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PresentedBy: MichaelMiller REMason

OperationalChallengesofToday
Ourtargetiszerounplanneddowntime

MaximizeEquipmentAvailability&Reliability

PlanALLMaintenance HOW?

Wearetryingtobecompetitivetodaywithaplant thatistypicallymorethan40yearsold andso areourcompetitors.


ExtendMachineryLife&Rebuilds

Wearerunningourequipmentbeyond itsdesign capacity tohandlethevarietyofmaterialsthatwe mustprocess


IncreasedthroughputwithoutRISKofmachinefailure?
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AnswerTheseToughQuestions...
Whatmaintenancedoesthemachineneedduringthe nextplannedshutdown?

DoIhavetheparts,doIhavethepeople?

Cantheequipmentrunbeyondthenextscheduled outage?

WhatworkcanIsafelyscheduleoutuntilthenext shutdown?

Vibration Basics (Miller)

WhatisVibration?
Vibration The motionofabody aboutareferencepoint Atitssimplest, vibrationisdisplayed asdisplacementover time

Vibration Basics (Miller)

WhyUseVibrationAnalysis?
"Of all the parameters that can be measured non-intrusively in industry today, the one containing the most information on machinery health is the vibration signature."
Art Crawford Acknowledged expert in the field of vibration analysis

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OverallVersusSpectrum
Overallcanletyouknowthatthereisaproblem HeyFred,somethingiswrongwithyourcar!

Spectrumscantellyouwhattheproblemis HeyFred,yourwaterpumpisbad!

Vibration Basics (Miller)

TheUnits
Displacement accentuates thelowfrequencies Mils Acceleration accentuates thehigherfrequencies (gs) Velocity isconsistentacross alargerrangeof frequencies Mostvibrationis analyzedinVelocitysince theenergylevelis consistentthroughoutthe frequencyrange.
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Howdowemeasurevibration?
Threetypesofsensors Displacement,Velocity,Acceleration Signalprocessorofsometype(CSI2130) Localorportabledisplayforfieldanalysis Remote Softwareforviewingandstoringcollectedvibration data

Vibration Basics (Miller)

DisplacementProbes
TypicalApplications Sleevebearings Mostturbineandlargemotor drivenmachinery

Mainturbinegenerators Boilerfeedwaterpumps

ApplicationsinwhichXY dataisrequiredfor measurementssuchas


ShaftcenterlinefromDCgapdata Orbitsfromvibrationdata

Notpracticalforbearingorgearanalysis
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ElectromagneticInduction

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VelocityPickup
VelocitySensorApplication

Mountedoncaseofmachineorshaft

riders Usedonsleeveandrollerbearings dependingontheapplication Whenintegrationtodisplacementis required Hitemperature


Upto900Forhigher
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TheoryofOperation Velocity Pickups


Mechanical
Movingcoil Selfpowered Directional

Bobbin

Bobbin Spring

Pole

S
Magnet

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Accelerometer
AccelerometerApplications Casemountedormagnetmounted PrimarilyRollerelementBearingsandGears Whenanalysisanddiagnosticsareimportant

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Accelerometer
Amplifier Insulator Conductive Plate Insulator Preload Bolt Inertial Mass Piezoelectric Crystal

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Amplitude
Tim e

Amplitude

Amplitude
Tim e

y nc e u eq r F

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SignalProcessing TheMystery
1.5 1

0.5

Amplitude

Turning Speed

-0.5

-1

-1.5

Time

Turning Speed Time Waveform


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SignalProcessing
1.5 1

0.5

Amplitude

Turning Speed 2x TS

-0.5

-1

-1.5

Time

Add twice turning speed vibration


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SignalProcessing
1.5 1

Amplitude

0.5

Turning Speed 0 2x TS 7x TS

-0.5

-1

-1.5

Time

Add blade pass vibration


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SignalProcessing
1.5 1

Amplitude

0.5

Turning Speed 0 2x TS 7x TS Brg

-0.5

-1

-1.5

Time

Add Bearing Vibration


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SignalProcessing
Total Vibration
3

-1

-2

-3

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SignalProcessing breakdowncomplexwaveforminto waveformcomponents


The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) takes the complex waveform and breaks it down into the component sine waves
3 1.5

0.5

FFT

-1

-0.5

-2

-1

-3

-1.5

The amplitudes for each sine wave is then plotted at the frequency of the sine wave, creating the Spectrum
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SignalProcessing TheFFTorSpectrum
Spectrum (FFT)
1.4 1.2

Twice Turning Speed Turning Speed

Amplitude

0.8

0.6

Blade Pass
0.4

Bearing Frequency
0.2

0 1 12 23 34 45 56 67 78 89 100 111 122 133 144 155 166 177 188 199 210 221 232 243 254 265 276 287 298 309 320 331 342 353 364 375 386 397

Frequency
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SoWhatcanVibrationAnalysisDetect?
DetectandTrackprogressingstagesofBearingFailure IdentifyImbalance andMisalignment
VibrationAnalysisisusedtocorrectImbalance

Identify/correctResonance IdentifyMechanicalWear incouplings,bearings,support

structures,etc.
Detectotherdefectssuchas:
Lubefailure/softfoot/brokenrotorbars Pumpcavitation,andmanymore

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WhatisaVibrationProgram?
Expertise,Technology,andWorkProcessesthat

PreventUnexpectedDowntime

Byassuringmachinesdonotfailcatastrophically

ExtendMachineLifeandOptimizePerformance

Bydetecting&correctingrootcauseconditionsthatcause excessivewear Do the right work


At the right time With the right methods

AllowYouToWorkEfficiently

Bytrendingprogressingfaultsand Coordinatingrepairstooccuratplannedoutages

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AFewCaseHistoriestoGetYouThinking
PaperMill:

Onlinevibrationmonitoringdetectedacrackedshaft

Presssection Trendincreaseddrasticallyover36hourperiod Wouldhaveotherwisefailedcatastrophically

OffshoreOilPlatform:

Onlinevibrationmonitoringsavescompressortwice!

