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Student Guide

Book 1
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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These written materials are to be used only in conjunction with the associated instructor-led
class. They are not intended to be used solely as reference material.
No part of these written materials may be used or reproduced in any manner whatsoever without
the written permission of QUALCOMM Incorporated.
Copyright © 2009 QUALCOMM Incorporated.
All rights reserved.
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used under license. ARM is a registered trademark of ARM Limited. QDSP is a registered
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Table of Contents

Section 1: Course Introduction and LTE Overview ..................................... 1-1
LTE Coverage Planning and Course Outline ............................................................. 1-2
Introductions ...................................................................................................................... 1-3
Housekeeping ...................................................................................................................... 1-4
Course Goals and Training Materials ........................................................................... 1-5
Prerequisites ...................................................................................................................... 1-6
Course Overview .................................................................................................................. 1-7
Objectives ...................................................................................................................... 1-8
Key Requirements for LTE Evolution .......................................................................... 1-9
Evolution of 3G to 4G Data Technologies ................................................................. 1-11
LTE System Architecture ................................................................................................ 1-12
LTE, EPS, and SAE .............................................................................................................. 1-13
EPS Architecture ................................................................................................................. 1-14
Radio Access Network ...................................................................................................... 1-15
Physical Layer Aspects ..................................................................................................... 1-16
LTE Physical Channels ..................................................................................................... 1-17
Frames and Slots................................................................................................. 1-18
Resource Block .................................................................................................... 1-19
Symbols .................................................................................................................. 1-20
Cyclic Prefix (CP) ................................................................................................................ 1-21
LTE Physical Channels – MIMO .................................................................................... 1-22
Downlink Channelization Hierarchy .......................................................................... 1-23
Uplink Channelization Hierarchy ................................................................................ 1-24
Network Planning Overview ......................................................................................... 1-25
2G (TDMA/FDMA) ............................................................................................. 1-26
3G .................................................................................................................... 1-27
4G .................................................................................................................... 1-28
LTE Coverage Planning .................................................................................................... 1-29
LTE Overview – What Did We Learn?....................................................................... 1-30
Quiz .................................................................................................................... 1-31
Answers .................................................................................................................. 1-32
Quiz .................................................................................................................... 1-33
Answers .................................................................................................................. 1-34
Appendix and References ............................................................................................... 1-35
LTE Frequency Bands ....................................................................................................... 1-36
LTE Frequency Bands ....................................................................................................... 1-37
Resources and Bandwidth .............................................................................................. 1-38
Reference Signals and Antennas .................................................................................. 1-39

Section 2: Estimating Interference in LTE ...................................................... 2-1
Section Learning Objectives............................................................................................. 2-2
LTE Interference ................................................................................................................... 2-3
SNR Estimation ..................................................................................................................... 2-4
Defining Interference in LTE ........................................................................................... 2-5
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Inter-system Interference ................................................................................................ 2-6
Doppler and Delay Spread Tradeoffs ........................................................................... 2-7
The Need for Cyclic Prefix ................................................................................................ 2-8
Cyclic Prefix 3GPP – LTE Specifications ...................................................................... 2-9
Expected Degradation due to EDS ............................................................................... 2-10
Cyclic Prefix Optimization ............................................................................................. 2-11
Doppler Shift .................................................................................................................... 2-12
Bottom Line .................................................................................................................... 2-13
Expected Impact of Doppler Shift on LTE Performance .................................... 2-14
Defining Interference in LTE ......................................................................................... 2-15
Frequency Deployment Scenarios in LTE ................................................................ 2-17
N=1 .................................................................................................................... 2-18
Future Feature – Fractional Frequency Reuse ....................................................... 2-19
Inter-system Interference .............................................................................................. 2-20
LTE Interference Mitigation ......................................................................................... 2-21
Interference Mitigation Defined................................................................................... 2-22
SNR Estimation ................................................................................................................... 2-23
Calculated Measurements .............................................................................................. 2-24
Single Tx Antenna SNR Example .................................................................................. 2-25
SNR Example – MINO Case ............................................................................................. 2-26
What Did We Learn? ......................................................................................................... 2-27
Quiz .................................................................................................................... 2-28
Answers .................................................................................................................. 2-29
References and Appendix: LTE Measurements ..................................................... 2-30
References .................................................................................................................... 2-31
LTE Physical Layer Measurements ............................................................................ 2-32
Received Interference Power – RIP ........................................................................... 2-35
LTE Physical Layer Measurements ............................................................................. 2-36
Reference Signal Received Power – RSRP ............................................................... 2-37
Reference Signal Received Quality – RSRQ ............................................................... 2-38
RSRP, RSSI, and RSRQ ....................................................................................................... 2-39
RSRQ Estimation................................................................................................................. 2-40
UE Reported Values ........................................................................................................... 2-41
CP Extended Supports MBMS........................................................................................ 2-42

Section 3: Overlay and Coexistence with other Technologies ................ 3-1
Section Learning Objectives ............................................................................................. 3-2
Inter-system Interference ................................................................................................ 3-3
Defining Interference in LTE ........................................................................................... 3-4
Inter-system Interference ................................................................................................ 3-5
Interference – Transmitter Emission Model ............................................................. 3-6
Defining LTE Tx Emissions in 3GPP ............................................................................. 3-7
Interference – Receiver Response Model ................................................................... 3-8
Interference – 3GPP Terminology ................................................................................. 3-9
ACIR .................................................................................................................... 3-10
Defining Receiver Response in LTE ............................................................................ 3-11
Reference Sensitivity ........................................................................................................ 3-12
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Explanation – Signal Levels Diagram ......................................................................... 3-13
Near-Far Effect .................................................................................................................... 3-14
Co-Existence Scenarios .................................................................................................... 3-15
3GPP LTE Operating Bands ............................................................................................ 3-16
Likely Co-Existence Scenarios ...................................................................................... 3-17
Process for Co-Existence Planning .............................................................................. 3-18
LTE Spectrum .................................................................................................................... 3-19
Interference Calculation Examples – Case 1 ........................................................... 3-20
700 MHz Band Plan ........................................................................................... 3-21
Guard Band Separation .................................................................................... 3-22
eNB ACLR as Discrete Power Density ........................................................ 3-23
Transmitter and Receiver Spec .................................................................... 3-24
Signal Levels Diagram ...................................................................................... 3-25
Calculation Spreadsheet .................................................................................. 3-26
ACI Check ............................................................................................................... 3-27
Out-of-Band Emissions Check ....................................................................... 3-28
Coexistence Scenarios – Case 2 .................................................................................... 3-29
2.6 GHz IMT-2000 Band Plan ........................................................................ 3-30
Guard Band Separation .................................................................................... 3-31
eNB ACLR as Discrete Power Density ........................................................ 3-32
Transmitter and Receiver Spec .................................................................... 3-33
Calculation Spreadsheet .................................................................................. 3-34
Signal Levels Diagram ...................................................................................... 3-35
Out-of-Band Emissions Check ....................................................................... 3-36
Coexistence Scenarios – Case 3 .................................................................................... 3-37
LTE 10 MHz eNB to UMTS NodeB Rx ......................................................... 3-38
Coexistence Scenarios – Case 4 .................................................................................... 3-39
CDMA BTS to UMTS UE Rx .............................................................................. 3-40
Interference Calculation .................................................................................................. 3-41
Inputs Required – Tx ........................................................................................................ 3-42
Inputs Required – Rx ........................................................................................................ 3-43
What Did We Learn? ......................................................................................................... 3-44
Quiz .................................................................................................................... 3-45
Answers .................................................................................................................. 3-46
Appendix and References ............................................................................................... 3-47
LTE Spectrum Worldwide .............................................................................. 3-48
Spectrum Usage by Band & Location ......................................................... 3-49
U.S. – 700 MHz Band Plan ............................................................................... 3-50
FCC License Areas (700 & AWS Spectrum) ............................................. 3-51
IMT-2000 Extension Band 2.5 GHz to 2.69 GHz ................................... 3-52

Section 4: RF Propagation and Mode ling ....................................................... 4-1
Objectives ...................................................................................................................... 4-2
RF Propagation Model for LTE ....................................................................................... 4-3
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Sample RF Propagation Models for LTE ..................................................................... 4-5
RF Propagation Model – Comparison .......................................................................... 4-6
Comparative Path Loss Plots
Okumura-Hata & COST-231 ............................................................................. 4-7
Erceg/SUI & COST-231 ...................................................................................... 4-8
RF Model Tuning ................................................................................................................. 4-9
Need for Optimized Propagation Model ................................................................... 4-10
Propagation Model Tuning / Cali bration ................................................................. 4-11
Propagation Model Optimization Example ............................................................. 4-12
Frequency Band and Penetration Loss ..................................................................... 4-13
Impacts of Frequency on Building Penetration Loss ........................................... 4-14
Impact of Frequency Band on Material Loss .......................................................... 4-15
Impact of Frequency Band on Material Loss – Example .................................... 4-16
Impact Frequency on Statistical BPL ........................................................................ 4-17
Key Takeaways/Summary ............................................................................................. 4-18
Quiz .................................................................................................................... 4-19
Answers .................................................................................................................. 4-20
Appendix and References ............................................................................................... 4-21
Outdoor Propagation Model .......................................................................................... 4-22
Okumura-Hata Model ....................................................................................................... 4-23
Hata Model .................................................................................................................... 4-24
Path Loss Plots ..................................................................................................... 4-25
Okumura-Hata Model – Morphologies ...................................................................... 4-26
COST-231 Propagation Model ....................................................................................... 4-27
Walfisch-Ikegami Model .................................................................................................. 4-28
Standard Model ................................................................................................... 4-29
Rooftop-Street Diffraction Model ................................................................ 4-30
Multi-Screen Diffraction Loss ........................................................................ 4-31
Street Canyon Model ......................................................................................... 4-32
Lee’s Model .................................................................................................................... 4-33
Standard Propagation Model ......................................................................................... 4-35
Multi-Breakpoint Model .................................................................................................. 4-37
ITU-R P.1546 Model .......................................................................................................... 4-38
Erceg/SUI Path Loss Model ............................................................................................ 4-39
Ericsson 9999 Model ........................................................................................................ 4-41
Comparative Path Loss Plots – Okumura-Hata, COST-231, SPM &
9999 Models ......................................................................................................... 4-43
Indoor Propagation Model ............................................................................................. 4-44
Site Specific Model – Keenan Motley .......................................................................... 4-45
Generic Model
ITU Indoor Propagation Model ..................................................................... 4-46
Log-Distance Indoor Path Loss Model ....................................................... 4-47

Section 5: LTE Link Budget .................................................................................. 5-1
Objectives ...................................................................................................................... 5-2
Section Overview .................................................................................................................. 5-3
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LTE Link Budget
Definition ................................................................................................................. 5-4
Limitations .............................................................................................................. 5-5
Channels Considered .......................................................................................... 5-6
LTE DL Link Budget
Overall Process Description ............................................................................. 5-7
Overall Process Description ............................................................................. 5-8
LTE Link Budget (DL) – Inputs and Assumptions .................................................. 5-9
LTE Link Budget (UL) – Inputs and Assumptions ................................................ 5-10
LTE Link Budget – Estimation of the Limiting Link ............................................. 5-11
Section Overview ................................................................................................................ 5-12
How SNR Relates to Data Rate ...................................................................................... 5-13
LTE Bearer Efficiency and Rates .................................................................................. 5-14
SNR to CQI
Downlink ................................................................................................................ 5-15
Uplink .................................................................................................................... 5-16
CQI and CQI Offset Example ........................................................................................... 5-17
Answer .................................................................................................................... 5-18
Section Overview ................................................................................................................ 5-19
Maximum eNB Transmit Power ................................................................................... 5-20
Transmit Power per RE
Downlink eNB ...................................................................................................... 5-21
Uplink eNB ............................................................................................................ 5-22
Section Overview ................................................................................................................ 5-23
Sensitivity or MAPL at UE Antenna Connector ...................................................... 5-24
DL MAPLUE Estimation ................................................................................................... 5-25
Geometry
-1
or I
oc
/I
or
......................................................................................................... 5-26
Section Overview ................................................................................................................ 5-27
Propagation and MAPL Calculation ............................................................................ 5-28
DL MAPL Calculation ........................................................................................................ 5-29
UL MAPL Calculation ........................................................................................................ 5-30
Section Overview ................................................................................................................ 5-31
LTE Link Budget Spreadsheet ....................................................................................... 5-32
LTE DL Budget Terms based on Required SNR ..................................................... 5-33
Link Budget Spreadsheet Components ..................................................................... 5-34
LTE DL Budget Outputs based on MAPL .................................................................. 5-35
Link Budget Spreadsheet Components (continue d)............................................ 5-36
Section Overview ................................................................................................................ 5-37
Case 1 of 2
Target SNR vs Data Rate ................................................................................. 5-38
Path Loss versus Target SNR ........................................................................ 5-40
Cell Radii versus Target SNR ........................................................................ 5-41
Cell Area versus Target SNR ......................................................................... 5-42
Case 2 of 2
Coverage versus Frequency Band ............................................................... 5-43
Cell Radii versus Frequency Band ............................................................... 5-44
Cell Area versus Frequency Band ................................................................ 5-45
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Section Overview ................................................................................................................ 5-46
Case Study: Exercise ........................................................................................................ 5-47
Link Budget – What Did We Learn? ............................................................................ 5-51
Quiz .................................................................................................................... 5-52
Answers .................................................................................................................. 5-53
Appendix A .................................................................................................................... 5-54
Channel Model .................................................................................................................... 5-55
Key Parameters in an LTE Budget
UE Antenna Gain ................................................................................................. 5-56
Doppler .................................................................................................................. 5-57
E
b
/N
t
.................................................................................................................... 5-59
PBCH .................................................................................................................... 5-60
Interference Margin ......................................................................................... 5-61
Loading .................................................................................................................. 5-61
Frequency Band ................................................................................................. 5-63
Shadowing Margin and Cell Edge Confidence ....................................... 5-64
Standard Deviation ........................................................................................... 5-65
Log Normal Fading ........................................................................................... 5-66
Maximum UE Transmit Power ..................................................................... 5-67
Cable and Connector Losses ......................................................................... 5-68
Noise Figure ......................................................................................................... 5-70
EIRP ................................................................................................................... 5-71
Appendix B .................................................................................................................... 5-73
