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Part A: Vapour Compression Refrigeration Introduction and Objectives of the Experiment

1. Introduction
Refrigeration is a major application of thermodynamics. The purpose of refrigerator is to take heat from a low temperature region (thus maintaining a cold-space), and transfer it to a higher temperature region. In this experiment, the vapour-compression refrigeration cycle, in which the refrigerant is vaporised and condensed alternately and is compressed in the vapour phase as shown in Figure 1 is studied. Under steady flow conditions, the energy transfers in most components in a refrigerator can be analysed using the steady flow energy equation applied to an open system. Furthermore, the aim of the experiment is to show an understanding of the principles of vapour compression refrigeration cycle and to appreciate and apply thermodynamic analysis to a refrigerator.

2. Objectives
The purpose of this experiment is: (i) to determine the changes in state and phase of the refrigerant which occur in each of the following systems: evaporator, condenser, compressor, and throttle valve. (ii) (iii) to identify the energy transfers which occur for each of the above open systems. to illustrate the individual state points and values for one sample test on the attached p-h diagram (iv) to calculate the refrigerator coefficient of performance (COP) based upon electrical power, shaft power, indicated power and ideal cycle. (vi) to present their trends against evaporator saturation temperature and to show the measurements of the condensing temperature.

Figure 1: The ideal vapour compression refrigeration cycle and its p-h diagram

3. The vapour-compression refrigeration cycle

Process 1-2: Superheated vapour leaving the evaporator enters the compressor which increases both the pressure and the temperature of the vapour. Process 2-3: The high temperature vapour condenses within the condenser by losing heat to the cooling water, and the refrigerant leaves the condenser as a sub-cooled liquid. Process 3-4: The liquid refrigerant expands within the throttle valve so that its pressure is reduced back to the evaporator pressure. Process 4-1: The refrigerant picks up heat from the cold space and becomes slightly superheated after leaving the evaporator.

4. Experiment
When the refrigerator has reached the steady state conditions, the pressures, temperature and the refrigerant and water flow rates for different evaporator heat inputs are measured. The following steps are taken in order to determine energy transfer for each open system: (1) The steady flow energy equation for each system is written down by omitting any terms that is considered irrelevant. (2) The values of enthalpy at each points 1, 2, 3 and 4 shown in Figure 1 is determined. (3) The sample calculations in the booklet is followed and the test result table attached is completed.

5. Result

Part B: Gas Turbine Power Plant Apparatus and Gas Turbine Operations
A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine is a type of internal combustion engine. It has an upstream rotating compressor coupled to a downstream turbine, and a combustion chamber inbetween.

Generally, based on the above schematic, fresh atmospheric air flows through a compressor that brings it to a higher pressure. After that, energy is added by spraying fuel into the air and igniting it inside the combustion chamber so the combustion generates a high-temperature flow. Next, the hightemperature and high-pressure gas enters the turbine where it expands down to the exhaust pressure, producing a shaft work output in the process.