Bearingproblemdetectedthroughvibrationanalysis. Bearingwasreplaced. Newfaultdetected6hourslater


Thermalexpansioncreatedbearingmisalignment

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A FewCaseHistoriestoGetYouThinking
CementMill:
Onlinevibrationmonitoringsolvesmystery Airhandlerwithintermittenthighvibration
Resonanceoccurswhenbaffleopenat~61%.

PowerPlant:
Onlinevibrationextendsmaintenanceintervals
Preventiveturbinemaintenanceevery5years Unnecessarymaintenancecaninducefaults! Extendfrom6 10yearswithonlinemonitoring Averagerepaircostaround$1million

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WhereShouldVibrationAnalysisbeUsed?
Plant Equipment

Predictive Criticaltoproduction Preventive Supportequipment Reactive Easy/Inexpensivetoreplace

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EstablishingaVibrationProgram

Defineprogramfocus/resources Determinecollectionmethod(s) Createdatabase Collectdata Detectdevelopingfaults Diagnosenatureandextentoffault Documentbusinessandmaintenanceimplications

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1)DefineProgramFocus
IdentifyCriticalMachines Effectonproduction Availabilityofbackupmachine Costtorepair Timetorepair DetermineResources Fullyinhousestaffed Fullyoutsourced Combination:Startup,Initialcontractservice,etc.

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2)DetermineCollection Method(s)
Routebasedperiodic Onlinemonitoring Generalplant Criticalequipment equipment Installedsensors Walkaroundsurvey Automaticmonitoring Manualmeasurement Definemeasurement Monthlyreadingtypical interval Readilyaccessible Inaccessibleor hazardousareas

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3)CreateDatabase
Entermachineconfigurationinformation MachineID(assetcode)andDescription MachineDesigninfo,OperatingSpeed,etc. Definemeasurementpoints
PointID(identification)andDescription SensorType(accelerometer) AnalysisParameters(howtoanalyzesignal) AlarmLimits(allowableamountofvibration)

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DataCollectionPoints Nomenclature
MOH MOP MOV MIH MIP MIV PIH PIP PIV POH POP POV

POA MOA

Standard: 2 vibration directions per bearing + 1 axial per shaft Add 1 PeakVue point per anti-friction bearing MOH = Motor Outboard Horizontal
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CollectData(Survey)
1) Periodicsurveywith walkaroundPortable Analyzer

2)Continuoussurveywith onlinemonitoring

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5)DetectDevelopingFaults
Visual detection using color and shape

Entire machine train on one screen

Vibration divided into frequency bands

Motor

Gearbox

Pump
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6)DiagnoseNatureofFault
Eachmachinefaultgeneratesaspecificvibration pattern(Bearings,Belts,etc.) Asinglevibrationmeasurementprovides informationaboutmultiplecomponents Thefrequencyofthevibrationisdeterminedby themachinedesignandoperatingspeed

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6)DiagnoseNatureofFault
Knowingtheaccurate machinespeedand phaseisimportant for vibrationanalysis.

Atachometerisrequiredtodeterminemachinespeed andphase.

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6)DiagnoseNatureofFault
Trend shows rate of advancement for fault in question

Individual trend parameter covers suspect frequency range

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SubHar monic 1X Amplitude

2X

Bearing Bearing

Gears

Bearing

1x Trend of Balance 5 mm/sec

2x

50x Trend of Bearings Alarm Time (Days)

Time (Days)

1 mm/sec

Alert and Fault alarms for each parameter


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6)DiagnoseNatureofFault
Imbalance typically appears at the turning speed of the machine

Imbalance

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6)DiagnoseNatureofFault
Misalignment typically shows up at either 1 or 2 x turning speed

Misalignment

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6)DiagnoseNatureofFault
Looseness shows up as multiples of turning speed

Looseness

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6)DiagnoseNatureofFault
Bearing wear shows up at specific peaks related to the geometry of the bearing and the speed of the shaft.

Bearing Wear

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RollerBearingFaults
Fourdifferentbearingfrequencies
Ball Spin Frequency (BSF) Fundamental Train Frequency (FTF) Ball Pass Frequency Inner Race (BPFI) Ball Pass Frequency Outer Race (BPFO)

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Specific peaks typically correlate to Specific machine faults Related to machine speed

Need Spectrum Analyzer for diagnostics, not just Overall vibration meter
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Advanced bearing wear shows up clearly in spectrum

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Early bearing wear frequently sometimes cant be detected with standard vibration measurements.

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Sidebands increase with gear wear

Many distinct peaks

Gear Wear

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ExamplesofOrbits
Misalignment, Resonance, Wear
Ellipse Truncation

Misalignment

Misalignment
Banana Inside ellipse

Shaft rub or mechanical looseness

Misalignment and other problems


Figure Eight Inner loop

Sub-synchronous whirl

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7) DocumentBusiness &MaintenanceImplications

Document:
Diagnoses Recommendations Accuracy Reoccurringfaults Productiongains Costsavings Financialimpact
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Summary:KeyPointsinaVibrationProgram
Expertise,Technology,andWorkProcessesthat

PreventUnexpectedDowntime

Byassuringmachinesdonotfailcatastrophically

ExtendMachineLifeandOptimizePerformance

Bydetecting&correctingrootcauseconditionsthatcause excessivewear

AllowYoutoWorkEfficiently

Bytrendingprogressingfaultsand Coordinatingrepairstooccuratplannedoutages

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