CQI and CQI Offset .............................................................................................................. 5-74

Section 6: RF Network Planning......................................................................... 6-1
Section Learning Objectives............................................................................................. 6-2
Planning Process .................................................................................................................. 6-3
Network Planning Overview
4G View ..................................................................................................................... 6-4
Required Input ...................................................................................................... 6-5
GIS Data ...................................................................................................................... 6-6
Coverage Objectives ............................................................................................................ 6-7
Site Specific Information ................................................................................................... 6-8
Network Planning Overview
LTE Required Input ............................................................................................. 6-9
Required Input .................................................................................................... 6-10
Defining LTE Coverage – RRC Idle .............................................................................. 6-11
Planning For Coverage – RRC_Idle Coverage .......................................................... 6-12
S criteria: Cell Reselection Illustration ...................................................................... 6-13
SNR Thresholds for Different Channels .................................................................... 6-14
Defining LTE Coverage – RRC Connected: DL ........................................................ 6-15
Planning For Coverage – RRC Connected DL Coverage ...................................... 6-16
SNR Thresholds for Different Data Rates ................................................................. 6-17
Reading Minimum Performance Specifications .................................................... 6-18
From MPS to Network Planning ................................................................................... 6-19
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Antenna Configuration Considerations ................................................................... 6-20
MIMO .................................................................................................................... 6-21
MIMO Gain Estimation ..................................................................................................... 6-22
Spatial Diversity .................................................................................................. 6-23
Defining LTE Coverage – RRC Connected: UL ........................................................ 6-24
Planning For Coverage – Uplink ................................................................................... 6-25
MPS for Uplink .................................................................................................................... 6-26
Uplink SNR Targets ........................................................................................................... 6-27
Planning for Capacity........................................................................................................ 6-28
Geometry Optimization ................................................................................................... 6-30
MIMO Antenna Deployment Considerations .......................................................... 6-31
Space Diversity .................................................................................................... 6-33
Polarization Diversity ....................................................................................... 6-34
Space or Polarization Diversity .................................................................... 6-35
Comparison of Space & Polarization Diversity ...................................... 6-36
Intermodulation in Shared Antenna System ........................................... 6-37
MIMO Deployment – Antenna Recommendation ................................................. 6-38
Antenna Parameter Recommendations .................................................... 6-40
LTE Coverage Plots ............................................................................................................ 6-41
Reference Signal Received Power (RSRP) ............................................................... 6-42
PBCH Coverage .................................................................................................................... 6-43
PDSCH Coverage ................................................................................................................. 6-44
PDSCH Throughput ........................................................................................................... 6-45
Planning LTE Parameters ............................................................................................... 6-46
LTE Specific Parameters ................................................................................................. 6-47
Physical Cell Identity ........................................................................................................ 6-48
PCI and Cell Overlap .......................................................................................................... 6-49
Neighbor List .................................................................................................................... 6-50
eNB Neighbor List .............................................................................................................. 6-51
NL Example .................................................................................................................... 6-52
NL – Cell-Specific Parameters ....................................................................................... 6-53
Cell Offset .................................................................................................................... 6-54
Black List .................................................................................................................... 6-55
Tool Selection Criteria – Basic Features ................................................................... 6-56
Basic Tool Requirements ................................................................................................ 6-57
Tool Selection Criteria – Basic Features ................................................................... 6-58
Static Downlink and Uplink Prediction ..................................................................... 6-59
Multi-service Monte Carlo Simulation ....................................................................... 6-60
Neighbor and PCI Planning ............................................................................................ 6-61
Tool Selection Criteria – Basic Features ................................................................... 6-62
Channel Model and MIMO Performance ................................................................... 6-63
Advanced Predictions ....................................................................................................... 6-64
RF Network Planning – What Did We Learn? ........................................................ 6-65
Quiz .................................................................................................................... 6-66
Answers .................................................................................................................. 6-67
Appendix A: MIMO Overview ........................................................................................ 6-68
What is MIMO? .................................................................................................................... 6-69
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LTE Downlink MIMO – Overview ................................................................................ 6-70
LTE Downlink MIMO......................................................................................................... 6-71
Spatial Multiplexing of SU-MIMO & MU-MIMO ...................................... 6-72
Appendix B: Transmit Diversity in LTE .................................................................... 6-73
What is Transmit Diversity? .......................................................................................... 6-74
Transmit Diversity in LTE .............................................................................................. 6-75

Section 7: Predicting Overlay and Coexistence with Other
Technologies ............................................................................................... 7-1
Overlay and Coexistence: Learning Objectives ........................................................ 7-2
Section Overview .................................................................................................................. 7-3
Coverage Prediction & Analysis – High Level View ............................................... 7-4
Prediction Tool – Description ......................................................................................... 7-5
Common Inputs for LTE Coverage Predictions ....................................................... 7-6
Common Outputs for LTE Coverage Analysis ........................................................... 7-7
Common Analysis Outputs – Capacity ......................................................................... 7-8
Section Overview .................................................................................................................. 7-9
Case Studies: LTE Deployment with 1:1 Overlay .................................................. 7-10
Calculation and Computation Zones .......................................................................... 7-11
Section Overview ................................................................................................................ 7-12
Case Study 1 .................................................................................................................... 7-13
LTE Overlay on CDMA 1xEV-DO Network ............................................... 7-14
E
c
/N
o
Prediction Map ........................................................................................ 7-15
E
c
Prediction Map ............................................................................................... 7-16
LTE Prediction – Key Settings (1 of 2) ....................................................... 7-17
LTE Prediction – Definitions .......................................................................... 7-19
LTE-700 Reference Signal (1 of 6) .............................................................. 7-20
Section Overview ................................................................................................................ 7-26
Case Study 2 .................................................................................................................... 7-27
LTE Overlay on UMTS/HSPA Network ...................................................... 7-28
UMTS Network – E
c
/N
o
Prediction Map .................................................... 7-29
UMTS Network – RSCP Prediction Map .................................................... 7-30
LTE Prediction – Key Settings (1 of 2) ....................................................... 7-31
LTE Prediction – Definitions .......................................................................... 7-33
LTE-2600 Reference Signal (1 of 6) ............................................................ 7-34
Section Overview ................................................................................................................ 7-40
Conclusion – LTE Overlay on Existing 3G Network ............................................. 7-41
What Did We Learn? ......................................................................................................... 7-42

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Acronyms and Abbreviations

1x One carrier
2x Two carriers
3x Three carriers
3GPP 3
rd
Generation Partnership Project
AAA Authentication Authorization Accounting
AC Access Channel
ACI Adjacent Channel Interference
ACIR Adjacent Channel Interference Power Ratio
ACK Acknowledgment
ACLR Adjacent Channel Leakage Power Ratio
ACP Automatic Cell Planning
ACS Adjacent Channel Selectivity
AGL Above Ground Level
AN Access Network
APersistence Access Persistence
ARQ Acknowledge Request
ASET Active Set
AT Access Terminal
Aux Auxiliary
avg average
AWGN Additive White Gaussian Noise
AWS Advanced Wireless Spectrum
BCCH Broadcast Control Channel
BCH Broadcast Channel
BLER Block Error Rate
BPL Building Penetration Loss
BS Base Station
BSC Base Station Controller
BTS Basestation Transceiver Subsystem;
Base Transceiver Station (Base Station Transceiver)
BW Bandwidth
CDMA Code Division Multiple Access
CC Control Channel
CCCH Common Control Channel
CCI Co-Channel Interference
CEPT Commission of European Post and Telecommunications
CFI Control Format Indicator
C/I Carrier to Interference ratio
CMC Connection Mobility Control
C/N Carrier to Noise ratio
COST-231 Cooperation in the Field of Scientific and Technical Research model
CP Control Plane
Cyclic Prefix
CQI Channel Quality Indicator
CSET Candidate Set
CSG Closed Subscriber Group
CSI Channel State Information
CW Code Word
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dB Decibel
DCCH Dedicated Control Channel
DCI Downlink Control Information
DEM Digital Elevation Map
Digital Elevation Model
DL Downlink
DPA Default Packet Application
DRA Dynamic Resource Allocation
DRC Data Rate Control
DRX Discontinuous Reception
DSC Data source Control
DTM Digital Terrain Map
DTCH Dedicated Traffic Channel
DTX Discontinuous Transmission
EDS Excess Delay Spread
eHNB evolved Home NodeB
EIRP Effective Isotropic Radiated Power
eNB evolved NodeB (i.e., Base Station)
EMPA Enhanced Multi-Flow Packet Application
EPC Evolved Packet Core
EPS Evolved Packet System
ETU Extended Typical Urban channel model
E-UTRA Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access
Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access
E-UTRAN Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network
EV-DO EVolution Data Only
F1 Frequency Channel 1
F2 Frequency Channel 2
F3 Frequency Channel 3
FA Frequency Assignment
FCC Federal Communications Commission
Fd Doppler Frequency
FDD Frequency Division Duplex
FDMA Frequency Division Multiple Access
FFR Fractional Frequency Reuse
FL Forward Link
Freq Frequency
FSTD Frequency Shift Time Diversity
FTC Forward Traffic Channel
GAUP Generic Attribute Update Protocol
GB Guard Band
GERAN GSM/EDGE Radio Access Network
GGSN Gateway GPRS Support Node
GIS Geographic Information System
GPRS General Packet Radio Service
GSM Global System for Mobiles
GW Gateway
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H-ARQ Hybrid Automatic Repeat ReQuest
HBW Horizontal Beam Width
HeNB Home eNode B
HO Handover
HOM Higher Order Modulation
HSDPA High Speed Downlink Packet Access
HSPA High Speed Packet Access
HSPA+ High Speed Packet Access evolved or enhanced
HSUPA High Speed Uplink Packet Access
IC Interference Cancellation
ICI Inter-Carrier Interference
ICIC Inter Cell Interference Coordination
ID Identification
IP Internet Protocol
IRAT Inter-Radio Access Technology
ISI Inter-Symbol Interference
Kbps Kilobits per second
LB Link Budget
Load Balancing
LNF Log Normal Fading
LOS Line of Sight
LTE Long Term Evolution
MAC Medium Access Channel
MAPL Maximum Allowable Path Loss
Max Maximum
MBMS Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Services
Mbps Megabits per second
MBSFN Multicast/Broadcast over a Single Frequency Network
MCS Modulation and Coding Scheme
MCW Multiple Code Words
MFPA Multi-Flow Packet Application
MHz Megahertz
MIMO Multiple Input Multiple Output
MME Mobility Management Entity
MMPA Multi-Link Multi-Flow Packet Application
MMPA Multi-Link Multi-Flow Protocol
MMSE Minimum Mean Square Error
MPS Minimum Performance Specification
MRU Most Recently Used
MS Mobile Station
MSC Mobile Switching Center
MU-MIMO Multi User MIMO
MUP Multi User Packet
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NL Neighbor List
NLOS Non-Line of Sight
NSET Neighbor Set
NRB Non-Reserved Bandwidth
OFDMA Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access
OOBE Out Of Band Emission
OSTBC Orthogonal Space/Time Block Code
PA Power Amplifier
PBCH Physical Broadcast Channel
PCCH Paging Control Channel
PCF Packet Control Function
PCI Physical Cell Identity
PDF Probability Distribution Function
PDSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel
PDSN Packet Data Serving Node
PIC Pilot Interference Cancellation
PMI Precoding Matrix Indicator
PN Pseudo Noise
PPP Point to Point Protocol
PRB Physical Resource Block
PRL Preferred Roaming List
PS Packet Scheduling
PUCCH Physical Uplink Control Channel
PUSC Partial Usage Sub Channelization
PUSCH Physical Uplink Shared Channel
QAM Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
QoS Quality of Service
QPSK Quadrature Phase Shift Keying
RAC Radio Admission Control
RACH Random Access Channel
RAN Radio Access Network
RB Radio Bearer
Resource Block
RBC Radio Bearer Control
RBG Resource Block Group
RE Resource Element
Rel 0 Release 0
Rev A Revision A
RF Radio Frequency
RI Rank Indicator
RIGW Random Index Geometry Weight
RIP Received Interference Power
RL Reverse Link
RLC Radio Link Control
RLP Radio Link Protocol
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Table of Contents
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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xvii
r.m.s. Root mean square
RNC Radio Network Controller
RoT Rise over Thermal
RPC Reverse Power Control
RRC Radio Resource Control
RRM Radio Resource Management
RRI Reverse Rate Indicator
RS Reference Signal
RSCP Received Signal Code Power
RSI Random Start Index
RSRP Reference Signal Receive Power
RSRQ Reference Signal Received Quality
RSET Remaining Set
RTCMAC Reverse Traffic Channel MAC
RUM Route Update Message
RUP Route Update Protocol
Rx Received
SAE System Architecture Evolution
SAR Segmentation and Reassembly
SCW Single Code Word
SDMA Spatial Division Multiple Access
SFBC Space Frequency Block Code
SFBC-OFDM Space Frequency Block Coded Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
SFN Single Frequency Network
SFR Soft Frequency Reuse
SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node
SI Start Index
SIB System Information Block
SIC Successive Interference Cancellation
SIGW Start Index Geometry Weight
SM Spatial Multiplexing
SNR Signal to Noise Ratio
SON Self Organizing Network
Self Optimizing Network
SPER Sub-Packet Error Rate
SPM System Performance Model
SSI Start Stop Indicator
SUI Stanford University Interim model
SU-MIMO Single User MIMO
SUP Single User Packet
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Table of Contents
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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xviii
T2P Traffic to Pilot power
TA Tracking Area
TB Transport Block
TDD Time Division Duplex
TDM Time Division Multiplex
TDMA Time Division Multiple Access
TCA Traffic Channel Assignment
TCC Traffic Channel Complete
TIC Traffic Interference Cancellation
TTI Transmission Time Interval
Tx Transmitted
TxT2P Transmitted Traffic to Pilot Power
TxT2Pmax Maximum Transmitted Traffic to Pilot Power
UATI Unicast Access Terminal Identifier
TCA Terrain Clearance Angle
UE User Equipment
UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
UL Uplink
UP User Plane
UTRA Universal Terrestrial Radio Access
UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access
UTRAN UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network
VBW Vertical Beam Width
W/C Water/Cement
WCDMA Wideband Code Division Multiple Access
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Notes
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Section 1: Course Introduction and LTE Overview
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Notes
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Notes
vi
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Notes
vii
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Notes
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Section 1: Course Introduction and LTE Overview
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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Section 1: Course Introduction and LTE Overview
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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Section 1: Course Introduction and LTE Overview
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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Section 1: Course Introduction and LTE Overview
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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User Throughput and Spectrum Efficiency Requirements
• Downlink:
– 5 percentile Downlink user throughput per MHz 2 to 3 times Release 6 HSDPA
– Average Downlink user throughput per MHz 3 to 4 times Release 6 HSDPA
– Downlink spectrum efficiency should be 3 to 4 times Release 6 HSDPA
– Downlink performance targets assume 2 transmit and 2 receive antennas for E-UTRA, and 1
transmit and enhanced Type 1 receiver for Release 6 HSDPA
– Downlink user throughput should scale with spectrum allocation
• Uplink:
– 5 percentile Uplink user throughput per MHz 2 to 3 times Release 6 HSUPA
– Average Uplink user throughput per MHz 2 to 3 times Release 6 HSUPA
– Uplink spectrum efficiency should be 2 to 3 times Release 6 HSDPA
– Uplink performance targets assume 1 transmit and 2 receive antennas for both E-UTRA and
Release 6 HSDPA
– Uplink user throughput should scale with spectrum allocation and mobile maximum
transmit power
E-UTRA is expected to outperform Release 6 HSPA by a factor of 2 to 4 in user throughput and
spectrum efficiency. This assumes a maximum cell range up to 5 km. For cell ranges up to 30 km,
slight degradations in achieved performance are expected for user throughput targets; more
significant degradation is expected for spectrum efficiency targets. However, cell ranges up to 100 km
should not be precluded by the specifications.
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Heterogeneous Networks
LTE is introduced in Release 8 of the 3GPP standard. The basic concept of Femtocell, or eHNB, was
introduced in the same release; further improvements for eHNB support are included in Release 9.
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Evolution of 3G to 4G Data Technologies
3GPP Release 8 – Introduces many things, including E-UTRA (also called LTE, based on OFDMA), all-
IP network (also called SAE), and Femtocell operation. Release 8 constitutes a re-factoring of UMTS as
an entirely IP-based fourth-generation network. 3GPP RAN approved the LTE Physical Layer
specifications in September 2007. The specifications are 36.201 to 36.214 and are on the 3GPP site
http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/36-series.htm
Each release incorporates hundreds of individual standards documents, each of which may have gone
through many revisions. Current 3GPP standards incorporate the latest revision of the GSMstandards.
Standards documents are available for free at www.3gpp.org. These standards cover the radio
component (Air Interface), the Core Network, billing information, and speech coding down to source
code level. Cryptographic aspects (authentication, confidentiality) are also specified in detail.
More details about the 3GPP releases content can be found at:
• http://www.3gpp.org/specs/releases-contents.htm
• http://www.3gpp.org/Management/WorkPlan.htm
More information about standards evolution is provided in the following Qualcomm University
courses:
• 1xEV-DO Rev B Fundamentals
• Long Term Evolution (LTE/FDD) Fundamentals
• LTE Technical Overview
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Notes
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Section 1: Course Introduction and LTE Overview
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Long Term Evolution
Due to its flexibility, in particular in terms of bandwidth, LTE can coexist with a variety of
technologies, including 3GPP (UMTS or WCDMA) and 3GPP2 (1X and 1xEV-DO).
LTE was standardized by 3GPP, evolving the UMTS protocol and signaling to accommodate the
evolved architecture. The evolved architecture is fundamentally different from the UTRA
architecture: EPS is a flat architecture where Radio Network Controller/Base Station Controller
functionalities are pushed to the Evolved Node B (eNB, i.e., Base Station). The eNBs are
interconnected to gateways by all-IP links (the following slides show the EPS architecture).
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80-W2559-1 Rev B
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ESP architecture and 3GPP/3GPP2 Equivalents
The overall ESP architecture is presented in 3GPP TS 23.401: Technical Specification Group Services
and System Aspects; General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) enhancements for Evolved Universal Terrestrial
Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN) access.
The architecture is defined to interface with existing 3GPP or 3GPP2 networks.
Considering the E-UTRANonly, the main difference is the absence of a centralized node (BSC or RNC).
Each evolved NodeB (eNB, i.e., Base Station) is independent of other eNBs. This is a flat architecture.
Without a centralized node, direct X2 interfaces between eNBs helps perform handovers, and are
necessary for interference mitigation.
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Section 1: Course Introduction and LTE Overview
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LTE Interfaces
Unlike EV-DO or UTMS, where backhauls are point-to-point, the LTE S1 interface can be multi-point-
to-multi-point. This is possible due to the all-IP architecture. This enables a given function to be load
shared between nodes (e.g., mobility management can be performed by multiple MMEs).
Physically, the different interfaces (S1 and X2) could be on the same IP connection (e.g., port, cable,
etc.), but the (logical) connections would have different terminating addresses.
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Section 1: Course Introduction and LTE Overview
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 1: Course Introduction and LTE Overview
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 1: Course Introduction and LTE Overview
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Resource Blocks and Resource Block Groups
Resource Block and Resource Block Groups are defined in the Downlink. A Resource Block is a matrix
allocation of 6 or 7 OFDM symbols and 12 subcarriers in the frequency domain.
• There are 72 (6 symbols *12 subcarriers) Resource Elements (RE) in a Resource Block if
symbols have extended cyclic prefix.
• There are 84 (7 symbols * 12 subcarriers) Resource Elements in a Resource Block if symbols
have normal cyclic prefix.
Each RB consists of all OFDM symbols in a slot in time domain, and 180 KHz in frequency domain.
The number of RBs depends on the channel bandwidth. There is minimum of 6 RBs for a 1.4 MHz
channel, and 100 RBs for a 20 MHz channel. A UE is allocated a number of contiguous or non-
contiguous RBs.
The unit of resource allocation in the Downlink is a Resource Block Group (RBG), which is a group of
Resource Blocks. Allocating bandwidth in RBGs reduces allocation overhead since the number of bits
needed to uniquely represent each RBG is much less than the number of bits needed to uniquely
represent each RB. The size and number of RBGs depend on the channel bandwidth.
Carrier spacing is typically 15 kHz. 7.5 kHz is used for MBMS only.
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Section 1: Course Introduction and LTE Overview
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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Section 1: Course Introduction and LTE Overview
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Number of Symbols per Slot
The number of symbols per slot depends on both the selected Cyclic Prefix (CP) and the carrier
spacing.
Symbol Utilization
Symbols can be used for control, traffic, or reference signals. Depending on available bandwidth, the
typical number of symbols used for control changes:
• Bandwidth = 1.4 MHz: 4 symbols
• Bandwidth greater than 1.4 MHz, but ≤ 5 MHz: 3 symbols
• Bandwidth > 5 MHz: 2 symbols
The number of symbols used for Reference Signal (RS) also changes, based on the number of antennas.
Over a RB (12 subcarriers * 1 slots, 168 symbols), the number of symbols used for RS will vary:
• For 1 antenna: 2 * 4 = 8 symbols
• For 4 antennas: 4 * 6 = 24 symbols
The number of symbols per antenna is not constant. For antennas 1 and 2, 8 symbols are used. For
antennas 3 and 4, only 4 symbols are used.
