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Chapter 11

E-Commerce Retailing and Services

Copyright 2013 Pearson Education The Amazon of the Middle East

Class Discussion

Why is setting up seller-buyer internet site difficult? How has built its supply chain to keep costs low? How has reduced consumer anxiety over online purchases? What are some vulnerabilities facing Would you buy something from a startup ecommerce site?
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Major Trends in Online Retail, 20122013

Mobile commerce nearly doubles Rapid growth in social commerce Online retail still the fastest growing retail channel Buying online a normal, mainstream experience Selection of goods increases, includes luxury goods Informational shopping for big-ticket items expands Specialty retail sites show rapid growth Integration of multiple retailing channels
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The Retail Sector

Most important theme in online retailing is effort to integrate online and offline operations U.S. retail market accounts for $11.1 trillion (71%) of total GDP Personal consumption:

Goods vs. services ambiguity

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Services: 66% Nondurable goods: 23% Durable goods: 11%

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The Retail Industry

7 segments (clothing, durable goods, etc.)
For each, uses of Internet may differ
Information vs. direct purchasing

General merchandisers vs. specialty

retailers Mail order/telephone order (MOTO)

most similar to online retail sector
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Sophisticated order entry, delivery, inventory

control systems

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Composition of the U.S. Retail Industry

Figure 9.1, Page 575

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SOURCE: Based on data from U.S. Census Bureau, 2012.

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E-commerce Retail: The Vision

1. 2. 3.

Few of these assumptions were correctstructure of retail marketplace has not been revolutionized Internet has created new venues for multi-channel firms and supported a few pure-play merchants


Reduced search and transaction costs; customers able to find lowest prices Lowered market entry costs, lower operating costs, higher efficiency Traditional physical store merchants forced out of business Some industries would be disintermediated

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The Online Retail Sector Today

Smallest segment of retail industry (56%) Growing at faster rate than offline segments Revenues have resumed growth Around 72% of Internet users bought online in 2012 Malaysian online shopping market reached RM1.8 billion in 2010, and was estimated to grow to RM5 billion in 2014 (Marketing

Interactive, 2011).

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Online Retail and B2C E-commerce Is Alive and Well

Figure 9.2, p. 578

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SOURCES: Based on data from eMarketer, Inc., 2012a; authors estimates.

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Multi-channel Integration

Integrating Web operations with traditional physical store operations Types of integration
Gift cards Provide integrated shopping experience Leverage value of physical store Online order, in-store pickup

Increasing importance of mobile devices, social commerce, and tablets

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Web promotions to drive customers

usable in any channel

to stores

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E-tailing Business Models

Virtual merchant

Bricks and clicks/Multi-channel



Catalog merchant

Walmart, J.C. Penney, Sears


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Lands End, L.L. Bean, Victorias Secret Dell

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Virtual Merchants

Single channel Web firms that generate almost all of their revenue from online sales
Example: Amazon

E-commerce in Action:


Business model:

Earths biggest selection, most customer-centric Retail, Third-Party Merchants, and Amazon Web Services (merchant and developer services) Continued explosive revenue growth, profitable Maximize sales volume, lower costs and cut prices, acquisitions, mobile shopping, Kindle Online and offline general merchandisers, Web services
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Financial analysis:

Strategic analysis/business strategy:

Strategic analysis/competition:

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E-commerce in Action:

Strategic analysis/technology: Strategic analysis/social, legal: Future prospects:

Sales tax, patent lawsuits Largest, most sophisticated collection of online retailing

technologies available

In 2011, net sales grew 40%, and significant gains thus

far in 2013 Ranks among top five in customer service, speed, accuracy
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Multi-channel Merchants: Bricks and Clicks Companies that have network of physical stores

as primary retail channel, but also online offerings Examples: Wal-Mart, J.C. Penney, Sears

Catalog Merchants
Established companies
that have national offline catalog operation as largest retail channel, but also have online capabilities Examples: Lands End, L.L. Bean, Eddie Bauer, Victorias Secret, Lillian Vernon

Single or multi-channel manufacturers who sell
directly online to consumers without intervention of retailers Example: Dell (worlds largest direct computer systems supplier, $4.6 billion sales in 2011) Supply-push model: products are made prior to orders received based on estimated demand (Traditional model) Demand-pull model: products are not built until an order is received (Dells model)

Common Themes in Online Retailing

Online retail fastest growing channel on revenue basis Profits for startup ventures have been difficult to achieve Disintermediation has not occurred Established merchants need to create integrated shopping experience to succeed online Growth of online specialty merchants, e.g. Blue Nile Extraordinary growth of social, local, and mobile e-commerce
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The Service Sector: Offline and Online

Service sector:
Largest and most rapidly expanding part of

economies of advanced industrial nations Concerned with performing tasks in and around households, business firms, and institutions

Employs 4 out of 5 U.S. workers 75% of economic activity

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Includes doctors, lawyers, accountants, business consultants, etc.

