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You are on page 1of 44

Supplies

4-1 Objectives of Feedback Control

4-2 Review of the Linear Control Theory

4-3 Linearization of Various Transfer Function Blocks

4-4 Feedback Controller Design in Voltage-Mode Control

4-5 Peak-Current Mode Control

4-6 Feedback Controller Design in DCM

References

Problems

Appendix 4A Bode Plots of Transfer Functions

Appendix 4B Transfer Functions in CCM

Appendix 4C Derivation of Controller Transfer Functions

4- 2

Vin DC-DC Vo

Converter

Controller Vo*

• fast response

• low overshoot

• low noise susceptibility.

4- 3

• Linearize the system for small changes around the dc steady state operating point

• Confirm and evaluate the system response by simulations for large disturbances

4- 4

d

∑ Controller Modulation and Load

−

PWM-IC

k FB

vo (t ) = Vo + vo (t )

Small signal representation: d (t ) = D + d (t )

vc (t ) = Vc + vc (t )

∑ Controller Width +

Output Filter

− Modulator

GC ( s ) GPWM ( s ) GPS ( s )

B

k FB

© Ned Mohan, 2005

4- 5

GL ( s ) = GC ( s ) GPWM ( s )GPS ( s ) k FB

50

f

fcc

0

Gain Margin

-50

-100 0 1 2 3 4

10 10 10 10 10

0

Loop Gain Phase ()

o

-90

Phase Margin

-180

-270

0 1 2 3 4

10 10 10 10 10

Frequency (Hz)

Figure 4-4 Definitions of crossover frequency, gain margin and phase margin.

Phase Margin:

φPM = φL fc

− ( −1800 ) = φL fc

+ 1800

4- 6

LINEARIZATION OF VARIOUS

TRANSFER FUNCTION BLOCKS

vc Vˆr

q (t ) vc (t )

vr

vr 0

t

(a)

q (t ) 1

vc ( s ) 1

d ( s ) 0

Vˆr t

dTs

PWM IC

(c) Ts (b)

vc ( t )

d (t ) = vc (t ) = Vc + vc (t )

Vˆr

Vc (t ) vc (t ) d ( s ) 1

d (t ) = + GPWM ( s ) = =

ˆ

Vr Vˆr vc ( s ) Vˆr

N N

© Ned Mohan, 2005 D d ( t )

4- 7

Example 4-1 In PWM-ICs, there is usually a dc voltage offset in the ramp voltage,

and instead of as shown in Fig. 4-5b, a typical Valley-to-Peak value of the ramp signal is

defined. In the PWM-IC UC3824, this valley-to-peak value is 1.8 V. Calculate the

linearized transfer function associated with this PWM-IC.

Solution The dc offset in the ramp signal does not change its small signal transfer

function. Hence, the peak-to-valley voltage can be treated as Vˆr . Using Eq. 4-7

1 1

GPWM ( s ) = = =0.556 (4-8)

Vˆr 1.8

4- 8

Linearizing the Power Stage of DC-DC

Converters in CCM

dV icp (t )

vp

dI cp

(a ) (b)

d (t ) = D + d (t )

vvp (t ) = Vvp + vvp (t )

vcp (t ) = Vcp + vcp (t )

ivp (t ) = I vp + ivp (t )

icp (t ) = I cp + icp (t )

4- 9

Linearizing single-switch converters

ivp

+ iL

dV iL

in

+ + + +

Vin

vvp vcp vo

vin = 0 dI vo

r L

− − − − −

1: d (t ) Buck 1: D

iL + iL

dVo

+ + + +

vo

vcp vvp vin = 0

dI vo

Vin r

L

− − − − −

(1 − d (t )) :1 Boost (1 − D ) :1

ivp

+

iL Vin vin = 0

d (Vin + Vo ) iL

−

+ + + +

vvp vo

dI vo

vcp L

r

− − − −

1: d (t ) Buck-Boost 1: D

(a) (b)

1-1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Figure 4-7 Linearizing single-switch converters in CCM.

4- 10

Small signal equivalent circuit for Buck, Boost

and Buck-Boost converters

Le

1 + Le = L (Buck)

+

veq sC

vo L

r

R

Le = (Boost and Buck-Boost)

−

− (1 − D ) 2

Figure 4-8 Small signal equivalent circuit for Buck, Boost and Buck-Boost converters.

