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S AR] A -S ER. B NIDE- TO M. 73,4
Edited by
...,,' ,.".,
~ Ul'
Communicat,d h.v Arthur Ld1igfors
and Veikko Viiiiniinen on
Nov, m he r 9, l 95 l
Printed by Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seur an
.Kirjapainon Oy
The attribution of the thirteenth-century poem known as Les neuf
joies NostTe Dame to Rutebeuf is modern and was first made, it
seems, by Achille Jubinal (see p. 36 of this volume). Jubinal's view,
however, was not accepted by Paul Meyer, ,vho believed that the
poem was written by an unknown author. Yet the mere fact that
it has been associated with one of the finest poets of medieval France
is sufficient to make it worth a special study. The reason wby such
a study was undertaken by the present writer, wbose main field of
interest is Middle Englisb literature, is that during his visits ta
British libraries he had come across three Anglo-Norman copies,
previously unknown, of tbis poem. This made bim interested in the
poem and strengtbened his impression that Les neuf joies Nostre
Dame had enjoyed considerable popularity in medieval England,
though there is no evidence that it was ever translated into English.
The main object of the work published here - apart from giving
il critical text of the poem - has been to find out whether the poem
is reaUy Rutebeuf's or not. In addition, considering the large number
of manuscripts available for collation, an attempt has been made to
assess the general reliability of the two important Rutebeuf manu-
scripts used for this edition, viz. MSS. fr. 837 and 1635 of the Bi-
bliothque Nationale. The conclusion reached on this point is given
on p. 28. The writer hopes that his editioll '"'lill be found useful by
those who specialise in the study of Rutebeuf's poetry.
Every page in this book teUs of the writer's special debt of
gratitude ta his teacher, Arthur Lngfors, Emeritus Professor of
1 There are a few striking verbal resemblances between Les neuf joies and
a hymn to the Virgin by William of Shgreham, last printed by Carleton Brown
in Religious Lyrics of the Fourteenth Century, pp. 46-9. Cf., for instance, Tu
iez la droite Sarray (42), Tu yez li bouchons (= buissons) Synay (44) in the
French poem and pou art pe bosche of Synay, pou art pe rytte Sarray (19-20)
in William's hymn. But w t ~ r such Hnes in the English poem can be taken
as reminiscences of Les neuf joies is impossible to say.
6 TAU 1\ 0 F. M L S TAN 0 .J A B 73,.

Subject of the Poem .
Manuscripts .
Printed Editions .
Description of the J',Ianuscripts fll
Inter-relation of the Manuscripts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 22
Relative Authority of the Manuscripts 27
Preface .....................................................
Romance Philology in the University of Helsinki. The writer also
wishes to record his indebtedness ta Ml'. H. L. Pink of Cambridge
University Library and to lIIr. Aima Sakari of Paris for information
concerning certain manuscripts, and to 1\1rs. Joan Rossell and :Ml'.
James Bramwell, his colleagues, for assistance during the final
phase of the work. His thanks are further due to the authorities of
the Bibliothque Nationale, the Bibliothque de l'Arsenal, the
Bibliothque Sainte-Genevive, the British Museum, the Cambridge
University Library, and the Bodleian Library, and to the ylastel'
and Fellows of Corpus Christi College and Emmanuel College,
Cambridge, for permission to use their manuscripts for the present
edition. He is also grateful for help given him by Mrs. Ann-Mari
Mickwitz and other members of the staff of the University Library,
The illustration on the tiUe-page of this book is a photographie
reproduction of the miniature preceding Les neuf joies Nost1'e
Dame in MS. fI'. 12467 of the Bibliothque Nationale.
Versification 30
Date, Provenance, and Authorship of the Poem 35
Bibliothque Nationale, MS. fI'. 1635 42
Appendix 1 .
Appendix Il .
Notes .
1 fi d e x 0 f S y m bol s 82
Index of Names
................... 84
...................... .
..... .. 85
................................. .
A Not e 0 n the T uri n Man use r i pt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 89
BODT,EIA"i LIBRARY, '\IS. MUS. D. 143 (c 1380), FOL. 1 b (REDUCED)
BonLEIAN LlBnARY, MS. MUS. li. lfo;l (".l:lHO), FOI.. 2 (ItEDUcEn)
Les neuf joies Nostt'e Dame 1 is an invocation, in non-lyric verse, to
the Blessed Virgin. It begins with an enumeration of her symbols -
this continues for the greater part of the poem - and ends with a
deseription of her I;line jays. Like the many otper poems of this kind,%
Les neuf joies bears witness of the eonfluenee of two powerful eurrents,
the cult of the Virgin and an elaborate system of allegory and sym-
bolism. For one of the popular ways in whieh the devotion to the
Virgin manifested itself appears to have been the enumeration of
her symbols or >>nameS>l; but these symbols were part of the aIl-
embraeing medieval system of symbolism and allegory, a system
which had its roots deep in antiquity.
~ r l y aIl the symbols of the Blessed Virgin are to be traeed back
to the Old Testament. This is quite natural. One of the immediate
objects of Christian allegory ann symbolism \vas the substantiation
of the New Testament doetrines. Above aIl, the persons and incidents
of the Old Testament were important sa far as they eould be taken
ta give support to the Gospel. Thus, ta the medieval mind, the Old
Testament was essentially an aIlegory of the New. The Blessed
Virgin Mary, for example, was anticipated in the persons of Eve,
Sarai, Rachel, Esther, Judith, the Shulamite, and several other
1 The tiUe of the poem in C, the basic text of the present edition, Li diz
des proprieteiz Notre Dame, occurs in no other manuscript, while in a number
of manuscripts the poem is entitled Les neuf joies Nostre Dame. For a list of
the tiUes see the critical apparatus on p. 42. The distribution of the various
titles shows clearly that the poem was generally known as Les neuf joies Nostre
Dame. This tiUe will therefore be used throughout the present edition although
it is not the title of its basic text.
2 A short account of the development of Marian hymnology is given by D.
Scheludko in ,>Die Marienlieder in der altprovenzalischen Lyrik'l (Neuphilolo.
gische Mitteilungen, XXXVI, 1935), pp. 29-36.
B Les neuf joies Kostre Dame 11
women of the Old Testament. She was also anticipated in the flower-
ing rod of Aaron, the burning bush of Moses, the Ark of the New
Covenant, Gideon's fleece, the closed door of Ezekiel, and in innumer-
able other things.
That the custom of showing one's devotion to the Virgin by
enumerating her symbols was quite universal is evident from the
vast number of Latin hymns in Analecta Hymnica Medii Aevi built
exclusively on this theme. In point of fact poems of this type are
seldom more than rhymed lists of Marian symbols. A typical ver-
nacular specimen of the genre is Les neuf joies Nostre Dame, the poem
printed in the present volume. There is - it has to be admitted -little
that is really original in the subject of this poem. Almost everyidea
and phrase can be traced to the Latin hymns of the period. Like the
Latin PQems, it has an extremely condensed diction. It is difficult
to think of any poem in the vernacular which surpasses Les neuf
joies in the economy of words, for nearly every word in this poem is
pregnant with allegorical meaning. On the other hand, despite the
triteness of its subject-matter, the poem is remarkably fresh and
of undeniable aesthetic value. Its attribution to Rutebeuf is therefore
not so surprising.
Another popular form which the devotion to the Blessed Virgin
assumed in the course of the Middle Ages appears to have been the
enumeration of her *joys, i.e., the joyful events of her life. The num-
ber of her joys varies; the poems and prose prayers which have
preserved this custom deal with five, seven, nine, and fifteen jOys.l
The five joys seem to have enjoyed particular popularity both in
France and in England, at least so far as vernacular poems are con-
cerned;2 the fifteen joys come next in popularity, while vernacular
poems on the seven joys are scarce. The only poem known to deal
1 This, of course, is to be associated with the medieval symbolismof numbers,
discussed by V. F. Hopper in Number (Columbia Uni-
persity Studies in English and Comparative Literature, No. 132), New York, 1938.
a In a short preliminary survey entitled *Geschichte der englischen Marien-
lyrib, published in Anglia, LXIX, 1950, pp. 3-88, T. Wolpers says (p. 22) that
the number of the joys was most frequently seven on the Continent. This state
with the nine joys is Les neuf joies Nostre Dame. - The joys enumer-
ated were not always the same. Atypicallist of the five joys, for in-
stance, consisted of the Annunciation, Nativity, Epiphany, Resur-
rection, and Assumption; frequently, however, the Epiphany is
replaced by the Ascension, which is made to follow the Resurrection
in the.list. In a French poem the seven joys are the following: the
Annunciation, Nativity, Epiphany, Presentation of Christ in the
. Temple, Baptism of Christ and his first miracle, Resurrection, and
Ascension. The nine joys enumerated in Les neuf joies NostTe Dame
are the Conception of Christ, the Visitation, Nativity, Epiphany,
Presentation of Christ in the Temple, Resurrection, Ascension, An-
nunciation 1, and Assumption. The late Canon V. Leroquais 2 mentions
a prayer evoking the fifteen joys which lists the following: the An-
nunciation, the Visitation, the leaping of the babe in Mary's womb,
the Nativity, Adoration of the Shepherds, Epiphany, Presentation
of Christ in the Temple, Finding in the Temple, Marriage in Cana,
Feeding of the Five Thousand, Crucifixion, Resurrection, Ascension,
Pentecost, and the Assumption and Coronation of the Virgin.
In addition to the joyful events of Mary's lite on earth, her joys
in heaven were also a source of inspiration for the devotional poetry
of the Middle Ages.
ment does not, however, seem to hold true for French vernacular poetry. An
idea of the circulation of the OF. poems dealing with the joys of the Virgin can
be obtained from Arthur Lngfors's Les Incipit des pomes franais antrieurs au
XVIe sicle (Paris, 1917). It enters poems dealing with the five joys on pp. 36,
76,77, H1, H8, 210, 215-6, and 310, and poems dealing with the fifteen joys
on pp. 32, 103, 346, and 408. A poem on the seven joys is mentioned on p. 139
and Les neuf joies Nostre Dame on pp. 346-7. Fol' sorne poems listed the num-
bel' of the joys is not given; such poems are mentioned on pp. 71, H8-9, and
212. Among the authors are Gautier de Coinci (five joys, p. 16) and Guillaume
le Clerc de Normandie (pp. 148-9).
1 It seems that the first Annunciation, by Gabriel, is here confused with
the second Annunciation of the Virgin, that preceding her Assumption.
a Les livres d'Heures manuscrits de la Bibliothque Nationale, Vol. l, Paris,
1927, p. xxvii.
3 Leroquais, op.cit., p. xxvii.
T "0\. 1j :'i <) F. M \: S T .0\. :'i 0 J .0\. B 78,&
B 78,& Les neuf joies l\ostre Dame 13
lipps :MS. 8336), fols. 57 b-59.
(0) Cambridge, University Library, lUS. Dd. 11. 78, fols. h.
(P) 1) Corpus Christi College, MS. 63, fol. 3a-b.
(Q) 1) Emmanuel College, }IS. I. 4. 31, fols. 28h-30.
(8) Oxford, Bodleian Library. :Mus. d. 143, fols. 1 b-2 (a frag-
(T) Cheltenham, Phillipps Libraryl, 3643, foL 105 (a-b?).
(U) Turin, University Library..MS. L.Y. 32, fols. 111-112 (a or b?).
(burnt). See p. 89.
Later in the medieval periou, prayers by the joys of the Virgin
became a regular feature in the books of Hours. These, intended as
prayer-books for lay people, ,vere comparatively rare until the begin-
ning of the fifteenth century, when their commercial production was
started. A prayer in French enumerating the fifteen joys became a
more or less regular feature in the books of Hours produced in France,
except in those following the use of Rome. According to Leroquais \
the fifteen joys do not figure in the books of Hours executed in Italy,
Belgium, England, or Germany. On the other hand, it seems that a
Latin prayer by the seven joys \Vas fairly frequent in English Horae
Beatae Mariae Virginis.

(L) London,
(M) })
(N) 1)
British Museum,
Addit. MS. 16975, fols. 236-38.
MS. 44949, fols. 27b-29.
1) 46919 (formerly Phil-
No less than eighteen manuscripts of Les neuf jot'es Sost1'e Dame
are known. The present edition is based on sixteen of these. One of
the MSS., Turin, Univ.Library, L. V. 32, perished in a fire in 1904.
This manuscript, accordingly, has not been available to the present
writer,2 who has also failed to obt,ain permission to cons11lt PhillipllS
MS. 3643. The eighteen are as fo1lows -
(A) Paris,
(C) Il
(F) 1)
(G) 1)
(H) 1)
(1) 1)
(J) 1)
1 Loc.cil.
Bibliothque NatiQllale, )18. fI'. 837, fols. 179-80.
}) l)}) Il 1635, fols. 43-44b.
}) ')>> 12467, fol. Ha-h.
1) II}) 12483, fols. 99 b-101.
1) 12786, fols. 90 b-92.
1) II lat. 16537, fols. 32-33 b.
de l'Arsenal, lIS. 3142, fol. 296a-b.
1) l)}) 5201, pp. 141-43.
Bibl. Sainte-(}eneviw, ::\1S. 1131, fols. 116b-117b.
Les neuf joies Sostre Dame was first printed, from .MS. fI'. 1635 of
the Bibliothque Nationale (0), by Achille Jubinal, in his uvres com-
pltes de Rutebeuf, Paris, 1839, Vol. II, pp. 9-18 (second ed., 1874-5,
Vol. II, pp. 152-63). Adolf Kressner printed the poem on pp. 201-206
ofhisRustebuej's Gedichte (Wolfenbttel, 1885). His edition was based
on MS. fr. 837 of the Bibliothque Nationale (A), collated with O. The
value of Kressner's edition is impaired by his tendeney to
the spellings. A facsimile of the whole of fr. 837 \Vas published by
Henri Omont under the title of Fabliaux, ds et contes en vers fran-
ais du XIlle sicle, Paris, 1932. A faesimile of Les neuf joies is to be
found on pp. 357-9. The short mutilated fragment (8) in MS. Mus.d.
143 of the Bodleian Library was published in Sir John Stainer's
Early Bodleian Music (two vols., London, 1901). Vol. 1 reproduces
the poem in facsimile (Xos. XVII and XVIII); Vol. II gives a trans-
scription of a part of the poem with m':>dern musical notation on
pp. 47-8. See also the facsimile facing p. 9 of this volume.
a The variants of an eighteenth-century transcript of this MS. came to
the writer's notice too late for inclusion in the crit. apparatus and are printed
on p. 89.
1 This manuscript is now (1952) in the possession of Messrs. William H.
Robinson, Ltd., London.
TAU l'i 0 F. Mus T A 'i 0 J A
B 78,4 Les neuf joies Nostre Dame 15
(A) Paris, Bibliothque Nationale, :MS. fr. 837. Vellum, 31.5 by
21 cm., dating from the last third of the thirteenth century. Les neuf
joies Nostre Darne is not included in the group of genuine Rutebeuf
poems on fols. 283 b-332 b, but is given a separate place on fols. 179-
180. The dialect of this MS. is that of the I1e-de-France, with a num-
ber of conventional such as biau, chastiaus, matire. The
ace. sing. is used for the nom. as a ruIe, fi.g., Tu es et ciel et 17, tu es
port (p 0 r tus) 22, [tu es] argument de nostre creance 24. On the
other hand, there are forms such as a mortalitez (sg.) se marie 3.
(C) Paris, Bibliothque Nationale, fr. 1635.
Vellum, 25.5 by
18.5 cm., written in the last third of the thirteenth century. Les neuf
joies, here entitled Li diz des proprieteiz Notre Dame, is preserved on
fols. 43-44b. Immediately preceding is La complainte du conte Huede
de Nevers (La nwrz qui toz jors cels aproie) and following Li diz des
n'baux de Greive (Ribaut, or estes vos a point), both by Rutebeuf. The
manuscript was executed in the eastern dialectal area. The following
typical spellings may be recorded here: - Deiteiz, nwrtalitei, peire
(= pre), entarnei1', tenteir, la meir; - z for s: iez, enfantaz, az, espouze.
Loss of preconsonantal s: notre, nare, dmnoutree, moutrer, blamee,
chatiaux. Interehange of c and s: se (-..:.. ce), ces (= ses), enseintee,
pencee. Other noteworthy spellings: pronwrainne, soloil, ar'me (= me)
meniere, panre (= prendre), dou (= du). This manuscript provides
the basis of the present edition of Les neuf joies Nostre Darne.
(E) Paris, Bibliothque Nationale, MS. fr. 12467. Vellum, 34.5 by
24.5 cm., dating from the end of the thirteenth century. Like the
closely related MS. 3142 of the Bibliothque de l'Arsenal (1), it is
written in three cvlumns, and the items are separated from one
another by well-executed miniatures. The miniature preceding Les
neuf joies is reproduced on the title-page of the present volume. Les
neu,f joies Nostre Dame occupies fol. 74a-b. The dialect of the manu-
script does not from the literary Francien of the period. The
case-distinction is not strictly observed.
1 Described briefly by Paul Meyer, Romania, XI, 1882, p. 3H.
(F) Paris, Bibliothque Nationale, MS. fr. 12483.
Vellum, 26 by
16.5 cm., a contemporary copy of a commonplace-book compiled by
a Dominican friar of the Soissonnais in the second quarter of the four-
teenth century. Royne de piti is preserved on fols. 99 b-101, preceded
by these two lines -
Un clers qui plains est de bon vent
Ainsi la saluoit souvent.
The scribe who wrote out the manuscript does not seem to have
altered, to any noticeable extent, the language of the Dominican
friar of the Soissonnais, which, again, differs little from that of the
I1e-de-France. The ace. sg. is often used for the nominative.
(G) Paris, Bibliothque Nationale, MS. fr. 12786.
Vellum, 27.5 by
25 cm., written about A.D. 1300. Spaces have been left for large
initiaIs. Les neuf joies N ostre Dame oecupies fols. 90 b-92. It is preceded
by another invocation to the Virgin, Glorieuse vierge pucele, / Royne
dou ciel bone et bele (fol. 88b),3 and followed by Rutebeuf's Dit d'Aris-
tote. The dialect of the manuscript follows, in its main features, the
literary language of the Ile-de-France, but shows sorne eastern col-
ouring. Noteworthy graphies are: - am{)ine, demoine; roy (= rai); es-
tiens (1. plur. imperf. ind.); an for en is not infrequent, e.g., anfantas,
excellance, 'rante, ancens; al +cons.: esacite. - A peculiar feature is
the occasional omission of the tilde, which may be due to scribal
carelessness, but might also be taken to reflect denasalisation:
1 For a detailed description of the manuscript, see Arthur Lngfors, Notice
du manuscrit franais de la Bibliothque Nationale') (Notices et extraits,
XXXIX, 2, 1916, pp. 503-665).
2 Described by Ernest Langlois in ,>Les manuscrits du Roman de la Rose,)
(Travaux et mmoires de l'Universit de Lille, Nouvelle srie, l, 7, Lille et Paris,
1910), pp. 1i9-52.
3 Les incipit des pomes franais antrieurs au xvI" sicle, l, Paris, 1917,
p. 151. .
4 Cf., e.g., nos: tenons in La desputizons dou croisi et dou descroisi, lines 11i6
and H8, though here nos is perhaps to he read as nons,. a dialectal variant
of nous.
16 T Al'''' 0 F. M l' S T A l'i 0 J A
B 73,4 B 73,4 Les neuf joies Kostre Dame 17
for nons, saper for san per, estios for estions. In the nominal inflection,
the case-distinction is not strictly maintained.
(H) Paris, Bibliothque Nationale, MS. lat. 16537. A composite
manuscript on vellum, 23.5 by 16 cm. According to L. Delisle, Inven-
taire des 'manuscrits latins (Paris, 1863), the manuscript was written
towards 1262. The handwriting of Les neuf joies (here entitled Li diz
de la mere Dieu), fols. 32-33b, is different from that of the preceding
items. It is a charter hand, somewhat indistinct at places, and ap-
parently a little later than the rest of the manuscript. It seems to
belong to the end of the century. - The dialectal appearance of the
H-text of Les neuf joies is puzzIing, and it does not seem possible to
arrive at any definite conclusions as to its provenance. It seems
obvious, however, that the copy was written out in an area where the
influence of Picardy was strong. The linguistic features of this copy
are given, in the following, a somewhat more detailed discussion than
those of the other copies.