Effective Symbol Time
The effective symbol time is actually less than the duration of the symbol because the Cyclic Prefix is
added to the symbol to ensure orthogonality is maintained.
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Cyclic Prefix
In the absence of multipath, a received OFDM signal is free from interference from other subcarriers
and from inter-symbol interference. In a multipath radio environment, however, orthogonality
between subcarriers will be partially lost due to the symbols received from reflected or delayed paths
overlapping into the following consecutive symbol. This is addressed by the use of the Cyclic Prefix
(CP), whereby the tail of each symbol is copied and pasted onto the front of the OFDM symbol. This
increases the length of the symbol (T
s
) from T
u
to T
u
+ T
CP
, where T
CP
is the length of the Cyclic Prefix.
The CP should be considered in the time domain, not the frequency domain. Even if the effective
symbol time is increased to T
u
+ T
CP
, the carrier separation is still 1/T
s
.
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Section 1: Course Introduction and LTE Overview
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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MIMOAntenna Array
With N antennas, by use of pre-coding (effectively phase shift), up to N different spatial channels can
be created on the transmit side. To take advantage of these N spatial channels, the receiver must be
able to also create N different spatial channels, thus requiring N antennas.
MU-MIMOis a special case, because even if each UE has a single antenna, each user can demodulate
the spatial channel that offers the best C/I. In this special case, the system can be seen as N * M, where
N is the number of transmit antennas and M is the number of users. As in the general case, the
maximum number of spatial channels is limited by min(N, M), which typically would be N.
MIMO and Antenna Configuration
MIMO is expected to provide the best performance in strong geometry where multipath spatial
channels are possible. This would be achieved when scattering is observed.
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Section 1: Course Introduction and LTE Overview
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Downlink Reference Signals (DL-RS)
• Physical only channel, no control or user information carried.
• Defines the absolute coverage boundary; i.e., the area where a cell can be detected.
Broadcast Channel (BCH) , carries the Physical Broadcast Channel (PBCH)
• Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) Carries system information
• Fixed, pre-defined transport format
• Requirement to be broadcast in the entire coverage area of the cell for cell acquisition
Downlink Shared Channel (DL-SCH), carried over the Physical Downlink Shared Channel
(PDSCH)
• Unlike UMTS, most of the User and Control Plane channels are carried over the DL-SCH:
– Paging Control Channel (PCCH) Carries paging information
– Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH) Carries dedicated (point-to-point) control
information
– Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH) Point-to-Point (unicast) dedicated traffic channel
– Common Control Channel (CCCH) Carries common (point-to-multipoint) control
information before RRC connection is established
• Support for HARQ and link adaptation (varying modulation, coding, and Tx power)
• Possibility to be broadcast in the entire cell
• Possibility to use beam-forming
• Support for both dynamic and semi-static resource allocation
• Support for UE discontinuous reception (DRX) to enable UE power saving
• Slow power control (depends on the physical layer)
Details of all channel descriptions are provided in the Qualcomm University LTE Air Interface course.
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Section 1: Course Introduction and LTE Overview
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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RandomAccess Channel (RACH) carries the Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH)
• Used when the UE needs to (re-)establish the dedicated connection
• Due to its modulation and coding, PRACH performance is much better than PUSCH, thus is not
expected to be limiting in LTE.
Uplink Shared Channel (UL-SCH), carried over the Physical Uplink Shared Channel (PUSCH)
• Unlike UMTS, most of the User and Control plane channels are carried over the UL-SCH:
– Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH) Carries dedicated (point-to-point) control
information
– Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH) Point-to-Point (unicast) dedicated traffic channel
– Common Control Channel (CCCH) Carries common (point-to-multipoint) control
information before RRC connection is established
– Uplink Control Information (UCI) Carries channel conditions and acknowledgement
for DL channels
• Support for HARQ and link adaptation (varying modulation, coding and TX power)
Physical Uplink Control Channel (PUCCH)
• Carries the UCI when PUSCH is not transmitted
Details of all channel descriptions are provided in the Qualcomm University LTE Air Interface course.
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Section 1: Course Introduction and LTE Overview
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 1: Course Introduction and LTE Overview
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 1: Course Introduction and LTE Overview
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 1: Course Introduction and LTE Overview
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Coverage and interference for a given tone
This course considers coverage and interference for a given tone. Although this representation
enables easy calculation, it does not reflect reality because a channel always contains multiple tones
(at least 12 should be considered for a given RB).
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Section 1: Course Introduction and LTE Overview
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 1: Course Introduction and LTE Overview
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 1: Course Introduction and LTE Overview
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 1: Course Introduction and LTE Overview
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 1: Course Introduction and LTE Overview
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 1: Course Introduction and LTE Overview
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 1: Course Introduction and LTE Overview
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Appendix and References
Key information provided in this section will be used throughout this course.
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Section 1: Course Introduction and LTE Overview
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 1: Course Introduction and LTE Overview
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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E-UTRA
Operat-
ing
Band
Uplink (UL)
Operating
Band
BS receive
UE transmit
[MHz]
Downlink
(DL)
Operating
Band
BS transmit
UE receive
[MHz]
Duplex
Mode
Duplex
Offset
Supported Channel Bandwidth [MHz]
1.4 3 5 10 15 20
1 1920 – 1980 2110 – 2170 FDD 190 X X X X
2 1850 – 1910 1930 – 1990 FDD 80 X X X X X X
3 1710 – 1785 1805 – 1880 FDD 95 X X X X X X
4 1710 – 1755 2110 – 2155 FDD 400 X X X X X X
5 824 – 849 869 – 894 FDD 45 X X X X
6 830 – 840 875 – 885 FDD 45 X X
7 2500 – 2570 2620 – 2690 FDD 120 X X X X
8 880 – 915 925 – 960 FDD 45 X X X X
9 1749.9 – 1784.9 1844.9 – 1879.9 FDD 95 X X X X
10 1710 – 1770 2110 – 2170 FDD 400 X X X X
11 1427.9 – 1452.9 1475.9 – 1500.9 FDD 48 x X X X
12 698 – 716 728– 746 FDD 30 X X X X
13 777 – 787 746 – 756 FDD - 31 X X X X
14 788 – 798 758 – 768 FDD - 30 X X X X

17 704 – 716 734 – 746 FDD 30 X X X X
...
33 1900 – 1920 1900 – 1920 TDD NA X X X X
34 2010 – 2025 2010 – 2025 TDD NA X X X
35 1850 – 1910 1850 – 1910 TDD NA X X X X X X
36 1930 – 1990 1930 – 1990 TDD NA X X X X X X
37 1910 – 1930 1910– 1930 TDD NA X X X X
38 2570 – 2620 2570 – 2620 TDD NA X X
39 1880 – 1920 1880 – 1920 TDD NA X X X X
40 2300 – 2400 2300 – 2400 TDD NA X X X
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80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Efficiency and Reference Signal
The number of antennas (and thus the number of Reference Signals), also affects efficiency due to the
number of symbols used for the Reference Signals.
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RS and antenna
For other antenna configurations, the standard (36.211) provides the necessary details. Note that by
keeping the corresponding RE on other antenna ports free of transmission, the UE can better estimate
the correlation between both antennas and provide a more accurate rank estimation.
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Section 1: Course Introduction and LTE Overview
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Comments/Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 2: Estimating Interference in LTE
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 2: Estimating Interference in LTE
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 2: Estimating Interference in LTE
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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LTE interference
• Intra-system interference
– Same Cell
 Excess Delay Spread
 Doppler Shift
– Other Cells
 Frequency Deployment Strategies
 LTE Interference Mitigation Techniques
• Inter-system interference
– Co-existence with other technologies is explained in Section 3
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Section 2: Estimating Interference in LTE
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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SNR Estimation
E
s
The received energy per RE during the useful part of the symbol (i.e., excluding the cyclic prefix)
averaged across the allocated RB(s) (average power within the allocated RB(s) divided by the
number of REs within this allocation, and normalized to the subcarrier spacing) at the UE
antenna connector.
I
ot
The received power spectral density of the total noise and interference for a certain RE (power
integrated over the RE and normalized to the subcarrier spacing) as measured at the UE antenna
connector.
N
oc
The power spectral density of a white noise source (mean power per RE normalized to the
subcarrier spacing), simulating interference from cells that are not defined in a test procedure,
as measured at the UE antenna.
N
oc
and I
ot
have similar definitions: N
oc
is defined for equivalent white noise, while I
ot
represents
actual interference. In this course, N
oc
notation is typically used, but it should be considerd equivalent
to I
ot
.
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Section 2: Estimating Interference in LTE
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 2: Estimating Interference in LTE
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 2: Estimating Interference in LTE
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Δf
Δf in this case refers to the tone bandwidth, typically 15 kHz.
Trade off in LTE
To maximize the efficiency, it would be desirable to minimize the overhead as much as possible. In
particular, limiting the cyclic prefix would allow for more energy for the useful part of the symbol
(Tu). Unfortunately, reducing the CP must be done very carefully because the CP must be large
enough to ensure that multi-path falls within the CP. If not, SNR would degrade due to inter-system
interference (ISI) and inter-carrier interference (ICI). This would reduce the possible spectral
efficiency because high SNR is required to support high spectral efficiency.
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Section 2: Estimating Interference in LTE
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Delay Spread
Delay spread is inherent to the propagation conditions due to multipaths. The CP size needs to be
compatible with the expected delay spread. Single Frequency Network (SFN) can be seen as a special
case of multipath. In SFN, the multipaths are not only coming from signal reflection, but can also be
coming from different eNBs transmitting the same signal. In that case, the CP should be larger than for
unicast transmission.
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Cyclic Prefix 3GPP
CP overhead calculations:
This chart is valid only for Frame Type 1 (FDD) Slot = 0.5 ms
N
RB
sc
= Number of Resource Block Sub Channels Occupied by CP
N
symb
= Number of Symbols in 1 Slot
CP time per sample over 1 Slot (µsec) Total CP
Cyclic Prefix 1st Sample Samples # Samples 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 time/slot % OH
CP
normal
4.69 µsec 5.21 µsec 7 5.21 4.69 4.69 4.69 4.69 4.69 4.69 3.34E-05 6.67%
CP
extended
16.67 µsec 6 16.67 16.67 16.67 16.67 16.67 16.67 1.00E-04 20.00%
Cp
extended
Δf=7.5 KHz
33.33 µsec 3 33.33 33.33 33.33 1.00E-04 20.00%
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Degradation due to Excess Delay Spread (EDS)
Sample SNR degradation is based link level simulation. In that simulation, the required SNR to
maintain a given BLER (1 or 10%) is estimated for different Excess Delay Spreads, while considering
that the channel estimation window is large enough to capture the multipath. Such SNR degradation
can be simulated either by increasing the SNR required for the different Modulation and Coding
Schemes or by changing the noise floor.
Note that actual performance degradation (DL) largely depends on how the UE performs the channel
estimation.
Percentage of energy within channel estimation window
This represents the amount of energy that falls outside the CP, but still within the channel estimation
window. For a small amount of energy in the channel estimation window, the degradation in SNR is
limited, e.g., 0.1 dB degradation for 10%. For a large portion of the that energy (e.g., 80%) up to 1 dB
degradation of SNR can be observed.
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Section 2: Estimating Interference in LTE
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CP Planning
For LTE, CP planning is not expected to be a critical issue, mainly due to the limited setting options
(only 2 possible values). In an urban area, where small cells are expected, a normal CP would be
typical. In a rural area, where large cells are expected, extended CP may be required if the morphology
is prone to multipath (such as a mountainous area).
It is advisable to maintain the same CP within a cluster. Different Cyclic Prefixes also mean a different
number of symbols, different symbol durations, etc. These changes would prevent the UE from
accurately estimating the RSRP (and RSRQ).
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Doppler Shift
Bc = Coherence Bandwidth. This is the bandwidth in which the signal correlates.
• Rule of Thumb
 1/(50τrms) < Bc < 1/(5τrms)
Fc = Coherence Time. This is the maximum time period during which signals are considered to be
correlated.
Fm = Doppler Shift Frequency (Hz)
• Rule of Thumb
 9/(16πFm)<Tc<0.423/(Fm)
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Section 2: Estimating Interference in LTE
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Bottom Line
Source: 3GPP TR 36.803 (2008-04) Section B.2.2.2 Doppler spectrum
When defining the Doppler frequency to use for E-UTRA performance requirements, a principle
similar to that used for UTRA can be implemented. Each propagation condition is based on a maximum
Doppler frequency, not on a specific UE speed. A set of three Doppler frequencies spanning the
requirement range of high, middle, and lowDoppler frequencies is selected.
The LTE requirements for mobility in TR 25.913 state that “Mobility across the cellular network shall
be maintained at speeds from 120 km/h to 350 km/h (or even up to 500 km/h depending on the
frequency band).” It is also stated that this “…represents a special case such as a high speed train
environment.”
There are more common high speed scenarios for moderately high mobile speeds. It is stated in
TR 25.913 that high performance should be maintained up to mobile speeds of 120 km/h. The
corresponding maximum Doppler frequency for f
c
=2690 MHz is f
D
=299 Hz. Based on this, the high
Doppler frequency is selected as 300 Hz.
Doppler Frequencies defined for LTE Channel Models
Frequency
[Hz]
5 70 300
Speed [Km/h]
Frequency Band
[GHz]
Speed [Km/h]
Frequency Band
[GHz]
Speed [Km/h]
Frequency Band
[GHz]
Velocity
2.70 2.00 40.80 2.00 162.00 2.00
6.40 0.85 88.90 0.85 381.20 0.85
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Doppler Frequency Impact
Expected impact can be estimated from relaxed performance requirement at different frequencies.
Note that the Minimum Performance Specification (MPS) does not provide a complete view because
the Doppler shift is limited in range. In particular, it does not show what is actually expected: flat
performance (typically within 2 dB) over a large Doppler shift range, then a gradual degradation.
Actual degradation would be Modulation and Coding Scheme (MCS) specific, with faster degradation
for the Higher Order Modulation (HOM).
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Section 2: Estimating Interference in LTE
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Notes
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Section 2: Estimating Interference in LTE
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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Section 2: Estimating Interference in LTE
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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Section 2: Estimating Interference in LTE
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ICIC
Inter Cell Interference Coordination (ICIC) is considered one aspect that would be implemented
through Self Optimizing Networks (SON). SON is currently considered for Rel 9 or later of the standard
(see 3GPP TS 36.902).
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Fractional Frequency Reuse
FFR is not controlled by standard parameters, but could be implemented as a vendor specific
parameter.
For reference, FFR is implemented in various technologies via several different methods:
• LTE Rel 9 – implemented using the following method:
– Resource Block scheduling such that the resources utilized are not the same in frequency
typical of ICIC (Inter Cell Interference Coordination is described in 3GPP TS 36.902 Section
4.9). It is proposed that LTE UL use Soft Frequency Reuse SFR (SFR) schemes to allocate
Physical Resource Blocks (PRBs) to cell edge and cell interior users.
• WiMAX – implemented using the following method:
– Assign specific tone groups to specific sectors via Partial Usage Sub Channelization (PUSC).
• Other technologies, such as FlashOFDM– implemented as a Psuedo N=3 reuse with similar
1/3/1 and 1/3/3 reuse as in the following:
– Physically assigned frequencies on each sector possessing varying power levels on each
physical sector. This is typically implemented across entire networks and is shown above
and below for more clarity, where F1 = Carrier Frequency 1 and so on:
Sector N=1 N=3 FFR
Alpha F1 F1 F1 F2 F3
Beta F1 F2 F2 F3 F1
Gamma F1 F3 F3 F1 F2
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Section 2: Estimating Interference in LTE
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Notes
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Section 2: Estimating Interference in LTE
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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Section 2: Estimating Interference in LTE
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ICIC – Inter Cell Interference Coordination (3GPP TS 36.902 Section 4.9)
ICIC is a Downlink-only interference strategy that is not available in Rel 8. Several methods are under
discussion:
Reference for the following: 3GPP LTE Handbook, by Borko Furht, Syed A. Ahson
SSI – Start Stop Indicator: There are sets of start and a set of stop indices for Resource Blocks
supporting exterior UEs. Interior UEs receive the Resource Blocks outside of the reserved blocks.
SI – Start Index: Similar to SSI in that the Resource Blocks ahead of the SI are reserved for exterior
UEs and remaining are used for interior UEs.
RSI – Random Start Index: Similar to SI but without any cell-to-cell coordination.
SIGW– Start Index Geometry Weight: Similar to SI with UE-reported geometrical weight reporting
(called the Geometric Index). Scheduler works with exterior geometries first, using a preconfigured
start index.
RIGW– Random Index Geometry Weight: UEs sorted in terms of their geometric weight with
exterior UEs scheduled first, using a Random Start Index.
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Section 2: Estimating Interference in LTE
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Notes
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Section 2: Estimating Interference in LTE
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Definitions
• Ê
s
- Received energy per RE (power normalized to the subcarrier spacing) at the UE antenna
connector during the useful part of the symbol, i.e., excluding the cyclic prefix.
• I
o
– The total received power density, including signal and interference, as measured at the UE
antenna connector.
• I
ot
- The received power spectral density of the total noise and interference for a certain RE
(power integrated over the RE and normalized to the subcarrier spacing) as measured at the UE
antenna connector.
• N
oc
- The power spectral density of a white noise source (average power per RE normalized to
the subcarrier spacing), simulating interference from cells that are not defined in a test
procedure, as measured at the UE antenna connector.
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Section 2: Estimating Interference in LTE
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Transmit Diversity Case
Similar calculation can be assumed for Transmit Diversity. In this case, the total eNB power would be
split equally between both branches, and ideal combining at the receiver can be assumed.
