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Subsea (technology

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article needs attention from an expert in Energy. Please add a reason or a talk parameter to this template to explain the issue with the article. WikiPro ect !nergy "or its Portal# may $e a$le to help recruit an expert. (May 2009) Subsea is a general term fre%uently used to refer to e%uipment, technology, and methods employed in marine $iology, undersea geology, offshore oil and gas developments, underwater mining, and offshore wind power industries.

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& 'il and gas o &.& (ystems ) 'ffshore wind power * +nderwater mining , -emotely operated vehicles . 'rgani/ations 0 (ee also 1 -eferences

Oil and gas
'il and gas fields reside $eneath many inland waters and offshore areas around the world, and in the oil and gas industry the term subsea relates to the exploration, drilling and development of oil and gas fields in underwater locations.2citation needed3 +nder water oil field facilities are generically referred to using a subsea prefix, such as subsea well, subsea field, subsea project, and subsea development. (u$sea oil field developments are usually split into Shallow water and Deepwater categories to distinguish $etween the different facilities and approaches that are needed. The term shallow water or shelf is used for shallow water depths where $ottom4founded facilities like ackup drilling rigs and fixed offshore structures can $e used, and where saturation diving is feasi$le. Deepwater is a term often used to refer to offshore pro ects located in water depths greater than around 055 feet,2&3 where floating drilling vessels and floating oil platforms are used, and remotely operated underwater vehicles are re%uired as manned diving is not practical.

4ft water depth. and make the exploitation of the su$sea hydrocar$ons economically feasi$le. to several wells on a template or clustered around a manifold.3 8hukar Water et has since developed a deepwater su$sea water et system capa$le of operating at depths of up to *555 meters "&5. which need to $e e%uipped with diving e%uipment for relatively shallow e%uipment work "i.t was used to $last away hydrates that were clogging a containment system at the 9ulf oil spill site. can also inherently dictate development of a field $y means of a su$sea production system.2.2)3 (hell completed its first su$sea well in the 9ulf of :exico in &60&2*3 The first known su$sea ultra4high pressure water et system capa$le of operating $elow . since traditional surface facilities such as on a steel4piled acket. maintenance. and transferring to a fixed or floating facility. . or as a cutting tool in emergency response and salvage operations..203 The development of su$sea oil and gas fields re%uires speciali/ed e%uipment.e. This type of expense can result in economic failure of the su$sea development. or directly to an onshore installation. This is $ecause of the high costs and time involved in changing a pre4existing system due to the speciali/ed vessels with advanced on$oard e%uipment.3 Systems (u$sea production systems can range in complexity from a single satellite well with a flowline linked to a fixed platform. . which re%uire drilling of the wells from more than one location. and flow line connections. >ny re%uirement to repair or intervene with installed su$sea e%uipment is thus normally very expensive. The e%uipment must $e relia$le enough to safe guard the environment.5 mm thick or water et $lasting at pressures up to *<55 $ar.t also can $e used for hydrate remediation.!ffective at cutting steel up to ). might $e either technically unfeasi$le or uneconomical due to the water depth. The deployment of such e%uipment re%uires speciali/ed and expensive vessels. FP(' or an onshore installation.555 ft was developed in )5&5 $y Jet !dge and 8hukar Water et. and ro$otic e%uipment for deeper water depths.* with the 7ake !rie completion at a *. =eep water conditions. (u$sea technology in offshore oil and gas production is a highly speciali/ed field of application with particular demands on engineering and simulation. > full scale test "(ystem .203 (u$sea production systems can $e used to develop reservoirs.555 feet#. =evelopment of these fields sets strict re%uirements for verification of the various systems? functions and their compliance with current re%uirements and specifications. :ost of the new oil fields are located in deepwater and are generally referred to as deepwater systems. a few hundred feet water depth maximum#.(u$sea completions can $e traced $ack to &6. the system can $e used to $last away coatings and marine growth to inspect welds. 2. or parts of reservoirs. The well had a land4type 8hristmas tree that re%uired diver intervention for installation. or even ultradeep water conditions.