Final e and i are frequently doubled; Mariee 1, se mariee 3, viee
5, 164, prvpheciee 7, Goliee 32, senefiee 94, joiees 165, traii 34, haii 36,
envaii 38; and in many other words.
Diphthongisation of open e entrav, characteristic, to sorne
extent, of Picardy and Wallonia: pierce 176.
rene (r e gin a) 1,105, but roi (r a d i u m) l11, li rois 174.
Close e (Lat. , i) is vi in septoime 198, uitoime 201, and nouvoime
seur (prep.) 95,96 bis, 206, sour 84; miche (= roche) 97; sicles
(= sicle) 207.
Nasalised v is written u in unde 17, 21.
Indiscriminate use of an and en: an 54, enfantent (= -ant) 5, sene-
fience 18, espendue 102, anfant 182, prandre 54.
a for es is not very infrequent: la ( for les 55, l14, 121; ta
(poss. adj.) for tes lUi, 162, 192; amer 76, aprise (= esprise) 203,
mafaceon 210 (mesfaon E 1; see Appendix l, p.56). It is difficult to
account for these plural forms of the definite article and the posses-
sive adjective (la, ta). In sorne areas of the East the feminine form of
the definite article of the singular (la) was represented by les (les tra-
son) 1, and it is just possible, assuming that such forms occurred in the
dialect of the scribe of the H-text, that la and les became mixed up
in his mind, ta sorne extent at least, and that he wrote the hypercor-
rect forms la and ta for dialectal les and tes. Anyway, the present
writer does not know of an OF. dialect in which la and ta were ac
tually used for les and tes.
Lowering of short close e under the influence of preconsonantal
lis seen in solaut 71, soulauz 92, soulau 174 (but soulel124).
Antetonic e entrav by r (+ cons.) is a: enfarmer 51, sal'aine
s e r n a) 109.
Antetonic e ( < long and short e or short i) is ai in maillour 108.
Close 0 libre: doulente 1?;0, doulour 184, nouvone 204.
Rounding of L. i under the influence of nasals; prumiere p r i-
li ar i a)2 27, 151, 167, 177 (but premeraine 107). Rounding of this
type is also reflected in promisses 121 (for premices).
Hiatus: ce est 70, de humilit 141, que ele 172.
The influence of Latin spelling is perhaps responsible for toinson
43 (Low L. ton s ion e m).
Spellings pointing ta Picardy are: enchantee (= enceinte) 45,
mesache (= message) 64, vainchance (= vengeance) 32, chies (= ciel)
17, 19, but cieus 84.
The spirant c before back vowels is written ce: manceons 117,
mataceon 210.
Loss of preconsonantal s; bame 126, chateaus 97, betournee 159.
Other consonantal features worth recording are: onbraye 56,
chanbre 73; sidre (= cdre) 142, Elisabez (for Elisabet or -th) 180.
The definite article le (ace.) is lmt 16, 34, 38, etc.
Whether the dem. pronoun in Hne 175 is to be read cen (Qui n'est
pas por cen mains entiere) or ceu is not possible to say.
Sorne noteworthy verbal forms: viaut il (= veut-il) 158; tu. ails
1 Cf. desrein H 211 for darrein 'last'.
2 Prumiere and other spellings of this type occur in texts v,Titten in Picardy
(see C. Th. Gossen, Petite grammaire de l'ancien picard, Paris, 1951, 31), but
their occurrence is not confined to this area.
2 - Musta.noja.
TAu", 0 F. le S 'f A 1'1 0 J .'- B '13,_
B 78,4 Les neuf joies ''l'ostre Dame 19
(= es) 182; tu sas (= ses) 186 (but tu seiis 180); tu mis (= veis)
186; oit (h ab u i t) 146.
(1) Paris, Bibliothque de l'Arsenal, :MS. 3142. Vellum, 24.5 by
33.5 cm., from the end of the thirteenth century. A beautiful manu-
script with historiated initial letters of artistic value. The text is
,vritten in three columns. Les neuf joies N ostre Dame is preserved on
fol. 296 a-b. The dialect is that of the Ile-de-France, ,vith a number
of quasi-Picardisms, such as biau, chastiaus, and courtiex.
(J) Paris, Bibliothque de l'Arsenal, :MS. 5201.
Vellum, 29.5 by
20 cm., written in the last third of the thirteenth century. There are
beautiful historiated initiaIs and typical thirteenth-century gro-
tesques. Les neuf joies, here entitled Li joie de Nostre Dame la bonoite
virge Ma1'ie 1ne1'e Jhesucrist, is preserved on pages 141-3. - The manu-
script cornes from the East of France. Paul Meyer
believed that it
was written out in Burgundy. A few distinctive spellings are recorded
.in the following. 'l'he interchangeability of the prefixes a- and es-,
characteristic of the East, is reflected in esquit, esfemer,. effie1'e, essise.
an for en: an, passim, argumanz, sanz (= sens), serpant, etc. Further
examples of a for Francien e: bastornee, ale (= elle), saroit. Other
noteworthy spellings: troine (= trne), drote (= droite), soiche
(= seche); bonoite, mervoilloies, soloil, orgoillouse; chasteas; paraige.
frenaige, gaige, onbraige, etc.; balis (= balais; a slip of the pen?);
panre (= prendre); anne (= me); 10 for le, passim; een for ce; [il}
ai for [il] a, ovrai for ovra.
(K) Paris, Bibliothque Sainte-Genevive, MS. 1131. Paper, 218
leaves measuring 28 by 21 cm., from the fifteenth century. Les neuf
joies Nostre Dame, without rubric, ,vritten in a current hand as prose
in two columns, occupies fols. 116b-117b. The dialect is that of the
I1e-de-France, with a number of spellings typical of the fifteenth cen-
tury, such as soubz, sceus, aquict, saincte, droicture, doulz, haulte,
haultaine, chault. Other noteworthy graphies: - seiche (= seche),
ehatiau, meillieur, orguillieuse, reenon, voirrime.
1 Described by Paul Meyer, .)Notice du ms. de l'Arsenal 520f (Romania.
XVI, 1887, pp.
2 Loc.cit., p. 72.
(L) London, British :Museum, Addit. :MS. 16975. Vellum, 20 by
30 cm., dating from the late thirteenth or early fourteenth century.
The manuscript contains a psalter and a collection of various offices,
including a kalendar whose obits show that it once belonged to the
Benedictine Abbey of Lyre in Normandy. Les neuf joies occupies
fols. 236-238. This copy of the poem, though closely related to those
preserved in a number of Anglo-Norman manuscripts, has been
executed on the Continent. Afew noteworthy spellings: - preme1'einne:
s(Juveraine; meins (= moins); both rane and rone occur for Mod.F.
reine; aloine (= haleine); meison; pares; unde, facunde,umbrage,
columb; tuertre (= tourterelle); deti; tampeste; esfantant, esfanteroies;
charchi ( . charg); de armnat (hiatus); Helysabez for Elisabet or
-eth. The accusative case is largely used for the nom. sg.: - tu es port
de nostre esperance; tu es tin de nostreruine; etc. Le for li is not
infrequent: tu es le roi . .. , etc.
(M) London, British Museum, Addit. MS. 44949 (the ));1. R. .Tames
Memorial Manuscript).l Vellum, 26.5 by 15.5 cm., from the second
half of the fourteenth century. Written in England; the kalendar and
litany point to the diocese of Durham. The poem printed in the pres-
ent volume (entitled in this manuscript Une loenge a la Dame qe
oomprent ses figures) occupies fols. 27b-29. The dialect is Anglo-Nor-
man of the fourteenth century. Spellings typical of this manuscript
were listed by Lngfors.
(N) London, British Museum, Addit. MS. 46919 (formerly Phil-
lipps MS. 8336).3 A composite manuscript on vellum, measuring 23
by 17 cm., which at the beginning of the fourteenth century belonged
1 The manuscript has been described by Eric G. Millar, 'IThe Egerton Gene
sis and the M. R. James Memorial Manuscripb> (Archaeologia, LXXXVII,
1937, pp. 1-5), and by Arthur Lngfors, Notice et extraits du manuscrit Ad-
ditional du Muse (Neuphilologische M itteilungen, IL,
pp. 97-123).
1 Loc.cil., p. 99.
3 Described in Romania, XIII, pp. i97-Ml, b-y Paul Meyer, and in
the sale catalogue (No. 79) of Phillipps MS. 8336 issued by Messrs. William
H. Robinson Ltd., London, who kindly sent a copy to the present writer.
TAU l'i 0 F. Mus T A 1\ 0 J A B 73,4
:B 78,4
Les neuf joies :\iostre Dame 21
to William Herebert, a friar minor and the author of a number of
Middle English religious poems. The part containing a copy of Les
neuf joies Nostre Darne dates from the first half of the fourteenth
century. The poem is here attributed to Nicholas Bozon and occupies
fols. 57b-59. The dialeet is Anglo-Norman in rather an advanced
state. There are sueh eharacteristie spellings as glorie, transitorie,
adjutorie,. ad and fud (by the side of fu); of for od (a p u d) occurs once;
t'eigne (r e gin a), v'gine (= vif:rge, nom.). The 1. pers. plur. imperf.
ind. of estre is esteu-ms and esteiurns. Tu feus occurs once by the side
of tu fus. A form of the possessive adjective worth recording is tei
(= tes): tei neof joies.
(0) Cambridge, University Library, MS. Dd. 11. 78. Vellum, 19.5
by 14.5 cm., from the (late?) thirteenth century. The manuscript
originally belonged to the Benedictine Abbey of St. Alban at St. Al-
bans. On the verso of the fly-leaf at the beginning there is an in-
scription in red which reads thus: - Hunc [librum dedit frater Ma?)
theus deo et ecclesie S. Albani. Quem qui ei abstulerit, anathema sit.
Amen. M. R. James says in his description of the manuscript,
are many hands in the volume; one is certainly of the school of Mat-
thew Paris. The Nine Joys of Mary is in the Paris hand.1 The Nine
Joys occupies fols. 45-46b. The dialect, of course, is Anglo-Norman.
Among the most interesting dialectal features are: - beu for beau;
.saet for sept; of twice for od (a p u d); generau. Hiatus: la estoile, sa
aIme, etc. Final -tz for -z: litz, ar01natz, confortz, droitz, etc. Tis droitz,
tis fiz (ton droit, ton fils).
(P) Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, MS. 63.
Vellum, 32 by
23.5 cm., dating from the early fourteenth century. The manuscript
cornes from Christ Church, Canterbury. Royne de pit Marie is pre-
served on fol. 3a-b. Of paleographical interest is the list of contents
1 M. R. James, catalogue of the western manuscripts in the University Li-
brary, Cambridge (as yet unpublished). 1 owe the quotation and other informa-
tion concerning this manuscript to the kindness of Mr. H. L. Pink of Cambridge
University Library.
2 Described by M. R. James, A Descripti(Je Catalogue of the 1lfanuscripts
in the Library of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, Vol. l, Cambridge, 1912.
on fol. 1, which provides a striking example of the survival of the in-
sular long r in early fourteenth-century gothic book hand. The
Anglo- orman features in the language of this copy of Les neuf joies
are somewhat less striking than th0se in the language of O. Note-
worthy spellings are Goliad, la steille (= l'toile), ti droiz, ti fiz.
(Q) Cambridge, Emmanuel College, 1. 4.31.
Vellum, 11.2 by
7.7 cm., executed about the middle of the fourteenth century in Eng-
land, probably in a South-east :Midland area. Les neuf joies Nostre
Dame, preceded by the colophon })Ci commence le beau dit de Nostre
Dame que est apell Le renmn de Renty}), occupies fols. 28 b-30. The
dialect is Anglo-Xorman of the fourteenth century, with such charac-
teristic spellings as, e.g., Cl'eaunce, ounde, cele (= ciel),miere (= mre),
tisoun (= toison), teu (= tel), gaynet (2. pers. plur.).
(S) Oxford, Bodleian Library, :Mus. d. 143.
Vellum, 28.8
by 22 cm., written in England in the second half of the fourteenth
century (c. 1380). Tt consists of two leaves removed from a binding,
but therc is no record of the binding from which they came. The
manuscript contains a fragmentary and mutilated copy of Les neuf
joies SostTe Dame (parts of stanzas I, 11, XIX, and XX), with music.
A facsimile of the fragment will be found bet"\veen pp. 8 and 9.
(T) Phillipps 118. 3643, now (1952) in the possession of Messrs.
William H. Robinson, Ltd., London. This manuscript has not been
accessible to the present writer; the following account is therefore
based on Paul lleyer's description.
The manuscript is on vellum and
1 Described by M. R. James, The lVestern 111anuscripts in the Library of
Emmanuel College, Cambridge, Cambridge, 1904, pp. 90-%, and by the pres-
ent writer, Neuphilologische Mitteilungen, XLI, 1940, pp. 127-9, and The Good
Wife Taught her Daughter,) (Annales Academiae Scientiarum Fennicae, B
LXI, 2), pp. 93-5. In ail these descriptions the manuscript has been ascribed
hesitatingly to the ancient diocese of Worcester, but the present writer is now
inclined to ascribe it to a South-east Midland area.
2 Described briefly in A Summary Catalogue of Western irIanuscripts in the
Bodleian Library at Oxford, Vol. V, pp. 860-61 (No. 30645).
3 otices sur quelques manuscrits franais de la Bibliothque Phillipps
Cheltenham,) (Notices et extraits, XXXIV, 1,1891, pp. 149-258. Thedescription
of MS. 3643 occupies pp. 155-167, the discussion of neuf joies p.163.
TAU :'i 0 F. M r 5 TAN 0 J A B 73,&
B 78,&
Les neuf joies Nostre Dame
measures 33.7 by 21.3 cm. It dates from the end of the thirteenth
century and was executed in France. Les neuf joies Nostre Dame is
preserved on fol. 105a-b (?).
(U) Turin, University Library, MS. L. V. 32. This manuscript
perished in a fire in 1904. The following data are based mainly on the
description of A. Scheler.
The manuscript, consisting of several
manuscripts or manuscript fragments bound together, contained
235 leaves of veIlum, which varied in size. It dated from the end of
the thirteenth century. Les neuf joies Nostre Dame (210 Hnes) covered
fols. 111-112 (b?).
When the present edition was already in page proofs, the writer
learnt of an eighteenth-century transcript of the Turin manuscript,
now preserved in the Bibliothque Nationale, coll. Moreau, MS. 1727,
fols. 274-275 b. It was not possible to include the variants of this
transcript in the critical apparatus, and they are therefore printed
separately on p. 89.
The manuscript also contained Rutebeuf's Voie de paradis (fol.
27) and his Dis du cr01:siet et du descroisiet (fol. 227). 'l'he scribe came
from Wallonia.
53-4 Et venoit ... Qu'il n'en
85 de noble fruit plantee
156 0 soi fermement
177 Tu es ta premiere joie
193 La siste fu quant fu assise
25 nete et monde (E F H I)
31 Qui fu
67 en ferme racine (E F H l N)
80 Cyprs de palme et de victoire
83 ert mont (E H l N)
110 Pour nous sauver a ressordue
118 Li confors aprs la tormente
(E F H 1)
148 a Dieu proprement
175 Qui n'est (E F G H 1)
178 Quant ton creatour reces
185 Et la quarte fu de tes joies
201 ta the end is irtually identical
in EH l (see p.56).
H and Other MSS.
Qui venoit .. Et n'en
de noble fruit chargiee
a soi proprement
(See critical apparat us)
La siste puis que fus assise
Other MSS.
pure et monde
Il fu
a ferme racine
Cyprs et palme de victoire
iez montee
Por nos sauveir a recondue
Li repos aprs la tormente
a Dieu qui ne ment
(See critical apparat us)
Qual,t ton creatour concez
A la quarte te merveilloies
Two separate groups can be distinguished among the extant manu-
scripts of Les neuf joies Nostre Dame.
The EH 1 Group. - This group consists of 'E (B. N. fr. 12467), H
(lat. 16537), and 1 (Arsenal 3142). The close relationship between E
and 1 has been pointed out by Arthur Langfors.
It is most probable
that the two \Vere copied from the same exemplar. Distinctive read-
ings (errors?) are -
1 otice et extraits de deux manuscrits franais de la Bibliothque Royale
de Turin,. II (Le bibliophile belge, ~ o u v srie, II, Brussels, 1861, pp. 1-33).
1 Arthur Langfors, Li regres Nostre Dame, Helsinki, 1901, p. vi.
a Neuphilologische Mitteilungen, VII, 1905, p. H9.
The L 0 P (8 N) Group. -- 'l'his group consists of L (B. :M. Addit.
16975), 0 (Cambr. Univ. Libr. Dd. Il. 78), and P (Corpus Chr. Coll.
Cambr. 63). For the relation of N (B. ]\1. Addit. 46919, formerly Phil-
lipps 8336) to L 0 P see below. It is pretty certain that the short
fragment S (Bod!. Mus. d. 143) also belongs to this group. One dis-
tinctive characteristic of L 0 P is that stanzas XIXand XX follow
stanza IL All that is preserved in the Bodleian fragment (8) are
parts of stanzas l, II, XIX, and XX, in this order, aIl the other stan-
zas being missing. It is likely, therefore, that this copy goes back to
an exemplar in which stanzas XIX and XX followed stanza II. -
Another characteristic of L 0 P is that in stanza Xln (which is
missing in S) the order of Hnes il; 97-8, 103-4, 99-102. Examples of
(faulty?) readings which separate L 0 P from the other copies -
24 TAu" 0 F. l\I u S TA" 0 J A B 7 ~ Les neuf joies ?\I)stre Dame 25
It is also worthy of note that in L .M ).T 0 P, but not in the other
manuscripts \ eaeh two Enes are written as one line and each two
stanzas, with the same rhyrne, as one stanza, the result being mono-
rhyming stanzas of eight long Hnes.
A striking similarity between Sand P oceurs in hne 172, whieh
in these manuscripts reads En tei ke l'em tynt S1: basse as against the
En toi qu'ele 'vit si basse of the other manuseripts. Another possible
contact between N and P is Une 198 (see eritieal apparatus). There
are also a few common errors in N and .... "1 (B. M. Addit. 44949)
and Q (Emm. Coll. Cambr. 1. 4. 31), but it is diffieult to say what
theymean -
A close relationship between 0 and P i8 suggested by the fol-
lowing readings -
N, although in it stanzas XIX and XX follow stanza XVIII and
not stanza II, is closely related to L 0 P. The following exarnples
will be sufficient 1.0 show this -
It seems just possible, then, that M and Q are related to the
L 0 P group, too.
Other Contacts. - A (B. X. fI'. 837) shares a tew errors with other
mannseripts. Ho\\" far these are to be taken as indications of a rela-
tionship i8 diffieult to say. Sorne, at any rate, are worth recording -
.. Qui es (CLOP)
10 iert e ere
ft '7 chambre acesmee L, ch. ascemee
P, ch. aUl'nee 0
51 le fel serpent (velO, veil P)
81 Tu es vergete
92 ert
111 Sa clart e
123 Tu es com li sengle fenices L (for
the variant readings, see crit. appa-
166 chantasse
181 ton sengnor esfanteroies (en-)
189 El temple (En t. 0)
201 to the end is virtually identical in
L 0 P (see p. 58)
33 Femme de sen enluminee
53 Ki venoit les aImes namer (nan-
ter L)
91 De set esteiles coronee (A 0 P)
178 Ke (Ki) tun creatur conces
209 vers sa franchise
Other iV/5S.
Tu es
fu et ere
chambre clamee
le mal serpent
Tu iez la verge
Sa lumiere et
Tu iez l'aigles et li fenisces
le fil Dieu enfanterois
Au temple
Other MSS.
Dame de sens enluminee
Qui venait les ames tenter
De douze estoiles coronee
Quant ton creatour conces
par sa franchise
Other MSS.
116 Ben ad emploie sa entente (jo-
vente L)
201 to the end: N has a close rcscm-
blance 10 L 0 P (see pp. 68-69)
51 Par le mal serpent et amer
90 La semblance (F .tI .N)
110 est arescoundue (N Q)
138 espanie (itl N)
40 li mondes (A F C P)
116 Poi li est
Pou li chaut s'il pluet ou s'il vente
Other .lfSS.
Par le mal serpent enframeir (see
crit. apparatus)
a recondue (sec crit. apparatus)
Other _MSS.
li nostre
Pou li chaut
84 Sor ciel sor toute creature
88 de closture
114 A qui Deu toz ses biens presente
(See critical apparat us)
il c!osture (see crit. app.)
