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6, NOVEMBER 2001

1507

**Performance Analysis of Soft Handoff in CDMA Cellular Networks
**

Rosy Pillay Narrainen and Fambirai Takawira

Abstract—A unique feature of code division multiple access (CDMA) systems is the use of soft handoff between cells. Soft handoff, in general, increases the system capacity because while the link between a mobile and one base station is poor, it might be better between the same mobile and some other base station. Hence, the user may transmit at a lower power in a soft handoff situation. Teletraffic analysis of soft handoff is complex because one cannot separate transmission issues from traffic issues. Many papers in the literature have independently analyzed the effect of soft capacity and soft handoff on network performance. Some papers have analyzed the effect of soft handoff on soft capacity but there has been no proper teletraffic analysis that includes both soft capacity and soft handoff. This paper proposes a traffic model for a DS-CDMA cellular network that includes both soft capacity and soft handoff. Network performance is then computed in terms of call blocking. Index Terms—Call admission control, cellular networks, code division multiple access (CDMA), soft handoff.

I. INTRODUCTION ODE division multiple access (CDMA) is one of the most promising technologies for third-generation cellular networks. It offers some unique features such as soft capacity, soft handoff, and mitigation of fast fading through the use of diversity reception, interleaving, equalization, and RAKE receivers. Because of CDMAs unique universal frequency reuse feature, mobiles are able to “soft handoff” between cells. Soft handoff is a technique where mobiles near a cell boundary transmit to and receive from two or more base stations simultaneously. Traditional handoff schemes require a mobile to “break” communication with its current base station before “making” a new connection with a new base station. On the forward link, the mobile combines the signals from the base stations. This leads to improved performance since the mobile receiver adds the different multipaths in such a way as to reinforce the received signal. On the reverse link, the base stations independently decode the signal that they receive. The base stations then send the information obtained to the mobile switching centre which favors the base station that receives the stronger signal [1]. Some of the few papers that have analyzed soft handoff in CDMA cellular networks have primarily focused on its effect on CDMA capacity [2], [3]. Viterbi et al. [2] demonstrated that soft

C

Manuscript received June 12, 2000; revised Feb. 13, 2001. R. P. Narrainen is with the School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Natal, Durban 4041, South Africa (e-mail: narrainen@hotmail.com). F. Takawira is with the School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Natal, Durban 4041, South Africa (e-mail: ftakaw@nu.ac.za). Publisher Item Identifier S 0018-9545(01)09850-4.

handoff results in a larger cell coverage area and a subsequent increase in reverse link cell capacity. They indicated that reverse link capacity can be more than doubled, provided proper power control techniques are employed. Soft handoff does not affect the number of code channels on the reverse link but reduces the number of code channels on the forward link. Lee and Steele [3] investigated the capacity loss on the forward link. They established that the small percentage in capacity loss did not really affect the overall system capacity as forward link capacity is much higher then reverse link capacity. Chen [4] and Yang and Rajan [5] researched the use of soft handoff techniques as a means of alleviating hot spot loading. They both established that soft handoff can be used to alleviate the traffic in overloaded cells, although they used different methods. They proposed new schemes to reduce traffic in heavily loaded cells and demonstrated an improvement in network performance. Only a few papers [6]–[8] investigated the effect of soft handoff on network performance. Rashid and Everitt [6] simulated the effect of changing the thresholds at which mobiles enter the soft handoff region. They analyzed network performance in terms of the probability of forced termination and the mean time spent in the soft handoff region. They demonstrated that increasing the soft handoff region results in an increase in the mean time spent in soft handoff and a subsequent decrease in the probability of forced termination. Jeon et al. [7] devised a new direction-based soft handoff scheme that takes into account the mobile direction. They propose a new method of determining the priorities of the handoff requests so as to protect real soft handoff requests. Jeon et al. [7] demonstrate that their scheme yields better performance results than conventional soft handoff schemes. They show an improvement in the probability of blocking new calls and probability of forced termination. Both Rashid and Everitt [6] and Jeon et al. [7] presented only simulation results to determine network performance. The only authors that mathematically analyzed network performance of CDMA systems including soft handoff are Su et al. [8]. They analyzed network teletraffic performance in terms of blocking of new and handoff calls. They, however, assumed a fixed CDMA capacity in their analysis. This approach ignores the inherent soft nature of CDMA capacity and subsequently produces inaccurate results. There are, therefore, no proper analytical models that have been proposed in the literature to determine the teletraffic performance of CDMA systems, while taking into account CDMA soft capacity and soft handoff. Many papers in the literature have independently focused on the effect of soft capacity and soft handoff on network performance because of the difficulty in modeling the interdependence between traffic and transmission issues. In