=

d LC 1 r 1

s2 + s + +

RC L LC

= 2

1− s (Boost)

d (1 − D ) R 1 r 1

LeC s 2 + s + +

RC Le Le C

vo Vin DLe 1 + srC (Buck-Boost)

= 2

1− s

d (1 − D ) R 2 1 r 1

LeC s + s + +

© Ned Mohan, 2005 RC Le Le C

4- 11

the transfer function Bode Plots

Example 4-2 A Buck converter has the following parameters and is operating in

CCM: L = 100 µ H , C = 697 µ F , r = 0.1Ω , f s = 100 kHz , Vin = 30V , and Po = 36W .

The duty-ratio D is adjusted to regulate the output voltage Vo = 12V . Obtain both the

gain and the phase of the power stage GPS ( s ) for the frequencies ranging from 1 Hz to

100 kHz.

Ideal Transformer

duty-ratio D

d

© Ned Mohan, 2005

4- 12

PSpice Modeling: C:\FirstCourse_PE_Book03\buck_conv_avg.sch

4- 13

Simulation Results

40

SEL>>

-40

DB(V(V_out))

-0d

-50d

-100d

-150d

1.0Hz 3.0Hz 10Hz 30Hz 100Hz 300Hz 1.0KHz 3.0KHz 10KHz 30KHz 100KHz

P(V(V_out))

Frequency

4- 14

40

24.66dB

20

GPS ( s ) dB

0

SEL>>

-20

DB(V(V_out))

.

0d

-50d

∠GPS ( s )

-100d

−1380

-150d

30Hz 100Hz 300Hz 1.0KHz 3.0KHz 10KHz 30KHz

P(V(V_out))

Frequency

Figure 4-10 The gain and the phase of the power stage

4- 15

FEEDBACK CONTROLLER DESIGN IN

VOLTAGE-MODE CONTROL

Example 4-3 Design the feedback controller for the Buck converter described in

Example 4-2. The PWM-IC is as described in Example 4-1. The output voltage-sensing

network in the feedback path has a gain k FB = 0.2 . The steady state error is required to

be zero and the phase margin of the loop transfer function should be 600 at as high a

crossover frequency as possible.

in a fast response of the closed-loop system.

2. The phase angle of the open-loop transfer function has the specified phase

margin, typically 600 at the crossover frequency so that the response in the

closed-loop system settles quickly without oscillations.

3. The phase angle of the open-loop transfer function should not drop below −1800

at frequencies below the crossover frequency.

4- 16

(1 + s / ωz )

2

kc

Gc ( s ) =

(

1+ s /ω )

2

s

p

phase −boost

GC ( s ) dB GC ( s ) fc

50

∠GC ( s ) φboost

-50

−90-100

0

P(V(v_out)) -90 fz c f

Frequency

fp

4- 17

Step 1: Choose the Crossover Frequency. Choose f c to be slightly beyond the L-C

resonance frequency 1/(2π LC ) , which in this example is approximately 600 Hz.

Therefore, we will choose f c = 1 kHz . This ensures that the phase angle of the loop

remains greater than −1800 at all frequencies.

4- 18

Step 2: Calculate the needed Phase Boost. The desired phase margin is specified as φ PM = 600 .

The required phase boost φboost at the crossover frequency is calculated as follows, noting that

GPWM and k FB produce zero phase shift:

∠GL ( s ) fc

= ∠GPS ( s ) fc

+ ∠GC ( s ) fc

(from Eq. 4-2) (4-19)

∠GL ( s ) fc

= −180o + φ PM (from Eq. 4-3) (4-20)

∠GC ( s ) fc

= −90o + φboost (from Fig. 4-11) (4-21)

c

−1380 , substituting which in Eq. 4-22 yields the required phase boost

φboost = 108o .