Li maulz qui les mauIz acravente
1 Q and K are written as prose, S is written between lines of music, F is
written in stanzas of sixteen ~ h o r t lines.
B 78,.
Les neuf joies 1\ostre Dame 27
There are sirnilar resernblances between F and Gand between
F and K.
The diagrarn presented in the following is an attempt to illus.trate,
in a very teIltative way, the relations between the extant manuscript
copies of Les neuf joies Nost1'e Dame.
For the relationship of U with the other extant copies see p. 89.
Thereadings of F (B. N. fr. 12483) show occasional resernblances
to those of sorne other rnanuscripts. Usually, however, these are very
vague. A few resemblances to the EH 1 group rnay be worth record-
ing -
The question of the relative authority of the extant rnanuscript
capies of Les neuf joies Nostre Dame is complicated by the problerns
concerning the order of the stanzas and the textual corruption at the
end of the poern in aIl the manuscripts except, seemingly, in A.
Which is the original order of the stanzas, that of the L 0 P (S)
group or that of the other manuscripts? In other words, did the stan-
zas beginning J."'I!laudite tu fame et blamee and Tantost te fu grace donee
originally follow stanza IL as they do in L 0 P 8, or stanza XVIII,
as they do in the other manuscripts:J It is not possible to give a defini-
tive answer to this question, but it seems probable, anyway, that the
alteration took place in the L 0 P (S) group. ,for the sense is better
when the two stanzas follow stanza XVIII than when they follow
stanza II. - The L 0 P group, as shawn in the preceding chapter,
also differs from the rest of the manuscripts br the arder of lines in
stanza XIII. Here, too, one imagines, the sequence seems a little
more logical in the other manuscripts than in the L 0 P group.!
The textual corruption in the final stanza (XXVI) is puzzling.
This expanded stanza forms the second haU of a two-stanza unit,
which is such a striking structural characteristic of Les neuf joies
Nostre Dame. There can be no doubt that stanza XXVI was the last
stanza of the original version;' It is pos&ible, as suggested to the
present writer by Prof. Lngfors, that tije nnmber of the joys was
originally seven, ta which the scribe of an early copy added two.
The fact that Les neuf joies is the only known poem to list nine joys
and that the logic in stanzas XXV and XXVI is not very good
lpeaks for this view. But whatever happened, it is obvious that the
scribe's religions fervour exceeded the delicacy of his ear. The result
was inevitably a textnal blunder.
The only manuscript in wtich the form and sense of the final
stanza are fully satisfactory is A. Does this mean that A has preserved
Other MSS.
De tes nons
Qui du soleil reprent jovente
Other MSS.
pure et monde
a ferme racine
Li repos
(See critical apparat us)
121i Qui de son bec reprent (resplent
Al jovente
162 De tes biens (A K 0)
25 nete et monde
76 en ferme racine (E F H l N)
118 Li confors
1i5 Qui n'est (E FGH I)
120 repos
142 ceptres
1 On the other hand, we have the puzzling case of the rhyme.word namer
in 0 P (see note on line 53). If, aCter a,ll, namer is to be taken as the reading
of the original, this would imply that. the L 0 P group is of considerable im
portance from the standpoint of the manuscript tradition of Les neuf joies.
28 TAC); 0 F. :'.1 1- S TA); 0 J A B 73,4
B 78,4
Les neuf joies Kostre Dame 29
the end in its original form? This is not altogether impossible, but it
is highly improbable. The persan who wrote out this important col-
lection of medieval poetry had a remarkable tendency to introduce
alterations into his texts. He \vas a man of sorne intelligence, and he
followed the good poets of the thirteenth century in not confusing
-ier and -er, for he did not approve of rhymes like chargiee : fUJnee
and essauce : demoustree. His alterations are so well made that it is
usually extremely difficult to detcet them except when an adequate
number of manuseripts are available for collation. Considering this
nd the faet that the end is corrupt in aIl the other manuseripts, it
will be wise to look upon the seemingly authentic end in A with
strong suspicion.
Collation with the other extant manuscripts revealed evident
textual alterations in lines 22, 24, 40, 51, 52, 56 (?), 66, 70, 76, 79,
85, 88 (?) 91, 92, 93, 95, 96, 98, 102, 110, 114, 116, 120, 124, 125,
142, 156, 162, 176, 177(?), 178, 188, 190, 197, 199, 200, and 205-208
of the A-text.
In C evident alterations are fewer thall in A. They occur in lines
18,20,51,60,78,80,92,95,98,142,156, 158,168,196,
A few of these are to be ascribed to mere scribal carelessness (e. g.,
142, 156, 198). Comparison between A and C shows, thus, that the
scribe of A had a greater tendency ta make deliberate alterations in
his text than the scribe of C. His alterations are not only more nu-
merous but they also includc a larger number of major oues. This is
of importance not only for a student of Les neuf joies Nostre Dame,
but also for a student of Rutebeuf, for it implies that of the two prin-
cipal collections of Rutebeuf's poems, A and C, the latter is likely
to give a more reliable text. And it is for the greater reliability of C
that it, and not A, has been chosen as the basis for the present edi-
tion of Les neuf joies.
For the alterations eharactristic of the E H 1 group see p. 23.
It seems that E is a little more l'diable than 1, but bath copies show
remarkably few alterations apart from those which they have in com-
mon. E omits lines 107 and 109 and llines 79, 200, and 206. Two mis-
takes in E suggest scribal absent-mindedness: the last word of line
104 is taken over from the preceding hne, and the whole of line 212
is repeated as line 214. His clearly inferior to E and 1. Alterations in
addition to those which H shares with the two other copies of the
group are about twenty-five in number.
Gand K are characterised by a considerable number of textua1
alterations. J( shows major alterations in lines 40, 46, 54, 62, 88, 100,
124, 140, 142, 143, 156, 162, 177 (?), 184, and in the corrupt passage
at the end. Gis even less reliab1e than K. Sorne of the textual altera-
tions in it are quite radical. In addition, stanzas VII and VIII are
omitted and stanzas XIII and XIV displaced, the sequence being
XII, XV, XVI, XIII, XIV, XVII. Lines 183-4 and 199-200 are
omitted, and the corrupt end from line 201 onwards is treated rather
The alterations in Fare slightly less numerous than in K and
include relatively few major ones. There are two omissions of a1to-
gether four lines (120-121 and 183-4). Between stanzas XVI and
XVII there are eighteen additiona1lines in halting verse (see Appen-
dix 11, pp. 59-60).
In J the number of textua1 alterations is moderate, but the omis-
sion of stanzas IX-XVI and the disp1acement of stanzas VII and
VIII to follow stanza XX greatly lessen the value of this copy. The
treatment of the end is rather free, too.
It was suggested above (p. 27) that the sequence of stanzas in
the L 0 P group does not follow that of the original. There are ap-
proximately twenty readings in which this group differs from the
rest of the manuscripts. The readings suggesting a close relationship
between 0 and Pare listed on p. 24. Examination of the number and
qua1ity of alterations made by the individua1 scribes of L, 0, and P
in addition to those whieh these manuscripts have in common shows
that Land P roughly equa1 oneanother in reliabi1itv while the num- , ,
ber of alterations in 0 is much larger, twice that of the other two
manuscripts. It is weIl to remember that 0 and P (as weIl as M, N,
Q, and S) were executed in England. A study of these manuscripts
30 T A e 11' 0 F. .'\1 t: S T .... N 0 J A B 73,4 B 73,4 Les neuf joies Xostre Dame 31
'shows that the fact that )it was just as difficult to write syllabic verse
in Anglo-Norman as it is in provided a favurable ground
for textual alterations. 8, which evidently belongs to the L 0 P
group, is a short fragment of minimal textual value.
N omits two lines in stanza III and two in stanza XXV. The lat-
ter omission seems deliberate because the sacrifice of these two Hnes
enabled the scribe ta recover the correct enumeration of the nine joys
which he had hopelessly confused. Apart from the confusion in the
treatment of the joys, the N-copy is full of blunders and minor textual
alterations and therefore most unreliable. and Q are even less reliable than N. Bath omit a number of
stanzas. The order of the remaining stanzas in is I-VIII, XVII,
XVIII, XV, XVI, XIII, XI, XII, XIX, XX. This copy also contains
a large number of altered or otherwise corrupt readings. Q contains
'<mIy the following stanzas: XIII, XIV, XXI. The end of stanza
XXI is completely altered. It is followed by a spurious final stanza
with the same rhyme scheme (see Appendix II, p. 60). Textual altera-
tions made by the scribe of Q are very numerous and extensive. With
the exception of the short fragment 8, Qis doubtless the least reliable
of the extant manuscript copies of Les neuf joies N ostre Dame.
For Usee p. 89.
While nothing can be said of T (Phillipps 3643), which the present
writer has not seen, it is obvious that the best of the other manuscripts
are C, E, 1, and A. The most reliable of tbese is C.
Les neuf joies Nostre Dame is written in stanzas of eight octo-
syllabic lines rhyming a b a b a b a b a b a b a b abc d c d c d cd
c d c d c d cd. The metre shows that eu counts as two syllables in
conce(z) 178, 183, recez 115, 190, ez 182, gcz 184, scs 180, 186,
trcs 188, and oi in rone 1, 105.
l M. Dominica Legge, Angla-Norman zn the Claisters, Edinburgh, 1950,
RhY1l1es. - The poem is mentioned by G. Naetebus 1 under his
stanzaic pattern No. LXXIII. Under this pattern, he lists fifteen
poems. No less than five of these are by Rutebeuf (De Bricherner, La
desputizons dou croisi et dou descroisi, La desputoison de ChaUot et
du barbier, De la descorde de 1'Universit et des jacobins, De 'I1wnsei-
gneur Anseau de l'1sle). Strictly speaking, however, the versification
of these fi ve Rutebeuf poems is not quite the same as that of Les neuf
joies Nostre Dame. In them a rhyme runs through one stanza only,
while in Les neuf joies it runs through two successive stanzas. This
differenee is not without significanee when the ascription of this
poem to Rutebeuf cornes to be discussed (see pp. 36-9) .
The masculine r hymes of Les neuf joies N ostre Dame are as fol-
lows -

it - citei: deseritei : aquitei : vanitei : Trinitei : veritei : umilitei : vir-

ginitei (stanzas XVII-XVIII)
enwnt - ancennement : ne nwnt : pardurablement : hardement : pu-
rement : proprement : apertement : entendement (st. XIX-XX)
entameir : enframeir Z : tenteir
: affameir : reclameir; la meir: ameir
(v.) : ameir (n.) (st. VII-VIII)
a - tray : hay : envay : dechay : Sarray : Synay : ombra y : Adonay
(st. V-VI)
ion - compassion; lyon : ascension: devision (: anoncion : asompsion
l Die nicht-lyrischen Strophenformen des Altfranzosischen, Leipzig, 1891,
, See note on line 51, p. 67.
S See note on line 53, pp. 67-8.
32 TA l' r; 0 F. M 1.' S TAN 0 J A B 73,4 B 78,.
Les neuf joies Nostre Dame 33
creacion prion: noncion : mansion: devocion)l (st. XXV-
eiis - concez : ses : ez : gez : ses : trez : recez : Des (st. XXIII
The feminine rhymes, much more frequent than masculine, are
as follows-
parage: servage: gage: ombrage: orage rivage linage message
(st. VII-VIII)
hautainne : fontainne : alainne : amainne : souverainne : promerainne
souvrainne : demainne (st. XIII-XIV)
senefiance : soutenance, esperance : creance aliance poissance:
sustance : venjance (st. III-IV)
pensasse: usasse: contasse: baasse masse: basse passe quasse
(st. XXI-XXII)
enluminee : triblee : ordenee : desfiguree : desirree : ~ r u z : ensein-
tee: clamee (st. V-VI)
fumee : montee : (chargee :) violee: demoutree : coronee : pozee (: es-
saucee) (st. XI-XII)
blamee : espoantee : gardee : voee : donee : pencee : saluee: bestornee
(st. XIX-XX)
reverance : sentance : essence: concence : semance : sapence : provi-
dence : paciance (st. XVII-XVIII)
1 The rhyme.words in the brackets occur in the corrupt final stanza
acravente : vente: tormente : dolente: rente: jovente : mente: aten-
te (st. XV-XVI)
clere: mere: peire (= pre): mistere: ere: amere : pere (v.): compere
(st. I-II)
macezes : lices: vices: malices: promisces : fenisces espices: deli-
ces (st. XV-XVI)
Marie: marie (v.) : vie: propbecip : amie: florie : s'umelie : seignerie
iee (: ee)
chargee: essaucee : fumee : montee : violee: demoutree coronee
pozee (st. XI-XII)
meniere : affiere : chiere : premiere : fiere : lumiere : verriere : entiere
(st. XXI-XXII)
s'ancline : racine: ruyne : enlumine cortine: fine saisine espine
(st. IX-X)
assize : mise: guise: prize (: devise: esprise : assise: prise: franchise:
juse : eglyze) 1 (st. XXV-XXVI)
J0leS voies: enfanteroies : avoies : mervilloies voies offroies
savoies (st. XXIII-XXIV)
consistoire: memoire: voire: transitoire gloire yvoire: ajutoire:
victoire (st. IX-X)
1 The rhyme-words in the brackets are from the corrupt final stanza
3 - Mustanoja
35 TAU N 0 F. M t: s TAN 0 J A B 73,.
B 78,.
Les neuf joies Nostre Dame
onde: monde (n.) : monde (v.) : faconde: monde (adj.) : seconde: ver-
gonde: fonde (st. III-IV)
sorvenue : soutenue : espcwdue : mue: vestue : tenue: recondue : nue
(st. XIII-XIV)
ardure : creature: cultivre : c10sture : figure: couverture: droiture:
nature (st. XI-XII)
There ar six masculine and twenty feminine rhymes. Judging by
the standard set by E. Langlois for counting rich masculine rhymes 1,
five of the six masculine rhymes of the present poem can be said ta
be rich throughout. For feminine rhymes, according ta Langlois, it
is sufficient for the author to make the homophony begin with the
stressed vowel; this acounts for the large proportion of feminine
rhymes in Les nettf joies. Indeed the author does not seem ta have
particularly aimed at rllymes that do more than meet the minimum
requirements for rich rhyme, except, perhaps, in stanzas VII-VIII 2,
XVII-XVIII, and XIX-XX (probably also in I-II) , in which he
seems to have made a definite attempt at the use of homonymous
and even of equivocal rhyme.
It might seem that the use of rich rhyme in Les neuf joies Nostre
Darne is less extensive than in those poems in which Rutebeuf's au-
thorship has not been caIled ta question. It is, however, difficult to
obtain any accurate notion in this respect. First of aIl, it has ta be
borne in mind that rich rhyme enjoyed particular popularity at the
time when aIl these poems were written.
Another factor which makes
1 Le roman de la Rose (Socit des anciens textes franais), Vol. l, Paris,
19H, Introduction, p. 56. According to Langlois's standard, the rhyme can
be taken to be rlCh if the homophony begins with the consonant or vowel pre-
ceding the stressed vowel or diphthong.
2 See p. 31 above and notes on lines 51 and 53.
3 E. Freymond, ,>ber den reichen Reim bei altfranzosischen Dichtern
bis zum Anfang des XIV. J ahrhunderts,) (Zeitschrift fr romanische Philologie,
VI, 1882), p.2.
comparison difficult is that the richness of the rhyme is largely de-
pendent upon the type of rhyme-scheme used. L. Jordan 1 found that
although, in general, Rutebeuf can be said ta have aimed at rich
rhYme, yet there are rhymes in his poemR, particularly in those which
do not consist of octosyIlabic couplets, which do not fill the require-
ments for rich rhyme. It is, of course, iucomparably easier to make
use of rich rhyme in a couplet than, eay, in a stanzaic pattern in
which each rhyme has to run through t:ight lines, as is the case in
Les neuf joies. In addition,. the five gfmuine Rutebeuf poems with
rhyme schemes quasi-identical with that of Les neuf joies show great
variance in the richness of their rhymes. In Brichemer and the
Desputoison de Challot et du barbier, for example, the use of rich rhyme
is much less pronounced than in the Desputizons dou croisi et dou
descroisi, the Descorde de l'Universit et des jacobins, and Monsei-
gneur Anseau de l'Isle. AlI in aIl, it does not seem possible to infer,
from the extent ta which rich rhyme is used in Les neuf joies, whether
this poem was written by Rutebeuf or not.
It is evident from the metre of Les neuf joies Nostre Dame that
pretonic e in hiatus with the tonic vowel retained its value at the
time when the poem ,vas written (cultivere 86, conce(z) 178, 185,
recez 115,190, ez 182, gez 184, ses 180, 186, trez 188). Final-s is
preserved in the nom. sg. li fenisces 123 (: d'espices, pl.), while the
nominatives (sg.) lyon, ascension, asompsion (196, 198, 204) have no
final -s. These features go well with the palcographical data, for the
most ancient manuscripts in which the poem is preserved date from
the last third of the thirteenth century. In the absence of other cri-
teria for dating the poem, it will be safest ta assume that it was
written, roughly, between 1250 and 1270.
l Metrik und Sprache Rutebeufs (diss. Gottingen, 1888), p. 7.
1 From Latin tli Modern French, 894. Prion occurs in the corrupt final
stanza, and its value as a dialectal criterion is therefore questionable. The
latest ed. of Rutebeuf's poem is that by Mrs. B. A. Bujila in The Unip. of
Michigan Contribution!' in Mod. Philol., No. 12.
2 Pope, op. cit., p. 503, xiv.
3 Cf. Pope, op. ciL, 512 and p. 501 ( i).
Les neuf joies Nostre Darne has been attributed to Rutebeuf, Guil-
laume de Saint-Amour, and Nicholas Bozon.
Attribution to Rutebeuf. - The attribution to Rutebeuf, it seems,
is to be traced back to Achille Jubinal, who printed the poem in 1839
among the authentic pieces of Rutebeuf. Jubinal's view concerning
the authorship of the poem was shared by Paulin Paris, who in 1842
37 Les neuf joies Nostre Dame
B 73,&
wrote that it was attribue expressment Rutebeuf dans trois des
manuscrits qui nous l'ont conserve1 Paul Meyer, on the other hand,
2 .
regarded the attribution to Rutebeuf as erroneous. The questIOn lS
worth closer examination. The evidence in favour of Rutebeuf's
authorship can be summed up as follows -
1. Les neuf joies Nostre Dame is preserved in two important manu-
scripts of Rutebeuf's works, Bibl. Nat. MSS. fr. 837 and 1635. In the
latter it is both preceded and followed by poems unquestionably writ-
ten by this author. Copies of Les neuf joies are or were also
preserved in two other manuscripts which contain authentic poems
by Rutebeuf, viz. Bibl. Nat. MS. fr. 12786 and Turin, MS. L. V. 32.
2. Les neuf joies is obviously contemporaneous with Rutebeuf's
3. Rutebeuf wrote several poems on themes similar to that of
Les neuf joies.
4. According to Naetebus
, there are only fifteen extant Old or
Middle French poems with the same stanzaic pattern as Les neuf
joies. No less than one-third of these were written by Rutebeuf, who
thus appears to have had a predilection for this particular structural
5. The poem is written by a person apparently skilled in poetic
diction, and there has been an attempt to use homonymous and equi-
vocal rhymes (see p. 34).
6. The attribution of Les neuf joies to Guillaume de Saint-Amour,
discussed below, seems in itself to establish a link of sorne kind be-
tween the poem and Rutebeuf, an ardent champion of Guillaume
de Saint-Amour's cause.
The evidence against Rutebeuf's authorship is as follows-
1. Contrary to Paulin Paris's statement that Les neuf joies Nostre
Dame is expressly attributed to Rutebeuf in three of the manuscripts
1 Histoire littraire de la France, Vol. XX, Paris, 1842, p. 774.
2 Romania, XIII, 1881i, pp. 511-12, and Notices et extraits, XXXIV, 1,
1891, p. 163.
3 G. Naetebus, Die nicht-lyrischen Strophenformen des Altfranzosischen,
Leipzig, 1891, pp. 160-66.
The rhymes of Les neuf joies provide no definite clue to its prov-
enance. Prion (1 plur. pres. ind.) 208 is a primarily western feature,
though Professor M. K. Pope caUs attention to its occurrence in
Rutebeuf's Vie de sainte Marie l'Egyptienne, Hne 1288 (amendon).1
Another western feature is the feminine pronoun e1175 for e1e.
r ~
haps the occurrence of chargee 85 and essaucee 95 in rhyme with fumee,
montee, violee might also be taken as a slight suggestion that the
poem was written in the West.