0018–9545/01$10.00 © 2001 IEEE

the new call arrival rates in the soft and hard region are. II. Every on with probability and off with probability handoff requirement is assumed to be perfectly detected and the assignment of code channels is instantaneous if the call request is accepted. respectively. cell size. System Model We consider a multicellular network that employs direct-sequence spread spectrum techniques. the improvement on CDMA capacity from the use of soft handoff is not easy to ascertain and incorporate into teletraffic analyses. Traffic Model For analytical purposes. Concluding remarks are presented in Section VII. The goal of this paper is to propose a more accurate analytical model for soft handoff in direct sequence (DS)-CDMA cellular systems than what has been proposed in the literature.1508 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY. the mobile requests a connection with base station . distributed with rate . If the request is accepted. We model only the uplink since it is generally accepted that it has inferior performance over the downlink. For ease of notation. 6. In this paper. VOL. it perceives an increase in . The mobile generally keeps a candidate set which is a list of all the base stations to which it can make a soft connection. 50. SYSTEM AND TRAFFIC MODEL A. The paper is structured as follows. Calls that are in the hard region are assumed to have a single (hard) connection with the base station of interest and calls which are in the soft region are assumed to have one connection with the base station of interest and another connection with a neighboring base station. We do not model user mobility and instead assume standard exponential channel holding time distributions. we assume that handoff traffic is Poisson [8]. let us divide a cell into two arbitrary and a soft region . when power level of the user. level B. and network statistics. As the mobile moves further away from base station toward . Handoff process. which is the base station . 2. generally depends on user mobility. A few papers [13]–[15] have analyzed the distribution of handoff traffic in cellular networks and proposed more accurate distributions. we denote calls in the hard region as hard connection calls and calls in the soft region as soft connection calls. Section II discusses the system and traffic model. it stops the condrops below its threshold nection to base station when . NO. A voice activity detection mechanism is employed such that each user is gated . Section IV introduces and analyzes a simple call admission control scheme where new and handoff calls are treated equally. Consider Fig. This paper utilizes a similar approach to Viterbi and Viterbi [9] and derives an analytical expression for the total interference in a cell. 1. From the assumption that Poisson process with arrival rate the location of a newly generated call is uniformly distributed all over a cell. New call setup is assumed to be uniformly distributed over the cell area. As the mobile moves further away from base station . 1 where a mobile is power controlled by base station such that it receives power from base station . We assume that a mobile in the soft area is transmitting to and receiving the same signal from a maximum of two base stations. NOVEMBER 2001 Fig. however. the mobile then goes into a soft handoff mode where it transmits to and receives the same signal from both base stations and . At received power from base station and a decrease in intersects with the threshold a certain point in time. The soft handoff process is similar to the US IS-95 standard. as shown in regions: a hard region Fig. expressed as (1) where area of soft region area of cell (2) It is common in the literature to assume that handoff traffic is also Poisson [10]–[12]. We further denote the network area (excluding the cell of interest area) as . Handoff traffic. Teletraffic performance is computed in Section V and results are discussed in Section VI. other words. Section III derives an analytical expression for the distribution of the total interference in a cell. The base station is equipped with an omnidirectional antenna that transmits on separate frequency bands for the uplink and downlink transmission. New call arrival into the cell is modeled as an independent .

