THE GRAND CHRONOLOGY

(Some dates are approximate)

BC
4000-3500 3600 3300 Dawn of the Sumerian culture Thai bronzes Canaanites occupy the Holy Land Agricultural villages in Egypt united into two kingdoms 3200 3100 3000-1500 2700 2600 2500 2500-1200 2350 2300 2000-1700 1900-1800 1750 First hieroglyphic writing Pharaoh Menes unifies Upper and Lower Egypt Indus Valley civilisation (Major sites Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro) First pyramids Egyptian control over Nubia Ebla civilisation Bronze age Minoan civilisation on Crete and in neighbouring lands Sargon I (Akkadians) Indus Valley civilisation at its peak Cretan Linear A script (still undeciphered) A monotheistic (!) revelation to Abraham Abraham leaves Haran with his entourage

1792-1750 1730 1700-1550 1550 before 1600 1523

Hammurabi (Amorites) Hebrew tribes migrate to Egypt under the leadership of Joseph Semitic Hyksos rule in Egypt End of the Hyksos period in Egypt and oppression begins First phonetic alphabet along the Phoenician coast The Shang dynasty (‘Sons of Heaven’) - first large political state in China A writing system with 2,000 characters already in use in China

1500

Dawn of Greek Civilisation Aryans enter India via Kashmir

1440 1400 1379-1362 1300 1250

Moses and the Israelites leave Egypt for the Sinai desert Probable birth of Zoroaster (1200, 1000, and 600s are also proposed as birth years) Akh-en-Aten in Egypt (First example of monotheism) Gathering together of the Vedas Moses leaving Eypt - Exodus YHWH’s revelation to Moses in Mt. Sinai

1300-1200 13th century before 1200 1200-1000 12/11th century 1027 1000/1006-961 1000

Cretan Linear B script records an early Greek dialect Song of Miriam (Exodus) (The Old Testament) Nomadic Hebrew tribes enter Canaan Dorian Greek invasions of Greece and the Aegean area Period of the Judges, Book of the Covenant (Exodus) (The Old Testament) Chou dynasty in China expands the lands of the ‘Sons of Heaven’ David becomes king of Israel Aryan peoples (Persians, Medes) dominate the area of present day Iran Dawn of Zoroastrianism (?)

Beginning of the composition of the Psalms. Story of the Ark of the Covenant (Samuel) ≈ End of 2nd millennium the first Arab civilisations start to appear 1000-722/721 Period of the Kings (Solomon and later two kingdoms) The written source of the “Pentateuch” (The Old Testament)

Origin of the written source by the “Elohists” and “Jahvists” . The source we owe to Jahvists used the name Elohists used the name “Elohim”

Jahvists’ work probably originated in southern Judea in 10-9th centuries BC. and Elohists’ probably in 8th ce el. The two works were later merged with one another, and subsequently together with the “Second Book of th the Priestly writings) to form what is known as the “Five books of Moses” - The Torah. 975 965-926 961-922 960 after 926 922 884 870 850 814 753 750-661 722 Two tribes lost to the house of David Solomon (Shlomo) Solomon (unites Hebrews in a kingdom) Solomon becomes king of Israel Kingdom of Israel in the north; kingdom of Judah in the south Jerusalem sacked by the Egyptians Syrians invade Judah, carry off Jewish captives Prophet Elijah Jerusalem sacked by Philistines Phoenician colony of Carthage Founding of Rome (Legend of Romulus) Nubia rules Egypt King Sargon of Agade (Sharru-ken/Sharrum-kin) conquers the northern kingdom of Israel Ten tribes of Israel lost forever 722-698 (721-693) Hezekiah of Judah The so-called “proto-Isaiah” (=Isaiah), Micah

before 700 639/638-609

First metal coinage introduced by the Lydians in Asia Minor

So-called “Deuteronomistic reform” (621 BC.) by King Josiah of Judah which attempts to put into practice th cond book of the law-Deuteronomy’. In order to lend importance to it, it was given the style of an address to th end of their wandering in the wilderness. Deuteronomy (5th Book of Moses), Habakkuk, Nahum, Zephaniah.

