1 ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS FORM 4
CIRCULAR MEASURE
1. RADIAN
1.1 Converting Measurements in Radians to Degrees and Vice Versa
Definition:
r
S
= rad u
where S is the length of the arc AB,
r is the radius of the circle, and
θ is the angle subtended at the centre O by the arc AB.
For the full circle, the circumference is 2πr and the angle is 360
o
.
rad 2
2
Therefore,
t
t
u
=
=
r
r
.
Hence, 2π rad = 360
o
=> π rad = 180
o
For each of the following measurement in degree, change it to radian.
Example: 25.8
o
Since 180
o
= π rad
rad 4504 . 0
180
8 . 25 8 . 25
=
°
× ° = °
π
(a) 30
o
=
[0.5237 rad]
(b) 45
o
=
[0.7855 rad]
(c) 81.5
o
=
[1.423 rad]
(d) 122.8
o
=
[2.144 rad]
(e) 154
o
20’ =
[2.694 rad]
(f) 225
o
36’ =
[3.938 rad]
(g) 50
o
=
[0.02773 rad]
O
A
B
r
r
S
q
25.8
o
O
A
B
SMKSM2014
2 ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS FORM 4
For each of the following measurement in radian, change it to degree.
Example: 0.75 rad
Since π rad = 180
o
° =
°
× =
97 . 42
180
75 . 0 rad 75 . 0
π
Always use π = 3.142
(a) 0.6 rad =
[34.37
o
]
(b) 1.54 rad =
[88.22
o
]
(c) = rad
5
18
[206.24
o
]
(d) = rad
7
3
2
[139.13
o
]
(e) 1.2π rad =
[216
o
]
(f) = rad
3
π
[60
o
]
(g) 0.25 rad =
[14.32
o
]
(h)  = rad
3
1
2
[133.67
o
]
(i) (1 + π) rad =
[237.29
o
]
2. ARC LENGTH OF A CIRCLE
0.75 rad
O
P
Q
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3 ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS FORM 4
2.1 Arc Length, Radius and Angle
r
S
= u => S = rθ
For each of the following, find the length of the arc S given the values of r and θ.
Example:
r = 10 cm and θ = 1.5 rad
Since S = rθ
= 10 × 1.5
= 15 cm
(a) r = 20 cm and θ = 0.6 rad
[12 cm]
(b) r = 15 cm and θ = 1.4 rad
[21 cm]
(c) r = 30 cm and θ =
6
t
rad
[15.71 cm]
(d) r = 10 cm and θ = 60
o
[10.47 cm]
(e) r = 1.5 m and θ = 82.8
o
[2.168 m]
For each of the following, calculate the length of the radius r given the values of S and θ.
Example:
S = 4.5 cm and θ = 1.5 rad
Since S = rθ
4.5 = 1.5r
5 . 1
5 . 4
= r
= 3 cm
(a) S = 9 cm and θ = 1.5 rad
[6 cm]
(b) S = 4.5 cm and θ = 1.8 rad
[2.5 cm]
(c) S = 9 m and θ = 30
o
[17.19 m]
(d) S = 15 cm and θ = 32.8
o
[26.20 cm]
(e) S = 10 cm and θ =
8
t
rad
[25.46 cm]
For each of the following, find the angle θ in radian given the values of r and S.
O
P
Q
1.5 rad
S
1
0
c
m
O
A
B
1.5 rad
r
4
.
5
c
m
O
A
B
1
0
c
m q
5
c
m
SMKSM2014
4 ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS FORM 4
Example:
r = 5 cm and S = 10 cm
Since S = rθ
10 = 5θ
θ =
5
10
= 2 rad
(a) r = 9 cm and S = 36 cm
[4 rad]
(b) r = 7 cm and S = 5.6 cm
[0.8 rad]
(c) r = 20 cm and S = 0.7 m
[3.5 rad]
(d) r = 1.2 cm and S = 20 cm
cm]
3
2
16 [
(e) r = 3.5 cm and S = 112 cm
[32 cm]
For each of the following, find the angle θ in degree given the values of r and S.
Example:
r = 8 cm and S = 20 cm
Since S = rθ
20 = 8θ
θ =
8
20
rad
=
t
°
×
180
5 . 2
= 143.22
o
(a) r = 10 cm and S = 6 cm
[34.37
o
]
(b) r = 5 cm and S = 5.4 cm
[57.29
o
]
(c) r = 5.6 cm and S = 12 cm
[122.76
o
]
(d) r = 7.15 cm and S = 0.28 m
[224.34
o
]
(e) r = 5.6 cm and S = 3π cm
[96.43
o
]
O
A
B
2
0
c
m
q
8
c
m
SMKSM2014
5 ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS FORM 4
3. AREA OF SECTOR
3.1 Area of Sector, Radius and Angle
Area of a circle, A = πr
2
Area for a sector OPQ of angle θ
o
,
2
360
r A t
u
×
°
°
=
Converting to radian,
2
rad 2
rad
r t
t
u
× =
A =
2
1
r
2
θ, θ must be in radian.
For each of the following, find the area of the sector A given the values of r and θ.