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Section 2: Estimating Interference in LTE
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Correlation Factor
The standards provide correlation matrices for each case: low, medium, and high. For transmission,
the correlation matrix provides the coefficient Tx 1 to Rx 1 (1 typically), Tx 2 to Rx1 (0, 0.3, or 0.9
depending on the correlation), Tx 1 to Rx 2 and Tx 2 to Rx 2.
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Section 2: Estimating Interference in LTE
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Notes
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Section 2: Estimating Interference in LTE
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Notes
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Section 2: Estimating Interference in LTE
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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Section 2: Estimating Interference in LTE
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Notes
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Section 2: Estimating Interference in LTE
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Notes
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Section 2: Estimating Interference in LTE
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Notes
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Section 2: Estimating Interference in LTE
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Inter-technology Measurements
In addition to the LTE specific measurements listed, for interoperability purposes other technologies
need to be measured as well. Such inter-technology measurements include:
• UTRA FDD CPICH RSCP
• UTRA FDD carrier RSSI
• UTRA FDD CPICH E
c
/N
o
• GSM carrier RSSI
• UTRA TDD carrier RSSI
• UTRA TDD P-CCPCH RSCP
• CDMA2000 1xRTT Pilot Strength
• CDMA2000 HRPD Pilot Strength
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Section 2: Estimating Interference in LTE
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Notes
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Section 2: Estimating Interference in LTE
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I
ob
Although it is not defined formally in the standard, I
ob
represents the Received Power, within 1 RB.
This measurement enables the load on a particular RB to be estimated, and thus can be used for
scheduling.
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Section 2: Estimating Interference in LTE
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Notes
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Section 2: Estimating Interference in LTE
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Number of Antennas and Measurements
According to the standard, for a UE equipped with more than one Rx antenna, the measurement may
consider more than one antenna. This is left to the discretion of the vendor.
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RSRQ
E-UTRA carrier RSSI comprises the linear average of the total received power (in [W])
observed only in OFDM symbols containing reference symbols for antenna port 0, over N
number of resource blocks by the UE from all sources, including co-channel serving and non-
serving cells, adjacent channel interference, thermal noise, etc.
If the UE is using receiver diversity, the reported value shall not be lower than the
corresponding RSRQ of any of the individual diversity branches.
Number of antenna and measurements
By standard, for UE equipped with more than one Rx antenna, the measurement may consider
more than one antenna. This is left to the vendor discretion.
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Section 2: Estimating Interference in LTE
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RSRP, RSSI, and RSRQ
To clarify the definition of RSRQ in 38.214, it needs to be compared with the value defined in the conformance testing
(36.521-3). Taking the example of test 9.2.1 (RSRQ, FDD intra frequency accuracy), the test conditions lead to an expected
RSRQ value of -14.76 dB, which can only be achieved assuming that RSSI is measured over all the subcarriers during the
symbol times containing RS.
RSPR
• Effectively, average energy per RE when the RS is transmitted.
• Number of RE used for averaging is left to vendor implementation, but should be representative of the entire bandwidth.
• For example, RSRP can be estimated over the circled RE: only 3 RB are considered, spread over the entire bandwidth (6
RB)
RSSI
• Effectively, Wideband Signal Received Level when RS is transmitted.
• Standard does not specify the number of RB (N) that should be used for the estimation, but the estimation should
indicative of the entire bandwidth.
• As an example, RSSI can be the sum of the (time) average RE that carry RS (R0 for antenna 0). In this example, N is
chosen to be 3.
RSRQ
• Related to SNR, but not directly indicative of SNR.
• RSSI is measured over all subcarriers when RS signals are transmitted (12 subcarriers per RB), but RSPR is averaged per
RE
• Effectively, RSPQ and RS SNR relates by a factor depending on the loading.
– Unloaded, isolated cell, power would be detected only on RS RE: effectively -3 dB is the lowest possible value for RSRQ
– Fully loaded, isolated cell, power would be evenly distributed over all RE of the RB: in such condition, maximum RSRQ
would be 10*log(1/12) = -10.79 dB
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Section 2: Estimating Interference in LTE
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RSRQExample
Using the RSRQ sheet in the link budget, we can estimate the effect of path loss and loading on the
RSRQ. This example considers a single RB, but when multiple RBs are used for calculation, the value is
averaged to provide a single value representative of the entire bandwidth.
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Section 2: Estimating Interference in LTE
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CQI Reporting for Scheduling
The time and frequency resources used by the UE to report CQI are under the control of the eNB. CQI
reporting can be either periodic or aperiodic. A UE can be configured to have both periodic and
aperiodic reporting at the same time. If both periodic and aperiodic reporting occur in the same
subframe, only the aperiodic report is transmitted in that subframe.
For efficient support of localized, distributed, and MIMO transmissions, E-UTRA supports three types of
CQI reporting:
• Wideband type: Provides channel quality information of entire system bandwidth of the cell.
• Multi-band type: Provides channel quality information of some subset(s) of system bandwidth
of the cell.
• MIMO type: Delta CQI is used to report eventual channel conditions on different spatial
channels.
Periodic CQI reporting is defined by the following characteristics:
• When the UE is allocated PUSCH resources in a subframe where a periodic CQI report is
configured to be sent, the periodic CQI report is transmitted together with Uplink data on the
PUSCH. Otherwise, the periodic CQI reports are sent on the PUCCH.
Aperiodic CQI reporting is defined by the following characteristics:
• The report is scheduled by the eNB via the PDCCH,
• Transmitted together with Uplink data on PUSCH.
When a CQI report is transmitted together with Uplink data on PUSCH, it is multiplexed with the
transport block by L1 (i.e., the CQI report is not part of the Uplink the transport block).
The eNB configures a set of sizes and formats of the reports. Size and format of the report depends on
whether it is transmitted over PUCCH or PUSCH and whether it is a periodic or aperiodic CQI report.
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Section 2: Estimating Interference in LTE
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
3-1
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Notes
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3-2
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Notes
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3-3
Section 3: Overlay and Coexistence with other Technologies
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Notes
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3-4
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Notes
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3-5
Section 3: Overlay and Coexistence with other Technologies
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Notes
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3-6
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Notes
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3-7
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Defining LTE Tx Emissions in 3GPP
3GPP 36.104 Base Station radio transmission and reception
Table 6.6.2.1-1: Base Station ACLR in paired spectrum
E-UTRA transmitted
signal channel
bandwidth BW
Channel
[MHz]
BS adjacent channel
centre frequency offset
below the first or above
the last carrier centre
frequency transmitted
Assumed adjacent
channel carrier
(informative)
Filter on the adjacent
channel frequency and
corresponding filter
bandwidth
ACLR
limit
1.4, 3.0, 5, 10, 15, 20
BW
Channel
E-UTRA of same BW Square (BW
Config
) 45 dB
2 x BW
Channel
E-UTRA of same BW Square (BW
Config
) 45 dB
BW
Channel
/2 + 2.5 MHz 3.84 Mcps UTRA RRC (3.84 Mcps) 45 dB
BW
Channel
/2 + 7.5 MHz 3.84 Mcps UTRA RRC (3.84 Mcps) 45 dB
NOTE 1: BW
Channel
and BW
Config
are the channel bandwidth and transmission bandwidth configuration of the
E-UTRA transmitted signal on the assigned channel frequency.
NOTE 2: The RRC filter shall be equivalent to the transmit pulse shape filter defined in TS 25.104 [6], with a chip
rate as defined in this table.
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Notes
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3-9
Section 3: Overlay and Coexistence with other Technologies
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© 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Notes
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3-10
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Notes
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3-11
Section 3: Overlay and Coexistence with other Technologies
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Defining Receiver Response in LTE
3GPP TR36.101 (UE Reference Sensitivity)
3GPP TR36.104 (eNode B Reference Sensitivity)
 kTB = Thermal noise at standard temperature in 1 Hz, 174 dBm/Hz
 NF = Noise figure of receiver (5 dB eNB and 9 dB UE)
 SINR = Signal to interference plus noise ratio for given modulation and coding
(for example QPSK 1/3, SINR = 1.5 dB)
 IM = 1.5 to 2 dB depending on the link = Implementation Margin (not intermodulation in this
case) the margin provided in the specification for receiver tolerance
 -3 = diversity gain
 3GPP TR36.104, Table 7.5.1-3: Adjacent channel selectivity and wanted signal for eNode B
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P
refsens
and other requirements
Note that for the UL, P
REFSENS
changes per band due to varying duplexer isolation.
In addition, 3GPP TR36.104, Table 7.5.1-3 provides the level for Adjacent channel selectivity and
wanted signal for eNode B.
E-UTRA
channel
bandwidth
[MHz]
Wanted signal mean
power [dBm]
Interfering
signal mean
power [dBm]
Interfering signal centre
frequency offset from
the channel edge of the
wanted signal [MHz]
Type of interfering signal
1.4 P
REFSENS
+ 11dB* -52 0.7025 1.4MHz E-UTRA signal
3 P
REFSENS
+ 8dB* -52 1.5075 3MHz E-UTRA signal
5 P
REFSENS
+ 6dB* -52 2.5075 5MHz E-UTRA signal
10 P
REFSENS
+ 6dB* -52 2.5025 5MHz E-UTRA signal
15 P
REFSENS
+ 6dB* -52 2.5125 5MHz E-UTRA signal
20 P
REFSENS
+ 6dB* -52 2.5025 5MHz E-UTRA signal
Note*: P
REFSENS
depends on the channel bandwidth as specified in Table 7.2.1-1.
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Notes
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Near-Far Effect
Near-far effect occurs when Base Stations (BTS, or eNB for LTE) for the wanted and interfering
systems are located far apart. This scenario is the worst case for OOBE or adjacent channel
interference (ACI), as described below:
 The F1 mobile connects to the F1 BTS at a remote distance.
 The F1 BTS receiver is experiencing significant ACI from the F2 mobile due its higher power
being transmitted to reach the distant F2 BTS and the close proximity to the F1 BTS.
 Similarly, the F2 mobile is connected to the F2 BTS at a remote distance.
 The F2 BTS receiver is also receiving high ACI from the F1 mobile due to the close proximity
of the F1 mobile to the F2 BTS.
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Co-Existence Scenarios
Source: TR 36.942 V8.1.0, Section 6.1, Co-existence scenarios
3GPP considers the following scenarios:
 5 MHz E-UTRA – UTRA (victim), Downlink
 10 MHz E-UTRA – 10 MHz E-UTRA (victim), Downlink
 10 MHz E-UTRA – 10 MHz E-UTRA (victim), Uplink
 5 MHz E-UTRA – UTRA (victim), Uplink
 1.4 MHz E-UTRA –UTRA 1.4 MHz (victim), Downlink
 1.4 MHz E-UTRA –UTRA 1.4 MHz (victim), Uplink
Channel bandwidth BW
Channel
[MHz] 1.4 3 5 10 15 20
Transmission bandwidth configuration
N
RB
6 15 25 50 75 100
Total BW (NRB * 180 kHz) (Hz) 1080000 2700000 4500000 9000000 13500000 18000000
Total Guard Band (Hz) 320000 300000 500000 1000000 1500000 2000000
Guard Band % of Channel 29.6% 11.1% 11.1% 11.1% 11.1% 11.1%
Guard Upper/Lower (kHz) 160 150 250 500 750 1000
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© 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
3GPP LTE Operating Bands
By examining where LTE is expected to be deployed and observing what other signal are present in
the same band, we can better understand what scenarios need to be considered for co-existence.
This chart depicts the planned 3GPP LTE Band Classes and shows the overlap between UMTS, GSM,
CDMA2000, and WiMAX band classes.
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Notes
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Notes
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© 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Notes
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Section 3: Overlay and Coexistence with other Technologies
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Notes
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Notes
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© 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Guard Bands for LTE
Channel bandwidth BW
Channel
[MHz] 1.4 3 5 10 15 20
Transmission bandwidth configuration N
RB
6 15 25 50 75 100
Total BW (NRB * 180 kHz) (Hz) 1080000 2700000 4500000 9000000 13500000 18000000
Total Guard Band (Hz) 320000 300000 500000 1000000 1500000 2000000
Guard Band % of Channel 29.6% 11.1% 11.1% 11.1% 11.1% 11.1%
Guard Upper/Lower (kHz) 160 150 250 500 750 1000
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© 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Reference: 3GPP TS 36.104, Tables:
Table 6.6.3.1-3: General operating band unwanted emission limits for 1.4 MHz channel bandwidth
(E-UTRA bands >1GHz) for Category A
Table 6.6.3.1-4: General operating band unwanted emission limits for 3 MHz channel bandwidth
(E-UTRA bands >1GHz) for Category A
Table 6.6.3.1-5: General operating band unwanted emission limits for 5, 10, 15 and 20 MHz channel
bandwidth (E-UTRA bands <1GHz) for Category A
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Reference for the Tolerance Values
ACI tolerance, UE is provided by 36.101, Table 7.5.1-2.
For 5 MHz bandwidth, the wanted signal is expected to be +14 dB above P
refsens
(see 36.101, Table
7.3.1-1), while the interfering power can be + 45.5 dB above P
refsens
.
From these, only 31.5 dB ACS would result, instead of the 33 dB noted in Table 7.5.1-1. The
difference is due to implementation margin.
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Notes
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© 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Increasing Isolation
In this case, the isolation between antennas is not sufficient to satisfy the OOBE requirements.
Note that this example did not consider the actual antenna pattern, which may increase the
isolation considering the typical null below the antenna.
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Notes
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© 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Increasing Isolation
In this case, the isolation between antenna is not sufficient to satisfy the OOBE requirements.
Note that this example did not consider the actual antenna pattern, which may increase the
isolation considering the typical null below the antenna.
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Notes
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3-30
Section 3: Overlay and Coexistence with other Technologies
80-W2559-1 Rev B
© 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Notes
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© 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Guard Bands for LTE
Channel bandwidth BW
Channel
[MHz] 1.4 3 5 10 15 20
Transmission bandwidth configuration N
RB
6 15 25 50 75 100
Total BW (NRB * 180 kHz) (Hz) 1080000 2700000 4500000 9000000 13500000 18000000
Total Guard Band (Hz) 320000 300000 500000 1000000 1500000 2000000
Guard Band % of Channel 29.6% 11.1% 11.1% 11.1% 11.1% 11.1%
Guard Upper/Lower (kHz) 160 150 250 500 750 1000
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Reference: 3GPP TS 36.104, Tables:
Table 6.6.3.2-4: General operating band unwanted emission limits for 1.4 MHz channel bandwidth
(E-UTRA bands >1GHz) for Category B
Table 6.6.3.2-5: General operating band unwanted emission limits for 3 MHz channel bandwidth
(E-UTRA bands >1GHz) for Category B
Table 6.6.3.2-6: General operating band unwanted emission limits for 5, 10, 15 and 20 MHz channel
bandwidth (E-UTRA bands >1GHz) for Category B
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Notes
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© 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Notes
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© 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Notes
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© 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Notes
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Notes
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Section 3: Overlay and Coexistence with other Technologies
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© 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Notes
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3-39
Section 3: Overlay and Coexistence with other Technologies
80-W2559-1 Rev B
© 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Notes
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3-40
Section 3: Overlay and Coexistence with other Technologies
80-W2559-1 Rev B
© 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Notes
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Section 3: Overlay and Coexistence with other Technologies
80-W2559-1 Rev B
© 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Notes
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3-42
Section 3: Overlay and Coexistence with other Technologies
80-W2559-1 Rev B
© 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Notes
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3-43
Section 3: Overlay and Coexistence with other Technologies
80-W2559-1 Rev B
© 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Notes
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3-44
Section 3: Overlay and Coexistence with other Technologies
80-W2559-1 Rev B
© 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Notes
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3-45
Section 3: Overlay and Coexistence with other Technologies
80-W2559-1 Rev B
© 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Notes
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3-46
Section 3: Overlay and Coexistence with other Technologies
80-W2559-1 Rev B
© 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Notes
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Section 3: Overlay and Coexistence with other Technologies
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© 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Notes
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© 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
LTE Spectrum Worldwide
Initial deployments are expected with a large number of tier one operators throughout the world. In
the United States announcements have been made to use the 700 MHz upper band, with other
operators are considering the lower 700 MHz band and AWS bands. Several operators in Japan
have also announced their intent to launch LTE. In many cases the spectrum does not follow IMT-
2000 band planning and will need to be examined on a case-by-case basis for its potential to co-
exist with incumbent technologies. Europe and Scandinavian countries are targeting the 2.6 GHz
IMT bands first followed by the yet to be auctioned Digital Dividend Band (700 MHz). Many other
countries have operators who have announced their intensions to pursue LTE, but banding and co-
location are still not solidified as of this writing. In most cases lightly or unused spectrum will be
the first to launch, followed by spectrum currently used for 2G where heavy offloading and re-
farming must take place.
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Spectrum Usage by Band and Location
 Europe: 900 MHz (Cellular), 1800 MHz (DCS) and 2100 MHz (IMT-2000) bands
 Americas: 850 MHz (US Cellular), 1900 MHz (PCS), AWS, 700 MHz (Lower & Upper UHF)
bands
 Asia: 900 MHz (Cellular), 1800 MHz (DCS) and 2100 MHz (IMT-2000) bands, Partial 850
MHz (US Cellular), 1700 MHz (Korean PCS), 1500 MHz (Japan specific) bands
 Africa: 900 MHz (Cellular), 1800 MHz (DCS), Partial 850 MHz (US Cellular) and 2100 MHz
(IMT-2000) bands
 Australia: 900 MHz (Cellular), 1800 MHz (DCS) and 2100 MHz (IMT-2000) bands
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© 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
U.S. 700 MH Band Plan
Source: www.fcc.gov 700MHzBandPlan.pdf graphic
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© 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
FCC License Areas
Maps: Source www.FCC.gov
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© 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
IMT-2000 Extension Band
CEPT - Commission of European Post and Telecommunications
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© 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Notes
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© 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Comments/Notes
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Section 4: RF Propagation & Modeling
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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Section 4: RF Propagation & Modeling
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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Section 4: RF Propagation & Modeling
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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Section 4: RF Propagation & Modeling
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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RF Propagation Model for LTE
The radio wave propagation model (or path loss model) plays a significant role in the planning of any
wireless communication system.