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Service Industries

Major service industry groups:

Finance Travel Insurance Real estate

Professional serviceslegal, accounting

Business servicesconsulting, advertising, marketing,

etc. Health services Educational services

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Service Industries

Two categories
Transaction brokers Hands-on service providers


Knowledge- and information-intense Personalization and customization

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Makes them uniquely suited to e-commerce Level differs depending on type of service, e.g.,


medical vs. financial

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Online Financial Services

Example of e-commerce success story, but success is somewhat different from what had been predicted Brokerage industry transformed 62% of customers prefer online banking Effects less powerful in insurance, real estate Multi-channel, established financial services firms continue to show growth

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Industry Consolidation and Integrated Financial Services

Figure 9.3, Page 605

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Online Financial Consumer Behavior

Consumers attracted to online financial sites because of desire to save time and access information rather than save money Most online consumers use financial services firms for mundane financial management

Number of people using mobile devices for financial services is surging

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Check balances Pay bills

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Online Banking
Online banking pioneered by NetBank and Wingspan; no longer in existence USA: 107 million people use online banking; expected to rise to 116 million by 2014 Malaysia has the most e-banking users SEA (comScore, 2011); 2.7million visitors in Jan 2011, increase of 16% from previous year Most visited: Maybank2u, CIMBClicks..

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Multi-channel vs. Pure Online Financial Service Firms

Online consumers prefer multi-channel firms with physical presence Multi-channel firms

Pure online firms


Growing faster than pure online firms

Lower online customer acquisition costs

Cannot provide all services that require face-to-face

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Online Insurance Services

Online term life insurance:

One of few online insurance with lowered search costs,

Most insurance not purchased online Online industry geared more toward

Product information, search Price discovery Online quotes

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increased price comparison, lower prices Commodity

Influencing the offline purchasing decision

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Online Real Estate Services

Early vision: Disintermediation of a complex industry However, major impact is influencing of purchases offline
Impossible to

Despite revolution in available information, there has not been a revolution in the industry value chain
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complete property transaction online Main services are online property listings, loan calculators, research and reference material, with mobile apps increasing

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Online Travel Services

One of the most successful B2C e-commerce segments Online travel bookings declined slightly due to recession but expected to grow to $150 billion in 2016 For consumers: More convenience than traditional travel agents For suppliers: A singular, focused customer pool that can be efficiently reached through onsite advertising

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Online Travel Services (cont.)

Travel an ideal service/product for Internet

Information-intensive product Electronic producttravel

arrangements can be accomplished for the most part online Does not require inventory Does not require physical offices with multiple employees Suppliers are always looking for customers to fill excess capacity Does not require an expensive multi-channel presence
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The Online Travel Market

Four major sectors:

Airline tickets Car rentals Cruises/tours Hotel reservations

57% purchase airline tickets from airlines Web site, 22% from travel booking Web site (e.g., Expedia) Corporate online-booking solutions (COBS)

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Online Travel Industry Dynamics

Intense competition among online providers Price competition difficult Industry consolidation Industry impacted by meta-search engines

Mobile applications are also transforming industry Social media content, reviews have an increasing influence on travel purchases

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Commoditize online travel

Online Career Services

Top sites generate over $1 billion annually Two main players: CareerBuilder, Monster Traditional recruitment tools:

Online recruiting

Classified, print ads, career expos, on-campus recruitment, staffing firms, internal referral programs More efficient, cost-effective, reduces total time-to-hire Enables job hunters to more easily distribute resumes while conducting job searches Ideally suited for Web due to information-intense nature of process
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Online Recruitment Industry Trends

Consolidation Diversification: Niche employment sites Localization:

Job search engines/aggregators: Social networking: Mobile Web sites and apps
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Local vs. national, Craigslist Scraping listings

LinkedIn; Facebook apps

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