4- 19

Step 3: Calculate the Controller Gain at the Crossover Frequency. From Eq. 4-2 at the

crossover frequency f c

GL ( s ) fc

= GC ( s ) fc

× GPWM ( s ) f × GPS ( s ) fc

× k FB = 1 (4-23)

c

= 24.66 dB = 17.1 . Therefore in Eq. 4-23, using

the gain of the PWM block calculated in Example 4-1,

GC ( s ) f × 0.556

N × 17.1

N × 0.2

N =1 (4-24)

c

GPWM ( s ) fc

GPS ( s ) fc

k FB

or

GC ( s ) fc

= 0.5263 (4-25)

4- 20

vo* ( s ) = 0 + A vc ( s) Pulse- d ( s ) Power Stage vo ( s )

∑ Controller Width +

Output Filter

− Modulator

GC ( s ) GPWM ( s ) GPS ( s )

B

k FB

(1 + s / ωz )

2

k

Gc ( s ) = c

(

1 + s / ωp )

2

s

phase −boost

ωp φ

K boost = K boost = tan 45o + boost

ωz 4

fc

fz = f p = K boost f c

K boost

ωz

k c = GC ( s ) fc

K boost

4- 21

Implementation of the controller by an op-amp

C2

R3 C3 R2 C1

(1 + s / ωz )

2

k vo

Gc ( s ) = c

(

1 + s / ωp )

2

s R1

vc

phase −boost *

v

o

C2 = ωz /( kcω p R1 )

C1 = C2 (ω p / ωz − 1)

R2 = 1/(ωz C1 )

R3 = R1 /(ω p / ωz − 1)

C3 = 1/(ω p R3 )

4- 22

= 0.5263 , we can

calculate K boost = 3.078 in Eq. 4-27. Using Eqs. 4-27 through 4-30, f z = 324.9 Hz ,

f p = 3078 Hz , and kc = 349.1 . For the op-amp implementation, we will select

R1 = 100 k Ω . From Eq. 4-30, C2 = 3.0 nF , C1 = 25.6 nF , R2 = 19.1 k Ω , R3 = 11.8 k Ω ,

and C3 = 4.4 nF .

4- 23

PSpice model of the Buck converter with voltage-mode control

Figure 4-13 PSpice average model of the Buck converter with voltage-mode control.

12.2V

12.0V

11.8V

11.6V

0s 5ms 10ms

V(V_out)

Time

4- 24

PSpice Modeling: C:\FirstCourse_PE_Book03\buck_conv_avg_fb_ctrl_op.sch

4- 25

Simulation Results

12.1V

12.0V

11.9V

11.8V

11.7V

0s 0.5ms 1.0ms 1.5ms 2.0ms 2.5ms 3.0ms 3.5ms 4.0ms 4.5ms 5.0ms 5.5ms 6.0ms

V(V_out)

Time

4- 26

• Peak-Current-Mode Control, and

• Average-Current-Mode Control.

ivp

+

Vin

iL

vvp

+ +

vcp vo

− − −

Q S Clock Slope

Compensation

−

R iL* ic vo*

+ Controller

Flip-flop Comparator

4- 27

ic slope compensation

iL*

iL

0 t

Clock

t

1

Ts =

fs

(a )

vo ( s )

∑ Controller Mode Power Stage

− Controller

GC ( s ) ≈1

(b)

Figure 4-16 Peak-current-mode control with slope compensation.

4- 28

Example 4-4 In this example, we will design a peak-current-mode controller for a

Buck-Boost converter that has the following parameters and operating conditions:

L = 100 µ H , C = 697 µ F , r = 0.01Ω , f s = 100 kHz , Vin = 30 V . The output power

Po = 18 W in CCM and the duty-ratio D is adjusted to regulate the output voltage

Vo = 12 V . The phase margin required for the voltage loop is 600 . Assume that in the

voltage feedback network, k FB = 1 .

© Ned Mohan, 2005

4- 29

20

GPS ( s ) dB

-20 −29.33dB

-40

DB(V(V_out)/I(L1))

0d

∠GPS ( s ) |deg

-50d

−900

SEL>>

-100d

1.0Hz 3.0Hz 10Hz 30Hz 100Hz .

300Hz 1.0KHz 3.0KHz 10KHz 30KHz 100KHz

P(V(V_out)/ I(L1))

Frequency

f c = 5 kHz

Figure 4-18 Bode plot of vo / iL .