The main classes of radio wave propagation models are:
• Empirical – Equations and parameters are derived based on field measurements. Examples
include (notably) Hata models and COST-231 extension.
• Deterministic – Based on the fundamental mechanisms of radio wave propagation: refraction,
diffraction, scattering, etc. No typical examples (this model is typically proprietary), but
Deterministic models rely on ray tracing or ray launching algorithms.
• Semi-deterministic – Combines good properties of both models.
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Section 4: RF Propagation & Modeling
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Sample RF Propagation Models for LTE
All the propagation models mentioned above are empirical in nature, model coefficients are developed
based on field measurements. Measurements typically are performed in the field to measure path loss,
delay spread, or other channel characteristics.
For accurate prediction, it is necessary to calibrate/tune these coefficients based on actual field
measurements for a specific area or market.
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Section 4: RF Propagation & Modeling
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Note
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80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Comparative Path Loss Plots
The above plot demonstrates path loss variation against frequency.
• Okumura-Hata model Frequency Range: 400 MHz to 1400 MHz
• COST-231 model Frequency Range: 1500 MHz to 2000 MHz
• Distance between transmitter & receiver: 1 km
• Morphology classification: default suburban
• Transmit antenna height: 30 m
Both graphs show an abrupt path loss increase of approximately 3 dB between 1400 and 1500 MHz.
This occurred due to a change of RF propagation model and indicates differential path loss prediction
by the two model using default coefficients.
Note that this difference is independent of clutter (approximately 3 dB for both urban and suburban
morphologies).
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Section 4: RF Propagation & Modeling
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Comparative Path Loss
This plot demonstrates comparative path loss variation against distance for various terrain types
defined in Erceg/SUI against COST-231 and standard propagation models. The above calculations are
done for 2600 MHz transmission. Note that the COST-231 model is not valid at 2600 MHz; therefore
these calculations are for academic interest only.
Morphology classification : default suburban
Transmit antenna height : 30 m
Receive antenna height : 1.5 m
Suburban clutter loss (for SPM) : -5 dB (with respect to default urban; 0 dB)
K1 (for SPM at 2600 MHz) : 23.8
Recall that the ERCEG/SUI model is referenced for suburban morphology. Additional clutter
adjustments must be added for path loss calculations in other clutter configurations.
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Section 4: RF Propagation & Modeling
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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Section 4: RF Propagation & Modeling
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Note
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Section 4: RF Propagation & Modeling
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Propagation Model Tuning / Calibration
For best accuracy, propagation models must be optimized.
However, for low accuracy analysis (e.g., a quick market analysis or very preliminary analysis), the
propagation models can be used without optimization.
Please refer to Qualcomm document 80-W1655-1 Propagation Model Tuning for more information on
this topic.
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Section 4: RF Propagation & Modeling
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Propagation Model Optimization Example
This comparison shows the importance of propagation model tuning.
Using default Okumura-Hata models, reasonably good RF coverage was predicted during a nominal
design phase with ~60 sites.
However, tuned models showed significant reduction in cell radius. This required adding more sites to
meet coverage targets.
The final site count became ~80 (approximately 30% increase compared to the nominal design).
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Section 4: RF Propagation & Modeling
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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References
• W. C. Stone, "Electromagnetic Signal Attenuation in Construction Materials," NISTIR 6055, NIST,
1997.
• K. J. Bois, A. D. Benally, P. S. Nowak, and R. Zoughi, “Cure-state monitoring and w=c ratio
determination of fresh Portland cement-based materials using near field microwave techniques,”
IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., vol. 47, pp. 628–637, June 1999
• H. C. Rhimand O. Buyukozturk, 1998, “Electromagnetic properties of concrete at microwave
frequency range,” ACI Materials Journal, v. 95, p. 262-271
• D. Pena, R. Feick, H. Hristov, and W. Grote. “Measurement and Modeling of Propagation losses in
Brick and Concrete Walls for the 900 MHz band,” IEEE Trans Antennas and Propagation 51, p.31,
2003.
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Section 4: RF Propagation & Modeling
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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Section 4: RF Propagation & Modeling
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Penetration of Signal Through Glass Material
Glass is a homogeneous material with a known range of parameters. Up to the top end of the LTE
frequency range (2.6 GHz), the wavelength is not that small compared to the thickness of the material
(generally a couple of centimeters). Therefore, the transmission and reflection characteristics of this
material can be approximated by multi-ray models.
Penetration of Signal Through Concrete Material
In theory, we can consider concrete to be a slab of a certain thickness. However, unlike glass, concrete
is not homogeneous with predefined electrical properties. The dielectric constant of a concrete
amalgamation and its equivalent electric conductivity depends on many variables such as: mixture,
water to cement ratio, cure time / conditions, etc.
Impact of Various Frequencies on Penetration Through Concrete
The imaginary part of the dielectric constant exhibits a general increase with frequency. However,
since the effect of polarization diminishes as frequency increases, the real part of the dielectric
constant decreases with frequency.
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Section 4: RF Propagation & Modeling
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Impact of Frequency Band on Penetration Loss – Example
This test was performed on a building in the United States that was made of slightly reinforced
concrete. Penetration loss depends on many factors including angle of incidence, water/cement ratio,
curing time, etc. Significant variations may exist for other buildings.
Impact of Various Other Factors on Penetration Through Concrete
Mixture
Concrete is made of various mixtures of cement. Each mixture has a unique effect on penetration loss.
Different mixes of concrete result in different dielectric constants and conductivity, which may result
in 30% to ~50% variation in penetration losses.
Water/Cement (W/C) ratio
Cement concrete with a higher w/c ratio would be expected to have a higher dielectric constant due to
higher pore water content. Even a small amount of free water significantly affects the imaginary part
of the dielectric constant due to an increase in electric conductivity.
Cure time/ Conditions
As curing time increases, the amount of free water in the cement decreases due to cement hydration.
The water changes from a free state to an adsorbed state, which reduces ionic polarization and also
conductivity, due to decreased ion production. After an adequate amount of time, the mixture will be
fully cured and changes in electrical parameters would be minimal, making the attenuation loss
approximately constant from that point on.
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Statistical BPL
Statistical data is based on measurements in a large number of buildings across Asia and Europe. BPL
measurements are based on Pilot RSCP of UMTS networks, in both frequency band.
Such measurements take into account transmission through both the material and the openings.
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Notes
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Section 4: RF Propagation & Modeling
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Exercises
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Exercises - Answers
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Notes
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Section 4: RF Propagation & Modeling
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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Section 4: RF Propagation & Modeling
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Okumura-Hata Model
The Okumura-Hata model is developed for the 400 MHz to 1500 MHz frequency range using
measurements done by Okumura and equations by Hata that fit to the path loss curves. Because of the
reliance on empirical data, the model can be considered valid only for those values and a limited
extension under which the experiment was conducted. That is, the model is only valid for the data it
was tuned for. For final network design and dimensioning, it is essential to use a tuned Okumura-Hata
model.
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Section 4: RF Propagation & Modeling
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Hata Model and Urban Model
When optimizing a Hata model, one should understand which parameter is being optimized and how
that affects the model.
The easiest way to optimize the model is to add a coefficient, C. In this case, only the intercept is
affected, not the slope. If the model is used over a wide range of distances, this yields a low mean error
(typically 0 dB), but the standard deviation can be important.
A better way to optimize the model is to affect both the slope and intercept, to minimize both the error
and the standard deviation. In this case, the slope should be optimized for the typical cell range.
This idea that slope can differ depending on the range for which it is optimized leads to the necessity
of having two (or more) breakpoint models. These models behave like the Hata model, but the slope
and intercept change at set distances (the breakpoints).
Other Morphologies
For all other morphologies, the Urban model is used as a reference and loss is reduced (or increased)
by an additional term. Because the added term is not distance-dependent, this is again equivalent to
shifting the slope by a fixed (at a given frequency) value, irrespective of the increased (or decreased)
useful range.
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Plots
This illustration plotting path loss against distance with a logarithmic scale clearly shows that the Hata
model is linear. The idea that only the intercept changes—but not the slope—is also clearly shown, as
the plots for the different morphologies are parallel to each other, shifted by a morphology-dependent
constant.
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Notes
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COST-231 Model for Urban Morphology
L
HU
= c
1
+ c
2
log(f) – 13.82 log(h
B
) – a(h
M
) + [44.9 – 6.55 log(h
B
)]log(d)
where:
f Frequency in MHz
h
B
Base Station antenna height in meters
h
M
Mobile Station antenna height in meters
d Distance from Base Station in km
c
1
46.3 for 1500 ≤ f ≤ 2000
c
2
33.9 for 1500 ≤ f ≤ 2000
a(h
M
) Same as Okumura-Hata model
For other morphologies, the C
1
and C
2
coefficient change in the same way with changes in frequencies.
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Walfisch-Ikegami versus Hata-Okumura
When considering antenna height range, factor in the height above average terrain.
For sites located on top of local elevations (hills or mountains), the antenna height above terrain might
be within the limits of validity. But for surrounding areas, the apparent antenna height will be the sum
of antenna height (Above Ground Level) plus the difference in terrain elevation (Above Sea Level). If
the sum falls outside the range of model validity, the model for the considered site should be
optimized.
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Notes
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Rooftop-Street Diffraction Loss
w Average street width in meters
f Frequency in MHz
D
mobile
h
roof
- h
mobile
h
roof
Average building roof height in meters
h
mobile
Mobile antenna height in meters
L
rts
Rooftop to street diffraction and scatter loss
L
street
Correction factor to account for street orientation
f Road orientation with respect to the direct radio path in degrees
(typically 90° for worst case)
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Multi-Screen Diffraction Loss
L
med
Correction factor to account for antenna height relative to clutter height
L
msd
Multi-screen diffraction loss
D
base
h
base
- h
roof
h
base
Base Station antenna height in meters
h
roof
Average building roof height in meters
b Average building separation in meters
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Notes
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Lee’s Model
Typical L
o
and γ based on empirical data:
For f < f
o
, n=20, else n=30
Note that although Lee’s model was originally developed for applications in the 850 to 900 MHz
bands, studies conducted by various groups show that it is useful for the PCS (1900 MHz) band as
well, when the model coefficients are tuned based on actual field measurement data.
Reference: The Optimization and Application of the W.C.Y. Lee Propagation Model in the 1900 MHz
Frequency Band, ISBN 0-7803-3659-3, IEEE Xplore Digital Object Identifier:
10.1109/VETEC.1997.59632
Morphology L
o
(dB) g
Free Space 91.3 20
Open (rural) 91.3 43.5
Suburban 104.0 38.5
Urban:
• Philadelphia
• Newark
• Tokyo
112.8
106.3
128.0
36.8
43.1
30
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Notes
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Standard Propagation Model
The reference for the above model was obtained from the following network planning tools:
• ATOLL (from Forsk; www.forsk.com)
• Asset3G (from AIRCOMInternational)
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Standard Propagation Model (continued)
This model has several additional features to enhance its flexibility and accuracy, such as the inclusion
of clutter offset and diffraction.
The model is suitable for macro-cell environments and can incorporate dual-slope with respect to the
distance from the Base Station, if needed.
Typical parametric values of this model are provided below:
Freq [MHz] K1
900 12.5
1800 22
1900 23
2100 23.8
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Notes
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ITU-R P.1546 Model
This model explores the method of point-to-area predictions for terrestrial services in the frequency
range of 30 MHz to 3000 MHz.
This model introduces the concept of terrain clearance angle (TCA) within a pre-defined distance.
The model incorporates the following:
• the effective height of the transmitting/base antenna,
• correction as a function of receiving/mobile antenna height, and
• correction as function of TCA, among other factors.
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Erceg/SUI Path Loss Model
The Stanford University Interim (SUI) and Erceg models are based on extensive experimental data
collected across the United States. The measurements were mostly made in suburban areas of New
Jersey, Seattle, Chicago, Atlanta, and Dallas. The Erceg/SUI model has three variants, based on terrain
type:
• Type A is applicable to hilly terrain with moderate to heavy tree density.
• Type B is applicable to hilly terrain with light tree density or flat terrain with moderate to
heavy tree density.
• Type C is applicable to flat terrain with light tree density.
Unlike the Okumura-Hata model, which predicts only the median path loss, the Erceg/SUI model has
both a median path loss and a shadow-fading component, a zero-mean Gaussian random variable.
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Erceg/SUI Path Loss Model
The novelty of this model is the introduction of the path loss exponent and the weak fading standard
deviation, s, as random variables obtained through a statistical procedure. The model distinguishes
three types of terrain: A, B and C.
• Type A is applicable to hilly terrain with moderate to heavy tree density.
• Type B is applicable to hilly terrain with light tree density or flat terrain with moderate to
heavy tree density.
• Type C is applicable to flat terrain with light tree density.
The above equation can be simplified as follows :
PL = 20*log(4Пfd
0
/c) + 10*γ*log(d) – 10*γ*log(d
0
) + 6*log(f) – 6*log(2000) + X
h
+ s
Or
PL = 20*log(4Пd
0
/c) + 20*log(f) + 10*γ*log(d) + 10*γ + 6*log(f) – 6*log(2000) + X
h
+ s
Or
PL = {20*log(4Пd
0
/c) – 6*log(2000)}+ 26*log(f) + 10*γ*[1 + log(d)] + X
h
+ s
Or
PL = -7.366+ 26*log(f) + 10*γ*[1 + log(d)] + X
h
+ s (f is expressed in MHz)
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Ericsson 9999 Model
The information presented for this model is from the following source:
• Driss Bouami, El Mostapha Aboulhamid (ed), “Comparison of Propagation Models Accuracy for
WiMAX on 3.5 GHz,” ICECS 2007 14th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and
Systems, Marrakech, Maroko, 11-14.12.2007. 111-114 (ISBN: 1-4244-1378-8).
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Notes
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Comparative Path Loss Plots
The plots shown here demonstrate comparative path loss variation over distance.
Morphology classification: default suburban
Transmit antenna height: 30 m
Receive antenna height: 1.5 m
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Notes
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Section 4: RF Propagation & Modeling
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Indoor Propagation Model
In many ways, an indoor propagation channel is more hostile than a typical outdoor channel. Lack of a
line of sight, heavy attenuation, diffraction by objects in the propagation path, and multipath all
contribute to impair a system’s ability to communicate over an RF channel. In addition, the close
proximity of interference sources and rapid variations in the channel make definitive or deterministic
channel characterization difficult, if not impossible.
Site-specific Indoor Propagation Modeling
Requires detailed information on building layout, furniture, and transceiver locations. These can be
developed using ray-tracing methods.
For large-scale static environments, this approach may be viable. For most environments however,
knowledge of the building layout and materials is limited and the environment itself can change, for
example simply by moving furniture or closing doors.
These models generally take the form of free space loss with additional attenuation for walls, floors,
and other obstructions.
General Indoor Propagation Modeling
This type of modeling provides gross statistical predictions of path loss for link design and is a useful
tool for performing initial design and layout of indoor wireless systems.
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Keenan-Motley Model
The Keenan-Motley model is often used for site-specific indoor propagation models. It models indoor
propagation as free space propagation with added losses for each wall and floor that is in the radio
path.
This site-specific model is general enough to accommodate a broad range of frequencies with the
appropriate choice of attenuation factors. It is also suitable for computer automation.
Reference
J.M. Keenan & A. J. Motley, “Radio Coverage In Buildings,” British Telecom Journal, vol. 8, no. 1,
Jan.1990, pp.19-24.
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Generic Model – ITU Indoor Propagation Model
The ITU model can be shown to be equivalent to the equation for free space loss with N = 20 (when not
traversing floors). Thus, the ITU model is essentially a modified power law model. This can be seen as
follows: The expression for free-space loss expressed in dB is given by:
L = -20 log(λ)+ 20 log(4π)+Nlog(d)
Where:
λ : wavelength of operation
N : Path loss exponent (N=20 for free space)
Also:
20log(λ) = 20log(c) – 20log(f)
Where:
C : speed of light (m/s)
F : frequency of operation (MHz)
Further simplification yields:
20log(λ) = 49.54 – 20log(f)
Where:
f : frequency of operation (MHz)
Thus, L becomes as follows:
L = 20log(f) + Nlog(d) – 27.54
The above formula is similar to the ITU indoor propagation model.
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Generic Model – Log-Distance Indoor Path Loss Model
The log-distance indoor path loss model is a modified power law equation with a log-normal
variability, similar to log-normal shadowing.
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Notes
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Section 5: LTE Link Budget
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Notes
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Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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LTE Link Budget – Definition
A Link Budget is used to calculate power and noise levels between the transmitter and the receiver
(Uplink or Downlink), taking into account all gain and loss factors. The Link Budget outputs operating
values of SNR and above threshold associated to a specific BLER target. In Release 8, LTE is primarily for
data service. Therefore, the requirements (SNR) should be associated with a desired spectral efficiency,
which, when associated with a bandwidth, can be defined as a target data rate at cell edge.
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Section 5: LTE Link Budget
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LTE Link Budget – Limitations
Basic coverage dimensioning provides simply a rough estimate of the radius of a cell. Initially, specific
terrain features are not taken into account. Instead, a set of simplified assumptions regarding traffic
distribution are used.
The initial output is given in terms of cell range, or the site coverage area that is obtained by calculating
the maximum allowable path loss defined by the Link Budget.
Cell range is calculated according to a propagation model formula, which gives the relationship between
the maximum path loss and the cell range. The site coverage area depends on the site configuration and
the cell range. Capacity is assumed and given in terms of number of simultaneous users per cell.