Network area demarcation. If we denote the distance between the mobile and the th base station as with a fading path . Let us define intracell interference as that interference caused by mobiles that have a hard or soft connection with the desired base station and intercell interference as that interference caused by mobiles that have no connection whatsoever with the desired base station. diversity deception and equalization. The total intersoever with the base station of interest as is then given by ference (6) Because of the soft nature of the handoff process. Interference Model The total interference power seen at the desired base station is simply expressed as the sum of thermal noise and the total intracell and intercell interference power received at the base station. Assume that the mobile is from the th base station and is expelocated at a distance riencing a fading path . III. for proper communications quality. results in an improved BER for soft connection users when compared to hard connection users. there is a very small probability that a mobile will move from a hard connection with one base station to another hard connection with another base station. Thus. reregions are exponentially distributed with rates spectively. we as may calculate the interference power (4) and are both where is the path loss law exponent and zero-mean Gaussian random variables with standard deviation [16]. therefore. We. soft handoff in conjunction with proper power control schemes as proposed in IS-95. If we assume a constant BER for both hard connection and soft connection users. Subsequently. We may subsequently rewrite Poisson distributed with rate and hard region the total arrival rates into the soft as Poisson with respective rates B. as well as the use of RAKE receivers. the interference generated from the mobiles as and that generated from those mobiles that have no connection what. [8]. It is generally assumed that the use of techniques such as interleaving. The adoption of diversity reception in soft handoff thus leads to better communication quality without as large a transmitting power as that required in hard handoff situations. [8]. From the above description of the soft handoff process (refer to Fig. We assume that on the reverse link only two base stations independently decode the signal and send the information obtained to the mobile switching centre. we assume that the dwell times in the hard and soft and . In other words. Propagation Model at the th We calculate the received interference power base station (base station of interest) from a mobile communicating with the th base station. Fast fading (due largely to multipath) is assumed not to affect the average power level. The amount by which soft mobiles can reduce their transmitter power generally depends on the path and receiver gains and the performance of the selection diversity scheme. assume that a user requesting a handoff to the cell of interest will first request a soft connection with the desired base station before transferring into a hard connection. Handoff arrivals thus only originate in the soft region and are assumed to be .NARRAINEN AND TAKAWIRA: ANALYSIS OF SOFT HANDOFF IN CDMA CELLULAR NETWORKS 1509 Fig. propagation models are mainly centred on distance-driven path loss and lognormal shadowing. Let us assume that at a particular time there are mobiles that have a hard connection with the base station of interest and mobiles that have a soft connection with the base station. 2. INTERFERENCE ANALYSIS A. mobiles in the soft region sometimes contribute to intercell interference and (3) is assumed to be exThe unencumbered call holding time . the required transmitter power for mobiles in soft handoff can then be reduced [5]. the total interference should not exceed some maximum value such that Intracell interference Intercell interference (5) is the transmission bandwidth. The latter then decides which base station receives the stronger signal and decides in its favor. Similar to the paper by Su ponentially distributed with rate et al. 1). Let us further denote the interference generated from the mobiles as . the thermal noise where density and some maximum acceptable interference density. . greatly mitigates fast fading.