Three Francien manuscripts of an
early date, A E 1, read comblee or plantee for chargee, and eslevee for
essaucee. It is difficult to estimate the value of the emendations enfra-
meir and namer (see notes on Hnes 51 and 53, pp. 67-8) as dialectal cri-
teria, but it is interesting that they, too, should point to the Channel
coast. It is just possible that the poem was composed somewhere in
the West or North-West, though the indications of provenance are
too slight ta allow any definite conclusions. It is also interesting to
note in this connection the statement in the Q-copy that the poem
was known as Le renom de Renty. The Q-copy of Les neuf joies is
extremely unreliable, but one cannot help wondering what may lie
behind the association of the poem with a locality in the Department
of the Pas-de-Calais.
A western or north-western provenance would also help to ex-
plain the popularity which the poem enjoyed on English soil.
38 T A {j N 0 F. Mus TAN 0 J A
B 73,4 B 73,.
Les neuf joies Nostre Dame
in which it is preserved, none of the copies seen by the present writer
contains any reference to Rutebeuf.
2. fr. 837 does contain a copy of Les neuf joies, but this does
not occur among the genuine Rutebeuf poems, which form an unbro-
ken series beginning on fol. 283 band ending on fol. 332 b. This series
is headed by the colophon Ci commencent li dit Rustebuef and followed
by anothcr reading Expliciunt tttit li dit Rustebuef. Les neuf joies occu-
pies fols. 179-180 and is, thus, separated from the Rutebeuf series
by more than a hl1lldred leaves.
3. The circulation of Les neuf joies Nostre Dame, particularlv
since this poem appears to have enjoyed remarkable popularity in
England, is very different from that of the authentic Rutebeuf poems
and constitutes therefore a strong argument against Rutebeuf's
4. As pointed out on p. 31, the five genuine Rutebeuf poems enu-
merated by Naetebus under the same stanzaic pattern as Les ne'uf
joies are not, in fad, quite identical \vith it.
5. The vague suggestion to the effect that the poem was written
by Rutebeuf provided by the few homonymous and equivocal rhymes
seems ta be contradicted by the fact that the author does not, after
aH, seem to have aimed at the use of partieularlv rieh rhvmes. As
. .
pointed out on p. 35, the extent to which rieh rhyme is used in the
poem does not justify any conclusion as to the authorship.
6. As pointed out earlier in this chapter (p. 36), there are, in the
language of the puem, slight indications of a western or north-western
provenance. It is particlliarly worthy of note that Rutebeuf seems
to avoid rhymes of the ie : e type.
To sum up, it does not seem likely that Rutebeuf is the author
of Les neuf joies Nastre Dame. On the other hand, the fact that the
poem occurs among authentic Rutebeuf poems in MS. fr. 1635 indi-
cates that the scribe who wrote out this mannseript believed that
it was written by him. -How did he come to such a conclusion?
There is no satisfactory answer to this question. It is just possible
that the apparent structural similarity of Les neuf joies with several
poems known to be written by Rutebeuf led the scribe to the assump-
tion that this poem, too, came from Rutebenf's pen.
Attribution ta Guillaume de Saint-Amov,r. - The attribution of Les
neuf joies Nostre Dame to Guillaume de Saint-Amour is to be found
in the anonymous Rgles de la seconde rhtorique \ which dates from
the early fifteenth century (written betwefll 1411 and 1432). The pas-
sage l'uns as foIlows -
>lEt tout premierement maistre Guillaume de Saint Amour, lequel
ou parvis de Paris fist destruire Heresie, Ypocrisie et Papelardie, la
mere de Faulz et en aprs, en l'onneur de Nostre Dame,
rnist les figures de la Bible et les appliqua a la vierge Marie, et en
fist un dit de vers croisiez, qui se commence ainsi: -
Ryne de pit, Marie,
En qui deyt pure et clere
A mortalit se marie))
While it is obvions that Les neuf joies must have been written by
a person who had practical experience in matters of poetic diction,
there is no evidence, except for the late attribution of Les neuf joies
to him, that Guillaume de Saint-Amour evel' wrote any poetry at aIl.
The extant \vritings of this man of public life, theologian, Rectal' of
the University of Paris, and a bitter antagonist of the mendicant
orders, who was exiled in 1257 and died in 1272, are characterised
primarily by virulent satire and are therefore entirely different in
spirit from the tender, delightful invocation t.o the Virgin by her
1 Published by E. Langlois, Recueil d'Arts de la seconde rhtorique (Col-
lection de documents indits sur l'histoire de France), Paris, 1902. The passage
quoted occurs on p. 11.
2 Langlois traced the reference to Faux-Semblant and the related vices
back to the second part of the Roman de la Rose, as did Jubinal in the third
part of his uvres compltes de Rutebeuf (no uv. d." pp. 82-3. A similar pas-
sage occurs in Rutebeuf's well-known Complainte Mestre Guillaume de Saint
Amour, Hnes 73-9. (The latest edition of the Complainte is that by E. Faral,
in his article Pour le commentaire de Rutebeuf, Studi medievali, Nuova Se-
rie, Vol. 16, 1%3-50, pp. 176-211.)
1 Romania, XIII, 1884, p. 511.
nine joys. The fifteenth-century attribution of the poem to Guil-
laume de Saint-Amour seems for several reasons very suspicious.
Rutebeuf was a great admirer of Guillaume de Saint-Amour,
who figures in many of his poems. It is just possible that the author
of the Rgles had come across Les neuf joies Nostre Darne in a Rute-
beuf collection. Later, he may have remembered having seen the
poem and Guillaume's name in the same manuscript, and later still
(we may imagine) he associated the poem with the man. If this is
what happened, the attribution of the poem to Guillaume de Saint-
Amour means in fact its attribution to Rutebeuf. Tt has to be borne
in mind, however, that all this is mere conjecture.
Attribution to Nicholas Bozon. - This occurs in a colophon pre-
ceding the copy in B. M. Addit. MS. 46919 (formerly PhiUipps 8336):
Cest tretys fist frere Nichole Boioun frere rnenour. The manuscript con-
tains an important corpus of Bozon's poems, and a colophon similar
to that quoted occurs at the beginning of several other pieces. Except
for the colophon, there is nothing to suggest that Bozon is the author
of this poem. The linguistic features of the poem also speak against
his authorship. Paul Meyer was undoubtedly right in refuting the
attribution of Les neuf joies to Bozon.
40 TAU N 0 F. M v ST A !'f 0 J A B 78,4
Note. - For typographical reasons, the trema has not been used with y. An
explanation of the sigla used to denote the different manuscript copies of the
poem is to be found on pp. 12-13. - The variants of T have not been taken
into consideration in the critical apparatus except for the few !ines available
to the editor. For the variants of U, see p. 89.
B 73,. Les neuf Kostre Dame
MS. C = Bibliothque Nationale., MS. fT. 1635 (last third of the
thirteenth century), fols. 43-44b
(Fol. 43b)
II Tu iez suers, espouze et amie
Au roi qui toz jors fu et cre;
Tu iez verge seche et florie,
Doulz remedes de mort amere;
Tu iez Rester qui s'umelie,
Tu iez Judit qui biau se pere,
Admon en pert sa seignerie,
Et Olofernes le compere.
III Tu iez et cielz et terre et onde
Par diverse senefiance:
Cielz qui done lumiere au monde,
Terre qui done
Onde qui les ordures monde.
Tu iez pors de notre esperance,
1I1atiere de notre faconde,
Argumens de notre creance.
Il (A C E F G H I J K LM 1V 0 P fi S.) 9 soere et espouse Q - 10 tous
dis El K LM N P Q; fus F G H, iert e erf' 0 P, e iert e ere L; before ere
a letter erased in C - 11 virge A 0 S, vierge K, la verge Q, vert verge G; secche
(sekke) florie MN 0 S - 12 Du remede F, Dur remedie N; remedie MN P S;
remedie douz de m.a. Q - 13 qe humilie }II - 14 Tue es Q; bel J; beau pere H-
15 la seignorie G L N Q S - 16 si compere M.
III (A CE F G H I J K L MN 0 P Q.) 17 Tu ies chies et H K N P Q,
ciel terre et ounde M, ciel et mers et onde J - 18 diverses senefiances C - 19 Cil
qui d. 1. ou m. J, Cele 0; dune clart 0 - 20 qui dones C, que porte Q; sustance 0
- 21 (omitted in N,') ordres M, ki ordure 0; mondes L - 22 (omitted in N;)
potz 0, porte M; nostre creance A; Poaille de nostre e. Q - 23 Tu es matire
M; E matire de facunde 0; Matire de tres ferme facounde Q - 24 nostre espe-
rance A, science F; E argumentz de creance 0, Et fundement de nostre
creaunce Q.
l Rone de piti, Marie,
En cui deteiz pure ct clere
A mortalitei se marie,
Tu iez et vierge et fille et mere:
Vierge enfantaz 1.:) fruit de vie,
Fille ton fil, mere ton peire.
Mout az de nons en prophecie,
Si n'i a non qui n'ait mistere.
The rubrics in the other MSS. are: - Les .ix. joies nostre dame A (copied
from the final colophon at the end of the 14lh or at the beginning of the 15th century);
Ce sont les .ix. joies nostre dame El; Ici commencent les .ix. joies nostre
dame G; Ce sont li joie de nostre dame la bonoite virge marie mere jhesucrist J;
C'est li diz de la mere dieu H; une loenge a la dame qe comprent ses figures M;
Ci commence le beau dit de nostre dame que est apell le renom de renty Q.
In N, the poem is preceded by the colophon Cest tretys fist frere nich boioun
frere menour and in F by the couplet (fol. 99b) Un clers qui plains est de bon
vent 1Ainsi la saluoit souvent. The rubric in F (fol. 97b) is Item, une oroison
et diti de nostre dame.
I (A CE F G H l J K LM N 0 P QS.) 1 piet MO - 2 que la deit Q -
3 Et mortalitez J, En mortalit L U - 4 Qui es G L 0 P; ez vierge F K M Q
- 5 enfantant (-ent) HM N 0 QS, esfantant L; enfauntaunt frut d.v. N, le le
fruit K - 6 Fil G; a ton filz mere a ton pere F G - 7 as des nouns Q S, a de nos
G, Mut a en vus 0; ad de tei en M, Mus as nuns en prophecies N - 8 S'i n'ad
nul qui S, E s'i n'a rien ki 0; n'i a nul qui K M N P; qui ait E, qu'il n'ait G;
Entendu en diverse manere Q.
VI (A CE F G H 1 J K L M N 0 P Q.) 41 rachel desiree M - 43-44 are
IV (A CE F GH 1 J K LMN 0 P Q.) 25 De pucele p. e m. N, Tu es p.p.
e m. P; nete et monde E F Hl, miere et mounde M - 26 arc K; de liance J M;
De toi arche d'a. 0 - 27 n'es A C J, n'as E F G H 1 K L 0 P, n'ad (n'a) M Q;
prime ne s. Q; Ke nen premere nen secunde N - 28 Deignast G - 29 Cist 0;
Celui que l'enemi vergounde Q; ememis H - 30 Geaunt de si grant substaunce Q
- 31 Qui fu EH 1; pierre tu la fonde K; Il est la pere tu es la f. N - 32 print G.
V (A CE F G H 1 J K LMN 0 P Q.) 33 Femme 0 P; se sanz J; seintz M;
llslumin MO, alumin N - 34 celui traitre Q - 35 es J; sor J L; planees L
ta plante K M Q, tes plante tribee H; as des piez defulee 0 - 36 La terre G,
La te serpent K, Le chef 0; deI serpent P - 37 Tu es l'eschele K, Tu es eschieI
M lV 0 Q - 38 poeur L; Ke poel' as P; envaui M; Par que le poer envay Q - 39
biaut G; A la beste M N Q- 40 Par que J; li nostre C 0, li nostres EH1 J
le nostre L M (Q), la nostre N, li mondes A F GP; Par qui nostre estat dechay
K, Que le nostre desche Q.
45 Les neuf joies Nastre Dame
Tu iez la toison arouzee,
Tu yez li bouchons Synay. H
Dou Saint Espir fuz enseintee:
En toi vint il et ombra y
Tant que tu fuz chambre clamee
Au roi de gloire Adonay. 48
VII De toi sanz ta char entameir
Nasqui li bers de haut parage
Por le mal serpent enframeir
Qui nos tenoit en grief servage, 52
Qui venoit les armes tenteir,
Et n'en volait panre autre gage
Par les chetives affameir
En sa chartre antive et ombrage. 56
B 73.,
misplaced and follow 45-6 in F. - H bysson F, boutons J; E li b. de Synay 0-
45 Del seint esperit MN P; esprit E F H L, esperit (espirit) K M NO P Q
(espit M); sus J; enchantee H, encensee J; Du saint espirit ensaintee K,
Ou seint espirit tut enoumbree Q - 46 ouvra y H N 0 Q, ovrai i J, ovra il
G; En toy dame s'enombra y K; vint il a nostre ay L; En toi vint et descenda
i M, En toy vint il e descendi P, Qui en toi vint e overa i Q - 47 Tanqe fus M,
Taunt que estoies Q; chambre acesmee (asr.emee) L P; Porte close chambre
aurnee 0 - 48 Du roy F; Au roi poissant Adonay O.
VII (A CE F H 1 J K L M N 0 P Q.) 49 sanz char entamer M, saunz
toi entamer Q; entanner J - 50 Nasquist M; ~ s q u li bers H, Nasqui bers 0;
le rois J .(( L M NO; de si haute parage Q, de grant parage L - 51 le fel s. L,
velO, veil P; afrener A, effreneir C, effreiner J, enfrener E K, enfarmer (with
l' written above the line) H, enfermer L, enferner l, enserrer F, afframer 0 P
serpent et amer MN Q - 52 tint N Q; son servage A F, grant servage H, teu
servage Q; frenaige J - 53 Et venait El; nos aimes M N; nanter L, namer
OP; Qui nos aImes voloit tenser Q; Qui vint nos aimes tenser N - 54 Qu'il n'en
E l, Ne n'en F, Ne voleit P; ne vouloit L; v.p. nul gage A E F H 1 J; vaut
NO Q; Qe ne voleit prendre gage M, E ne vout prendre autre gage li' O. E
prendre ne vaut autre gage Q, Et il mestoit tout son usage K - 55 Fors les
L N; enfamer M N, esfemer J, enfermer F K L; Fors les las cheitis L; Hors
que nous cheitifs afamer Q- 56 En chartre J; chambre H; ch. antive et ombrage
CH J L MO P, ch. antif hombrage N, ch. obscure et ombrage A E F 1 K;
En prisun de mortele hombrage Q.
B 78,'
TAU N 0 F. Mus TAN 0 1 A
V Dame de senS enluminee,
Tu as le trayteur tray,
Tu as souz tes plantes triblee
La teste dou serpent hay.
Tu iez corn eschiele ordenee,
Qui le pooir as envay
De la beste desfiguree
Par cui li nostre dechay.
IV De toi, pucele pure et monde,
Porte cloze, arche d'aliance,
Qui n'as premiere ne seconde,
Deigna naitre par sa paissance
Cil qui noz anemis vergonde,
Li jaians de double sustance.
Il fu la pierre et tu la fonde
Qui de Golie prist venjance.
VI Tu yez Rachel la desirree,
Tu ie:.: la droite Sarray,
VIII (A CE F HI J XL M NO P Q.) 57 te doit Q; doit J'en A X-58 E
en tempeste X; tempeste e grant o. 0, et en oraige J X M iV Q, et en temps
d'orage F - 59 Car tu es esteille Q; de la miere M - 60 ancre e nef L 0 P, nef
ancre et rivage X, nief et auncre et r. Q; e nage 0; Tu iez a nos neiz et rivage
C - 61 l'en A X L - 62 Tu es port de X; de humain l. M N 0 P Q; Come flur
de humeine linage Q- 63 Tu es cclombe ~ N 0; sanz fel amer N 0; Et corn le
columb que n'ad piere Q - 6lo au cheitiz CF H, au chaitif L, as cheiftis 0; le
message F J X L; es chasteas 10 m. J; K'as cheitifs portes lur message N, A
qui vint li treshaut message Q.
IX (A CE F G H l X LN 0 P Q.) 65 Dame san per H, Cule saunz piere Q,
sa per G; en cui G; s'ancline (s'en-) CF G X 0 P Q, s'acline A E H l L, a ky
acline N - 66 Li nobles G, Le noble F X, Li juges 0; de haut A GH N 0; Li
roi de si grant consistorie Q- 67 te ting F, se enta (?) X; en ferme E F H l N;
Qui se tient en riche racyne Q - 68 Ne charra jamais ta m. 0; ton memoire
FLN, Dunt ja ne cherra la memorie Q - 69 nostre rivage X; Tu es sourse de
ruine Q, Tu es filz de nostre roine G - 70 Qui A P, Quar L; Mors esteums c'est
la v. N, Mort as destruit o e.l.v. 0; estions tous c'est X; ce est la v. G;
Que de touz leaus fait acroire Q - 71 Solailz le mund k'eslumine 0 - ?2 Et
lune Q; lusur P; transistoire F H.
'X (A CE F GH l XL N 0 P Q.) 73 Tu es celle chambre X; chanbre
cortine H L P - 7lo E liz e throne P, Lit et siege K - 75 (eut off with the margin
in F;) Oevres des ames G; genmes E IO P; Tu es la gemme fraunche et fine Q
- 76 (eut off in F;) Douz A; esmer e blanc 0 H, esmeree et de blaunche Q-
77 Recrovriers H, Recovres 0, Recuvereres P, Recoverir N Q - 78 Chastel de
peis Q; d'ajutoire EH l N 0 P Q, d'ajuctoire A, d'ajustoire G, tors de victoire
C X L (vittoire F) - 79 (Omitted in I; the space has been filled in a late hamI
[xpith cent.?] with bien puis dire puint n'adevine.) Platans P, Platons H,
Plathens E, Plantans 0, Plantains CF N Q, Plantant L, Plancons G X; Plan-
con d'olive K; olive et G Q; Olive aiglentier flor d'espine A - 80 C. de palme
et de v. EH I, E ki paume estes de v. 0; de justoire C.
XI (A CE FGH l X LM NOP.) 81 Tu es vergete LO P; vierge X;
desfumee G; Tu es verge de la fumee N - 82 Des aromaz M, Aromatz remis 0;
remise G N, mis M - 83 par desert N; est L, ert EH l N; monstee X - Slo El
ciel C, Es cieus H, Ou ciel A E FIX, Deseure toute creature G, Sor ciel sor
t.c. L, Sur cel e sur t.c. N, Sus ciel sur t.c. M, Sus cel sus Le. P, Sus cels e t.c. 0;
Ou ciel sus t.c. X - 85 Virgne A; nouviau fruit F; comblee A, plantee E l -
86 cotiveure H, coutiveure L, contrveure M, cotivire N, contenure (with soille
written abope the line) 0, cotefiure P - 87 nient HLM N P - 88 Curtil enceynte
de.c. N 0 (with tut dot/ed out in 0); enceinz CL 0, aains A EH l M, accinz P,
enclos F; a closture C, a closure F, d'aclosture A E, d'aclosure I, de closture
HLM N 0 P; Courtius touz acels an gloture G, C. clos a double closture K.
lo6 TAU'iO F. Mt:sTANOJA
VIII Dame, toi doit hon reclameir
En tempeste et en grant orage:
Tu iez estoile de la meir,
Tu iez ancre, neiz et rivage.
Toi doit hon servir et ameir.
Til iez flors de l'umain linage,
Tu iez li colons senz ameir
Qui porte as cheitiz lor message.
IX Seule, sanz peir, a cui s'ancline
Li noblois dou haut consistoire.
Bien se tient a ferme racine:
Jamais ne charra ta memoire.
Tu iez finz de notre ruyne,
Que mort estions, c'est la voire,
Solaux qui le monde enlumine,
Lune sanz lueur transitoire.
B /'8,. B /'8,. Les neuf joies Nostre Dame
X Tu iez sale, chambre et cortine,
Liz et trones au roi de gloire,
Thrones de jame pure et fine,
D'or esmerei, de blanc yvoire,
Recovriers de notre saisine,
Maisons de pais, tors d'ajutoire,
Platans, olive, fleurs d'espine,
Cyprs et palme de victoire.
