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INDEX

 Introduction  History  Ingredients and flavor  Experiment 1. Materials Required 2. Procedure  Result  Conclusion  Bibliography

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INTRODUCTION
Toothpaste is a paste or gel dentifrice used to clean
and maintain the aesthetics and health of teeth. Toothpaste is
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used to promote oral hygiene : it can aid in the removal of dental plaque and food from the teeth.

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Non-cleaning of teeth can cause tooth decay, i.e. hole in the enamel or plaque. The dental enamel is the hardest material in the body but it is formed of calcium phosphate, which can be dissolved by acids. Specific bacteria metabolize sugar to lactic acid and this leads to low resistance of the enamel towards bacteria colonization. A typical toothpaste contains an abrasive, humectant, binder, detergent, flavour, preservative and therapeutic agent. Apart from an unsubstantiated hypothesis linking the ingestion of silica abrasives with the development of Crohn's disease, toothpaste abrasives are considered safe for human use. The humectants, binders, flavours, preservatives and colourings are used routinely in the food and pharmaceutical industries and should pose minimal health risks when used in toothpaste. The flavours, colourings or preservatives may give rise to allergic reactions, but they are relatively rare. The detergent or essential oil flavours may produce localised mucosal irritation, but this is also rare. As ingestion of excessive amounts of fluoride toothpastes by young children has been implicated in
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dental fluorosis, parents should supervise tooth cleaning in order to minimize toothpaste ingestion. For the majority of people, toothpastes, when used properly, are safe and help to maintain dental health. Generally any standard toothpaste contains Calcium carbonate, Sodium mono chloro phosphate, Sodium laiuryl sulphate, Zinc sulphate alum and some flavoring oils. Generally standard toothpastes contain:  Sodium monochlorophosphate  Fluorides  Detergents  Foaming agents  Colour  Flavoring agents  Humectants (prevent the toothpaste from hardening) Herbal toothpastes that have gained popularity amongst people, who are looking for natural toothpastes, generally contain:  Peppermint oil  Myrrh  Plant extracts  Special oil and cleansing agents

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HISTORY
The earliest known reference to toothpaste is a manu4cript from Egypt in the 4th century A.D. which prescribes a mixture of powdered salt, pepper, mint leaves and iris flowers. The Romans used toothpaste formulations based on human urine. Since urine contains ammonia it was probably effective in whitening teeth. An 18th century American toothpaste recipe containing brunt bread has been found. Another formula around this time called for dragon's blood, cinnamon and burnt alum. However toothpastes and powders did not come into general use until 19th century. I n the early 1800s, the toothbrush was used only with water, but tooth powders soon gained popularity. Most were home made with chalk, pulverized brick and salt being common ingredients. An 1866 Home Encyclopedia recommended pulverized charcoal and cautioned that many patented tooth powders, t h e n commercially marketed, did more harm than good. By 1900, a paste made of Hydrogen peroxide and Baking soda came into being. Pre-mixed toothpastes were first marketed in the 19th century, but did not surpass the popularity o f toothpowder until World War I. I n New York City in 1896, Colgate

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and Company first manufactured toothpaste in the first collapsible tube, similar to that introduced for artist's paints. Fluoride started to be added to toothpastes in the 1914, but while the early use of fluoride was criticized by the American Dental Association (ADA), fluoride toothpastes developed in the 1950s were approved. Countries limit and suggest different amounts acceptable for health. Much of Africa has a slightly higher percent than the U.S. Toothpaste is most commonly sold in flexible tubes, though harder containers are available. The hard containers stand straight up, availing more of the toothpaste and saving shelf space. Conclusion Dentifrices have evolved and improved over the last 2000 years. The most significant improvement was the introduction of fluoride in the 1960s resulting in the development of toothpastes with anticaries efficacy. For the majority of people, modern toothpastes, when used properly, are safe and help to prevent dental caries, dental plaque formation and gingival inflammation. However, the use of fluoride-containing pastes by young children should be closely supervised by parents to restrict fluoride ingestion.

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INGREDIENTS AND FLAVOUR
Active ingredients
Fluoride in various 'forms is the most popular active ingredient in toothpaste to prevent cavities. Sodium fluoride (NaF) is the most common form; some brands use sodium monofluorophosphate (Na2PO3F). Application of fluoride also prevents moisture build-up in some surfaces. Other ingredients are less commonly used, including Hydroxyapatite nanocrystals and calcium phosphate for reminerqlization, and strontium chloride or potassium nitrate to reduce sensitivity. Toothpastes come in a variety of flavors, most often being some variation on mint (spearmint, peppermint, regular mint etc.). Other more exotic flavors include anise, apricot, bubblegum (marketed mostly to children), cinnamon, ginger, vanilla, lemon, orange, pine. Flavors, which have been introduced but discontinued due to poor reception, include peanut buffer, iced tea and whisky. Some pastes are unflavored. Calcium used in toothpaste can be derived from animal, bones or from lime. Vegetarians prefer to use toothpastes free of any ingredients derived from animals. For this reason in India, toothpastes suitable for vegetarians have been introduced.