634-546 6th century 597

Thales The lost tribes of Israel settle in northern India First exile Jeremiah (original scroll) (The Old Testament) A small part of the Book of Ezekiel (The Old Testament)

590 586

Prophet Ezekiel refers possibly to the Temple in Kashmir Babylonians conquer the southern kingdom of Judah under Nebuchadnezzar II. Temple of Solomon destroyed Jewish captivity in Babylon.

586-539/538

Babylonian exile Lamentations (The Old Testament) So-called “deutero-Isaiah” (=Isaiah) (The Old Testament)

So-called “Deuteronomical historical work”. These are called deuteronomistic history because having origin of the 6th century they are composed entirely in the spirit of the Deuteronomy. The connection with Deuterono tent, it originated not before the 6th century BC. and possibly later. Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings, so-called Priestly writings (The Old Testament) 580-500 563-483 551 539 539/538-515 Pythagoras Siddharta Gautama (Buddha) the ‘Enlightened One’ Birth of Confucius Release of the Jews from Babylon by Cyrus of Persia Restoration until the consecration of the “Second Temple”

So-called “trito-Isaiah” (=Isaiah) (The Old Testament) Haggai, Zechariah (The Old Testament) 539-323(?) Persian period Joel and so-called “chroniclers” history work (The Old Testament) 522-486 520 500-300 5th century 469-399 460 ≈ 450 428-347 425 ≈ 4th century Darius Essenic thoughts spread amongst Greeks and Egyptians Buddhism, Jainism, mystical revisions of orthodox Vedism develops in India First writing of the Buddhist suthras Socrates Malachi (The Old Testament) Probably Ezra and Nehemiah (The Old Testament) Plato Babylonian Jews in trade contacts with the East Jonah (The Old Testament) Job (could be 3rd century) 400 372-287 384-322 353 336 334-326 ≈ 320 3rd century around 332 Start of Mahabharata Diogenes Atistotle Jews deported to Hyrcania, near the Caspian Sea Alexander the Great comes to power Alexander the Great invades Syria, Egypt, Palestine, Babylon, Persia and NW India Hellenistic Era (for about 300 years) Proverbs and Songs of Solomon (The Old Testament) Zechariah (The Old Testament)

310-230 ≈ 300

Aristarchus, heliocentric theory in astronomy Ramayana Euclid’s geometry

285-246 287-212 276-194 274-236 260 257 ≈ 250 250

Beginning of the Septuagint Archimedes Eratosthenes, world map King Asoka of the Maurya dynasty in India Torah translated into Greek King Asoka sends Buddhist missionaries to the West Ecclesiastes (The Old Testament) Persian empire ander the Parthians (until 229 AD.) Asoka, the emperor of India sends Buddhist missionaries as far as Marseilles (Roquepertuse)

224 198 170-160 168 168-42 167-164

Sassanian dynasty succeding the Parthians (until 651 AD.) Palestine conquered by the Syrian Seleucids Book of Esther, Book of Daniel (The Old Testament) Seleucid Antiochus storms Jerusalem and persecutes Jews Hasmoneans revive Jewish kingdom Maccabees Qumran texts

166-160(?) 140

First canon of the Bible - under Judas Maccabeus? Introduction of Buddhism to China Scattering of Jews around Mediterranean

100

Compilation of the Dead Sea Scrolls (Qumran texts) Menelaus. Non-Euclidian geometry

73 63 45 37 27 7-6 5 4 AD 0 4 6

Herod the Great, king of Judaea Pompey of Rome storms Jerusalem Julian calendar Herod of Idumaea king of Judaea Octavian becomes Augustus, Roman emperor (until 14 AD) Birth of Jesus (?) Jesus adopted by Essenes (?) Jesus taken to Egypt (?)

World population estimated at 170 million Herod Agrippa, Jewish ruler under Romans Achelaus is removed from power; Jesus (12 years old) in the Temple Census carried by Quirinius for Romans (?)