It has been shown [9] that power control inaccuracies can be approximated by the lognormal distribution with a standard deviation that ranges between 1 and 2 dB. (15) is a Gaussian random variable with mean and where standard deviation . We compute the first and second moas follows [9]: ments of (16) . From our assumption that soft connection mobiles transmit at a lower power than hard connecis assumed to be less than . the bit energy received where at the base station from the th user that has a hard connection or soft connection with the base station.. NO. VOL. and are the hard and soft regions demarcated in . i. Dividing where Fig. D. From the central limit theorem. This assumption is not accurate as power control mechanisms cannot track fading perfectly well. and are lognormally distributed with mean sume that and and standard deviation and . We thus astion mobiles. The active user will thus be power controlled by the th base and by the base station of interest when station when . where is the processing gain and To solve for the system performance. Intracell Interference We now proceed to obtain the distribution of the intracell incaused by those mobiles that have a soft terference power connection with the base station of interest and are power controlled by that base station. 6. tions of Consider a th user that has a hard or soft connection with be the power received at the base station of interest. We may rewrite (8) Replacing (7) and (8) in (6) yields (9) From [9]. Let us denote the intracell interference generated and the intercell interference generated by the soft mobiles as by the soft mobiles as . tion: should satisfy the following interference condi(10) . 50. the mean and variance of are given by (17) where . The mobile will not be power controlled by the base station of interest but rather by the th base station if (18) Let us define functions and if otherwise if (19) otherwise.1510 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY.e. Assuming that for are independent and identically disthe tributed. This occurs because they are power controlled for a percentage of the time by the base station of interest and for the rest of the time by a neighboring base station. C. We may rewrite as: (7) We further distinguish between the interference generated by mobiles located outside the cell of interest that have a hard con(excluding the base station of nection with one base station interest) and that generated by mobiles that have a soft connec(excluding the base station of tion with two base stations as interest). Let the power the base station if the connection is hard and received at the base station if the connection is soft. Many papers in the literature have assumed perfect power control such that and are constant. can where be approximated by the Gaussian distribution. Let us assume a uniform density of communicating users in the cell of interest such that (20) where and In (12). 2. is a binary random variable that takes values of one or zero and represents the voice activity factor [2]. NOVEMBER 2001 sometimes to intracell interference. Consider a th mobile that is located at a distance from the th base station (base station of interest) from the th base station (other base station with which and the mobile has a soft connection). Intracell Interference The intracell interference power received at the base station of interest from the hard connection users is simply given by (12) throughout by where is the total acceptable interference density and the bit rate yields the following intracell interference power : (13) where (14) Assuming that is lognormally distributed. we require the distribuand . Assuming and are expressed as a constant required bit rate (11) and are. respectively. respectively.

We require its mean and variance. Variable trol error is a Bernouilli process that takes on values of one and and zero with probability . For the users in the soft area. for given values and . The first and second moments of We may finally express as (29) where (21) is the mean and the standard deviation of the indewhere . The total interference pendent and identically distributed is evaluated as follows: power E.NARRAINEN AND TAKAWIRA: ANALYSIS OF SOFT HANDOFF IN CDMA CELLULAR NETWORKS 1511 Similar to the computation of . we may assume that a soft connection user that is power controlled by the base station of at that base interest will introduce an interference power are given by station. we assume that distributed. We compute the expectation of by integrating of and over the soft area . Intercell Interference (22) is Gaussian From the central limit theorem. It can be shown that is upper bounded by [16] the mean of (24) (33) The expectation of the intercell interference expressed as can finally be where (25) where (26) (34) The variance of is evaluated as The double integral is over the two-dimensional (2-D) soft area and is evaluated numerically. We assume to be Gaussian from the central limit able theorem. i. for We compute the intercell interference power connection user as follows: A soft connection user will not be power controlled by the th and base station but rather by the th base station when at the th base station will cause an intercell interference receiver equal to (31) from a soft (30) (32) We need to determine the moment statistics of the random vari. is simply the product the total intercell interference power generated per user. The exis computed as pectation of (23) In the above equation. we assume that the power conis independent of variable . We need to determine its moment statistics.e. respectively.. Total of the users and the interference is Gaussian distributed with the intercell interference power following mean: (35) where (28) (36) (27) where is given by .