the -'Cs o$tain samples to $e analy/ed for desired minerals. a mining ship or station is set up to mine the area.2citation needed3 Offshore wind power The power transmission infrastructure for offshore wind power utili/es a variety of su$sea technologies for the installation and maintenance of su$marine power transmission ca$les and other electrical energy e%uipment. seismography.ntegration Test @ (. Organi ations > num$er of professional societies and trade $odies are involved with the su$sea industry around the world.. cannot $e performed under conditions identical to those under which the system will later operate. Ay using modern simulation tools models of deepwater systems can $e set up and used to verify the systemBs functions. against various re%uirements specifications. su$sea drilling. (uch groups include . Underwater mining -ecent technological advancements have given rise to the use of remotely operated vehicles "-'Cs# to collect mineral samples from prospective mine sites. This includes the model4$ased development of innovative high4tech plants and system solutions for the exploitation and production of energy resources in an environmentally friendly way as well as the analysis and evaluation of the dynamic $ehavior of components and systems used for the production and distri$ution of oil and gas. >nother part is the real4time virtual test of systems for su$sea production. su$sea construction e%uipment and su$sea process measurement and control e%uipment. -'Cs are availa$le in a wide variety of function capa$ilities and complexities from simple Deye$allD camera devices. 'nce a site has $een located. +sing drills and other cutting tools. to multi4appendage machines that re%uire multiple operators to operate or DflyD the e%uipment. and dynamic properties.n addition.T# does not provide satisfactory verification of deepwater systems $ecause the test.213 . for practical reasons.2<3 Remotely operated vehicles :ain article: -emotely operated underwater vehicle -emotely 'perated Cehicles "-'Cs# are ro$otic pieces of e%uipment operated from afar to perform tasks on the sea floor. the monopile foundations of fixed4$ottom wind tur$ines and the anchoring and ca$le structures of floating wind tur$ines are regularly inspected with a variety of ship$orne su$sea technology. supply a$ove sea level. The oil industry has therefore adopted modern data technology as a tool for virtual testing of deepwater systems that ena$les detection of costly faults at an early phase of the pro ect.

. +E#.oilfield. -etrieved Fovem$er 56. The ::( administers the mineral resources in the +( "using 8ode of Federal -egulations "8F-## and provides management of all the +( su$sea mineral and renewa$le energy *. Forway#. !ump up " 'il field 9lossary 4 =eepwater Play : http:IIwww. Fovem$er )551 !ump up " Jet !dge. !xamples of such government agencies are the :inerals :anagement (ervice "::(.nc.: http:IIwww. +(#. ).glossary.cfmJ fuseactionKdspNsuccessNcaseHcaseN.pennenergy.nternational Petroleum !ncyclopedia.nstitute ">$. . )5&5.html !ump up " 05 Mears in the 9ulf of :exico. .• • • • • • • • (ociety for +nderwater Technology (u$sea Pro ect >wards (u$sea +E (u$sea Calley The largest su$sea technology $usiness cluster. . from http:IIwww.cfmJTermKdeepL)=waterL)5play !ump up " ")5&5# . . etedge.<<)IipesIonline4research4centerIvolume4&666Iissue4 &IencyclopediaIspecial4featuresInew4features4improve4flexi$ility4of4su$sea4well4 completions. 9overnment agencies administer regulations in their territorial waters around the world. and Gealth H (afety !xecutive "G(!. Gart Pu$lishing. !HP (upplement.comIindexIpetroleumIinternational4petroleum4 encyclopediaIdisplayI&&.# >merican (ociety of :echanical !ngineers ">(:!# Fational >ssociation of 8orrosion !ngineers "F>8!#.: http:IIwww..chukarwater et.comIcontent. See also • • • • • • • • • • • 8hristmas tree "oil well# 7ist of offshore wind farms :arine engineering 'cean engineering 'ffshore geotechnical engineering 'il well Passive heave compensation -iserless light well intervention (u$marine pipeline (u$sea production system Wellhead References &. . (ociety of Petroleum !ngineers >merican Petroleum . Forwegian Petroleum =irectorate "FP=.=K60 !ump up " 8hukar Water et.

!conomist *<&. )5&5#.O Jump up to: a b >P. ind !ner"y #pdate. accessed )5&&4514*5. 0. 1. -ecommended Practice &1> !ump up " 9lo$al :arine (ystems on the future of offshore wind ca$ling. . <. !A(8'host. <.50:&5. !ump up " Treasure on the ocean floor. "accessed January &6. no. )5564564&5.