal Alveolar Stop Nasal Velar Stop ŋ ring f feel Voiceless Labiodental Fricative s seal Voiceless Alveolar Fricative h heal Voiceless Glottal Fricative v veal Voiced Labiodental Fricative z zeal Voiced Alveolar Fricative θ thigh Voiceless Dental Fricative ð ʃ ʒ thy shell azure Voiced Dental Fricative Voiceless Palatal (Postalveolar) Fricative Voiced Palatal (Postalveolar) Fricative Voiceless Palatal Africate Voiced Palatal Africate Alveolar Lateral Liquid (Approximant) Alveolar Liquid (Approximant) Palatal Glide (Approximant) Voiced Labial-Velar Glide (Approximant) Voiceless Labial-Velar Glide (Approximant) Glottal Fricative
ʃ dʒ l r j w m h
t chill jill leaf reef you witch which uh-oh
7 1- Complete the chart below for the consonantal phonemes in bolt: Word Phonetic Oral Nasal Voiced Voiceless Place of art. Manner of symbol (x) (x) (x) (x) art. [ ] Longer winner Humor Hurt Tear Lock where Weird Use Who Measure Nation Scissors Fasten Bathe Teeth Oven Gopher Twig Matter Draft Blast Germ Lunch Uncle Chord Hunter Terror Upper Upon 2- Write the [phonetic symbol] for the first sound of each of the following words: a- Judge e- Pneumonia i- Phone b- Thomas f- Psycho j- Civic c- Though g- Usury d- Cheese h- Contract 3- Write the [ phonetic symbol] for the last sound in each of the following words: a- Fleece d- Health g- Rough b- Neighbor e- Watch h- Cheese c- Long f- boost i- Bleached j- jazz
4- Write the symbol that corresponds to each of the following phonetic descriptions; then give an English word that contains this sound: abcdefVoiceless bilabial stop Lateral liquid Velar nasal Voiced interdental fricative Voiceless affricate Palatal glide Vowels and Diphthongs Vowel sounds carry pitch and loudness; you can sing vowels. They may be long or short. They can be produced without any consonants before or after them. They are divides into: simple vowels and diphthongs. Diphthongs are vowels that exhibit a change in quality within a single syllable. Simple vowels: pit, set, cat, father, dog, but, put, suppose (8) Diphthongs: say, buy, cow, loose, grow, boy, heat. (7) Vowels can be classified according to: 1- Tongue position (how high is the tongue?) 2- Lip rounding (what is the position of the lips?) 3- The part of the tongue involved (what part is raised or lowered?) VOWEL CHART
FRONT-----part of the (CENTER) tongue involved ----------BACK ROUNDED ROUNDED
ij (beet) I (bit)
uw (boot) Uw (boot) (put) (put) ow (boat) ow (boat)
ej (great) ə (melody) ε (bet) ^ (does) (bore) (boy) (bore) (boy) j
Tip Frontal Part
Ij, I, eI, ɛ, æ
Phonetics Tongue Hight
Suprasegmental/ Prosodic Properties
Pitch: the auditory property of a sound that enables us to place it on a scale that ranges from low to high. It´s the frequency of vibration of vocal cords. Ex. [ s] is higher than [ ʃ ] Intonation: is a kind of pith control. Pitch movement is spoken utterances that is not related to differences in word meaning, it´s “a kind of musical accompaniment.” Upward movement level or sustained downward movement Ex. Falling and rising intonations indicate different statements: Bill? Can you come here? Fred parked the car. Pitch height: 3= high pitch; 2= medium; 1= low Length: vowels on consonants whose articulation is held longer relative to that of other vowels and consonants, Stress: the prominence in some vowels utterances. Refers to loudness of the sounds and sound sequences. Ex ´digest (n) x di´gest (v)
EXERCISES 1- Based on the chart above, complete the vowel classification below: According to tongue position: High: Mid: Low: According to tongue height: Back: Front: Central: According to Roundness: Rounded: Unrounded: Complete the chart below for the vocalic phonemes in bolt Word Phonetic Tongue Part of the roundness symbol [ ] Position tongue Cream Income Clay Lead Racket Loose Hood Throat Coin Normal Rob Afford Tough Plow Tide Believe Been Grain Said Laugh Brew Should Toe Loyal Caught Father Suspect Was Bough buy
2- Listen to a colleague of yours and transcript his/her pronunciation for the following words: abcdefghijPhysics Merry Weather Coat Yellow Marry Tease Mary Heath “your name”
3- Write the symbol that corresponds to each of the following phonetic descriptions; then give an English word that contains this sound: a- Low front vowel b- Mid front vowel c- High back vowel 4- In each of the following pairs of words, the bold sounds differ by one or more phonetics properties (features). State the differences and the properties they have in common. abcdeCool – cold Good- God Tall - country Chip – sheet Put- but 5- In each of the following pairs of words, the bold sounds differ by one or more phonetics properties (features). State the differences and the properties they have in common. Comments: in plural forms, pronounce /s/ after a voiceless sound ended in: /s , ʃ, t ʃ/ , pronounce /z/ after voiced sound ended in: /z, ʒ , dʒ/, pronounce /IZ/ after sounds ended in: /s , ʃ, t ʃ, z, ʒ , dʒ/ abcdefghBath – bathe Reduce – reduction Wife – wives Cats – dogs Impolite – indecent Suspects – buses Rags – rats Judges - churches 6- Write the following sentences in regular English spelling:
a- Noam Chomsky is a linguist who teaches at the MIT. ……………………………………………………………………………………… b- Phonetics is the study of speech sounds ……………………………………………………………………………………….. c- All languages use sounds produced by our upper respiratory system. ………………………………………………………………………………………… d- In some dialects of English cat , the name ,and caught, the verb, are pronounced the same. …………………………………………………………………………… …………. EXTRA EXERCISES 1- Make phonetic transcription of the following words (use your dictionary) 2- Classify the consonants (in bolt) in each word, according to the place of articulation, manner of articulation and voice (use your own chart). 3- Classify the underlined vowels, according to the position of the tongue (high, mid, low); frontness (front, central, back); nasalization, and position of the lips. 4- Copy all diphthongs (do not the repeated ones).
moon star go come both shall could may block day night quiche next few green black white jack chime tongue that
cloth clothe foot scale wrong bridge joy throw phone shroud league gives think coin Jacques Two- syllable words guitar bedrock friendly structure coffee
bazaar defeat loser vision adjust phantom booking knitted column terrain catchy employ fountain pizza enough shepherd longing thistle rather science listen laughter yellow impugn indict therefore REFERÊNCIAS
longer words engineer mandolin abbreviate neighborhood vegetable diaphragm beautiful survivor collusion psychology confounded deception corduroy kangaroo potatoes mathematics sixtieth geography invasion curious mayonnaise
http://depts.washington.edu/llc/olr/linguistics/LIN_004/html/ConChart.html http://ipa.typeit.org/ O’GRADY, William; DOBROVOLSKY, Michael & ARONOFF, Mark. Contemporary Linguistics – an Introduction. N. Your. St. Martin Press, 1993.
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