50. and the th base station with which it has a hard connection (excluding the base station of interest). 6. the mean of (46) (47) is upper (48) (49) . Using the density given as in (20). (45) Total intercell interference power is also assumed to follow the Gaussian distribution and is computed in a similar manner. Assume that a mobile is communicating with two base and . NOVEMBER 2001 Similarly. fading paths is evaluated as follows Total intercell interference power (40) F. NO. and as shown in Fig.1512 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY. The total intercell interference in the cell of interest is expressed as power (41) where is the distance between the mobile In the above equation. 3. Similarly. Also the power control error incurred at the base station receiver changes from for a soft connection user to for a hard connection user. Intercell Interference (39) where uses instead of . calculation of the second moment can be expressed as (37) where where (44) (38) Again the function We may finally express as G. we compute the mean of and (42) where is given by (43) where and are given by if otherwise if otherwise. 2. Using the density bounded by given in (20). that it is located at a distance from stations from the latter and is experiencing respective the former. the variance of is computed as follows [16]: The function derived in (34) uses instead of since the mobile now has a hard connection with one base staof tion. VOL. Intercell Interference We now proceed to obtain the distribution of the intercell ingenerated from those users outside the cell of interference terest that have a single connection with another base station. is similar to that of with the exception Computation of dethat the double integration is now over the outer area picted in Fig.

a hard connecare tion call will be accepted if (55) and a soft connection call will be accepted if (56) Mobiles may also move from the hard-to-soft region and vice versa. A call is blocked if the interference condition in (10) is not satisfied. Intercell interference from a mobile in a soft connection with two base stations m and m excluding the base station of interest. We assume that a new call may ask for a hard or soft connection while a handoff call only asks for a soft connection. In the derivation of and . ANALYSIS OF CALL ADMISSION CONTROL SCHEME We analyze a simple call admission control scheme where new and handoff calls are treated equally. We therefore differentiate between a soft connection blocking and a hard connection blocking. Taking a worst case approach. Assuming that there calls in progress in the cell of interest. Transitions between the soft and hard regions are also subject to the interference condition in (10). A transition from the hard-to-soft region will be accepted if (57) and a transition from the soft-to-hard region will be accepted if (58) (52) In the Appendix.e. i. we show that the variance in the above term is given by (53) was expressed as a function of and In (9). . 3.NARRAINEN AND TAKAWIRA: ANALYSIS OF SOFT HANDOFF IN CDMA CELLULAR NETWORKS 1513 Fig.. (54) IV. Since soft connection calls introduce different interference power compared to hard connection calls. we assumed that they are all Gaussian distributed and computed their respective means and variances. they experience different average blocking probabilities. . the equality condition. it can then be inferred that is also Gaussian distributed with the following mean and variance: (50) The variance of is upper bounded by (51) where We now introduce the call admission control scheme.

System Analysis The state in the process is defined as (59) where represents the number of mobiles that have a soft connection with the base station of interest and the number of mobiles that have a hard connection with the base station of interest. users in the cell of interest. NO. From a theoretical point of view. VOL. We asand the latter occurs at a sume the former occurs at a rate where rate • a new or handoff arrival in the soft region • a departure from the hard region • a departure from the soft region • a transition from hard-to-soft region • a transition from soft-to-hard region Fig.1514 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY. The state transitions are classified as follows: • a new arrival in the hard region The probability of accepting a hard or soft connection call basically depends on the interference conditions in (55) to (58). we define the probaGiven and the bility of accepting a hard connection user as probability of accepting a soft connection user as where is computed as follows: (61) The probability of accepting a transition from the hard-to-soft region is obtained from the interference condition in (57) and and the probability of accepting a is given by transition from the soft-to-hard region is obtained from (58) and . A mobile leaves the hard region at a rate . These are classified as an arrival in the hard region. 4. 50. Driving Processes and State Transitions There are six different processes that can cause a state transition. We solve for the system state using a 2-D birth–death model. B. The value of is a function of the area of the soft and hard regions and is discussed in [8]. an arrival in the soft region. an infinite number of hard connection or soft connection mobiles may be accepted as long as they satisfy the interference conditions in (55) to (58). NOVEMBER 2001 Fig. 6. A. a termination in the hard region. Transition rates. is given by . We define a true handoff to occur when a mobile leaves the soft area and moves out of the cell and a region transition to occur when a mobile leaves the soft area and moves back into the hard region of the cell of interest. (60) and parameter is the average probability that a mobile in the soft region moves back into the hard region. 4 describes the rates to and from state . a transition from the hard-to-soft region and vice versa. a termination in the soft region.