6-28/30 14 20 21 28(?) 30 30-35 33 31-34 34-35

Jesus’ first trip to India First Roman emperor Augustus dies, Tiberius Caesar suceeds as emperor of Rome Return of Jesus to the West, probably journeys to Greece and Britain (?) Gondapharos, king of Gandhara Jesus returns to Palestine Jesus returns from India, and enters Jerusalem Crucifixion of Jesus (?) (Choose the year you like, it won’t make any difference!) Baptism of Jesus by John (?) (probably never happened) John the Baptist murdered (?) Ministry of Jesus (?)

35 36 after 36 37

Paul ’s conversion (?) Jesus with the king of Andrapa Jesus in Edessa with the king of Nisibis Holy Shroud taken to Edessa Caligula emperor of Rome

40

Thomas meets Gondapharos at Taxila Jesus in Parthia Death of Mary Magdalene at Kashgar (?)

43 49

Rome invades Britain; London is founded Jesus and Thomas meet at Taxila Gopadatta rules Kashmir

before 50 50

Jesus lives in the university town of Taxila (Punjab), and is seen at the court of Gondapharos, the Indo-Parth Jesus at the court of king Gopananda (Gopadatta) who ruled about 49-109 Downfall of Gondapharos: Yueh-Chi invasion from Bactria Death of Mother Mary (?) ≈ Middle of the first century AD: New Testament epistles

after 50 52 56-120 60 60-70 64

Jesus under the name of Yuz Asaf travels as an itinerant preacher in Kashmir and neighboring regions Thomas reaches Malabar Tacitus Yuzu Asaph arrives in Kashmir Compilation of Gospel of Mark Great fire in Rome Nero begins persecution of Christians Peter crucified

66-70 67 70

Series of Jewish rebellions against Rome Paul beheaded in Rome(?) Pliny’s Historica Naturalis, noting the Essenes Destruction of Jerusalem and Herod’s Temple by Romans (Titus)

after 70 73 78

Jesus meets the local king Shalivahana Fall of Masada Inscription on the Temple of Solomon in Srinagar Shalivahana meets Jesus then leaves Kashmir

78-103 79 80 after 80 85 90-95

Reign of king Kanishka Mt. Vesuvius erupts, destroys Pompeii; 20,000 die 4th Buddhist Council at Harran (Harwan) in Kashmir The body of Jesus entombed in Srinagar Compilation of Gospel of Matthew John’s apocalypse Acts of the Apostles (The Old Testament) Further New Testament epistles

98-116 100

Roman Empire reaches greatest geographical extent World population estimated at 180 million Establishment of the Hebrew Bible canon at Jabneh (Jabne-el, Jamnia)

109 110 115 ≈ 150 163

Reputed death of Jesus in Kashmir Official time of compilation of the Gospel of John Sutta compiles Bhavishya Maha Purana Second epistle of Peter Bones and relics of Thomas carried from Madras to Edessa

175 182-251 184 189 190 200 202 220 248 250 271 284-305 286 300 306-337 312 313 325 328-333 354-430 368 375 382 396-430

Migration of Christians from the West to NW India Origen The Roman army carries the great plague from Parthia (Iraq) into the Empire Demetrius deputes Pantaenius to India to preach Christianity Catholic bishops’ power is established and a New Testament canon is formulated World population estimated at 190 million Roman Emperor Septimus Severus makes baptism a criminal act Goths invade Asia Minor and Balkan peninsula Rome celebrates its 1,000th anniversary Emperor Decius increases persecution of Christians Monasticism begins with Anthony, the first hermit, in Egypt The last of the great state persecutions against Christians occurs under Diocletian Roman Empire splits with eastern capital in Byzantium Eusebius writes about the Essenes Constantine Constantine accepts Christianity; reunites empire Emperor Constantine issues the Edict of Milan which legalizes Christianity throughout the Roman Empire Council of Nicaea condemns Arianism Constantine makes Byzantium his new capital under the name of Constantinople Augustine Epiphanius, Bishop of Salamis, collates the Acta Thomae Eusebius divides New Testament into authentic, disputed and spurious parts Gospel of James and Gospel of Barnabus condemned Augustine reigns as bishop of Hippo in North Africa. In 410-426 he writes ‘City of God’.