At this stage of dimensioning, coverage estimations are done for the required cell edge data rate for
expected RF conditions. For example, the Uplink coverage is given in terms of a cell range at a certain
Rise over Thermal (ROT), which itself is representative of loading; a change in link loading affects the
cell radius. Coverage may also depend on the specific data rate under consideration, the site
configuration, the environment (the channel model specifically used for the environment), and the
configuration per morphology.
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Section 5: LTE Link Budget
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LTE Link Budget – Channels Considered
The main Downlink channels are PBCH, PDSCH, and PDCCH. The rest are mainly acquisition signals. The
DL Link Budget based on Physical Broadcast Channel (PBCH) reveals the maximum achievable coverage,
because a UE should demodulate that channel as a prerequisite to camp on a cell.
The addition of the Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH) provides an estimation of the maximum
achievable data rate under the specified design targets.
PDCCH is more robust and has been conservatively designed. It can be transmitted in different slots (1
slot, 4 slots, 8 slots, etc.) so it does not represent a limiting condition from the Link Budget perspective.
Therefore it is not included in this analysis.
The main Uplink channels are PUSCH, PUCCH, and RACH. The rest are mainly reference signals. Physical
Uplink Shared Channel (PUSCH) utilizes different modulations (QPSK, 16-QAM or 64-QAM) to carry
either Uplink Control Information (UCI) or payload (Control and User).
The Physical Uplink Control Channel (PUCCH) carries UCI, but is coded (MCS) conservatively, and thus
not expected to be limiting.
The RACH channel also is coded conservatively, and benefits from a repeat mechanism. Therefore,
adding it to the Link Budget is not required.
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Section 5: LTE Link Budget
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LTE Link Budget (DL) – Process Description
LTE initially (Rel. 8) is a data only technology. Therefore the critical coverage constraint when designing a LTE
network would be the expected data rate at cell edge. As such, this requirement should be identified (1), then
translated in terms of required SNR (2). For practical purposes in this Link Budget, the achievable data rate is
estimated considering mainly the following inputs: SNR, system bandwidth, and antenna configuration. Secondary
inputs would be the link curve, which maps the SNR to an efficiency. This required SNR is based on the 3GPP
standard 36.942 in the provided Link Budget, but should be replaced by the vendor (UTRAN or UE)
recommendation for actual dimensioning.
Once the required SNR to achieve the required cell edge data rate is identified, this SNR is used to estimate the
MAPL (3), based on design constraints (4), notably the expected geometry at cell edge. The design constraints
should also be compatible with the required SNR in order to estimate MAPL. If MAPL cannot be solved for the
required SNR, either the requirements (data rate) or parameters (bandwidth notably) should be modified (5).
The final design outputs represent the final cell count based on the coverage objectives in the design. The cell
count can be directly derived from the cell radius estimation and the expected service area per cell in the more
restricting link.
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Section 5: LTE Link Budget
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Notes
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Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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LTE Link Budget (DL) – Inputs and Assumptions
Once the target SNR has been defined, the proposed DL Link Budget can be summarized in four major
components:
1. Estimation of the per-subcarrier (i.e., per RE) ERP.
2. Sensitivity (or in this case, the MAPL at the UE antenna connector), ignoring any propagation
components.
3. Estimation of propagation and UE-specific gains and losses.
4. Calculation of MAPL based on the previously defined parameter, and cell count estimation.
These component are defined in the following slides.
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Section 5: LTE Link Budget
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LTE Link Budget (UL) – Inputs and Assumptions
Once the target SNR has been defined, the proposed UL Link Budget can be summarized in four major
components:
1. Estimation of the per-subcarrier (i.e., per RE) ERP.
2. Sensitivity, considering the expected RoT.
3. Estimation of propagation and eNB-specific gains and losses.
4. Calculation of MAPL based on the previously defined parameter, and cell count estimation.
These components are defined in the following slides.
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Section 5: LTE Link Budget
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Determining Limiting Link and Cell Count Per Morphology
The high-level LTE Link Budget calculation steps are shown below:
1. Establish Downlink and Uplink Link Budgets to maintain service at a specific data rate.
2. Estimate the Maximum Allowable Path Loss (MAPL) for each link.
3. Determine the limiting link (Downlink or Uplink) based on MAPLs:
MAPL = min(MAPL
DL
, MAPL
UL
)
4. Estimate the cell radius per morphology based on the limiting link, using an appropriate radio
propagation model.
5. Estimate the number of cells required to fulfill the network coverage requirements (cell count).
6. Estimate the cell area per morphology.
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Notes
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Section 5: LTE Link Budget
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CQI or Bearers
In a network planning tool, the data rate typically is not calculated based on the RF conditions (link
level), but static SNR based on path loss is calculated. To determine the data rate, the static SNR is
mapped to an efficiency (bit/Hz).
In a simplified view, this behavior is similar to the CQI reported by the UE.
Note: This course uses CQI and bearers interchangeably. Both CQI and bearers correlate to a modulation
and coding scheme (MCS). In turn, the MCS implies an efficiency.
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CQI
CQI is reported in two steps:
• CQI that represents the main RF condition. This CQI can be reported over the entire bandwidth or
for a sub-band. This CQI is defined in the standard (36.213 § 7.2.3-1).
• CQI offset – The CQI difference between CWO and CW1. If rank > 1, different data rates (actually
different TBS) are allowed on the different spatial channels. CQI offset is defined in the standard
(36.213, Table 7.2.2).
The effective number of symbols must consider that the first slot of each sub-frame contains control
symbols (2 to 4 depending on the available bandwidth), and RS symbols (8 for antennas 1 and 2, or 6 for
antennas 3 and 4) are spread over the RB.
Overhead
The provided sample spreadsheet only estimates overheads. The effective number of symbols is
averaged based on the typical number of control symbols, even though these can be implementation
dependent.
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SNR to CQI (or Data Rate)
This curve should be generated using a system level simulator. If this simulator is not available, the
standard (36.942) provides information for evaluating an LTE system, and is presented above.
This curve corresponds to TU 10 km/h for a 1 * 2 configuration. For a 2 * 2 configuration, MIMO gain
can be used (as presented later in section 6).
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SNR to CQI (or Data Rate)
For the Uplink, the curve should be generated using a system level simulator (same as for the Downlink).
If this simulator is not available, the standard (36.942) provides information to evaluate an LTE system,
as presented above. This curve corresponds to TU 3 km/h for a 1 * 2 configuration.
For the Uplink, MIMO is not expected to be deployed initially (Rel 8); therefore MIMO gains are not
applicable.
The concept of CQI is not defined in the Uplink. CQI should be read as (code rate, modulation), as
defined earlier.
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Section 5: LTE Link Budget
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Notes
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Section 5: LTE Link Budget
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Notes
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Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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Section 5: LTE Link Budget
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Notes
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Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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SNR and MAPL
UE
Calculation
• PRE: Power Per Resource Element
• T
u
: Useful Symbol Time
• T
cp
: Cyclic Prefix Time
• G: Geometry, defined as the ratio of same-cell to other-cell received signal
• Loading: Average number of REs used at any given time
• N
th
: Thermal Noise, calculated as ktB+NF
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Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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I
oc
– Other-Cell Interference
In a flat-earth model, the ratio of other-cell interference to same (or target) cell interference (I
oc
/I
or
) is a
function of position within the cell. This ratio is highest at the cell edge and is lowest near the cell tower.
For network planning, the ratio of I
oc
/I
or
is determined from the chosen reuse efficiency, F
e
, which is
considered near the edge of the cell but not exactly at the cell edge.
• Typical F
e
= 0.65, I
oc
/I
tc
= ξ ~ - 2.5 dB, approximately r/R
c
= 0.7
• Near the cell edge, I
oc
/I
tc
= ξ ~ 2.5 to 3 dB, approximately r/R
c
= 0.9
• R
c
= cell radius, r = distance from the BS
In the real world I
oc
can vary significantly with small changes in position, depending on the propagation
environment.
Controlling I
oc
is one of the primary concerns of the network planner.
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LTE Network Planning
Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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LTE Link Budget Spreadsheet
Minimum Requirements: Microsoft® Office Excel 2007® (12.0.6341.5001) SP1 MSO (12.0.6320.5000)
The sample spreadsheet was developed in Excel using the Visual Basic programming language.
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LTE Network Planning
Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Path loss versus Target SNR
• For this case study, the Link Budget parameters should be set as shown in the above table.
Required SNR will be varied to estimate its impact.
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Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Path loss versus Frequency Band
• Based on Cell Edge Confidence of 90% and Log Normal Fading Margin of 8 dB
• Antenna Gain across morphologies = 18 dBi
• Body Loss = 0 dB
SNR is assumed constant for all frequency bands; thus the resulting data rate would be constant.
In addition to BPL, other parameters are frequency dependent. These parameters include: Propagation
Standard Deviation, Antenna gain (both UE and eNB), Noise figure, and cable and body losses. For
simplicity, only the BPL has been modified in this exercise.
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Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Case 2 of 2: Cell Radii versus Frequency Band
• As expected, propagation properties at lower frequencies result in longer cell radii.
• A 700 MHz network will need a lower cell count to serve a specific coverage objective area
compared to high frequencies.
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Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Exercises
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Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Exercises
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Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Channel Types
The associated root-mean-square (RMS) Delay Spreads are: 45 ns (EPA), 357 ns (EVA), and 991 ns
(ETU), leading to maximum delays of 410 ns (EPA), 2.51 µs (EVA), and 5 µs (ETU).
The selected model type in 3GPP will determine the assumed antenna configuration (1x2, 2x2) for that
specific simulation environment. This assumption needs to be considered in later stages of the design
because of the impact on required network configuration.
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LTE Network Planning
Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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UE Antenna Gain
UE antenna gain is affected by the implementation; therefore it should be compared to the actual
(measured) antenna gain of the typical UE deployed. This slide illustrates general guidelines based on:
• Qualcomm internal measurements based on commercial UEs (MSs).
• Standards:
– EBU – TECH 3317, Planning parameters for hand held reception
– DVB-SH Implementation Guidelines, DVB Document A120
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Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Key Parameters in LTE DL Budget – Doppler
• EPA5: EPA 5 Hz = Extended Pedestrian A with 5 Hz Doppler frequency
• EVA5: EVA 5 Hz = Extended Vehicular A with 5 Hz Doppler frequency
• EVA70: EVA 70 Hz = Extended Vehicular A with 70 Hz Doppler frequency
• ETU70: ETU 70 Hz = Extended Typical Urban with 70 Hz Doppler frequency
• ETU300: ETU 300 Hz = Extended Typical Urban with 300 Hz Doppler frequency
The adjusted speed at a specific frequency is calculated considering the relation f
d
= (v/c) x f
c
where:
• f
c
is the carrier frequency
• f
d
is the Doppler frequency
• v represents the corresponding user speed
• c represents the speed of light
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Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Key Parameters in LTE DL Budget – E
b
/N
t
Reference: 3GPP TS 36.104 V8.5.0 (2009-03). 3rd Generation Partnership Project; Technical Specification
Group Radio Access Network; Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Base Station (BS) radio
transmission and reception (Release 8)
Test 10.1, Bandwidth = 1.4 MHz, Reference Channel = R.21, Propagation Condition = ETU70, Antenna
configuration and correlation Matrix = 1 x 2 Low
Test 10.2, Bandwidth = 1.4 MHz, Reference Channel = R.22, Propagation Condition = EPA5, Antenna
configuration and correlation Matrix = 2 x 2 Low
Test 10.3, Bandwidth = 1.4 MHz, Reference Channel = R.23, Propagation Condition = EVA5, Antenna
configuration and correlation Matrix = 4 x 2 Medium
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Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Key Parameters in LTE DL Budget – PBCH
The PBCH channel has 4 repetitions in each TTI.
The PBCH is composed of 24 information bits followed by 16 CRC bits in a 40 ms period; the payload is
repeated every 10ms.
Example:
Based on MPS simulations provided, for 1% BLER the achieved Ê
s
/N
t
is -7.2 dB for the 10.1 test case
(3GPP TS 36.104 V8.5.0). This value represents the equivalent Ê
s
/N
t
of each symbol per TTI.
Following the same reasoning, the E
b
/N
t
value required in a 40 ms period can be computed as:

s
/N
t
+ 10log10(40/24) + 10Log10(4) = Ê
s
/N
t
+ 8.2 dB
For test case 10.1, the resulting E
b
/N
t
= 1 dB.
However the Link Budget requires a per 10ms TTI computation. Therefore, the required E
b
/N
t
is
computed as:
Ê
s
/N
t
+ 10log10(40/24) = -5 dB
This represents the value required for the Link Budget computation for PBCH for test case 10.1. A
similar analogy can be used for the other test cases.
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Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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LTE Overhead
In LTE, several types of overhead need to be considered:
• Physical channel, or Reference Signal: depends on the number of antennas deployed
• Acquisition channels: PSS, SSS, and PBCH
• Physical overhead (Cyclic prefix): depends on the CP length
• Control overhead: Represents the number of symbols used for PDDCH
The following table shows typical total overheads for different bandwidths and antenna configurations,
assuming normal CP.
BW [MHz] 1 antenna 2 antennas 4 antennas
1.4 42 46 48
5 39 42 44
10 38 41 43
20 32 35 37
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Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Frequency Band
Reference: Section 5.5 in 3GPP TS 36.104 V8.5.0 (2009-03) 3rd Generation Partnership Project; Technical
Specification Group Radio Access Network; Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Base
Station (BS) radio transmission and reception (Release 8)
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Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Maximum UE Transmit Power
Reference: Section 6.2 in 3GPP TS 36.101 V8.5.1 (2009-03). 3rd Generation Partnership Project; Technical
Specification Group Radio Access Network; Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); User
Equipment (UE) radio transmission and reception (Release 8)
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Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Cable and Connector Losses
This item accounts for the loss between the antenna and the Node B reference point and is mainly
related to the site configuration, such as:
• Feeder type and length
• Jumper length and type
• Splitter
• Combiner
• Whether a tower mounted amplifier (TMA) is installed
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Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Noise Figure
The noise figure is the ratio of the output noise power of a device to the portion thereof attributable to
thermal noise in the input termination at standard noise temperature T
0
(usually 290 K).
The noise figure is, thus, the ratio of actual output noise to that which would remain if the device itself
did not introduce noise. This number can be used to specify the performance of a radio receiver.
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Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
Megafon Use Only
LTE Network Planning
Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 5: LTE Link Budget
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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E
s
/N
t
Depending on the channel condition (channel type), different E
s
/N
t
would correspond to a given CQI.
Note that E
s
/N
t
to CQI is UE implementation dependent. The UE only reports the data rate (i.e., the
efficiency) that it can support with a Sub-Packet Error Rate (SPER) of 10%.
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Section 6: RF Network Planning
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 6: RF Network Planning
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 6: RF Network Planning
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 6: RF Network Planning
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Efficiency
In LTE, the allocated bandwidth for any given user changes over time. Therefore, the concept
of efficiency needs to be introduced. Efficiency can be defined as the number of bits that can
supported for a given allocated bandwidth (bits per Hertz). Higher efficiency would translate
into higher order modulation and higher coding rate.
Efficiency is also affected by the number of overhead symbols during transmission.
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Section 6: RF Network Planning
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 6: RF Network Planning
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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GIS Data
Several layers are available from GIS data. Some of these layers are mandatory, while others are
simply nice to have. In the list below, the first two are mandatory, then the nice-to-have layers are
listed in order of importance:
• Digital Elevation Map (DEM), also called Digital Terrain Map (DTM) – This is the most
fundamental map required, because the RF propagation model uses it to calculate the path
loss at every bin.
• Clutter map, also called Land-Use map – During RF propagation model optimization,
correction factors are assigned to each clutter type to increase the accuracy of the
prediction. Clutter types can also be used for traffic distribution. For MIMO planning, this
layer can also reflect the scattering observed within a particular clutter. Different MIMO
gains can be assumed for different clutter types.
• Vectors – Vectors are primarily used to verify site positioning. However, depending on the
capabilities of the tool, they also can be used for traffic distribution.
• Ortho-corrected or Satellite images – Typically not used by the tool directly. RF
engineers use them to verify site location, clutter classification, or any changes that have
occurred since the site picture was taken. This information now is typically available on-
line, so it is less important to include such data as part of the GIS dataset.
• Building data – This type of data is mandatory for some RF models, such as ray tracing.
For RF propagation models, actual building data may be replaced with clutter height
information. Clutter height typically is not as accurate as actual building data, but
prediction time from statistical models is less than the time needed for ray tracing.
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Section 6: RF Network Planning
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Coverage Objectives
To predict clutter-specific coverage probability, several inputs should be defined per clutter.
In the absence of clutter-specific information, only threshold-based coverage probability can
be defined, where the different coverage thresholds are based on the Link Budget.
Main Clutter-Specific Information
• Standard deviation
- For RF predictions: per model tuning results. For indoor predictions, the standard
deviation can be set to a combined value (indoor + outdoor), if the BLP is set to a
mean value, or to outdoor only, assuming that the BPL is set to a value that
represents the expected indoor coverage probability.
- For C/I estimation: depends on the assumptions for HO latency. For planning, since
simulations are statics, we can ignore the impact of long HO or reselection and only
consider the best server that the UE would camp on. In this case, the deviation is
impacted only by fading on the best server. Typical deviation would further vary,
depending on the location in the cell: in good coverage (high RSRP) condition, C/I
deviation will be less than 1 dB; at cell edge, variations of ~ 3 dB are expected.
• Indoor loss, either car, or building. Typically tools provide only a single BPL value,
which the user can set to a mean value or to X percentile of the indoor area.