i.. We approximate the infinite the above condition to obtain summation to some realistic but large value during numerical computation. We assume that a new and the soft region at a call enters the hard region at a rate (refer to Section II-B). dB.. 7. VI. RESULTS The analytical results were generated and compared with simulation results. (66) Fig. dB (and 6.01/s.e. soft connection blocking is less than hard connection blocking because soft connection calls introduce less interference power than hard connection calls. 2 to zero. Analysis with hard handoff is obtained by setting the soft in Fig. 5. and Fig.06 calls/s. dB and (a small processing gain was used because of hardware limitation during analytical computation). experience different blocking probabilities because new calls are subject to both soft connection and hard connection blocking while handoff calls are only subject to soft connection blocking.e. be the steady-state probability of the system being . the probability of bility of blocking call in the hard region an the probability of blocking handoff blocking new calls . arrival rates were varied from 0. We now compare in Fig. B and B versus total offered load. and are determined as follows: calls (63) (64) and We now derive expressions for the blocking of new . voice activity factor dB). PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS Teletraffic performance measures that we consider are the . This admission scheme does not differhandoff calls entiate between new and handoff calls. however. It is clear that different blocking probabilities occur because new calls are subject to both soft and hard blocking while handoff calls are only subject to soft blocking. B and B vesus the offered load. Fig. The results show close agreement between simulation and analytical models. Flow Equilibrium Equations Let in state one. the probaprobability of blocking a call in the soft region . Soft connection calls which generally transmit at a lower power than hard connection calls introduce less interference in the network and are therefore subject to a smaller average blocking probability. cell dwell rate in soft region region /s and 0. 7 results from the soft handoff scheme with analytical results which assume hard handoff. Some simulation parameters that we used are: /s. We may therefore evaluate rate as follows: (65) Since we assume that handoff calls only arrive in a soft connecis equivalent tion.0 0. They. we may deduce that handoff blocking to blocking in the soft region. Fig.01/s.NARRAINEN AND TAKAWIRA: ANALYSIS OF SOFT HANDOFF IN CDMA CELLULAR NETWORKS 1515 C. 6. Its seen in Fig. The sum of the steady state probabilities sums to (62) The 2-D birth–death model is solved numerically subject to . 6 compares simulation and analytical results for . V. dB. We also compare the results with area results from Viterbi and Viterbi [9]. i. On average. cell dwell rate in hard unencumbered call holding rate /s and 0.01 calls/s to dB. that the analysis which assumes hard handoff between cells leads . 5 illustrates the average probability of blocking a call reand hard regions versus an increase quest in the soft in the total offered load. The graph shows that new and handoff calls are subject to different blocking probabilities.