XI Tu iez la verge de fumee
D'aromat remis en ardure,
Qui par le desert iez montee
El ciel seur toute creature,
Vigne de noble fruit chargee
Sanz humainne cultivere,
Violete non violee,
Cortilz touz enceinz a closture.
48 TAU N 0 F. Mus TAN 0 J A
XII A saint J ehan fu demoutree
L'encellance de ta figure
De .xij. estoiles coronee;
Li soleux fu ta couverture,
La lune souz tes piez pozee.
Ce nos senefie a droiture
Que sor touz eres essaucee,
Et seur fortune et seur nature.
B 78,.
92 (Fol. 44)
B 78,. Les neuf joies Nostre Dame
XIV Tu iez rone souverainne
De diverses coleurs vestue,
Tu iez estoile promerainne,
La meilleurs, la plus chier tenl.le,
En cui la deteiz souvrainne,
Por nos sauveir, a recondue
Sa lumiere et son rai demainne
Si corn li solaux en la nue.
XIII Tu iez chatiaux, roche hautainne,
Qui ne crient ost ne sorvenue.
Tu iez li puis et la fontainne
Dont notre vie est soutenue, 100
Li firmamenz dl3 cui alainne
Verdure est en terre espandue,
Aube qui le jor nos amainne,
Turtre qui ses amors ne mue. 104
XII (A CE F G H 1 K LM}Il OP.) 89 S. J. fu bien mostree G; fust M;
fu monstr N - 90 L'escilence A, La semblance FM N - 91 De .vii. estoiles
A P; aornee A; Re duzze esteilles coron 1"'\' - 92 fust M, est A C, ert L P
- 93 triblee A - 94 Ce A E F G H J K L M N 0, Se C, Si P; Ceo seignifie M N;
senefie droiture F H K; par dleiture N; o nus est mustr par dreiture -
95 Que sor nos serez essaucee C, Re sur nous ers enhauc N, Re sus nus eres
>schaucee 0 P, Que sus nos eres sorhaucee L, Que sus nous tous es essauci F,
Desus nous es enhaucee M, Que seur le monde es esaciee G, Que seur toz F,
res eslevee A E l, Que sus nous tous es eslevee K, Que seur touz ies to aouree
H - 96 seur] sus F K L MO; feture et A; fortune e n. L; Sur fortune e s.n. N.
XIII (A CE F G H l K L M N 0 P Q.) 9? et roche M, en roche 0; hautime
F P; Tu es chasteaus hautime P, Tu chasteus en roche hauteine 0, Dame, tu
s roche hauteine Q- 98 criens A C, cront (crout?) N - 99 li prins 0 - 100 De
nostre joye soustenue K -101 Firmament de qui Q; de toi alaine G, de aleine N
-102 Verdure en terre est AM NO Q; est en toi respandue G-l03-4 Misplaced
in L 0 P, where they corne after line 98 - 103 qe jour M 0; nous meign M N Q;
que cler jour nous meine Q - 104c E turtre que s'amour Q; ces amors C, s'amor
G Q; ne remue G; ne maine E; Amie ki amurs ne mue 0, Teinture ke ses
XV Citeiz cloze a tours macezes,
Li maulz qui les maulz acravente;
Qui recez ef1t en tes lices,
Pou li chaut. s'il pluet ou s'il vente. 116
Tu iez la raansons des vices,
Li repoz aprs la tormente,
Li purgatoires des malices,
Li confors de l'arme dolente. uo
XIV (A CE F G H 1 K LN 0 P Q.) 105 Tu es dame Q - 106 diverses
coleurs C F G K L NO P, diverse color A E H J; De taunz colurs si beau
vestue Q -10? (omitted in E;) l'estoile A F G 0 Q, la steille P; sour montainne
F, souveraine K, clere et saine J -108 Certeine e clere tenue 0; m. et plus chere
tenue Q, m. e la plus c. t. N -109 (omitted in E;) souvraine A CF G L, saraine H,
sereine K N 0 P, surreine Q, hautaine J - 110 as recondue A, a ressordue
E H J, est recundue 0, a reponue K, a respandue L, est retendue G, est descen-
due F; Pur nous est arescoundue N Q- 111 Sa clart et L 0 P; Reposaunt
en son rai demeine Q - 112 soulauz et la nuee H; en la lune K LN.
XV (A CE F G H J K L MN 0 P.) 113 closes G, bien close F; tour F H,
o tors L; masseices A E l, massaices P, macices (masizes) C K N 0, massice H,
marcices F G L, marces M; Citez close et tor m. H - lH mail qe M; Li biens
qui F G; toz maus A, la maus H; A qui deu toz ses biens presente L N 0 P (deu
omitted in N) - 115 es en G - 116 Ne li J K; li est A G; ou il A; c'iI p. ou c'i!
v. C F, s'i! p. ou v. M, si pluet ou si vente H; Ben ad emple sa entente N 0 P,
Bien a emploi sa jovente L - 11? de vices 0, de nos vices N - 118 Li confors
E F H, Et li respos de la t. G; aprs wemente 0; Repos aprs la turmente N,
Repos aprs tourment M, Li repos de l'ame dolente J (lines 118 and 120
transposed in part) - 119 Et li p. G, Les purgatoires L; de malices F HLM N 0
- 120 (eut off with the margin in F;) repos A G, Li depors EH, Lui socours M;
a l'ame K M N; Li confors aprs la tormente J.
4 - MustanoJa
XVI (A CE F G H I K L M N 0 P.) 121 (cut off with the margin in F;)
Tu es NO; de vertuz L N, de vertu Pj premices I K L M N 0 P, primices A,
provinces E G; Tu es de vertuz le premices N - 122 ta droiz H; ton droit et ta
p.r. F G; ta rent M; sente L, tente P - 123 l'aigles e, li aygle A E 1 N, li aigles
H Mj et l'eigle et K, li aigles li phenisses H; Tu es comme aigle et fenice F G,
Tu es la sengle li finices P, Tu es la sengle fenices 0, Tu es corn li sengle fenices
L - 124 du soulas prennent F, prenez G; de son bec reprent K, de son bec
resplent A - 125 des flurs P; des floures... des espices M; celiers d'espices
E G I L; Li rais de flours celi! d'espice F; Celle de flors larris d'espices A - 127
en delices N - 128 entente F G HLMN P; e nostre atente 0, et nostre
entente G L P.
Between stanzas XVI and XVII, F has an addition of eighteen Zines. This
is printed in Appendix II, pp. 59-60.
XVII (A e E F G H 1 J K L M N 0 P.) 130 porter M - 131 Tous K L M
NP; esteimes M - 133 Tu as le monde KMN - 134 extance J, absence M-
135 Rels de n.v. M -136 Tribles AG, Crubles J, Cribre M, E tribIe N, Table O.
XVIII (A CE F G H 1 J K LMN 0 P.) 137 de la seint trinitee M - 138:
(The beginning of this Zine in A has suffered damage.) empreignee L, espanie M
N -139 (Thebeginning of this line inA is illegible.) almarie d.v. M; Esluminee de
v. 0 - HO Almaire de s. 0, Aournee des. K; armarie P; Et lui cedres de provi-
dence M (cf. line 142) - 141 E li ysopes de humilit P, Ysope de humilit NO'
- 142 E cedre de p. N; sidre H, ceptres A G; le fleuve de providence K, li ordres
de porveance J; de providence A E F GH J K N, de sapience e, de preminence
L P, de penitence 0; Oue grant vertu de sapience M (cf. line HO) - 143 E liz,
de v. N, Li lis de v. 0, Et mere de v. K - 144 E rose de p. NO.
XIX (A CE F G H 1 J K LMN 0 P S.) 145 Mauldite famme et b. J - 146
aunciement MN - 147 Mais onques KM N, Mais unc HL 0 P; n'en fus
CG H J K L, ne fus A El M NO P S (ne fut Si; fu L S - 148 Et voas G,
En vouas S; a dieu proprement EHl, a deu quitemant J, a dieu finement
M - 149 leur virginit G - 150 Leur seroit G; entierement MS, enterinement
F L 0 -151 Tu fus la p. v. L; ta premiere v. F G J M N; La primere fu vuee
0-152 Mult devient de M; t'avint J; vint de h. 0; hardiement O.
TAU N 0 F. Mu g T AN 0 J A
XVI Tu as des vertuz les promiBces,
C'est tes droiz, c'est ta propre rente.
Tu iez l'aigles et li fenisees
Qui dou soleil reprent jovente,
Larriz de fleurs, celle d'espices,
Baumes, kanele, encens et mente,
Notre paradix de delices,
Notre esperance, notre atente.
XVII Dame de la haute citei,
A cui tuit portent reverance,
Tuit estenz deseritei
Par une general sentance;
Tu en as le mont aquitei,
Tu iez saluz de notre essence,
Balaiz de notre vanitei,
Cribles de notre concence.
B 78,. B 78,. Les neuf joies Nostre Dame
XVIII Temples de sainte Trinitei,
Terre empreignie sanz semance,
Et lumiere de veritei
Et aumaires de sapence
Et ysopes d'umilitei
Et li cedres de providence
Et li lyx de virginitei
Et la roze de paciance.
XIX Maudite fu fame et blamee
Qui n'ot fruit ancennement;
Mais ainz n'en fuz espoautee,
Ainz voas a Dieu qui ne ment
Que ta virgineteiz gardee
Li seroi[t] pardurablement.
Ce fu la premiere voee;
Mout te vint de grant hardement.
XX (A CE F G H I J J( L M N 0 P S.) 153 Grace te fu tost dunee 0,
Taunt te fu grant grace donee P -15!t De ton yeu garder p. G; tun nun N
(eidently an error for tun vuu; cf. vuu 0) - 155 (omitted in L;) tun corps ta
pens N - 156 (omitted in L;) en soi A, o.soi E I; proprement A F G H M N
OP S, popremant J, purement C, fermement El, voirement K - 157 Ainz ce
que G, En o ke fus 0, Einz que tu LN; fusses L; sauvee P; Le corps qe tut
est sacr M -158 Vout il A E GH I J K LN 0 P S, Vout Diex C, Vost il
K; Volt il ovrer a. G; Le monstre il bien a. F: Fu en ton corps verroiement M
(cf. preceding line in M) - 159 Tu es 'va G; Que tu es eva K N S; fus eva F;
eva bestournee K, la bertonnee G - 160 De voice et M S, En voiz e entende-
ment N; voyez P; detement K.
XXI (A CE F G H l J K LN 0 P Q.) 161 Ne purroie dame en nulle
manere Q; maniere omitted in N - 162 tes biens A K 0; tant bien y pensace
F, tant ben pensasse N, pOl' riens que pensace L 0 P; que pensace G H J K
L 0 P; De tes bounts taunt pensasse Q - 163 T. d. plus n'i a a faire H; n'i ad
a fer Q; n'afiere L; adfere N, effiere J - 161 Et toute F; vie usasse J L P-
XXI Ne porroie en nule meniere
(Fol. 44b) De tes nons, conbien qu'i pensasse,
Tant dire que plus n'i affiere,
Se toute ma vie i usasse;
165 de totes joies N. This line and the rest of the sfanza run thus in Q-
Mais tut a vous, ma dame chere,
Me regeis et met a masse
Par la grace que a mer (?) entiere
Que sur totes autres passe.
166 que n'en F K, que je ne HL N; chantasse L 0 P (ke ch. 0) - 167 Le salu
fu ta premere N; te fu 0 -168 t'apelas A E F G H I J K L N 0 P, t'apela C.
After st. XXI, Q has a final stanza which does not occur in any other MS.
and is clearly an addition by the scribe. Il is printed in Appendix Il, p. 60.
XXII (A CE F G H I J K L N 0 P.) 169 orgoiUuse u fere 0 -170 Mes
te humilias N; humilias K; te humilias a masse 0; tost a masse K; en masse l
- 172 ke el L; ke te vit 0; vit basse H K (hace K); En tei ke l'emtynt si basse
N P - 173 Adonc fus comme la v. L; ausint cum la v. 0 P, ausis G, aussy K;
la veire N - 174 Par ki 0, Par unt le rai N; li rois H, rain K - 175 El n'est A CL,
Ele n'est J, E n'est NO P, Qui n'est E F G H I, N'en est K; E n'est pur ceo
le meins e. NO, Ele n'est pOl' ce moins e. J - 176 Qui ne la G, Il ne la p. LN,
Car il ne la p. ne quo K, Ne ne la perce F, perce ne la quasse N, Il ne peoie J;
ne la casse 0; la brise rie ne quasse A.
Les neuf joies NostreDame
Mais de tes joies, dame chiere,
Ne lairoie que ne contasse.
Li saluz, ce fu la premiere,
Dame, lors t'apelas baasse.
XXII Ne fus orguilleuze ne fiere,
Ainz t'umelias tot a massr.
Por ce vint la haute lumiere
En toi qu'ele te vit si basse.
Lors fus ausi corn la verriere
Par ou li raiz dou soloil passe:
El n'est pas por ce mainz entiere,
Qu'il ne la perce ne ne quasse.
E 78,& B13,&
XX Tantost te fu grace donee
De gardeir ton veu purement.
Ton cuer, ton cors et ta pencee
Saisit Diex a soi proprement.
En ce que tu fus saluee
Vaut il moutrer apertement
Tu iez Eva la bestornee
Et de voiz et d'entendement.
TAU N 0 F. Mus TAN 0 J A 52
XXIII (A CE F G H J J K L N 0 P.) 177 The reading of C is shared
by F G (ces for tes in G). Tu eus ta premiere joie E J, Droiz est quant ta pru-
miere joiee H, Droiz est qu'en ta primere joie J, Droiz est ke la premere joie
PO, Vairs est que eus premiere joie L, Dreit est a ta secunde joi'e N, Donc est
ce tes premiers joyes K, Droiz est que tes loenges oies A - 178 Quant tu ton
chier fil c.A, Quant creator conceus L, Taunt cum creatur c. N, Que ton creator
c. JO, Ki tun creatur c. P; receus E H l - 179 ru de tes joies A E G H l K L 0 P
(ces G); Voirs est que la seconde avoies F, Par la secunde eus grant joie J, Ela
terce eus grant joie N -181 ton sengnor L P, sun seignur 0 -182 A la quarte
kant N - 183 (This Zine and Zine 184 omitted in F and G; in G, the scribe seems
to have omit/ed these Zines by mistake when beginning a new page.) - 184 cens C;
sans douleur sentir l'eus K; e li geus N; saunz dolur .de toy le eu,s P.
XXIV (A CE F G H J J K LN 0 P.) 185 La quarte te m. P;A la quinte
N; quarta G; t'esmerveilloies K; esmerveilloies 0; Et la quarte ru de tes joies
EH J - 186 tu vois e te teus 0/ e tuz seus P - 187 li treis reis de longues
voies F K - 188 les treus A F; rendre ces treus K, rendre lur treus N _
189 Ou tample J, El temple L P, En temple 0; temple ou N -190 La quinte
A F K; sixte N - 191 par 8ymeon N - 1Y2 iere F J 0, ru K; homme e deus
XXV (A C E F G H l J K LN0 P.) 193 (omitted in N;) La siste Cu quant
Cu assise E 1; La sisme L, La sime P; quant tn fus essise J K; occise G L 0 P
(the ward kas been cut off aZmost entirely with the margin in F); La siste joie
puis que Cu ocise G, La sisme por quoi fus oeise L - 194 (omiued in N;) Lez
l'aignel F K, Li aigniax par c. G; Elancee par c. 0 - 195 pour pour nous K;
out N 0; Quant pur nus out sa a.m. N - 196 Et revesqui E F G H J N; lyons
C - 197 Et tu et lui A; iteil CF J K, autel A E J LN0 P, tele F H; par
itel guise F, sa tel (sic) devise G - 198 l'acenssion A F J K L N 0 P, l'asom-
tions C, l'asomion G, t'assumption E J, sa concion H; La setime Cu la ascen-
sion P, La seme Cu a l'ascentiun N -199 (omitted in G;) ke out N; de toi L 0 P;
Quant en ame et en cors assise A - 200 (omitted in Gand I;) ou throne F J, en
troine J; ou throne secion K; Sist el trone division E, Sit el trone de visiun
OP (en trone Pl, Sist ou throne de vision H, Fud al trone de avisun N; Fus
seur toute creacion A.
XXVI (A CE F G H l J K L NO P.) It would be diffieult ta present an
adequate c1'itical apparatus for the cor1'upt end (>f the poem. The pariants for the
final stanza XXVI are therefore printed in Appendix I, pp. 56-9. The end is
missing in M Q S. - 203 esprise A E F l J K L N 0 P, aprise H: (see p. 16).
emprise C - 204 t'asompsions C - 208 prions C.
[Cl XXVI L'eutime par iteil devise,
Quant par sa sainte anoncion
Dou saint Esperit fus ef1prise,
La nuevime t'asompsion,
Quant en arme et en cors assise
Fus sOr toute creacion.
Dame, cui toz li mondes prise,
Par tes .ix. joies te prion,
Les neuC joies Nostre Dame
XXV La seite puis que fuz assize
o l'aignel par compassion,
Qui por nos avoit s'arme mise,
Quant revesqui comme lyon,
Et tu 0 lui en iteil guise;
La septime l'ascension,
Quant la chars qu'il ot en toi prize
Fit el trone devision.
B 78,4 B73,i
XXIV A la quarte te mervilloies
Quant tu vez et tu ses
Que li troi roi si longues voies
Li vindrent offrir lor trez.
Au temple, quant ton fil offroies,
Ta quinte joie recez
Quant par saint Symeon savoies
Que tes filz ert homo Deus.
TAU N 0 F. Mus TAN O.J A
XXIII La premiere fu de tes joies
Quant ton creatour concez,
La seconde fu totes voies
Quant par Elyzabeth ses
Que le fil Dieu enfanteroies,
La tierce quant enfant ez;
Sens pechi conce l'avoies
Et sens doleur de li gez.
EXPLICIT. - Explicit C, Expliciunt les .ix. joies nostre dame A, Amen
diex nos doint pardon / et veraie confession G, Amen Ainssy soit il Amen K.
At the end of S is the colophon: Tenor de regne de pit.
EH I. - 202 assumption H - 206 This line is omitted in I - 207 li sicles H -
208 Pour tes H - 211 jouisse H - 213 N. doinst J - 21!i This line is supplied froni
H J. E repeats line 212: 0 les .ix. ordres mansion.
Amen, diex nos doint pardon
Et veraie confession.
J XXVI L'uiteme par itel devise,
Quant par sa sainte annuncion
Du saint esperit fus esprise;
La noveme
Quant en arme et en cors essise
Fus sors toute creacion.
Dame cui toz li siegles prise
Par ces nuef joies te prions,
Et par ta saintisme devise
Qu'en toi ai habitacion,
Aie nos par ta franchise
Ne seons en dampnacion,
Les neuf joies Nostre Dame
La nuevisme t'asumpcion,
Quant en ame et en cors assize
Fus sur toute creacion.
Dame que tout le monde prise,
Par ices joies te prions
Qu'au derrain jour du juise
OIes nuef ordres mansion
Aion,; en cele haute esglise
Et d" dieu tous jors vision.
G XXVI La huitime, je la vos devise,
Ce tu a la paration [corr. l'aparition(?)].
La noviesmes a tel devise,
Quant par ta sainte assumption
En ame iert [corr. et] an cors asise
Fu [corr. Fus] seur toute creacion.
Dame qui tout le siecle prise,
Par ces .ix. joies te prion,
Aide nous par ta franchise
Et par ta grant devocion
Si qu'au danien jour dou juise
OIes nuef ordres mansion
Nos doint en cele haute eglise
Par ta sainte surrection.
B 78,4
Ade nos par ta franchise
Et par ta sainte noncion
Qu'au darreair. jor dou juse
Oies .ix. ordres mansion
Ns doint en cele haute eglyze,
Dame, par ta devocion.
Amen. Explicit.
T A li N 0 F. Mus TAN 0 J A
E (with variants of H and I)
XXVI L'uitisme par itel devise,
Quant par la sainte anoncion
Dou saint esperit fus esprise;
La nuevisme t'assumption,
Quant en ame et en cors assisse
Fus sor toute creacion.
Dame cui tous li mondes prise,
Par tes .ix. joies te prion,
Aide nous par ta franchise
K'elJvers ton fill ne mesfaon,
K'au daerrain jour dou juise
OIes .ix. ordres mansion
Nous maint en cele haute eglise,
[Dame, par ta devotion].