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Section 6: RF Network Planning
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Site configuration flexibility
During the design phase, understanding the flexibility of options for the site configuration
would eliminate the need for multiple site visits to verify if the required configuration can be
implemented. In addition, if an Automatic Cell Planning (ACP) tool is used to optimize the
physical configuration, this information is used to configure the ACP. For each sector, the
information shown below should be available:
Parameter Range Comment
Antenna Azimuth
Either absolute or
relative to the current
setting
Range should take into account any near
field obstructions
Antenna Height
Typically discreet
values
MaximumAntenna
Size
Physical dimension and
weight
Weight limitation is a critical parameter to
ensure that tower loading is kept within
limits
Antenna Mechanical
Tilt
Based on antenna
mounting
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Section 6: RF Network Planning
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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LTE Required Input
Spectrum and Bandwidth
Spectrum allocation (frequency bands) typically would be selected from the 3GPP defined bands (see
LTE Frequency Bands in Section 1).
Bandwidth allocation should be based on available spectrum and limitations from 3GPP (see Section
1). When designing for coverage, planning for the whole band available is preferable.
Power Allocation
The following variables should be considered for power allocation:
• Maximum HPA rating: maximum power that can be allocated to a given symbol (typically RS
power)
• Offset between RS and other channels
Note that in the Downlink, power control is not defined, as it is for 3G technologies. PDSCH power (if
available) can be varied, but as an implementation-specific power control scheme that typically would
be controlled by the scheduler.
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Section 6: RF Network Planning
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Bearers
In a network planning tool, the data rate typically is not calculated based on the RF conditions
(link level), but static SNR based on path loss is calculated. To determine the data rate, the
static SNR is mapped to an efficiency (bit/Hz).
At a basic level, this behavior is similar to the CQI reported by the UE.
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Section 6: RF Network Planning
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 6: RF Network Planning
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Detection Threshold
As a reminder, the detection thresholds listed in Section 1 are reported below.
RSRP Threshold [dBm] Frequency Band Ê
s
/I
ot
conditions [dB]
-124
1, 4, 6, 10, 33, 34, 35, 36,
37, 38, 39, 40
- 3
-123 9 - 3
-122 2, 5, 7, 11, 17 - 3
-121 3, 8, 12, 13, 14 - 3
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Section 6: RF Network Planning
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Cell Reselection Illustration
In the illustration above, the UE chose not to measure neighbors when the S
rxlev, s
> S
intrasearch
. Thus
despite the fact that Cell B has a better S
rxlev, Cell B
, the UE neither measures nor considers Cell B for
reselection. However when the S
servingCell
meets S
intrasearch
, the UE measures other neighbors and
immediately finds Cell B. With Q
Hyst
and Q
offset
considered 0, Cell B is ranked higher than Cell A. But the
UE waits for T
Reselection
timer before performing the reselection to Cell B.
If the SIB3 had not included the S
intrasearch
, the UE would have detected and measured the neighbor cell
much sooner and might have reselected Cell B. But since S
servingCell
is better, it does not impact UE
performance. In other words, correctly configuring the value of S
intrasearch
does not necessarily
improve performance, but it does improve UE battery life by reducing the measurement cycles.
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P/S-SCH
No coding, only physical information. Modulation and coding rate do not apply. Similar to the
P/S-SCHin UMTS.
PBCH
Fix coding and modulation. Effectively, 24 (+ 16 bits CRC) bits of information sent every 10 ms TTI,
repeated four times. Sent over the central 6 RB (72 subcarrier). 1 slot per frame, 4 symbols.
PDSCH
The standard (36.311) only makes reference of the coding rate to be used for transmission of the BCH
(SIB) over the PDSCH. Modulation is not specified and is open for implementation. QPSK is assumed
to minimize the required transmit power for this channel, or to maximize the coverage.
Additional Comments
All values assume 10 MHz for the indicated antenna configuration (n*m). All values are based on
minimumperformance specifications (36.101). The 36.101 document provides SNR values for
different channel models, where a channel model is defined as:
• Multipath conditions (EVA, ETU…)
• Doppler frequency (5, 70…)
• Correlation matrix (low, high…)
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Notes
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Notes
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PDSCH
The standard (36.211) only makes reference of the coding rate (1/3) to be used for transmission of
the BCH (SIB) over the PDSCH. Modulation is not specified and is open for implementation. For
Minimum Performance Specification (36.101) QPSK is assumed, which maximizes the coverage.
All values assume 10 MHz for the indicated antenna configuration (n x m). All values are based on
minimumperformance specifications (36.101).
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Notes
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SNR to CQI (or Data Rate)
This curve should be generated using a system level simulator. If this simulator is not available, the
standard (36.942) provides information for evaluating an LTE system, and is presented above.
This curve corresponds to TU 10 km/h, for a 1 * 2 configuration. For a 2 * 2 configuration, MIMO gain
can be used (as presented later in this section).
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Antenna Configuration Considerations
Multi-user MIMO is not considered for coverage, but for capacity. The spatial diversity is used to serve
multiple users with the same RB, but transmitted in different spatial channels.
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MIMO Performance in Macro-Cellular Networks
Because of the small number of current MIMO deployments, MIMO gain can be estimated only from
simulations and limited field results from similar technologies. MIMO gain can be attributed to two
components:
• Transmit diversity
• Spatial diversity (using multiple code words – MCW).
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MIMO-SCWPerformance
From this figure, the diversity gain can be estimated by comparing the achieved throughput in a 1 * 2
configuration (receive diversity only) and a 2 * 2 configuration.
This comparison shows that no gain is achieved at SNR lower than ~ 8 dB.
If receive diversity is already implemented (1 * 2), marginal gain is obtained at low geometry from the
addition of transmit diversity (2 * 2).
Gain from receive diversity can be estimated only by comparing the 1 * 1 and 1 * 2 configurations.
Since LTE always assumes the availability of receive diversity, the 1 * 1 configuration is not presented
in this figure.
Qualcomm internal simulations studied the effectiveness of equalizer (Minimum Mean Square Error
(MMSE)) and successive interference cancellation (SIC) receivers. Only MMSE results are provided, as
these are more likely to be deployed initially.
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Spatial Diversity Gain
For reference, “Spectral Efficiency Assessment and Radio Performance Comparison between LTE and
WiMAX” by Ball, Hindelang, Kamborov, and Eder provides an indication of the expected spatial
diversity gain over diversity only. From these results, it can be shown that the spatial diversity gain
for a VA30 channel is only observed at very strong SNR (18 dB in this specific case).
C. Ball, T. Hindelang, I. Kambourov, and S. Eder, “Spectral Efficiency Assessment and Radio
Performance Comparison between LTE and WiMAX,” in Proceedings of 19th Annual IEEE.
International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC. 2008),
Cannes, 2008.
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Notes
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Notes
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Notes
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SNR to CQI (or Data Rate)
For the Uplink, the curve should be generated using a system level simulator (same as for the
Downlink). If this simulator is not available, the standard (36.942) provides information to evaluate
an LTE system, as presented above. This curve corresponds to TU 3 km/h, for 1 * 2 configuration.
For the Uplink, MIMO is not expected to be deployed initially (Rel 8); therefore MIMO gains are not
applicable.
The concept of CQI is not defined in the Uplink. CQI should be read as (code rate, modulation), as
defined in Section 5.
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Notes
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Planning for Capacity
Load is related to capacity only; therefore it is not discussed in this course. For coverage studies,
prediction and simulation at the maximum load would give the worst case scenario performance,
while 30% (control channel and overhead) would provide the most optimistic performance.
Fractional load planning would assume that X2 interfaces are available between eNBs and that
information carried over is actually used. In the current standard development, this is only expected
when the same vendor’s eNBs are deployed throughout the network. During the initial coverage
planning of an LTE network, factional load planning is not critical because it is mainly EPS vendor
dependent. Therefore, this is not addressed in this course.
Inter-system interference was discussed in Section 3.
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Notes
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Section 6: RF Network Planning
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Notes
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Space Diversity
Additional tower/rooftop space will be required to ensure desired separation between the two
antennas (discussed in the next slide). This separation is necessary to ensure that the signals
transmitted by the two antennas maintain minimum correlation.
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Space Diversity
Diversity gain results from the creation of multiple independent channels between the transmitter
and receiver.
Array gain achieves its performance enhancement by coherently combining the energy received by
each antenna and does not depend on statistical diversity between the channels.
Minimum physical antenna separation of 10λ is derived from theoretical calculations supplemented
by field trial results.
Although theoretically either horizontal or vertical separation should be sufficient for space diversity
deployment, vertical separation is not recommended because the different antenna heights would
create variation of coverage span.
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Polarization Diversity
Single X-pole Antenna
This is a typical MIMO deployment scenario: a single antenna package with dual antennas with ±45º
antenna-element-array to provide both receive and transmit diversity.
This configuration is currently the most common deployment scenario (without a second transmit
chain) and can be very easily transformed into 2 x 2 MIMO with few physical changes (inclusion of a
second transmit chain is all that is necessary).
The disadvantages of this configuration are the need for an additional duplexer for the second port
and the associated loss.
Two X-pole Antennas with Spatial Gap
In this configuration, two dual-polar antennas are physically separated (distance) with a single branch
of each antenna exclusively carrying a transmit path while the other branch carries the receive path.
This configuration eliminates any losses associated with the required duplexers for each transmit and
receive chain. While there is a cost for the additional cabling and the associated ancillary equipment,
an advantage of this configuration is it can also be utilized for 4x2 MIMO deployment.
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Space vs. Polarization Diversity
The first table in the slide shows that both space and polarization diversity perform equally in an
urban environment, assuming than 20 wavelength can be used for space diversity. This spatial gap
may be difficult to achieve (especially at low frequencies), thus giving an advantage to polarization
diversity.
The polarization diversity advantage is reduced in a suburban morphology, but is still maintained if 10
wavelength cannot be achieved for the spatial gap.
In a rural morphology (due to the absence of scattering), space diversity has an advantage, even when
only 5 wavelengths can be achieved.
Reference: C. Chevallier et al., WCDMA (UMTS) Deployment Handbook, Wiley and Sons, 2006.
MIMOChannel Correlation
The second table in the slide shows that the combination of space and polarization diversity provide
the lowest correlation between MIMO spatial channels, thus would lead to the maximum gain.
Polarization diversity provides the second best results, while space diversity only provides the highest
correlation, thus the lowest expected MIMO gain.
These correlations are measured in light urban/industrial morphologies.
Reference: H. Teague, C. Patel, D. Gore, H. Sampath, A. Naguib, T. Kadous, A. Gorokhov, A. Agrawal,
“Field Results on MIMO Performance in UMB Systems,” Proceedings of the 2008 IEEE 67th Vehicular
Technology Conference, VTC Spring 2008.
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Polarization Diversity and MIMOPerformance in Rural environment
In a rural environment:
• Limited MIMO gain is expected, due to the absence of scattering.
• Near cell condition where high SNR is detected represents only a fraction of the cell.
Given these limitations, space diversity is recommended in a rural environment due to expected
higher diversity gain.
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Intermodulation in Shared Antenna System
Intermodulation occurs when the input to a non-linear system is comprised of two or more
frequencies. Consider an input signal that contains three frequency components at f
a
, f
b
, and f
c
.
x(t) = M
a
sin(2πf
a
t+Φ
a
) + M
b
sin(2πf
b
t+Φ
b
) + M
c
sin(2πf
c
t+Φ
c
)
where M and Φare the amplitudes and phases of the three components, respectively.
The output signal, y(t), is obtained by passing the input through a non-linear function:
y(t) = G(x(t))
y(t) will contain the three frequencies of the input signal (f
a
, f
b
& f
c
), known as the fundamental signals,
as well as a linear combination of the fundamental frequencies, known as intermodulation products, in
the arbitrary form of (k
a
f
a
+ k
b
f
b
+ k
c
f
c
) where k
a
, k
b
, k
c
are integral coefficients.
The order of a given intermodulation product is the sum of the absolute values of the coefficients.
So in above example, third order intermodulation product occurs when |k
a
| + |k
b
| + |k
c
| = 3
Intermodulation issues can be mitigated by ensuring that high quality components are utilized and all
physical joints between cables, antennas, and other components are of the highest quality. These
actions should be routinely performed regardless of the specific deployment type, as should regular
maintenance.
It is likely that antenna sharing schemes with increasing complexity will multiply with MIMO
deployments. This should be carefully considered with an increased focus on appropriate deployment
practices, including clearly defined operational guidelines for the maintenance of such systems.
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Notes
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Note
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Antenna Parameter Recommendations
• Passive Intermodulation Product is very important and should be treated as one of the most
critical parameters.
• Return loss >20 dB indicates superior performance across a wider range of frequencies.
• In Beam Power Percent is the amount of power an antenna radiates into the desired azimuth.
• Front to Back Ratio is the ratio of peak amplitudes of the main and back lobes.
• Peak Power > 300 Watt will prevent possible arc-over within the antenna, especially when
multiple technologies are supported.
• Polarization Discrimination applies to X-pole antennas only. A recommended value of 20 dB
corresponds to a cross-correlation of 0.2.
• Maximum Mechanical Downtilt should be restricted to VBW / 2 to avoid beam deformity.
• DIN connectors, unlike N-type, are designed to be low loss and yield better passive
intermodulation performance.
• Connector Location: For most antennas, the power divider usually starts in the center of the
antenna. Feeding the antenna from the center thus minimizes losses for high antenna efficiency.
On the other hand, a bottom-fed antenna may be convenient for wall mounting or for extreme
weather conditions (excessive snowfall / rain).
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Notes
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Indoor or Outdoor RSRP
Depending on the tool used and the settings, the coverage threshold may include the coverage
reliability (LNF margin) or the building penetration loss (BPL).
The threshold for detection of a cell is not a guarantee of service. Service would be guaranteed only if
the SNR threshold (see following slides) is met.
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PBCH Coverage
For PBCH coverage no MIMO gain should be defined, because PBCH is only transmitted with rank 1,
but with transmit diversity. When PBCH coverage (SNR) is verified, no information is available on the
possibility of a UE to acquire service on the system. To determine this, PDSCH coverage should be
verified, considering the modulation considered for SIB transmission.
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PDSCH SNR
If SNR is optimized the best possible data rate would be achieved, based on available bandwidth (or
assigned number of RBs). For RSRP, PDSCH SNR can be considered indoors or outdoors, with or
without margin (for reliability). Tool implementation for the SNR margin should be fully understood
and configured properly.
MIMOGain
PDSCH coverage (SNR) should consider any possible gain due to transmit diversity. MIMO gain, due to
multiple codewords, will not be observed on SNR, but only on throughput coverage maps.
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PDSCHThroughput
PDSCH coverage (throughput) presents only the maximum possible data rate based on the
assumptions and settings. The actual throughput achieved by a user would depend on the user
location (effectively achieved SNR) and the available bandwidth. Available bandwidth, in turn,
depends on the number of simultaneous users and the scheduler implementation.
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Notes
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Tracking Area, MME, and MME pool
Because these boundaries or connections are not limited by the standard but rather by vendor
implementation, planning for these parameters is not detailed in this workshop.
At a higher level, planning these parameters would be similar to the RNC, BSC, LAU, and Paging Zone
planning for 3G.
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 6: RF Network Planning
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 6: RF Network Planning
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Black List
In LTE terminology, the black list is a list of cells that the UE should neither reselect nor report. A list
of black listed cells typically would be sent to the UE to ensure that the UE does not consider such a
cell as a reselection candidate, or report the cell if it fulfills the handover condition.
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LTE Handover
In LTE, 5 main events are defined for intra-system handover:
• Event A1: Serving Cell becomes better than a defined threshold
• Event A2: Neighbor Cell becomes worse than a defined threshold
• Event A3: Neighbor Cell becomes better than Serving Cell by a defined Offset value
• Event A4: Neighbor Cell becomes better than a defined threshold
• Event A5: Neighbor Cell becomes worse than a defined threshold and Neighbor Cell becomes
better than a defined threshold
Event A3 best matches the UMTS intra-frequency handover.
Acceptable Signal Difference Between Serving Cell and Neighbor Cells
The acceptable difference between these cells should be determined based on the network layout and
the relative loading of the neighboring cells.
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Ranking Neighbors
Ranking of neighbor cells varies according to the tool used for Neighbor List analysis. Ranking can
depend on the percentage of area overlapping, the symmetry, or other criteria.
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NL – Cell-Specific Parameters
• Qoffset
s,n
– The effect of this parameter should be evaluated together with Qhyst (global
parameter for the serving cell). Qhyst is used to prioritize the serving cell, while Qoffset is used
to (de-)prioritize a given neighbor in relation to the serving cell.
– Setting Qoffset to a positive value prioritizes the neighbor
– Setting Qoffset to a negative value de-prioritizes the neighbor.
• IntraBlackCellList is defined as a range of PCIs, where the range starts for a given PCI. The
range can be 1 (single PCI) or a number of PCIs (from 4 to 504).
For parameter definitions and usage guidelines, see:
• 3GPP TS 36.311 Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Radio Resource Control
(RRC); Protocol specification
• 3GPP TS 36.304 Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); User Equipment (UE)
procedures in idle mode
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Section 6: RF Network Planning
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Notes
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Section 6: RF Network Planning
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Notes
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Section 6: RF Network Planning
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Notes
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Section 6: RF Network Planning
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Notes
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Section 6: RF Network Planning
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Notes
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Section 6: RF Network Planning
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Notes
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LTE Network Planning
Section 6: RF Network Planning
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Notes
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Section 6: RF Network Planning
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Notes
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Section 6: RF Network Planning
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Notes
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Section 6: RF Network Planning
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Channel Model and Delay Spread
An other important impact of channel model for LTE is the correct estimation of delay spread, which
would impact the setting of the CP. This delay spread estimation can be obtained from the same type
of data used to estimate the channel model. During network planning, delay spread cannot be
estimated unless a ray tracing model is used.
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Notes
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Section 6: RF Network Planning
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Notes
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Section 6: RF Network Planning
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Exercises
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Exercises
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Notes
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Section 6: RF Network Planning
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What is MIMO?
The benefits of a MIMO system depend on independence (low cross-correlation) of the transmit paths.