397 405 422 478 495 496

Third Council of Carthage (Augustine) settles final Canon of the New Testament Gospel of James and Gospel of Barnabus proscribed and destroyed Rab Ashi compiles the Jewish Talmud Gospel of Barnabus rediscovered in a tomb in Cyprus Acta Thomae proscribed Gospel of James and Barnabus declared heretical (Decree of Gelasius) Clovis king of the Franks, is baptized in the first mass conversion.

525 529 571

Holy Shroud found at Edessa Codex Justinianus

Birth of Mohamed, the Islam prophet (birth year propositions range from 567 to 573 but 571 seems to be the ority of researchers agree) Columbanus leaves Ireland; founds Continental monasteries The Roman Pope sends Augustine to convert England Talmud finalised Mohamed announces the first revelation from his God Damascus and Jerusalem sacked by Persians. Holy Cross carried away. Hegira to Medina by the Mohammedan Arabs, beginning of the Islamic calendar Mohamed dies Ali - Mohamed’s nephew and son-in-law assasinated; followers found the Shi’ite sect Omayyad caliphs Baghdad becomes the seat of the Abbasid caliphs Amalgamation of Church and State in Rome (Charlemagne) Al Sheikh Al-Said-us-Sadiq completes Ikmal-ud-Din on Jesus’ India Journeys Mahmud of Ghazni

590 596 600 611 614 622 632 661 661-750 750 800 960 971-1030

980-1037 1054 1055 after 1071 1095-1099 1099

Avicenna Split between Eastern and Western Churches formalized Seljuk Turks took Baghdad Seljuk Turks rule Persia and Iraq; massive numbers of Turks settle in Asia Minor The Crusades to wrest Palestine from the Moslems are launched by Pope Urban II. Crusader storming of Jerusalem Crusader states in Jerusalem, Edessa, Antioch

1126-1198 1135-1204 1147 1187 1206 1274 1290 1290-1922 1306 1357 1417 1420 1451 1453 1473-1543 1475-1564 1483-1546

Averroes Maimonides Second Holy War for Jerusalem (response to Second Crusade) Recapture of Jerusalem from Crusaders by Sultan Saladin Sultanate of Delhi - Turkish power in India consolidated Thomas Aquinas dies. He is considered the greatest Catholic thinker. Cardinal Hugo de S Caro reorganises New Testament Ottoman era Holy Shroud relocated to France Holy Shroud first exposed to devotees Mir Muhammad’s Rauzat-us-Safa mentions Jesus in Nisibis Mulla Nadri completes Tarikh-i-Kashmir Nasir-ud-Din buried beside Jesus’ tomb in Kashmir Constantinople fell to the Ottomans Copernicus (promoted heliocentric theory) Michelangelo Luther

1455 1502-1736 1508-1512 1509-1564 1514 1517 1521

Gutenberg’s printed Bible Safavids Michelangelo paints the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. Calvin New Testament in Greek printed Martin Luther nails 96 Theses to the Wittenberg Chapel. The Protestant Reformation begins. Martin Luther excommunicated Beginning of Reformation

1523 1526-1857(?) 1529 1534

Talmud printed in Holland Mughal dynasty of India Ottoman advance in Europe stopped at Vienna Founding of the Jesuit order by Loyola (Counter-Reformation) Henry VIII breaks away from the Catholic Church

1545-1547 1561-1626 1564 1564-1642 1596-1650 1611 1620 1632-1677 1633 1642-1727 1646-1716

The first Council of Trent condemns Protestanism. Francis Bacon Protestant reformer John Calvin of Geneva dies. Galileo Descartes (invents analytic geometry) King James Bible is published. The Mayflower carries puritans to America. Colonies are established in New England. Spinoza Galileo’s forced retraction Newton (mechanics unifying cosmic and earthly phenomena) Leibnitz (together with Newton invents calculus)

1571-1630 1578 1616 1694 1729 1741 18th century 1766 1789-1794 1804 1803 1820 1823 1848 1861 1870 1871 1872 1873 1880 1890 1891