F XXVI L'uitisme par itel divise,
Quant par sa sainte anuncion
Du saint esperit fus esprise;
216 lM.
201 autel 0 P - 203 Del P - 204 La nevime qui fu la assumptiun P - 205
en ame e cors 0; e en cors fus assise P - 206 Sur tote creaciun P - 207 ki 0;
li sedes 0 P - 208 tes 0; joies 0 P -209 vers sa franchise 0 P - 210 de juise
OP- 211 mansiuns P - 212 Doint il en O.
L (with variants in 0 and P. -- N, a closely related version, is printed below.)
XXVI L'uitiesme par Hel devise, 201
Quant par sa sainte mission
Du saint esperit fus esprise;
La noviesme t'asumption, 204
Quant en ame e en cors assise
Fus sor toute creation.
Dame que tout le monde prise,
Por ces .ix. ordres [corr. joies] te prion, 208
Aidez nos par ta franchise
Que au desrein jor du juise
Oies .ix. ordres mansion
Nos doint en cele haute eglise. 212
Vierge es tu nete et precieuse,
Et ton dous fil si est la fleur,
Qui par la vois melodieuse
Fus enchantee de la flereur,
Et faite fu char precieuse,
La parole du nonceur,
Ce fu la salu glorieuse
Qui a sauv maint pecheur.
XXVI [L'uitiesme par itel devise,
Quant par sa sainte missiun]
Del seintesperit fus esprise;
La novime ta assumpciun,
Kaunt feus gloriouse assise
Haute sur tute creaciun.
Dame ke tut siecle prise,
Pur tei neofjoies prium,
Eydez nous par ta franchise
Ke al dereyn jour de juis
Doynt en cele haute eglise
Of les neof ordres mansiun.
N (a version closely related to that in L 0 P)
Les neuf joies Nostre Dame
A XXVI L'uitisme par autel devise,
Quant par ta sainte anoncion
Du saint esperit fus esprise,
. La nuevime t'asumpcion.
Dame qui toz li siecles prise,
Par ces .ix. joies te prion
Humblement par ta grant franchise
Que nous aions remission.
Expliciunt les .ix. joies nostre dame.
Between stanzas XVI and XVII, F has the following insertion-
Lines 201-2 omitted in N.
(For Usee p. 89.)
B 73,4
Qu'a derrien jor du juise
OIes nuof ordres mansion
Nos doint en cele haute eglyse
Jesum, par sa redemption.
K XXVI L'uitime par autel devise,
Quant par sa saincte mission
Du saint esperit fus esprise,
La .ix
. t'assumpcion,
Qu'en ame et en corps fus assise
Desus toute creacion.
Dame que tout le ciede prise,
Par ces .ix..joyes te prion,
Aide nous par ta franchise
Corn celle en qui nous nous fion
Qu'au derrenier jour de jouise
OIes .ix. ordres mencion
Nous doint en celle haulte eglise
Aler a grant devocion.
Amen. Ainssy soit il. Amen.
TA U N 0 F. Mus TAN 0 ;)" A

The lw;t stanza of Q, i.e., that lollowing stanza XXI 01 the bw;ic text, runs
thU3 -
Li saint esperit se repose
Sur cele fleur, c'est bien droiture,
Quar lui precedent lu enclose
En toy, virge et nete et pure,
La char par qui nous lu esclose
La voie d'enler et la laidure,
Tout droit aussi comme la rose
Engendree d'espine dure
Qu'engendra judee qui la glose
Et la vraie loy tient obscure.
Quant le salue te vint primere,
Te clamas ancelle passe [corr. beasse(?)].
Dnke ne luistes vous plus fiere,
Ainz te humilias koie e quasse;
Dount ore es, dame, la dieu miere,
Oue lui regnaunte lace a lace,
Cam il vous est piere et liz et lrere,
De lui nous gaynet gr et grace.
B 78,.
In order to save spaee, the symbols are dealt with as briefly as
possible in the ITollowing notes. Many of the best-known and those
whieh are self-explanatory are omitted altogether. The reader is re-
ferrd to the index of symbols at the end of this volume and to
special works on Marian symbols, sueh as the Index Marianus
(Patrologia Latina, CCXIX), Anselm Salzer, Die Sinnbilder und Bei-
worte Mariens in der deutschen Literatur und lateinischen Hymnen-
poesie des Mittelalters, mit Bereksiehtigung der patristisehen Li-
teraturl) (Programm des k.k. Ober-Gymnasiums der Benedictiner eu
Seitenstetten, Linz, 1886-94), Heinrich Becker, Die Auffassung der
Jungfrau Maria in der altfranzosischen Litteratur (diss. Gottingen,
1905), Yrjo Hirn, The Sacred Shrine (London, 1912), pp. 435-70, and
F. J. Raby, A History of Christian-Latin Poetry (Oxford, 1927),
pp. 363-75. Parallels for nearly every symbol in Les neuf joies Nostre
Dame are to be found in the Latin hymns printed, for example, in
the fifty-five volumes of the Analecta Hymnica, ed. by G. M. Dreves,
C. Blume, and H. M. Bannister (Leipzig, 1886-1922) and in the three
volumes of Lateinische Hymnen des Mittelalters, ed. by F. J. Mone
(Freiburg LB., 1853-5).
The referenees ta the Bible are ta the Vulgate.
l, 1. Roine de piti. This is obviously an imitation of the first
Hne of the famous antiphonattributed to Herimannus Contractus,
a monk of Reichenau, Salve regina misericordiael) (Anal. Hyrnn.,
L, p. 318).
6. Fille ton fil, mere ton peire. This is the favourite idea of Latin
hymnologists; cf., e.g., 1):Mater haee et filia, Hic filius et pater (Anal.
Hymn., V, p. 51).
II, 9-10. Tu iez suer, espouze et amie Au roi qui toz jars fu et
ere. Cf -
20. Terre qui done soutenance. Cf.-
14. Judit qui biau se pere. Judith x. 2-4. Cf. also -
(Bibl. Nat. fr. 12483, foL 116, ed. Lngfors, Not. et extr., XXXIX,2,
Paris, 1916, pp. 581-4)
(Anal. Hymn., VI, p. 104)
Les neuf joies Nostre Dame
Salve, terra sitiens
proferens virgultum,
per fructum reficiens
nos suavem multum.
Vierge tres graceuse, de toutes graces plaine,
Vierge qui n'as pareille, premiere ne derraine.
(Testament de Jean de Meung, final prayer, ed.
Lenglet de Fresnoy, 1735, p. 104)
Non habuit similem
nec est habitura sequentem.
(Anal. Hymn., II, p. 123)
oMaria, clausa porta
quam nemo aperuit.
Princeps ille qui transivit
deus et homo fuit
nec ingressu nec egt:essu
violavit clauaulam,
sed, quam prius non habebat,
sumpsit carnis fibulam,
sic togatus tanq uam sponsus
suo processit thalamo.
(Anal. Hymn., V, p. 49)
arche d'aliance. Mary is the Ark of the New Covenant (Num. x. 33).
27. Qui n'as premiere ne seconde. AC J read Qui n'es S.
Though n'as seems to give a better sense, it is difficult to say which
was the reading of the original. Both occur in contemporary Latin
and French hymns. Cf., for example, -
B 73,t
IV, 26. Porte cloze. The Virgin Mary is the closed door of Ezekiel
(Ezekiel xliv. 1-3). Cf.-
B 78,t
Mere glorieuse
Et fille et espeuse
Au vrai roy du ciel.
TAU N 0 F. Mus TAN 0 J A 62
Tu es ...
Judith ke beu se peere,
Hester la tres am
Ke sauve la genz jug
D peril e de tristour.
11. Tu iez verge seche et tlorie. The Virgin is the flowering rod
of Aaron (Num. xvii. 8).
12. Doulz remedes de mort amere: &dirae mortis medicina (Mone,
Lat. Rymnen, II, p. 63).
13. Rester qui s'umelie. Just as Esther, who alone was admitted
to the royal presence, could plead on behalf of her own people the
good service of Mordecai, so the Blessed Virgin, standing in the pres-
ence of God, can plead on behalf of us sinners the sacrifice of her
To obtain an audiE:nce of the King, Esther had ta humble her-
self, i. e., to vanquish her own fears, because it was strictly forbidden
for anyone to enter the royal presence unless summoned to it.
(Nicholas Bozon, Prire la Vierge, B. M. Addit. 46919, fol. 51, ed.
Paul Meyer, Romania, XIII, 1884, p. 509)
III, 17. Tu iez et cielz et terre et onde. The Virgin is )domina coeli,
terrae et maris (Anal. Rymn., VII, p. 113).
19. Cielz qui done lumiere au monde. Salzer, Die Sinnbilder, refers
to Ps. x. 5 and xiii. 2, and Provo xiii. 27, 28.
li - Mustanoja
V. 35-6. Tu as souz tes plantes triblee La teste dou serpent hay.
This, as pointed out by Hirn, The Sacred Shrine, p.416, is based
on a mistranslation in the Vulgate: - Inimieitias ponam inter te et
mulierem, et semen tuum et semen illius: ipsa conteret caput tuum,
et tu insidiaberis ealcaneo eius (Gen. iii. 15). In the Revised Version
the passage runs thus: - 1 will put an enmity between thee and the
woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shaIl bruise thy head,
and thou shalt bruise his hee!. Aceordingly we find the idea in aIl
medieval works that the head of the serpent was bruised by the
woman and Dot by her seed. Cf., e. g.,-
Salve mater gloriosi,
per quam eaput venenosi
serpentis conteritur.
(Mone, Lat. Hymnen, II, p. 307)
37-40. Tu iez com eschiele ordenee ... Another symbol which refers to
the eternal war between the woman and the serpent, taken from Gant.
vi. 10: - )Quae est ista ... terribilis ut castrorum acies ordinata?) Mary
is an army arranged for battie. Lines 38-40 are no doubt based on Rev.
xix. 11-20. Alexander Neekam (Anal. Hymn., XLIII, p. 263) writes-
Haee antiquis hostibus
ut castrorum acies
40. li nostre = nostre pooir (cf. Revel. xiii).
31-2. Il tu la pierre et tu la fonde. 1 Kings xvii. 49. Cf.-
Maria funda utilis,
per quam David
Goliam destruit.
(Anal. Hymn., l, p. 75)
65 Les neuf joies Nostre Dame
Procedit e thalamo sua
pudoris aula regia
geminae gigas substantiae,
alaeris ut currat viam.
B 73,4
Alvus tumescit virginis,
claustrum pudoris permanet,
vexilla virtutum micant,
versatur in templo Deus.
Dame de paradis en cui tous biens abonde,
Qui n'estes, douce dame, premiere ne seconde,
Deprie ton chier filz . . .
(Renaut d'Andon, Le contenz dou monde, couplet
39, ed. T. A. Jenkins, Studies in Honor of A.
Marshall Elliott, Baltimore, 1911, p. 70)
30. Li iaians de double suslance. This symbol of Christ's was thus
interpreted by R. C. Treneh, Sacred Latin Poetry, 3rd ed., London,
1874, p. 90, note 15-
~ h e 'giants' of Gen. vi. 4 \vere, aecording to the interpretation
of the early Chureh, geminae substantiae; the 'sons of Gad' who begot
them being angels, who formed unions with the 'daughters of men'.
This scripture, so understood, must be brought into connexion with
Ps. xviii. 6 (Vulg.), xix. 5 (E. V.), before we can enter into the full
meaning of this line li. e., geminae gigas substantiae, quoted below].
In the 'double substance' of the giants, thus born of heaven and
earth, Ambrose sees a resemblance to Him who in like manner was
of twofold nature, divine and human. He might hardly have dared
to trace an analogy, but for the words of the Psalmist, referred
ta above, in whieh he saw an undoubted reference to the earthly
,course of the Lord. Elsewhere (De Incarnatione Domini, c. 5) he
unfolds his meaning at full: Quem [Christum] quasi gigantem sanctus
David propheta describit, eo quod biformis geminaeque naturae unus
sit consors divinitatis et eorporis: qui tanquam sponsus procedens
de thalamo suo exsultavit tanquam gigas ad currendam viam. Spon-
sus animae secundum Verbum: gigas terrae, quia usus nostri officia
pereurrens, eum Deus semper esset aeternus, Inearnationis sacra-
menta suscepit.
The hymn thus eommented on by Trench is De Adventu Domini
-by S. Ambrose. The relevant passage runs thus -
VI, 41. Rachel la desirree. Gen. xxix.
42. la droite Sarray. Sarai was droite because, in contrast to Hagar,
she was the legitimate wife of Abram (Gen. xvi).
43. la toison arouzee. This is Gideon's fleece, perhaps the best
known of the symbols of Mary's virginity, which is seldom omitted
in the enumeration of her symbols. It arose as a result of an inge-
nious combination and interpretation of three biblical passages, viz.
Judges vi. 36-40, Ps. Ixxi. 6, and Isa. xlv. 8. The complex process
of interpretation by which the story of Gideon's fleece was turned
into a favourite Marian symbol is traced in detail in Hirn's Sacred
Shrine, pp. 304-12.
44. li bouchons Synay. The burning bush of Moses, another fa-
mous symbol of Mary's virginity, taken from Exod. iii. 2, is inter-
preted by Honorius Augustodunensis (Speculum Ecclesiae, PatTol.
Latina, CLXXII, col. 904) as follows: - f)Hoc beatam Virginem
praesignavit, quam ignis Spiritus sancti proIe illuminavit, nec tamen
flamma concupiscentiae violavit.J> In the hymns to the Virgin, it is
regularly preceded by the symbol of Gideon's fleece, e. g. -
Vellus rore madet
dum virgo concipiebat,
sed rubus inde calet,
quando Christum pariebat.
(Anal. Hymn., V, p. 52)
46. ombra y. Luke i. 05. The meaning of ombrer here seems to be
that of soi ombrer 's'incarner'. See, e. g., Godefroy V, 596
, s. v.
ombrement, the quotation from Graal.
47. chambre clamee. The reading of the L 0 P group is different: -
chambre acesmee (ascemee) LP, ch. aurnee O. This symbol evidently
goes back, in part at least, to the description of the temple built
by Solomon in 2 Chronicles iii. 8-14. Cf. -
Tu parata et ornata
quam beavit et ornavit
Excelsi filius.
(Anal. Hymn., l, p. 47)
VII, 50-56. li bers de haut parage Por le mal serpent enframeir ...
Cf. Rev. xix. 11-20.
51-6. Por le mal serpent enframeir Qui nos tenoit en grief servage . ..
This seems to have reference rather to Rev. xiii. - Enframeir has been
replaced for eftreneir of C because it seems that in this rhyme unit
(st. VII-VIII) the author has made a definite effort to use partic-
ularly rich rhyme. The spelling enframer does not occur in any of
the manuscripts, but the alteration seems justified in the presence of
such variants as enfremer, enfarmer, afframer. See crit. apparatus.
52-6. Qui nos tenoit en grief servage . .. f>Who kept us in hard
bondage, who came to tempt our souls (to take our souls as gage L 0 P)
and was not willing to accept any other pledge, in order to make
the poor imprisoned souls starve in his ancient and dark pri80nJ)
53. tenteir. This word does not give a rich rhyme (see note 51).
The only manu8cripts in which the rhyme is rich throughout the
rhyme unit (st. VII-VIII) are 0 P, which read afframer in tine 51 and
namer in tine 53. Namer, which does not appear in Godefroy, is an
Anglo-Norman Iaw-term recorded under a Latinised form namare
(namiare, nammeare) by Du Cange, Glossarium Mediae et Infimae
Latinitatis, V, 567
(s. v. namium), meaning 'ta distrain', 'to
take as gage'. The earliest recorded instance of AN. namer is the
present variant in 0 P. This ward, spelt naamer, a180 occurs in
Andrew Hom's La somme appell Mirroir des justices (J. Vising,
Anglo-NormanLanguage and Literature, Oxford, 1923, p. 76, No. 394),
written about A. D. 1300; see New English Dictionary s. v. naam.
Namer cornes from the ON. noun nam 'capture', borrowed into
English and Anglo-Norman as a term of law. See New English Dictio-
nary, s. v. naam, and O. Bloch and W. v. Wartburg, Dictionnaire
tymologique de la langue franaise, 2
ed., Paris, 1950, s.v. nantir.
It is very tempting to assume that the reading of 0 P, namer,
which goes weIl with the context and is the only manuscript reading
to give rich rhyme, is original. If so, it was a word with which the
scribes of aIl the other manuscripts were unfamiliar. L, another
manuscript of the L 0 P group, replaced it by nanter, a related verb,
and the other manuscripts by tempter. If this assumption is correct,
it suggests that the poem was composed in an area where the AN.
66 TAU N 0 F. Mus TAN 0 J A B '13,;
B '13,4 Les neuf joies Nostre Dame 67
vBrb namer was known, obviously in the West or North-west of
France. (To suggest an Anglo-Norman provenance for the poem
would no doubt be going tao far.) A western or north-western
provenance is supported by enframeir in Hne 51, provided that the
emendation suggested for that Hne is justified. See also p. 36.
55. chetives. The feminine form is accounted for by association
with armes (= mes) in line 53.
56. antive. This adjective is undoubtedly used in reference to
the well-known epithet of the Serpent (devil) in the Apocalypse (ser-
pens antiquus). A number of manuscripts (A E F 1 K) read En sa
chartre obscure et ombrage. Obscure et ombrage is a clich, of which
Godefroy, s. v. ombrage, quotes several instances. It is possible that
the meaning of antive was not clear to aU the scribes and that sorne
of them altered it into obscure, which constituted the first part in
the weU-known clich. If this assumption is correct, it means that
antive iB the original reading.
a cui s'ancline ... (Jf. -
(Anal. Hytnn., VIII, p. 70)
69 Les neuf joies Nostre Dame
69. finz de notr" ruyne. Cf.-
Flos inter spinas,
nostras sustoUe ruinas.
Te honorant superi,
matrem omnis gratiae,
IX, 65. Seule, sanz peir. Adam of S. Victor writes -
Nec in terris habes parem,
nec in coeli curia.
(Anal. Hymn., LIV, p. 384)
B 73,.
The variant in Q (cam le columb que n'ad piere (= paire) goes
back to Canto vi. 8.
B 73,. TAU NO F. Mus TAN 0 J A
VIII, 59. estoile de la meir. A popular symbol of the Virgin -
(Anal. Hymn., V, p. 58)
Ave maris stella,
Dei mater alma,
atque semper virgo,
felix coeli porta ...
(Anal. Hymn., II, p. 39, and LI, p. 140)
60. ancre, neiz et rivage. See Hirn, Sacred Shrine, pp. 456-7.
62. flors de l'umain liroage. Mary is fias or laus humani generis.
63-4. li colons . .. A symbol derived from the description of the
Deluge (Gen. viii. 10-11). Cf. also-
Columbe ke returnas
A la nef e portas
A ceus ke furent enclos
Sygne de lur repos,
Braunche en sa verdour.
(Bozon, Prire li la Vierge, see Romania, XIII, 1884, p. 509)
72. Lune sanz lueur transitoire. Mary is luna indeficiens (Index
Mat"anus). Cf.-
Ha! lune tres clere,
Au vray soleil mere,
Qui luit nuit et jour.
( 12483, fol. 116, ed. Lngfors, Not. et extr., XXXIX, 2,
Paris, 1916, pp. 581-4)
X,73-4. sale, chambre et cortine ... With the conception, Mary's
womb became a room (aula regalis) in which Gad lived until the
74-6. Liz et trones au roi de gloire . .. For references to Mary as
lectulus Dei and lectus Christi see Index Marianus. The symboI
representing Mary as a throne is derived from 3 Kings x. 18: - Fecit
etiam rex Salomon thl'onum de ebore grandem et vestivit eum aura
fulvo nimis.l> Analecta Hymnica, III, pp. 27-9, contains a long poem
Sancta Maria, indulgentia peccatorum,
veniae gremium,
pacis asylum.
(Mone, II, p. 260)
tors d'ajutoire. This is probably the turris fortitudinis of Ps. lx. 4;
cf. also Ps. cxxi. 7, referred to above. The readings de victoire, de
vittoire for d'ajutoire are easily aecounted for as mere seribal errors.
Tobler-Lommatzseh, s.v. ajutoire, quotes a similar case (et la vitoire
for et l'ajutoire).
79-80. Platans, olive, fleurs d'espine, Cyprs et palme de victoire.