Comparison between B and soft capacity/hard handoff. 6. 50. NO. On the reverse link. We then solved for the system state using a 2-D birth–death model. 8 are as expected. Many papers have suggested that mobiles in soft handoff can transmit at a lower power than hard connection mobiles but there has been no work done on how much a mobile can reduce its transmit power. VOL. The graphs in Fig. Fig. Teletraffic performance was computed in terms of the probability of blocking soft connection calls and hard connection calls. In the above graphs. The handoff calls when was kept constant to 7 dB. 8. Simulation and analytical re- (a) (b) 6:0 dB. CONCLUSION There has been a lot of interest in the research community on the design and performance analysis of receivers. Unfortunately. We compare in Fig. We derived analytical expressions for the total interference generated by the soft and hard connection mobiles. soft handoff leads to an improved communications quality as the signal is reinforced both in time and in phase. 7. and the probability of blocking new and handoff calls. the separation between traffic and transmission issues is not evident as CDMA capacity is interference limited. analysis of soft handoff and the effects of gradual overload and imperfect power control on capacity have only recently begun to receive attention.0 dB.5 dB to 6. They depict lower blocking for new and is reduced from 6. NOVEMBER 2001 Fig. This diversity combining results in a lower transmit power for soft connection mobiles such that they introduce less interference in the network.5 dB while that of a hard connection user was assumed to be 7. The reduction in the blocking probability due to a reduction in the transmit power of soft mobiles depends on the assumed values of and . coding and modulation techniques and power control algorithms.0 dB. The teletraffic behavior of cellular networks employing CDMA has not yet been properly examined while that of orthogonally channelised reuse-based cellular systems such as those employing FDMA and TDMA is well developed. We focused in this paper on the teletraffic behavior of CDMA cellular networks taking into account CDMA soft capacity and the use of soft handoff between cells. Blocking of new and handoff calls using (a) " = 6:5 dB and (b) " = to a much higher blocking than the one which assumes soft handoff.0 dB. and B assuming soft capacity/soft handoff connection transmit at a lower power than mobiles in a hard connection. Higher layer issues such as call admission control. Much of the success in this area results from the separation of the traffic analysis from transmission issues. value of VII.1516 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY. The behavior of networks employing fixed channel assignment has been studied and several approaches to analysing handoffs have been put forward. The lower blocking occurs because mobiles in a soft . They therefore introduce less interference power in the network. Results also show that the assumption made by Viterbi and Viterbi [9] that the user distribution follows the Poisson process is not accurate and leads to very high blocking probabilities. On the forward link. the base stations independently decode the signal and the mobile switching centre then favors the base station that receives the stronger signal. 8 the blocking of new and handoff calls at a base station from assuming that the mean received mobiles in soft handoff is now reduced to 6. The reduction in power usually depends on the path gains and the diversity reception used at the base stations. in CDMA networks. the mean received from a soft connection mobile was assumed to be 6.