Kepler (mathematical laws describing the orbits of the planets) Holy Shroud taken to Italy James I’s Authorised Bible appears Holy Shroud moved to Royal Chapel at Turin Azam’s Waqiat-i-Kashmir notes Yuzu Asaph’s tomb Badi-ud-Din Abul Qasım notes one of Apostles is buried at Yuzu Asaph’s tomb Enlightenment Decree in favour of custodian of Yuzu Asaph’s tomb, by Grand Mufti of Kashmir The French Revolution tries to de-Christianize France. The British and Foreign Bible Society seeks to translate the Bible into every language. A. Wrede writes Account of St. Thomas’ Christians in Malabar Abdul Qadir, in Hashmat-i-Kashmir, calls Kashmiris descendants of Jews Thilla publishes Acta Thomae Communist Manifesto, Marx & Engels Moore’s Lost Tribes traces Jews in Afghanistan and Kashmir Acts of Barnabus published in English Acta Thomae published in English Meer Izzut-Oolah’s Travels in Central Asia mentions Jesus in Ladakh The Crucifixion by an Eye-Witness surfaces in USA, proscribed and burnt Anti-Semitic Petition in Germany Notovitch’s Life of Saint Issa, based on his findings in Ladakh Moore’s Ethnography of Afghanistan Mir Khwand’s Rauzat-us-Safa published in English

1893

Gospel of Peter published by H.B. Swete

1894 1898

Notovitch’s The Unknown Life of Jesus published Holy Shroud first photographed Threatened demolition of Yuzu Asaph’s tomb

1904 1907 1908

Zionist Movement for establishment of Israel The Crucifixion by an Eye-Witness published Mirza Ghulam Ahmad publishes Massih Hindustan Mein Levi’s Aquarian Gospel

1910 1916-1918 1920 1936 1945

Bhavishyat Maha Purana published Marshall’s excavations at Taxila reveals first century Christian relics Docker’s If Jesus Did Not Die on the Cross: A Study in Evidence Mufti Mohammed Sadiq publishes Qabr-i-Masih, on Yuzu Asaph’s tomb J.D. Shams publishes Did Jesus Die? Discovery of Nag Hammadi texts

1947

First discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Establishment of the State of Israel

1948 1949 1950 1952

World Council of Churches founded. Ecumenical movement starts. Fragments of Old Testament brought to Jerusalem from Qumran Tomb of Mary in Muree repaired Qumran: New fragments Nazir Ahmad’s Jesus in Heaven on Earth published

1953 1956 1956 1957

Robert Graves’ The Nazarene Gospel Restored Millar Burrows translates Dead Sea Scrolls; Copper Scrolls deciphered A. Powell Davis’ The Meaning of the Dead Sea Scrolls Kurt Berna’s Jesus Nicht am Kreuz Gestorben and Das Linnen (Turin Shroud)

1962-1965 n. 1964 1969 1975 1976 1977 1977 1978

The Second Vatican Council revolutionizes the Catholic Church - services are allowed to be held in the vern

Aziz Ahmad’s Asrar-i-Kashmir (Mystery of Kashmir) Turin Shroud exposed to scientific investigation Discovery of slab with Jesus’ foot-marks (by F.M. Hassnain & Ghulam Mohi-ud-Din) Andreas Faber-Kaiser’s Jesus Died in Kashmir Die Messias - Legitimation Jesu published by Helmut Gouckel Turin Shroud studied by NASA scientists Turin Shroud draws 500,000 visitors. Ian Wilson’s Turin Shroud published International Conference on the Deliverance of Jesus from the Cross, London

1980 1982 1983 1984 1987 1991 1992 1993

Janet L. Brock’s The Jesus Mystery Diego Rubio Barrera’s Jesucristo Holger Kersten’s Jesus Lebte in Indien E.C.Prophet’s Lost Years of Jesus, drawing together many testimonies John Forsström’s King of the Jews Baigent and Leigh’s The Dead Sea Scrolls Deception Barbara Thiering’s Jesus the Man, on Essene Biblical ciphers Publication of many hitherto unpublished Dead Sea Scrolls

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