Ecclus. xxiv. 17-19: - )Quasi cedrus exaltata sum in Libano et quasi
cypressus in monte Sion: quasi palma exaltata sum in Cades et
quasi plantatio rosae in Jericho: quasi oliva speciosa in campis et
quasi platanus exaltata sum juxta aquam in plateis.ll It is evident
by Konrad of Haimburg entitled Thronus Beatae Mariae, which
interprets aH the parts of the throne as special symbols of the Vir-
gin. Another long poem of this kind, entitled Thronus Salomonis,
occurs in Vol. XXXIII, pp. 323-4.
D'or esmerei, de blanc yvoire. The gold in the throne is a symbol
of Mary's charity and the ivory of her chastity, as seen from this
sequence by Adam of S. Victor-
Tu thronus es Salomonis,
cui nullus par in thronis
arte 'leI materia;
ebur candens castitatis,
aururn fulvum charitatis
praesignant mysteria.
(Anal. Hymn., LIV, p. 384)
78. Maisons de pais. A possible parallel for this line is Ps. cxxi. 7.
On the other hand, Mary's womb was a room ,vhere Christ, the
princeps pacis, stayed a while; it became, thus, a house of peace. Cf. -
Templum pacis es effecta ob virtutum meritum.
(Mone, Lat. Hymnen, II, p. 80)
Les neuf joies Nostre Dame
B 18,4
Inest palma triumphatrix
contra hostes hominis,
balsamus salutis.
(Anal. Hymn., III, p. 31)
XI,81-4. la verge de fumee D'aromat remis en ardure. Canto iii. 6.
85-6. Vigne de noble fruit chargee Banz humainne cultiv6re. For
the variants comblee and plantee see p. 36. For this symbol, cf.-
Vinea quondam sterilis
Deo cuItore fertilis
vitem fecundam pullulat
fundentem cunctis pocula.
(Anal. Hymn., V, p. 47)
from the passage quoted that the reading plantains (see crit. app.) is
an error for platans.
fleurs d'espine. Cf. -
Flos de spinis, spina carena.
(Adam of S. Victor, Anal. Hymn., LIV, p. 383, and PatraI. Lat.,
CXCVI, cols. 1501-2)
The commentator of Patrol. Lat. (loc.cit.) brings this Hne of Adam
S. Victor's into connection with Gen. iii. 17-18: Maledicta terra in
opere tuo: in laboribus comedes ex ea cunctis diebus vitae tuae.
Spinas et tribulos germinabit tibi, et comedes herbam terrae The
comment runs thus: - Quocirca nomine spinarum, humana propago
maledicto obnoxia et peccatis obstricta, hic non absurde accipi-
tur.... Quoniam igitur beata Virgo ex progenitoribus peccato, et
maledictioni primorum parentumsubjectis est exorta, immunis tamen
peccati et maledictionis, recte his dicitur flos de spinis spina carens."
Cyprs et palme de victoire. In a long poem entitled Hortulus
Beatae Virginis Mariae, Konrad of Haimburg writes-
lllic cedrus et cypressus
Virginis sublimitas
B 13,4 TAU N 0 F. Mus TAN 0 J A 70
73 B 73.
XV, 113. Citeiz cloze a tours rnacezes. A reminiseence of 1
Macch. i. 35.
114. Li maulz . .. les maulz. A pun based on the homophony of
two words of different etymology and significance (L. malleus and
117. la raansons des vices. Through her corn-passion (see note
on line 194), Mary became Co-redemptress of the fallen world.
118-120. Li repos. . . purgatoires. .. confors... The Virgin is
quies cordis, purgatrix criminum, solamen afflictorum (reis et miseris,
saeculi, animarum .mundi), solatrix tribulatorum (Index Marianus).
109. SOtiVratnne. This word rhymes with souverainne 105 and
is therefore to be looked upon with sorne suspicion. Perhaps the
original had sereine. See crit. apparatus. Cf., however, stanzas XXIII
-XXIV, in which S8S oeeurs twiee in rhyme (180, 186), as does
voies (I79, 187), though this may be a slightly different case, for
the author perhaps regarded totes voies and voies as different wards.
The reading totes voies, it is also to be remembered, occurs only in
one manuscript (C).
109-112. En cui la deteiz souvrainne ... In whieh the sovereign
Deity, in order to save us from damnation, concealed his light and
his own ray[s], just as the sun hides its light in a cloud.l) As the
sun is often hidden in clouds, so the true light of the world, Christ,
was once hidden in the womb of his mother, where he took on human
form and nature. This made it possible for him to save mankind by
his death on the cross. This simile is the more natural beeause, in
the Bible, God often appears in a cloud (see, e. g., Exod. xvi. 10 and
xxxiv. 5, and Matt. xvii. 5). S. Augustine's ''lords, quoted by the
Index Marianus, that the Virgin is mubes media inter solem et
terraffil), have reference to a different aspect in her relation ta God,
viz. her rle as the mediatrix between the world and Christ. - The
reading of K L N, si com le soleil en la lune, represents another sym-
bol of the Virgin. Cf. - lima [i. e., luna] transfusa in se solari lumine
noctem ilIuminat, tu virtutum a Deo tibi inditarum magnificis
exemplis ad imitationem tui nos provocas sicque nostram noctem
illuminas (quoted by Salzer, p. 381). Cf. also Anal. Hymn., V, p. 53.
87. violete non violee. Salzer, p. 228, has a quotation whieh reads,
~ t u felix anima ... siquidem ornatur ... violis virginitatis.l)
88. cortilz touz enceinz a closture: the hortus conclusus of Canto
iv. 12. Cf. Renel. C 219 (Tobler-Lomm., II, S3
, s.v. closture).
XII, 89-93. A saint Jehan fu demoutree. Here the Virgin is
exalted to the rank of Queen of Heaven. See Rev. xii. 1.
95. touz eres. The reading of C is nos serez. Nos is probably and
serez eertainly wrong.
essaucee. For this rhyme, see p.36.
XIII, 97-8. Tu iez chatiaux, roche hautainne, Qui ne crient ost
ne sorvenue. This is the Tower of David (Ps. lx. 1-4), applied to the
Shulamite of the Cantieles (iv. 4 and vii. 4). It was through the Can-
tieles, the source of sO many Marian symbols, that the idea of turris
David was applied to the Virgin and beeame a symbol of her
strength and inviolable chastity.
99-100. li puis et la fontainne Dont notre vie est soutenue. The
Virgin, like the Shulamite, is l)fons hortorum, puteus aquarum viven-
tium (Cant. iv. 15).
101. de cui alainne = de l'haleine de qui. Cf. L. Foulet, Petite
syntaxe de l'ancien franais, 3rd ed. (Les classiques franais du moyen
ge, 2
srie, Paris, 1930), 252.
103. Aube. From Canto vi. 9.
104. Turtre. Cf. Canto vi. 8. The turtle-dove of the Bestiary shows
great affection for, and fidelity to, its mate. Teinture in P must be
a mere scribal error.
XIV, 105-6. Tu iez rone souverainne ... This is Mary as Queen
of Heaven (regina coelorum).
107. estoile promerainne (premerainne). Cf.: - I)Stella solem dedit:
virgo Deum hominem absque homine (S. Eleutherius Tornacensis,
Sermo de Natali Domini, Patrol. Lat., LXV, col. 94). Cf. also: -
L'esteile dont Ii soleuz naistl) (Les joies Nostre Dame, by Guillaume
le Clerc, ed. Reinsch, Ztschr. f. rom. Phil., III, 1879, pp. 200-31; -
line 913). - clere et saine (1): the Virgin is stella praeclara (Anal.
Hymn., VII, p. 113). Clere et saine is a clich.
XVI, l'aigles. Cf. Ps. cii. 5. The eagle as a symbol of the
Virgin is rare. Salzer, p. 292, quotes only one Latin passage where
Mary is symbolised by the eagle, but there is no reference to its
youth being renewed (Maria aquila quoniam aquila regina volucrum
et Maria regina angelorum ...j. - The motif of the eagle renewing
its youth appears in medieval bestiaries and was used, among others,
by Gautier de Coinci in his Msere d'omme et de fame, lines 1706 ff.,
ed. Lngfors, j)Miracles de Gautier de Coinci (Annales Academiae
Scientiarum Fennicae, B XXXIV, Helsinki, 1937).
li fenisces. There are several variants of the myth of the phoenix;
that to which an allusion is made in Les neuf joies Nostre Dame is
thus summarised in the New English Dictionary (s.v. Phoenix) -
Phoenix, a mythical bird, of gorgeous plumage, fabled to be the
only one of its kind, and to live five or six hundred years in the
Arabian desert, after which it burnt itself to ashes on a funeral pile
of aromatic twigs ignited by the sun and fanned by its own wings,
but only to emerge from its ashes with renewed youth, to live through
another cycle of years
For the use of the myth of the phoenix in the symbolism of the
Christian Church, see Salzer, pp. 60-63, and as a symbol of the Blessed
Virgin Mary, ibid., p. 545. In medieval bestiaries the phoenix, like
the eagle, is a symbol of Christ. The reading in L 0 (P), li sengle
fenices, is based on the well-known epithet of the phoenix (avis
unica phoenix).
124. de son bec reprent (resplent) jovente. This variant in K A goes
back to the bestiary account of the eagle, according to which the bill
of the bird plays a part in the process of renewing its youth. See,
e. g., Lngfors, Miracles de Gautier de Coinci (vide supra), p. xxix.
125. Larrie de fleurs. - As remarked by Hirn, The Sacred Shrine,
p. 462, the Virgin is not only a hortus inclusus; she is also the free
meadow full of wild flowers.
Li rais (F) is evidentlyan error for larris.
celle d'espices. Mary is cella pigmentaria in Adam of S. Victor's
sequence on the assumption of the Virgin -
o Maria, paradisus,
voluptatis hortulus
plenus cunctis bonis.
Porta clausa, fons hortorum,
cella custos unguentorum,
cella pigmentaria.
(Quoted from Patrol. Lat., CXCVI, col.
1502; also in Anal. Hymn., LIV, p. 383)
75 Les neuf joies Nostre Dame
In a note on this passage (Patrol. Lat., lac. cit.) this symbol is inter-
preted in the following way: - )Pigmentum dicitur ex diver-
sis speciebus aromaticis, suavis et odorifera. Hieronymus: Denique
et hi quibus intellectus herbarum est pigmentoruIllque peritia, ferunt
quaedam esse pigmenta, quorum si odorem coeperint nonnulla ani-
malia continuo intereunt. Alia vero eodem odore recreantur vitamque ,
recipiunt. Unde et quodvis unguentum nomine pigmenti
hic vero aromata, pigmenta, unguenta, et caetera id genus, spirita-
liter accipiuntur pro virtutibus animi suum odorem late dispergenti-
bus, sicut in Canticis legimus, Meliora sunt ubera tua vino, fragran-
tia unguentis optimis' (Cant. i. 1-2). Et rursum: 'Curremus in odore
unguentorum tuorum' (Cant. i. 3)))
126. Baumes, kanele, encens et mente. Ecclus. xxiv. 20-21: -
Sicut cinnamomum et balsamum aromatizans odorem dedi: quasi
myrrha electa dedi suavitatem odoris; et quasi storax et galbanus
et ungula et gutta, et quasi Libanus non incisus vaporavi habitatio-
nem meam, et quasi balsamum non mistum odor meus.')
127. Notre paradix de delices. This is the hortus conclusus of the
Canticles (iv. 12). S. Bernard, in Ad B. Mariam Sermo Panegyricus,
writes: ,}Hortus deliciarum nobis est sacratissima tuus uterus, 0 Maria,
quia ex eo multiplices gaudii flores colligimus, quotiens mente recoli-
mus quam magna multitudo dulcedinis toti orbi inde affulsitl) (Patrol.
Lat., CLXXXIV, col. 1011). Anal. Hymn., III, pp. 30-32, contains
a long acrostic poem by a fourteenth-century poet, Konrad of Haim-
burg, entitled Hortulus Beatae Virginis Mariae. The poem begins -
B 73., TAU NO F. Mus TAN 0 J A 74
TAU N 0 F. Mus TAN 0 J A B 73,. B 73,4 Les neuf joies Nostre Dame 77
128. Notre esperance. Of., for example: - "Tu cum proIe pia spes
nostra, virgo Maria>} (Anal. Hymn., V, p. 52).
XVII, 129. Dame de la haute citei. Adam of S. Victor, in his se-
quence on the assumption of the Virgin, writes-
o Maria, stella maris,
dignitate singularis,
super omnes ordinaris
ordines coelestium.
In supremo sita poli,
nos commenda tuae proH
ne terrores sive doli
nos supplantent hostium.
(Anal. Hymn., LIV, p. 384)
130. A cui tuit portent reverance. Of. -
Quem terra, pontus, aethera
colunt, adorant, praedicant.
(Anal. Hymn., II, p. 38)
135-6. Balaiz . .. Cribles. These two symbols of the Virgin,
derived from utensils belonging to everyday life, occur only in the
present poem. - The variant tribles (A GN) for cribles is easily ac-
counted for not only by the frequent confusion of c and t but also
by the association between balais 'broom' and trible (truble) 'fork' or
'shovel'. Godefroy, s. v. truble, quotes the following passage: - ~ } s
hommes de Noron sont tenus aidier a curer et nestier la salle du dit du
Bur, a ballay et a truble defferrey)} (Coust. de Bur, after L. Delisle,
Agrie. en Norm. au moyen ge, p. 83).
XVIII, 137. Temples de sainte Trinitei. Cf.-
Maria candens lilium,
Trinitatis cella.
(Anal. Hymn., 1, p. 51)
138. Terre empreignie sanz sernance. In his sequence on the as-
sumption of the Virgin, Adam of S. Victor writes -
Tu convallis humilis,
terra non arabilis,
quae fructum parturiit;
fIos campi, convallium,
singulare lilium,
Ohristus ex te prodiit.
(Quoted from Patrol. Lat., CXCVI, col. 1499, also in Anal. Hymn.,
LIV, p. 383)
A note on this passage (Patral. Lat., lac. cit.) interprets this sym-
bol of the Virgin in the following way:. - [Flos campi (= Christ)] ex
virgine prodiit tanquam terra non arabili, quemadmodum praecedens
habet versus, quoniam sieut id supra naturam est quod terra non
sulcata aratro et nullo suseepto semine proferat fructum, ita et id
quod virgo incognita viro pariat filium
140. aumaires de sapence. Of.: - }}Reconditi sunt apud te thesauri
indeficientes veritatis et gratiae, pacis et misericordiae, salutis et
sapientiae .. (Fatml. Lat., CCXI, col. 745" ).
141. ysopes d'umilitei. Et disputavit super lignis, a cedro quae
est in Libano usque ad hyssopum quae egreditur de pariete (3 Kings
iv. 33). Hyssop stands as the type of a lowly plant.
142. li cedres. Cf. note on the preceding Hne. The cedar and the
hyssop are often mentioned side by side to emphasize the contrast
between these symbols of grandeur and lowliness. The variant ceptres
in AGhas reference to another symbol of the Virgin, sceptrum regis
gloriae. See, e.g., Anal. Hymn., II, p. 153.
144. la roze de paciance. The Virgin is rosa patientiae to Adam
of S. Victor (Anal. Hymn., LIV, p. 383).
XIX, 145. Maudite fu fame et blamee . .. Honorius Augustodu-
nensis writes: - >}Lex omnes virgines maledictioni addixerat, sicut
scriptum est: Maledictus qui non fert fructum in Israel. Hanc maledic-
tionem Deus a virginibus per Mariam virginem detersit, dum ipse
auctor benedictionis ab intemerato utero ut sponsus de thalamo
processit. Steriles ab bac maledictione absolvit, dum Baptistam suum
78 TAU N 0 F. Mus TAN 0 J A B 73,.
B 73,. Les neuf joies Nostre Dame 79
Johannem de sterili utero nasci voluit (Speculum Ecclesiae, in Patrol.
Lat., CLXXII, col. 904).
148-50. Mary remained a virgin after giving birth to Jesus, just
as she had been a virgin ante partum and in partu,. this is the doctrine
of Mary's perpetuaI virginity. Cf. -
Jugum spernens nuptiarum
Deo vovit coelibatum.
(Anal. Hymn., V, p. 84)
151. Ce fu la premiere voee. Cf. -
Tu votum virginale
Dea vovisti prima.
(Anal. Hymn., VIII, p. 68)
XX, 159. Eva la bestornee. The antithesis Eva-Ave was very
popular in the Middle Ages. The fact that Ave, the first ward of the
angelic salutation, is Eva spelt backwards was, ta the medieval man,
of great symbolic significance because it indicated, with remarkable
precision, the position of the Virgin in relation ta our first mother.
The antithesis occurs, for example, in the famous hymn Ave Maris
Stella -
Ave, maris stella,
Dei mater alma
atque semper virgo,
felix coeli porta.
Sumens illud Ave
Gabrielis ore
funda nos in pace
mutans nomen Evae.
(Anal. Hymn., II, p. 39, and LI, p. 140)
160. Et de voiz et d'entendement = both by name (literally) and
by interpretation.
XXI, 161-4. Ne porroie en nule meniere ... Cf.-
Sic est densa, sic immensa
laudis tuae copia
ut profunda et facunda
succumbant ingenia.
(Bernardus Morlanensis, Mariale, in Anal. Hymn., L, p. 443)
XXIII, 173-6. Lors fus ausi com la verriere . .. This beautiful
allegory of Mary's virginity appears in the theological writings of the
early ninth century, but in poetry it can be traced back to even
earlier times. In the seventh century, Venantius Fortunatus compared
the Virgin to a church with transparent windows -
Lumine plena micans, imitata est aula Mariam.
ma utero lucem clausit et ista diem.
(De Leontio Episcopo, Patrol. Lat., LXXXVIII, col. 79)
Alexander Neckam wrote in the thirteenth century-
Intrat vitrum radius
et non violatur
vitrum: sic castissima
verbo fecundatur.
(Anal. Hymn., XLVIII, p. 263)
A passage with striking verbal resemblance to that of Les neuf
joies Nostre Dame (to the A-text in particular) occurs in a mystery-
play of the fifteenth century -
Mais tout ainssy com la verriere
Du soleil qui demeure entiere
Quand son ray par my oultre passe,
Qui ne la brise ne ne quasse,
Ainssy demoura ton corps sains.!
For a full discussion of this symbol, see Hirn, The Sacred Shrine,
pp. 343-5, and Neuphilologische Mitteilungen, XXIX, 1928, pp. 33-4.
1 Rational ou Manuel des dilJins offices de Guillaume Durand, vque de
Mende au treizime sicle, traduit par Ch. Barthlemy, l, Paris, 1851i. The
passage occurs on p. 311; Barthlemy quotes it from JubinaI, Mystres indits
du xpe sicle, II, p. 49.
XXV, 193. La seite. For seite L reads sisme and P sime. Gode-
froy (s. v. setme) gives sisme and sime only in the sense 'seventh'.
Sisme (sime) in the sense 'sixth' occurs in Anglo-Norman texts. Thus,
for example, MS. B of the Voyage of S. Brandan (cd. E. G. R. Waters,
Oxford, 1928) reads sistme 'sixth', and sime 'sixth' occurs in the
AN. Boeve de Haumtone (ed. H. Suchier, Bibl. Normannica, VII,
Halle, 1899). The spelling sisme 'sixth' occurs in the table of
contents to John Gower's Mirour de Comme (ed. G. C. )facaulay,
Oxford, 1899).
194. compassion. According to the doctrine of the Catholic Church,
the suffering of Christ on the cross was accompanied by the suffering
of his mother. His was the passion, hers the Corn-Passion (The
Mary Book, assembled by F. J. Sheed, London, 1950, p. 184).
196. Quant revesqui comme lyon. In the Victorine sequence De
Resurrectione Domini the following passage occurs _
XXIII, 177, 179. La premiere fu de tes joies . .. La seconde tu
totes voies. See critical apparatus. The large variety of readings for
these two lines is doubtless due to a confusion concerning the rhym'-
words. The reading of G seems plausible although for line 177 it is
supported only by two other (not very good) manuscripts and for
line 179 by none. Yet the present writer is inclined to look upon totes
voies (179) as the reading of the original; anyway, an alteration like
totes uoies >de tes ioies can easily be accounted for as a scribal slip,
particularly as the meaning of totes voies does not go very weIl with
the context. Totes voies was evidently used as a rhyme-word for want
of anything better.