Example:
r = 3 cm and θ = 1.8 rad
Since u
2
2
1
r A=
8 . 1 3
2
1
2
× × =
= 8.1 cm
2
(a) r = 5 cm and θ = 0.8 rad
[10 cm
2
]
(b) r = 2.11 cm and θ = 1.78 rad
[3.962 cm
2
]
(c) r = 2.7 cm and θ =
3
2
1 rad
[6.075 cm
2
]
(d) r = 12 mm and θ =
5
4t
rad
[180.98 mm
2
]
(e) r = 1.5 m and θ = 122.8
o
[2.411 m
2
]
(f) r =
5
3
m and θ = 85
o
[0.2671 m
2
]
(g) r = 13.2 cm and θ = 67.2
o
[102.19 cm
2
]
O
r
r
P
Q
q
O
P
Q
1.8 rad
3
c
m
3
c
m
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6 ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS FORM 4
For each of the following, find the length of the radius r given the values of θ and A.
Example: θ = 1.2 rad and A = 15 cm
2
Since u
2
2
1
r A=
15 2 . 1
2
1
2
× × = r
2 . 1
2 15
2
×
= r
= 25
r = 5 cm
(a) θ = 3 rad and A = 6 cm
2
[2 cm]
(b) θ = 1.4 rad and A = 118.3 cm
2
[13 cm]
(c) θ =
6
t
rad and A = 3π m
2
[6 m]
(d) θ =
7
3
1 rad and A = 78.25 cm
2
[109.55 cm]
(e) θ = 102
o
and A = 215 cm
2
[15.54 cm]
(f) θ = 65
o
and A = 78 cm
2
[11.73 cm]
(g) θ = 102
o
and A = 1215 cm
2
[36.94 cm]
For each of the following, find the angle θ in radian given the values of r and A.
O
P
Q
r r
1.2 rad
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7 ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS FORM 4
Example: r = 5 cm and A =
8
3
9 cm
2
Since u
2
2
1
r A =
u × × =
2
5
2
1
8
3
9
25 8
2 75
×
×
= u
4
3
= rad
(a) r = 2.4 cm and A = 1.44 cm
2
[0.5 rad]
(b) r = 8 cm and A = 64 cm
2
[2 rad]
(c) r = 0.6 m and A = 3.24 m
2
[18 rad]
For each of the following, find the angle θ in degree given the values of r and A.
Example: r = 4 cm and A = 16 cm
2
Since u
2
2
1
r A=
u × × =
2
4
2
1
16
16
2 16×
= u
= 2 rad
=
142 . 3
180
2
°
×
= 114.58
o
(a) r = 15 cm and A = 50π cm
[80
o
]
(b) r = 8 cm and A = 48 cm
2
[85.93
o
]
(c) r = 3.2 m and A = 5 m
2
[55.95
o
]
5 cm
A
B
O
cm
2
9
3
8
_
5
c
m q
O
A
B
q
16 cm
2
4
c
m
4
c
m
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8 ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS FORM 4
2.2 Perimeter of Segments of a Circle
Example:
For the shaded segment in the given diagram beside, find its perimeter.
The perimeter of the shaded segment is the total length of the arc AB
and the chord AB.
S
AB
= rθ
= 10 × 1.2
= 12 cm
To find the length of the chord AB, consider
the triangle OAB in the diagram beside.
)
142 . 3
180
6 . 0 sin( 10
2
1
rad 6 . 0 sin
10
2
1
°
× × =
=
AB
AB
AB = 2 × 5.646
= 11.292 cm
perimeter of shaded segment = 12 + 11.292
= 23.292 cm
3.2 Area of Segments of a Circle
Example:
With reference to the sector in the same diagram beside,
find the area of the shaded segment.
The area of the shaded segment is the difference between
the area of the sector OAB and the triangle OAB.
Area of sector OAB =
2
1
r
2
θ
2 . 1 10
2
1
2
× × =
= 60 cm
2
To find the area of the triangle OAB,
please refer to the diagram beside.
AC is perpendicular to the radius OB.

.

\
 °
× =
=
142 . 3
180
2 . 1 sin
rad 2 . 1 sin
AO AC
AO
AC
2
cm 60 . 46
9320 . 0 10 10
2
1
75 . 68 sin
2
1
2
1
of Area
=
× × × =
° × × =
× × = A
OA OB
AC OB OAB
Area of shaded segment = 60 – 46.60
= 13.40 cm
2
O
A
B
1
0
c
m
1
0
c
m
1.2 rad
O
A
B
1
0
c
m
1
0
c
m
=
=
0
.6
r
a
d
0
.
6
r
a
d
Note:
The length of the chord
AB =
O
A
B
1
0
c
m
1
0
c
m
1.2 rad
O
A
B
1
0
c
m
1
0
c
m
1.2 rad
C
Note:
Area of triangle OAB
=
Area of segment
SMKSM2014
9 ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS FORM 4
For each of the following diagrams, find
(i) the perimeter and
(ii) the area of the shaded segment.
(a)
[Perimeter = 4.974 cm, Area = 0.2579 cm
2
]
(b)
[Perimeter = 9.472 cm, Area = 1.489 cm
2
]
(c)
[Perimeter = 10.19 cm, Area = 1.145 cm
2
]
(d)
[Perimeter = 8.599 cm, Area = 4.827 cm
2
]
O
A
B
5
c
m
5
c
m
0.5 rad
O
P
Q
6
c
m
6
c
m
0
.
8
r
a
d
O
P
Q
3
.
8
c
m
3.8 cm
1 rad
O
A
B
4.2 cm
4
.
2
c
m
60
o