As shown in Fig. 4-18, the phase angle of the power-stage transfer function levels off at

approximately −900 at ~1kHz . The crossover frequency is chosen to be f c = 5 kHz , at

which in Fig. 4-18, ∠GPS ( s ) fc

−900 . As explained in the Appendix on the

converters contains a right-half-plane zero in CCM. The crossover frequency is chosen

well below the frequency of the right-half-plane zero for reasons discussed in the

Appendix.

4- 30

PSpice Modeling: C:\FirstCourse_PE_Book03\Buck-Boost_Freq_Analysis.sch

4- 31

Simulation Results

20

-20

SEL>>

-40

DB(V(V_out)/I(L1))

0d

-50d

-100d

1.0Hz 3.0Hz 10Hz 30Hz 100Hz 300Hz 1.0KHz 3.0KHz 10KHz 30KHz 100KHz

P(V(V_out)/I(L1))

Frequency

4- 32

kc (1 + s / ωz ) φ

K boost = tan 45o + boost

Gc ( s ) =

s (

1+ s /ω )

p 2

f

phase −boost fz = c f p = K boost f c

K boost

k c = ω z GC ( s ) fc

At the crossover frequency, as shown in Fig. 4-18, the power stage transfer function has a

gain GPS ( s ) fc

= −29.33 dB . Therefore, at the crossover frequency, by definition, in Fig.

4-16b

GC ( s ) fc

× GPS ( s ) fc

=1 (4-37)

Hence,

GC ( s ) fc

= 29.33 dB = 29.27 (4-38)

= 29.27 ,

K boost = 3.732 in Eq. 4-32. Therefore, the parameters in the controller transfer function

of Eq. 4-31 are calculated as f z = 1340 Hz , f p = 18660 Hz , and kc = 246.4 × 103 .

4- 33

C2

R2 C1

vo

R1

vc

*

vo

R1 = 10 k Ω

ωz

C2 = = 30 pF

ω p R1kc

C1 = C2 (ω p / ωz − 1) = 380 pF

R2 = 1/(ωz C1 ) = 315 k Ω

4- 34

4- 35

12.04

vo (t )

12.00

vo (t )

11.96

11.92

2.50ms 2.75ms 3.00ms 3.25ms 3.50ms

AVGX(V(Vo),10u) V(Vo)

Time

4- 36

4- 37

Simulation Results

12.02V

12.00V

11.98V

11.96V

11.94V

11.92V

1.40ms 1.45ms 1.50ms 1.55ms 1.60ms 1.65ms 1.70ms 1.75ms 1.80ms 1.85ms 1.90ms

V(Vo)

Time

4- 38

4- 39

4- 40

Simulation Results

80

40

CCM

DCM

0

SEL>>

-40

DB(V(V_out))

0d

CCM

DCM

-100d

-200d

1.0Hz 3.0Hz 10Hz 30Hz 100Hz 300Hz 1.0KHz 3.0KHz 10KHz 30KHz 100KHz

P(V(V_out))

Frequency

4- 41

WITH POLES AND ZEROS

1

4A-1 A Pole in a Transfer Function

T (s) =

1 + s / ωp

20 log10 T ( s ) ωp

ωp 10ω p

10

0 log10 ω

−10

−20

∠T ( s ) −45

−90

4- 42

T ( s ) = 1 + s / ωz

20

20 log10 T ( s ) 10

0

ωz

ωz 10ω z

log10 ω

10

90

∠T ( s ) 45

4- 43

s

T ( s) = 1 −

ωz

20 log10 T ( s )

20

10

0 ωz

log10 ω

ωz 10ω z

10

∠T ( s ) −45

−90

4- 44

1

T ( s) = 2

s

1+αs +

ωo

2 0

ζ = 0 .0 5

0 ζ = 0 .2 5

ζ = 0 .5

ζ = 0 .8 0

-2 0

ζ = 1 .0 0

-4 0

-6 0

-8 0

1 2 3 4 5

1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0

0

ζ = 0 .0 5

ζ = 0 .2 5

ζ = 0 .5

ζ = 0 .8 0

-9 0

ζ = 1 .0 0

-1 8 0

1 2 3 4 5

1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0

© Ned Mohan, 2005

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