180. ses. This is used twice in the same rhyme-unit (lines 180
and 186). Cf. also totes voies 179 : longues voies 187 which however
, , ,
is probably a slightly different case, and s01werainne 105 : sou-
vrainne 109. See note 109.
184. sens doleur de li g8Z. Mary, unlike aIl other women, had no
pains when she gave birth to her son. See Hirn, The Sacred Shrine,
186. scs. See note 180.
Les neuf joies NostI'e Dame B 73.
Sic de Juda leo fortis
fractis portis dirae mortis
die surgit tertia.
Rugiente voee patris,
ad supernae sinum matris
tot revexit spolia.
(Quoted from R. C. Treneh, Sacred Latin Poetry, 3rd ed., London,
1874, p. 171)
As implied by Trench's interpretation (op. cit., pp. 70 and 171-2),
Christ is here the lion of the Bestiary: - I)The legend, frequent in the
Middle Ages, and indeed already alluded to by Origen (Hom. xvii on
Gen. xlix. 9), that the lion's whelps were born dead, and first roused
to life on the third day by the roar of their sire, was often contempla-
ted as a natural type of the resurrection.\)
200. See critical apparatus. Is this line ta be read Fist el tronc
devision or Sist el trone de vision? Could Fist el tronc devision mean
'shares the throne'?
XXVI, 202-3. par sa sainte anoncion Dou saint Esperit tus esprise.
The idea expressed in these lines has reference to the first Annun-
ciation of the Virgin, before the Nativity, but the place given to this
. joy in the present list suggests that, originally at any rate, the author
was thinking of Mary's second Annunciation, that preceding her As-
207. Dame, cui toz li mondes prise. From Luke i. 48.
212. Les .ix. ordres. The nine orders of angels. See, e. g., New
English Dictionary, s. v. order (sb.) 5. Cf. also -
Medieval theology was very largely concerned with an attempt to
establish the numerical relationship of the supramundane, ecclesias-
tical, and temporal worlds. One chain of reasoningled to the establish-
ment of the nine orders of angels, and it would be difficult to surpass
the beauty and justness of this numerical assignment whereby the
theological position of the angelic host is precisely defined. For the
angelic perfection is simultaneously absolute and relative (V. li.
Hopper, Medieval Number Symbolism, in Columbia Univ. Studies
in Eng. and Camp. Lit., No. 132. New York 1938, p. 105).
B 73,.
The symbols listed are those of the Virgin unless marked Christ in round
brackets. For the convenience of those who use this index sorne of the markedly
eastern spellings are slightly mormalised*. Most of the symbols are explained
in the Notes on pp. 61-81.
Les neuf joies Nostre Dame 83
ysopes 141.
yvoire 76.
verge seche et florie 11.
de fumee 81.
verriere 173-6.
vierge 4, 5.
vigne 85.
violete 87.
temples de sainte Trinit 137.
terre 17, 20.
* empreignie sanz semence 138.
toison arousee 43.
tors d'ajutoire 78.
tribles A GN 136.
trones 74-6.
turtre 104.
sale 73.
saluz de notre essence 134.
sanz per 65.
Saray 42.
seule (adj.) 65.
solaus 71.
(Christ) 112.
suers 9.
repos 118.
rivage 60.
roche 97.
rone de piti 1.
souverainne 105.
rose de pacence 144.
neiz (n a vis) 60.
nue 112.
raansons des vices 117.
Rachel 41.
recovriers de notre saisine 77.
regina coelorum 90-3, 105, 129.
remedes de mort 12.
palme de victoire 80.
paradis de delices 127.
pierre (Christ) 31.
platans 79.
pors (p 0 r tus) 22.
porte close 26.
pucele pure et monde 25.
puis (p u te us) 99.
purgatoires 119.
olive 79.
onde 17, 2t.
or 76.
ordres de porveance J 142.
maisons de pais 78.
matiere de notre faconde 23.
maulz (m a Il eus) 114.
mente 126.
mere 4, 6.
liz (1 e c tus) 74.
lumiere de verit 139.
lune sam lueur transitoire 72.
l yon (Christ) 196.
Hester 13.
eschiele ordenee 3?
esperance 128.
espouse 9.
estoile de la mer 59.
clere et saine 11O?
premerainne 107.
sour montainne F 107.
Esther 13.
Eva la bestornee 159.
fenices (p h 0 e n i x) 123.
fille 4, 6.
fins de notre ruyne 69.
firmamenz 10t.
fleurs d'espine ?9.
de l'umain linage 62.
fleuve de providence K 142.
fonde 3t.
fontainne 99.
fruit (Christ) 5, 85.
jaians de double sustance (Christ) 30.
jame (gemma) 75.
Judith 14.
kanele 126.
ivoire 76.
larris de fleurs 125.
lis (1 il i u m) 143.
aiglentier A ?9.
aigles 123.
amie 9, 0 104.
ancre 60.
arche d'aliance 26.
argumens de notre creance 24.
atente 128.
aube 103.
aumaires de sapence 140.
balais 135.
baumes (b ais a m u m) 126.
bers de haut parage (Christ) 50.
bouchons (buisson) Synay 44.
cedres 142.
celle d'espices 125.
ceptres A G 142.
chambre 48, 73.
chatiaux 97.
ciels 17, 19.
citez close 113.
coulons sanz amer 63.
per Q63.
dame de la haute cit 129.
confors 120.
cortils enceins a c10sture 88.
cortine 73.
cribles 136.
cyprs 80.
encens 126.
The critical apparatus and Appendix l have been considet'ed in the glos-
sary, but not Appendix II because of the muddled state of tlle texts il
celiers d'espices E G I L 125, 6tore-
house or -room for spices.
celle d'espices 125, store-house or -room
for 6pices (ceUa pigmentaria).
baasse 168, serpant-maid, hundmaid
baumes 126, balm, balsam.
bers 50, man (of distinguished family).
beste 39, the Beast of the Apocalypse.
bestornee 159, repersed.
biau beautifully.
biens A K 0 162, good qualilies, pir-
bouchons bush. Littr, S.P. bou-
chon 2, quotes this line of Le6 neuf
joies as the earliest instance of th,
argumens foundation.
armarie, see aumaires.
arme, 120, 195, 205 (armes, pl. 53),
pariant of ame, soul.
arouzee moistened.
atente 128, that on which one relies.
Tobler-Lommatzsch gipes only
quotation for this meaning: N'il n'a
fiance que en lui, Quar c'est
s'atante e son refui.
aube 103, dawn.
aumaires HO (armarie Pl. stol'e,
ausint 0 P 113, pariant of aussi.
autel A E 1 LN 0 P 19/, the same.
avisun N 200, pision. See vision.
ay L aid.
acesmee L (ascemee Pl, decorated
or prepared.
acline (s' -) A EH IL 65 (acline N),
bow(sl. pay(s) homage.
aclosture A E 88, enclosure.
aclosure 1 88, enclosure.
acravente crushes, smashes.
acroire Q 70, to beliepe.
adevine I 19, I assume or conjecture
(Tobler-Lommatzsch, l, 144).
adonc L 113, alors.
affiere 163, it would be fit [to say more
about them].
afframer 0 P 51, dialectal pariant,
with metathesis, of enfermer, 'to
take prisoner'.
aigles (1' -) 123, eagle. For pariant
forms (li aygle) see crit. app.
ajutoire 18, succour.
alainne 101, breath.
alumin, see enluminee.
amainne (inf. amener) 103, brings.
ameir 63, gall, rancour.
amorS (pl.) lope.
andine (s' -) 65, pay(s) homage.
anemis 29, enemies.
antive 56, ancient. See note 06.
aornee A 91, 0 decorated.
aquitei 133, delipered.
arche d'aliance 26, Ark of the New
arescoundue (est -) N Q 110 is
probably a scrwal error as a result
of a rescoundue haping been written
and rMId as one wOl". See crit. app.
Holofernes, see lofernes.
J ehan, saint (Joen L, Johan MN 0 P)
89, S. John the Baptist.
Judit (C K S, Judic A G L, Judith
E F H M N 0 P Q, Judich l, Ju-
diht J) H, Judith.
Marie (Mariee H) 1, Virgin Mary.
Olofernes (C K M P S, Oloferne E G
I J, Olofernus S, Holofernes A N,
Holoferne Q, Olifernes 0, Olipher-
nes H, Oliferne L, Olinfernal [in
margin Elifurne] F), 16, Holofernes
in the Book of Judith.
Rachel (Racher J) Rachel, the
younger daughter of Laban.
Renty (Le renom de -; in the rubric
of Q), a commune in the Department
of the Pas-de-Calais. See p. 36.
Sarray (A C l, Sarra G Q, Saray
E H J K N 0 P, Sara F M, Sa-
rahy L) Sarai, Abram's wife.
Symeon, saint (Simeon I, Semyon F,
Symion J) 191, Simeon (Luke v.)
Synay (Syna M, Sinay F G K L N Q,
Signay l) H, Sinai.
Admon, see Asmon.
Adonay (Adona F M) one of
the names gipen in the Old Testa-
ment to the Deity; Jehopah, Lord.
Asmon (A E, Admon C, Agmen L,
Hasmon l, Aman G M N P Q,
Amen H K, Hamon F, Haamans
0, Amal S, Amay J) 15, Haman
in the Book of Esther.
Boioun (= Bojoun?), Nich. (in the
colophon preceding N), Nicholas
Elyzabeth (C E, Elysabeth A, Elisa-
beth JO, Elizabeth G I K P, Elisa-
bet N, Elisabez H, Helizabeth F,
Helysabez L) 180, mother of S. John
the Baptist.
Ester, see Hester.
Eva 159, Epe.
Golie (C G K MN 0 Q, Goliee H,
Goulie L, Galie J, Golias El,
Goliad P, Goulias A F) 32, Goliath.
Haamans, Hamon, Hasmon, see
Hester (Ester A J L S) 13, Esther.
TAU M 0 F. Mus TAN 0 1 .l
Les neuf joies Nostre Dame
charra (Jamais ne - ta memoire) 68,
you will neper cease to be remembered.
chartre 56, prison.
chaut (pou li -; from chaloir) 116, it
matters little to him.
cheitiz 64 (chetives 55), prisoners.
closture 88, enclosure.
colons 63, dQ()e.
comblee A 85, full of.
compere 16, pays for.
concion (sa -) H 198, probably an
error for s'acencion.
consistoire 66, (concitoire A), eonsis-
concitoire A 66, see consistoire.
cortilz 88, garden.
cortine 73, curtain.
couverture (Li soleux fu ta -) 92,
you were elothed with the sun.
cribles 136 (cribre M, crubles J),
siefJe. See note 136.
cribre, see cribles.
crubles, see cribles.
cultivere 86, cultillator.
cyprine U 85, see p. 89, n. 3.
darreain 211, last. See also derrenier.
dechay 40, perished.
defulee 0 35, trampled under foot.
demainne 111, proper, own.
demoutree 89, shawn.
depors EH 120, joy, pleasure.
derrenier K 211, last. See also dar-
deseure G 84, abope.
devise G 201, [1] tell.
devise 201, G 203 (divise F 201), way,
manner; J 209, will.
devision 200, dipision. See note 200.
diti F (rubric) , poem.
divise, see devise.
diz CH Q (rubric), poem (often used
B 73,4
HL reference to a shorter poem of
instruct'e, moralising, or satirical
doint 213, 3 sg.pres.subj. of donner,
[he] give.
droite 42, legitimate. See note 42.
droiture (a -) 94, directly.
effreneir (for enfrener?) 51, ta subdue.
empreignie 138, made fertile.
enceinz 88, shut up [in].
encellance 90 (escilence A), excellence.
encoumence (rubric), begins.
enferner, sec enfrener.
enframeir 51, to take prisoner. See
note 51.
enfrener E 51 (enferner 1), subdue.
enluminee 33 (eslumin MO, alumin
N), enlightened.
entendement 160, interpretation.
enombra (s' -) K 46, incarnated him-
self, took on human jorm. enoumbree
Q 45, shadowed. Cf. ombra.
enseintee 45, enceinte.
entameir 49, to damage.
entcrinement F L 0 150, entirely.
envay 38, assailed.
ere 10, was [L. erat]; eres 95, were
[L. eras]; ert 192, will be [L. erit].
eschiele 37, armed troop, army.
escilence, see encellance.
esmerei 76, pure.
essaucee 95, exalted.
espandue 102, spread.
espoantee 147, frightened.
essence 134, being, existence.
est AG 116, it matten.
eutime 201, eighth.
extance J 134, existence.
faconde 23, eloquence.
B 73,4
fel L 51, cruel, perjidious.
fel N 0 63, gallo
fenisces 123, phoenix.
feture A 96, creatures.
fiere 169. This adj. seems to have here
a meaning approaching that which
it has in modo F. ('proud'). See
Godefroy IX, p. 6n

figures M (rubric) , symbols.

fleurs d'espine 79, wild rose.
fonde 31, sling (for throwing stones).
franchise 209, nobility oj character,
frenaige J 52, subjugation. Not re-
carded by Godefroy nor Tobler-Lom-
gez (de li -) 184, you gave birth to
hardement 152, courage.
hautainne 97, high.
jaians 30, giant.
jame 75, preeious stone.
jovente 124, youth.
juse 211, judgment.
kanele 126, cinnaman.
lancee 0 194, pierced.
larriz 125, uneuivated land, meadow.
liance J M 26, alliance, covenant.
lices 115, pl., precincts.
lueur 72, light.
lusur P 72, light.
lyx 143, lily.
macezes 113 (marcices F G L), mas-
sive. See
mail, see maulz.
maint EH 213, J sg. pres. subj. of
mener, [he] lead.
mainz 175, lesll.
mansion 212, dwelling.
mareices, see macezes.
masse (a-) 170,Q 166, (en-) 1170,
matiere 23, subjeet-matter.
maulz 114 (mail M), hammer [L. mal-
maulz 114, pl., evils [L. maIos].
meniere 161, variant oj maniere.
mente 126, mint.
mestoit K 54, for mettoit.
miere M 25, pure.
mistere 8, hidden meaning.
monde 21, removes (dirt).
monde 25, pure, chaste.
nage 0 60, navigation, sea-voyage.
namer 0 P 53, to take as gage, ta
distmin. See note 53.
nanter L 53, to take as gage, to distrain.
See note 53.
neiz 60, ship.
nete E F H 1 25, pure.
noblois 66, masc. sg.,nobles.
noncioD 210, annunciatian.
ombra (inf. ombrer) 1i6. See note.
ombrag'l 56, dark.
ordenee 37, arranged jor battle.
ordres J 142, order, system; ordres 212,
pl., arders of angels.
ordures 21, pl., dirt.
panre 51l, variant of prendre.
parage 50, lineage.
paration (la -) G 202. Not in Godefroy.
Perhaps an error for l'aparition 'an-
nunciation' .
peoie J 176, breaks.
peir 65, equal.
pere (se -) 14, adorns herselj.
plantes 35, soles.
TAU N 0 F. Mus TAN 0 J A 88
platans 79, plane-tree.
poaille Q 22. The scribe, perhaps, had
in mind apoial, 'a prop' (Tobler-
Lommatzsch, 1, 455. T.-L. also
records one instance of apoiele).
porveance J 142, providence.
preminence L P 142, pre-eminence.
prime Q 27, first.
prins 0 99, commencement.
promisces 121, variant of premices
(primices), lirst-fruits.
promerainne 107, variant of pre-
puint 1 79, variant of point.
puis 99, weil.
quarte (lem.) 185, fourth.
quasse 176, breaks.
que (qu'il... ne) 176, without (break-
quinte (fem.) 190, fifth.
quitemant J 148, freely, spontaneously.
rais (li -) F 125, error for larris.
raiz 174, ray.
ramons U 135, broom.
reclameir 57, to implore the help 0/.
recondue 110, hidden.
recovriers 77, that by which one
recovers 01' regains.
reges (me -) Q 166 (, line
165), 1 confess.
rels M 135, remission.
renom Q(rubric), ? See p. 36.
rente 122, rent (in the feudal sense:
landed 01' other property yielding a
certain return to the owner).
reponue (inf. repondre) K 110, hidden.
ressordue EH 1 110, renewed (?).
But this meaning does not fit the
context (line H1) gery weil.
revesqui-f 96, rose trom the dead-.
B 73,.
saisine 77, seisin, possession.
seite (lem.) 193, sixth.
sengle L 0 P 123, single, without
sente L 122, an error for rente.
siecles A 205 (siegles J 207, ciecle K),
sisme L 193 (sime P), sixth. See
note 193.
soille 0 86, stain, blemish.
sorhaucee L 95, elevated, exalted.
sorvenue 98, attack.
sustance 28, substance. See note 28.
teinture P 104. See note on line 104.
tenser ]V Q 53, harass.
tente P 122, an error for rente.
trez 188, tributes.
triblee 35, crushed; (souz tes piez -)
A 93, under your feet.
tribles A G]v 136, fork with three
prongs, 01' shopel. See note on
line 136.
unt (par -) ]V 174, through which
[L. unde].
usage K 54, apailable means (7).
velO 51 (veil Pl, OF. fel or vil?
vente 116, blows.
verge 11, rod; 81, pillaI' (Gant. iii. 6:
virgula fumi, pillaI' of smoke).
vergete L 0 P 81, dim. of verge
(see preceding entry).
vergonde 29, brings to shame.
vision HOP 200, used in reference
to the Regelation of S. John (?).
voies (totes -) 179, modo F. toutefois.
voire (lem.) 70, truth.
voiz 160, nome.
wemente 0 118, lamentation.
ysopes 141, hys,op.
When the present volume was already in page proofs, the editor
learnt of an eighteenth-century transcript of the burnt Turin MS.
L. V. 32 (U) in the Bibliothque Nationale (MS. 1727, Coll. Moreau,
Mouchet 52), executed for Lacurne de Sainte-Palaye.
Les neuf joies
Nostre Dame is preserved on fols. 274-275 b. The copy is complete,
with a moderate number of textual alterations, several of which are
quite extensive. The order of the stanzas is that of C (the basic text).
Nothing can be said of the relationship of U with the other extant
copies except that there are a few points of contact - though not
very conclusive - with the E H 1 group. The dialect, as pointed out
by Lngfors (see p. 22), is Walloon. Only the most interesting of the
variants are printed below.
3 En mortalit - 4 Tu seule es filhe et mere. 4 and 5 are transposed. -18 di-
verses senefiances - 20 qui donnes - 27 n'a promiere n'a seconde - 32 Ki
prist de l'anemis venjance - 51 enfrener - 52 en grant servage - 53 les ames
tempter - 54 prendre nul gage - 78 cors (= tors) de victoire - 79-80 missing
- 85 Vigne de fruit de haut cyprine
- 88 Tu es le cortis de cIoistrure - 95 sor
nos ere ensaucee - Except for the last two lines, st. XIV is completely altered and
l'uns thus-
Dame et roine soveraine 105
En chiel et en terre eslevwe
De grasce raemplie et plaine
Sor toutes amee et creue
En cui Diex prist sa char humaine
Por no salut et repunue
l See p. 22.
3 For information concerning the transcript and for assistance in securing
photostats of it the writer is indebted to Miss S. Solente, Conservateur Adjoint
au Dpartement des Manuscrits, Bibliothque Nationale.
S Cyprine = ? Tt is not possible to say whether this word has any con-
nection with cipre (Tobler-Lomm., II, (038), and sipier (Godefroy, VII, (030
90 TAU N 0 F. Mus TAN 0 J A
Sa lumiere et son rai demaine
Si con le soliaus en la nue.
B 73,4
- 116 s'il plut u il vente - 120 confors a l'ame - 121 Tu es des vertus li premises
-123 li aigle et - 3 ~ Tu es lasus de nostre abscense - 135 Ramons de nostre-.
140 Armeure de - ~ 8 a Dieu proprement - 150 permanablement _ 156 0 soi _
162 ton non - 177 Voirs est que ta promiere joie - 178 Cant tu creatur _ 179
A la secunde avois grant joie - 8 3 ~ missing - 187 r. de longe voies _ 193
sixte cant tu fuz. - 201-14 run thus -
L'uitime par tel devise
Cant par sa sainte annuntion
Del saint espir fu esperise
La nuevime t'asumption
Cant en arme et en cors asisse
Fus sor toutes creation
Dame cui toz li mondes prise
Par ces .IX. joies te prion
Auwe nos par ta francise
Et par ta saintisme orison
Ke al darrain jor deI juwise
Oies .IX. ordenes mansion
Nos maint Diex en la haute eglize
Dame par ta devotion.