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The exact composition of a particular toothpaste varies with each manufacturer, but a typical formulation is abrasive 10-40%, humectant 20-70%, water 5-30%, binder 1-2%, detergent 1-3%, flavour 1-2%, , preservative 0.05-0.5% and therapeutic agent 0.1-0.5%.

ABRASIVES
For efficient tooth cleaning, the dentifrice requires a degree of abrasiveness. The common abrasives used include dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, calcium pyrophosphate, calcium carbonate, and, more recently, silica gels. The abrasives have a hardness ranging between that of dentine and a value below that of enamelin order to be safe but effective stain removers.

HUMECTANTS AND BINDERS
Humectants are used in dentifrices to prevent loss of water and subsequent hardening of the paste when it is exposed to air. The
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most commonly used humectants are glycerol and sorbitol. Binders are hydrophilic colloids which disperse or swell in the presence of water and are used to stabilise toothpaste formulations by preventing the separation of the solid and liquid phases.

DETERGENTS, FLAVOURS AND COLOURINGS
Detergents lower the surface tension and therefore help loosen plaque deposits and emulsify or suspend the debris removed from the tooth surface during cleaning. Detergents also contribute to the foaming property of dentifrices, an effect which appeals to consumers. The commonly used detergent in toothpaste is sodium lauryl sulphate. Flavours constitute only a minor part of a dentifrice, but are important components for consumer acceptance. The flavour of a toothpaste is usually a blend of several components. The principal flavours used are peppermint, spearmint and wintergreen modified with other essential oils of anise, clove, caraway, pimento, eucalyptus, citrus, menthol, nutmeg, thyme or cinnamon. The humectants and some of the binders in toothpastes can act as nutrients for various micro-organisms. Colouring agents are also added to dentifrices. These include titanium dioxide for white pastes and various food dyes for coloured pastes and gels.

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Tests for various cations and anions were performed on different toothpaste samples. Materials Required:      Toothpaste samples to be analyzed Test tubes Chemical reagents Filter paper Glass rod

Procedure: Tests for the presence of anions and cations present in the toothpastes: S.No. 1. Experiment Take a pinch of toothpaste in a test tube and add dil. H2SO4. Add BaCl2 solution to toothpaste Add conc. HNO3 to the paste solution and heat. Then add ammonium molybdate solution Observations Colorless, odourless gas with brisk effervescence White precipitate Inference Maybe CO32-

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CO32-

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Canary Yellow PO43precipitate or Confirmed color

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Take a pinch of toothpaste in test tube and add conc. H2SO4 Silver Nitrate test: Add dil. HNO3 to paste solution. Boil it to remove CO2. Cool it and then add AgNO3. Add NH4OH to white precipitate

Faint yellow gas with pungent smell White precipitate

May be Cl-

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Cl- confirmed Precipitate dissolves F- confirmed

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Add a pinch of sand and A waxy layer H2SO4 to the paste. Heat is formed on it. Bring a glass rod the glass dipped in water near the mouth of the test tube. Take solution and odd White conc. HNO3 followed by precipitate solid HNO3. Boil, cool formed and then add NH4OH Dissolve precipitate by boiling with NaOH 1. Add NH4Cl to first part and boil. 2. Add dil. HCl to second part followed by a drop of litmus solution and add NH4 OH till smell of ammonia comes.
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Maybe Al 3+

White gelatinous precipitate Blue precipitate

Al 3+ confirmed

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Take test solution. Add White (NH4)2 OH in excess precipitate and then add 2ml of freshly prepared solution of ammonium carbonate. Warm and keep aside for 5 minutes. Divide to 3 parts: Green Color  Add K2CrO4 to first part  Apply flame test  Add (NH4)2SO4 to second part  Apply flame test White precipitate  Add (NH4)2C2O4 to third part  Apply flame test Brick red color

May be Ba2+, Sr2+, Ca2+

Ba2+ confirmed

White precipitate Crimson red color

Sr2+ confirmed

Ca2+ confirmed

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Take paste solution, add White solid NH4Cl and warm precipitate it. Add NH4OH till it smell of ammonia. Now add (NH4)3PO4 solution

Mg2+ confirmed

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RESULTS
Following the above procedure, analysis was carried out for different pastes. Presence of following cations and anions was found in different toothpastes.

S.No. 1.

Toothpastes Colgate

Cations Al3+, Mg2+ , Ca2+ Al3+ , Mg2+ , Ca2+ Mg2+ , Ca2+ Al3+ , Mg2+ , Ca2+ Ca2+ , Al3+

Anions CO32- , Cl- , PO43CO32- , Cl-, PO43CO32- , Cl- , PO43CO32- , Cl- , PO43CO32- , Cl- , PO43-

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Promise

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Aquafresh

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Pepsodent

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Close Up

CONCLUSION
The various cations and anions present in toothpastes are Al3+ , Mg2+ , Ca2+ , CO32- , Cl- , PO43- .

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