M.. Oct. pp. “Handover modeling in CDMA mobile communications systems. W. Yang and M. Dec. June 1995. pp. and S. performance analysis. 12. pp. The expectation of is evaluated as follows: From (47). pp. Technol. Australia.” in Proc. Everitt. Viterbi. Kim. [15] P..” IEEE J. vol. Denmark. Veh. “A call control scheme for soft handoff in CDMA cellular systems. pp. IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. Select.” IEEE Trans. 1994. He has held visiting research/teaching positions at the University of California. Rajan.” Inst. A. “Adaptive traffic-load shedding and its capacity gain in CDMA cellular systems. AZ. M. Zehavi.” IEEE Trans. Hong and S. 545–549. Fambirai Takawira received the B. 1991. Proc.” IEEE Trans. 14. 1281–1288. GA. APPENDIX 1) Determination of the Variance Term in (52): We where rewrite the variance in (52) as and . 945–650. CDMA Principles of Spread Spectrum Communication. Takawira. Viterbi. Aug. Aug. Yeung. 303–312. Durban. pp. IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conf. [11] D. and J. Gilhousen. Aug. Conf. pp. 40. A. pp. 1997. The variance is then that and evaluated by replacing the expressions for into the equation. Dec. and computer applications. Jeon. Select. “Effect of soft and softer handoffs on CDMA system capacity.. J. he was with the University of Zimbabwe. no. Lee and R. Areas Commun. 44. San Diego (1984–1985). 1999. Rashid and D. [8] S.D. 47. Eng. Veh. 35. analytical modeling.-K. IEEE Int. vol. queuing theory. “Soft handoff extends CDMA cell coverage and increases reverse link capacity. respectively.. and National University of Singapore (1992). and the Ph. Victoria. Commun. 1762–1769. mobility modeling. pp.-Y. and E. (GLOBECOM’97). Kwon. Jacobs.” in Proc. “On the capacity of cellular CDMA systems. “Handoff traffic distribution in cellular networks. IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conf.K.Sc. [12] T. Sept. “Traffic modeling and analysis for cellular mobile networks. vol. 1994. She is currently with the Network Management Department. Melbourne. Sept.-H. L. vol. vol. Technol.-L. Int. K. [3] C. “Hand-off traffic modeling in cellular networks. Mauritius Telecom. Viterbi and A.” University of Natal.” IEEE J. S. Atlanta. while completing the requirements for the Ph. K.(ICC’98). respectively. Huang. Universal Personal Communications (ICUPC’98). 181. pp. S. “Blocking and handoff performance analysis of directed retry in cellular mobile systems. [6] N.” in Proc. pp. Apr. [4] X. 186–192. 1995. 413–417. Commun. degree from Cambridge University. Areas Commun. “Performance analysis of soft handoff in CDMA cellular networks. MA: Addison-Wesley. 1998. Rappaport. Viterbi. Padovani. His research interests are in digital communication systems and networks with particular emphasis on CDMA cellular systems. IEEE Int. M. 142. (ITC-11). P. Florence. Rappaport. 77–92. vol. 899–903. Conf. S. New Orleans. Gilhousen. South Africa.. From 1985 to 1993. Oct. in 1995 and 1999. A. [16] S. 11. 627–632. 1986. Reading. S. degrees in electronic engineering from the University of Natal. Areas Commun. In 1998. Su. [13] M. Australian Telecommunications Networks and Applications Conf. U.. 1993. Technol. Aug. Cambridge.-C. Mcmillan. [9] A.” IEEE J. 131–137. Zeng and I. vol.” in Proc. and C.Sc. 830–841. R. Lindsay. University of Natal.. New Orleans. pp. and Ph. [7] H. E. Veh. Copenhagen. (WCNC’99). 1999. R.” in Proc. J. Orlik and S. He is currently a Professor at the School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. pp. Nov. REFERENCES [1] A. 999–1003. H.. Chen. June 1998. Phoenix. J. Yum and K. . [14] H. degree in electrical engineering with first class honors from Manchester University. 1995. 769–773. I. A. LA. Rajaratnam and F. p. no. Select. Chlamtac. Steele. Viterbi. 892–899. pp. Wheatley III.” in Proc. 1996.NARRAINEN AND TAKAWIRA: ANALYSIS OF SOFT HANDOFF IN CDMA CELLULAR NETWORKS 1517 sults show close agreement. South Africa. Elect. J. Technol.. “Traffic model and performance analysis for cellular mobile radio telephone systems with prioritized and nonprioritized handoff procedures. 9. degree. Teletraffic Congress. she worked as a Research Assistant at the Centre of Excellence for “Radio Access Technologies. Rosy Pillay Narrainen received the B.-G. “On the hand-off arrival process in cellular communications.D. Veh. British Telecom Research Laboratories (1987). V. [10] D. LA.” IEEE Trans. is equal to zero when is equal to one such is equal to zero. Chen. (WCNC’99). Italy. vol. “Erlang capacity of a power controlled CDMA system. in 1981 and 1984. Results were also compared with the Viterbi and Viterbi [9] model. Durban. “Microcell performance evaluation in IS-95 based CDMA networks. (ATNAC’94). [2] A. 3. pp. in charge of the Traffic Management and Performance Division.K. Viterbi. May 1991. Her research interests include mobile cellular and wireless communications. The variance of is readily computed as The expectation of and are given by [5] J.-S.D. U...” in Proc.

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