Spatial diversity or polarization diversity (±45º X-poles) are the most commonly used antenna
configurations.
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LTE Downlink MIMO
The spatial channel is decomposed into its eigenfunctions to create independent spatial channels for
maximum spatial diversity. In practice, the decomposition may be approximated to get reasonable
gains.
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LTE Downlink MIMO
For good performance over a broad range of scenarios, LTE provides an adaptive multistream
transmission scheme in which the number of parallel streams can be continuously adjusted to match
the instantaneous channel conditions.
When channel conditions are very good, up to four streams can be transmitted in parallel, yielding
data rates up to 300 Mbps in a 20 MHz bandwidth. When channel conditions are less favorable, fewer
parallel streams are used.
The multiple antennas could also be used for beamforming to improve cell edge coverage.
Beamforming may also be used to achieve SDMA for multi-user MIMO. When coordinated across cells,
this can lead to significant reduction in interference.
To achieve good coverage (for instance, in large cells or to support higher data rates at cell edges), one
can employ single stream beamforming transmission as well as transmit diversity for common
channels.
Megafon Use Only
LTE Network Planning
Section 6: RF Network Planning
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Spatial Multiplexing of SU-MIMOand MU-MIMO
SDMA is used with MU-MIMO; however, transmission on each UE in the UE-MIMOmode is restricted
to one layer. Thus, in beamforming mode, only SCW MIMO is allowed.
Megafon Use Only
LTE Network Planning
Section 6: RF Network Planning
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Notes
Megafon Use Only
LTE Network Planning
Section 6: RF Network Planning
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Transmit Diversity
Open Loop Transmit Diversity
The most popular open loop transmit diversity scheme is space/time coding, where a code known to
the receiver is applied at the transmitter. Of the many types of space/time codes, the most popular is
orthogonal space/time block codes (OSTBCs), or Alamouti code. This code has become the most
popular means of achieving transmit diversity, owing to its ease of implementation—linear at both the
transmitter and the receiver—and its superior diversity order.
Closed Loop Transmit Diversity
When feedback is added to the system, the transmitter may use the channel state information.
Because the channel quality changes quickly in a mobile environment, closed loop transmission
schemes tend to be feasible primarily in fixed or low-mobility scenarios. There could, however, be a
substantial gain in many cases from possessing channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter,
particularly in the spatial multiplexing setup.
Megafon Use Only
LTE Network Planning
Section 6: RF Network Planning
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Transmit Diversity in LTE
Space Frequency Block Code (SFBC)
In SFBC, adjacent subcarriers are coded. This assumes that adjacent subcarriers have the same
amplitude and phase, which typically is approximately true in practice. Space Frequency Block Coded
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (SFBC-OFDM) can be used to increase the resultant Signal
to Noise Ratio (SNR) at the receiver, which increases coverage area in a cellular system.
Frequency Shift Time Diversity (FSTD)
In an FSTDscheme, two orthogonal preambles occupying different groups of subcarrier frequencies
are transmitted through each antenna. The receiver correlates the received samples with two
preambles and then performs a non-coherent combining for the detection of OFDMsymbol timing.
Thus, in a fading environment, the correlation value experiences less amplitude variation, which is in
agreement with the conventional diversity concept.
Megafon Use Only
LTE Network Planning
Section 6: RF Network Planning
80-W2559-1 Rev B
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Comments/Notes
Megafon Use Only
LTE Network Planning
Section 7: Predicting Overlay and Coexistence with Other Technologies
80-W2559-1 Rev B
7-1 © 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Notes
Megafon Use Only
LTE Network Planning
Section 7: Predicting Overlay and Coexistence with Other Technologies
80-W2559-1 Rev B
7-2 © 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Notes
Megafon Use Only
LTE Network Planning
Section 7: Predicting Overlay and Coexistence with Other Technologies
80-W2559-1 Rev B
7-3 © 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Notes
Megafon Use Only
LTE Network Planning
Section 7: Predicting Overlay and Coexistence with Other Technologies
80-W2559-1 Rev B
7-4 © 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Coverage Prediction & Analysis – High Level View
At the outset, a project needs to be created for any market using a network planning tool. Use of
recent and up-to-date GIS data with resolution <50 m is recommended for this purpose.
Next, the site, cell, and transmitter configurations should be defined using relevant inputs such as
frequency band of operation, carrier bandwidth, coverage targets, propagation models, RF
parameters, vendor-specific inputs, and LTE-related configurations.
For coverage predictions, in the absence of known traffic projection/capacity demand, a fixed
network loading for both Downlink and Uplink is recommended. This fixed loading would represent
the statistical impact of the loading on coverage performance.
Finally, the coverage prediction analyses presented earlier (see Section 5) should be performed to
assess the quality of the designed network. This should be done in an iterative manner until the
design targets are met.
Although not specifically mentioned in the flow diagram above, use of an Automatic Cell Planning
(ACP) tool is recommended for determination of the final RF configuration (azimuth, downtilt,
height, etc.).
Megafon Use Only
LTE Network Planning
Section 7: Predicting Overlay and Coexistence with Other Technologies
80-W2559-1 Rev B
7-5 © 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Prediction Tool – Description
1
Atoll
TM
is an overall RF planning prediction tool developed by Forsk.
Megafon Use Only
LTE Network Planning
Section 7: Predicting Overlay and Coexistence with Other Technologies
80-W2559-1 Rev B
7-6 © 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Notes
Megafon Use Only
LTE Network Planning
Section 7: Predicting Overlay and Coexistence with Other Technologies
80-W2559-1 Rev B
7-7 © 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Notes
Megafon Use Only
LTE Network Planning
Section 7: Predicting Overlay and Coexistence with Other Technologies
80-W2559-1 Rev B
7-8 © 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Notes
Megafon Use Only
LTE Network Planning
Section 7: Predicting Overlay and Coexistence with Other Technologies
80-W2559-1 Rev B
7-9 © 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Notes
Megafon Use Only
LTE Network Planning
Section 7: Predicting Overlay and Coexistence with Other Technologies
80-W2559-1 Rev B
7-10 © 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Case Studies: LTE Deployment with 1:1 Overlay
850 MHz CDMA 1xEV-DO
This analysis of LTE coverage and throughput estimation is relevant for North American operators.
The following were used for this case study:
• One cluster with 48 eNBs. 3-sector sites for analysis.
• Default Okumura-Hata propagation model.
• Average Base Station antenna height of 25 m and UE height of 1.5 m.
• 65-degree antenna with 17 dBi gain.
• ACP tool to optimize azimuth and downtilt for the best combination of E
c
and E
c
/I
o
.
2100 MHz UMTS/HSPA
This analysis of LTE coverage and throughput estimation is relevant for European operators. The
following were used for this case study:
• One cluster with 77 eNBs. 3-sector sites for analysis.
• Default Standard Propagation Model.
• Average Base Station antenna height of 25 m and UE height of 1.5 m.
• 65-degree antenna with 17 dBi gain.
• ACP tool to optimize azimuth and downtilt for the best combination of RSCP and E
c
/N
o
.
Megafon Use Only
LTE Network Planning
Section 7: Predicting Overlay and Coexistence with Other Technologies
80-W2559-1 Rev B
7-11 © 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Notes
Megafon Use Only
LTE Network Planning
Section 7: Predicting Overlay and Coexistence with Other Technologies
80-W2559-1 Rev B
7-12 © 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Notes
Megafon Use Only
LTE Network Planning
Section 7: Predicting Overlay and Coexistence with Other Technologies
80-W2559-1 Rev B
7-13 © 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Notes
Megafon Use Only
LTE Network Planning
Section 7: Predicting Overlay and Coexistence with Other Technologies
80-W2559-1 Rev B
7-14 © 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Notes
Megafon Use Only
LTE Network Planning
Section 7: Predicting Overlay and Coexistence with Other Technologies
80-W2559-1 Rev B
7-15 © 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Case Study 1: E
c
/N
o
Prediction Map
For accurate analysis and estimation of E
c
/I
o
, the 48-site cluster was divided into two categories:
• A Computation Zone was defined with all 48 sites (the red boundary above) to facilitate the
calculation of interference (I
o
) from all sites.
• In addition, a smaller category of a 34-site cluster was defined as a Focus Zone for calculation
of quality (E
c
/I
o
). The Focus Zone basically excluded 14 sites located at the outer periphery of
the Computation Zone. Since these sites were located at the boundary areas, interference
experienced by them would have been lower than the remaining sites. As a result, inclusion of
these sites for statistical calculations would have unfairly skewed the overall E
c
/I
o
statistics.
To accurately represent the E
c
/I
o
distribution, E
c
from the sites located within the Focus Zone and I
o
from all 48 sites were used for calculation .
Megafon Use Only
LTE Network Planning
Section 7: Predicting Overlay and Coexistence with Other Technologies
80-W2559-1 Rev B
7-16 © 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Case Study 1: E
c
Prediction Map
In order to maintain parity with previous statistical calculations, E
c
distribution was performed
based on sites located within the Focus Zone only.
An indoor penetration loss of 15 dB was assumed for E
c
prediction.
Megafon Use Only
LTE Network Planning
Section 7: Predicting Overlay and Coexistence with Other Technologies
80-W2559-1 Rev B
7-17 © 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Case Study 1: LTE Prediction – Key Settings (1 of 2)
For details on assumed system configuration, see Section 6.
Megafon Use Only
LTE Network Planning
Section 7: Predicting Overlay and Coexistence with Other Technologies
80-W2559-1 Rev B
7-18 © 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Case Study 1: LTE Prediction – Key Settings (2 of 2)
For details on assumed system configuration, see Section 6.
Megafon Use Only
LTE Network Planning
Section 7: Predicting Overlay and Coexistence with Other Technologies
80-W2559-1 Rev B
7-19 © 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Notes
Megafon Use Only
LTE Network Planning
Section 7: Predicting Overlay and Coexistence with Other Technologies
80-W2559-1 Rev B
7-20 © 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Case Study 1: LTE-700 Reference Signal (1 of 6)
To maintain parity with previous statistical calculations, RSRP distribution was performed based on
sites located within the Focus Zone only.
An indoor penetration loss of 15 dB was assumed for RSRP prediction.
Megafon Use Only
LTE Network Planning
Section 7: Predicting Overlay and Coexistence with Other Technologies
80-W2559-1 Rev B
7-21 © 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Case Study 1: LTE-700 Reference Signal (2 of 6)
In order to maintain parity with previous statistical calculations, RSRQ distribution was performed
based on sites located within the Focus Zone only.
An indoor penetration loss of 15 dB was assumed for RSRQ prediction.
Megafon Use Only
LTE Network Planning
Section 7: Predicting Overlay and Coexistence with Other Technologies
80-W2559-1 Rev B
7-22 © 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Case Study 1: LTE-700 PBCH C/I Distribution (3 of 6)
In order to maintain parity with previous statistical calculations, PBCH C/I distribution was
performed based on sites located within the Focus Zone only.
An indoor penetration loss of 15 dB was assumed for prediction.
Megafon Use Only
LTE Network Planning
Section 7: Predicting Overlay and Coexistence with Other Technologies
80-W2559-1 Rev B
7-23 © 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Case Study 1: LTE-700 PDSCH C/I Distribution (4 of 6)
In order to maintain parity with previous statistical calculations, PDSCH C/I distribution was
performed based on sites located within the Focus Zone only.
An indoor penetration loss of 15 dB was assumed for prediction.
Megafon Use Only
LTE Network Planning
Section 7: Predicting Overlay and Coexistence with Other Technologies
80-W2559-1 Rev B
7-24 © 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Case Study 1: LTE-700 Best Bearer Distribution (5 of 6)
In order to maintain parity with previous statistical calculations, best bearer distribution was
performed based on sites located within the Focus Zone only.
An indoor penetration loss of 15 dB was assumed for prediction.
Megafon Use Only
LTE Network Planning
Section 7: Predicting Overlay and Coexistence with Other Technologies
80-W2559-1 Rev B
7-25 © 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Case Study 1: LTE-700 RLC Throughput (6 of 6)
In order to maintain parity with previous statistical calculations, peak RLC throughput distribution
was performed based on sites located within the Focus Zone only.
An indoor penetration loss of 15 dB was assumed for prediction.
Megafon Use Only
LTE Network Planning
Section 7: Predicting Overlay and Coexistence with Other Technologies
80-W2559-1 Rev B
7-26 © 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Notes
Megafon Use Only
LTE Network Planning
Section 7: Predicting Overlay and Coexistence with Other Technologies
80-W2559-1 Rev B
7-27 © 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Notes
Megafon Use Only
LTE Network Planning
Section 7: Predicting Overlay and Coexistence with Other Technologies
80-W2559-1 Rev B
7-28 © 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Notes
Megafon Use Only
LTE Network Planning
Section 7: Predicting Overlay and Coexistence with Other Technologies
80-W2559-1 Rev B
7-29 © 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Case Study 2: UMTS Network – E
c
/N
o
Prediction Map
For accurate analysis and estimation of E
c
/N
o
, the 77-site cluster was divided into two categories:
• A Computation Zone was defined with all 77 sites (the red boundary above) to facilitate the
calculation of interference (N
o
) from all sites.
• In addition, a smaller category of a 63-site cluster was defined as a Focus Zone for calculation
of quality (E
c
/N
o
). The Focus Zone basically excluded 14 sites located at the outer periphery
of the Computation Zone. Since these sites were located at the boundary areas, interference
experienced by them would have been lower than the remaining sites. As a result, inclusion of
these sites for statistical calculations would have unfairly skewed the overall E
c
/I
o
statistics.
To accurately represent the E
c
/N
o
distribution, RSCP from the sites located within the Focus Zone
and N
o
from all 48 sites were used for calculation.
Megafon Use Only
LTE Network Planning
Section 7: Predicting Overlay and Coexistence with Other Technologies
80-W2559-1 Rev B
7-30 © 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Case Study 2: UMTS Network – RSCP Prediction Map
In order to maintain parity with previous statistical calculations, RSCP distribution was performed
based on sites located within the Focus Zone only.
An indoor penetration loss of 15 dB was assumed for RSCP prediction.
Megafon Use Only
LTE Network Planning
Section 7: Predicting Overlay and Coexistence with Other Technologies
80-W2559-1 Rev B
7-31 © 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Case Study 2: LTE Prediction – Key Settings (1 of 2)
For details on assumed system configuration, see Section 6.
Megafon Use Only
LTE Network Planning
Section 7: Predicting Overlay and Coexistence with Other Technologies
80-W2559-1 Rev B
7-32 © 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Case Study 2: LTE Prediction – Key Settings (2 of 2)
For details on assumed system configuration, see Section 6.
Megafon Use Only
LTE Network Planning
Section 7: Predicting Overlay and Coexistence with Other Technologies
80-W2559-1 Rev B
7-33 © 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Notes
Megafon Use Only
LTE Network Planning
Section 7: Predicting Overlay and Coexistence with Other Technologies
80-W2559-1 Rev B
7-34 © 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Case Study 2: LTE-2600 Reference Signal (1 of 6)
In order to maintain parity with previous statistical calculations, RSRP distribution was performed
based on sites located within the Focus Zone only.
An indoor penetration loss of 15 dB was assumed for RSRP prediction.
Megafon Use Only
LTE Network Planning
Section 7: Predicting Overlay and Coexistence with Other Technologies
80-W2559-1 Rev B
7-35 © 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Case Study 2: LTE-2600 Reference Signal (2 of 6)
In order to maintain parity with previous statistical calculations, RSRQ distribution was perfomed
based on sites located within the Focus Zone only.
An indoor penetration loss of 15 dB was assumed for RSRQ prediction.
Megafon Use Only
LTE Network Planning
Section 7: Predicting Overlay and Coexistence with Other Technologies
80-W2559-1 Rev B
7-36 © 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Case Study 2: LTE-2600 PBCH C/I Distribution (3 of 6)
In order to maintain parity with previous statistical calculations, PBCH C/I distribution was
performed based on sites located within the Focus Zone only.
An indoor penetration loss of 15 dB was assumed for prediction.
Megafon Use Only
LTE Network Planning
Section 7: Predicting Overlay and Coexistence with Other Technologies
80-W2559-1 Rev B
7-37 © 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Case Study 2: LTE-2600 PDSCH C/I Distribution (4 of 6)
In order to maintain parity with previous statistical calculations, PDSCH C/I distribution was
performed based on sites located within the Focus Zone only.
An indoor penetration loss of 15 dB was assumed for prediction.
Megafon Use Only
LTE Network Planning
Section 7: Predicting Overlay and Coexistence with Other Technologies
80-W2559-1 Rev B
7-38 © 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Case Study 2: LTE-2600 Best Bearer Distribution (5 of 6)
In order to maintain parity with previous statistical calculations, best bearer distribution was
performed based on sites located within the Zone only.
An indoor penetration loss of 15 dB was assumed for prediction.
Megafon Use Only
LTE Network Planning
Section 7: Predicting Overlay and Coexistence with Other Technologies
80-W2559-1 Rev B
7-39 © 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Case Study 2: LTE-2600 RLC Throughput (6 of 6)
In order to maintain parity with previous statistical calculations, peak RLC throughput distribution
was performed based on sites located within the Focus Zone only.
An indoor penetration loss of 15 dB was assumed for prediction.
Megafon Use Only
LTE Network Planning
Section 7: Predicting Overlay and Coexistence with Other Technologies
80-W2559-1 Rev B
7-40 © 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Notes
Megafon Use Only
LTE Network Planning
Section 7: Predicting Overlay and Coexistence with Other Technologies
80-W2559-1 Rev B
7-41 © 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Notes
Megafon Use Only
LTE Network Planning
Section 7: Predicting Overlay and Coexistence with Other Technologies
80-W2559-1 Rev B
7-42 © 2010 QUALCOMM Incorporated MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION
Notes
Megafon Use Only